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... A tomato which cultivated in the world has been used for produce tomato food products for almost 40 million tons in 2021 [2]. Tomato waste from commercial tomato manufacturing has been used as raw material for the extraction of bioactive compounds, such as lycopene extraction [3,4], phenolic extraction [1], and pectin extraction [5][6][7]. Grassino et al. [6] extracted pectin from tomato peels by reflux at 90 • C for 24 and 12 h and ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid used as solvent. ...
... This yield was comparable to findings from a study by Grassino et al. [6] (32.6%) in which pectin was extracted from tomato peels by using ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid under reflux at 90 • C for 24 and 12 h. However, it was lower than in the study by Grassino et al. [5] in which pectin had been extracted from tomato waste using a two-step process of UAE at 80 • C, however, in this study, the conditions were performed for a shorter time. Moreover, these conditions had provided a higher yield than pectin from jackfruit peel (14.5%), which had been extracted by UAE at 60 • C for 24 min with a pH value of 1.6 and SL ratio of 1:15 [17]; and higher than pectin from grapefruit peel (27.34%), which had been extracted by UAE at 66.71 • C for 27.95 min with a pH value of 1.5 and SL ratio of 1:50 [34]. ...
... Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE): The MAE was performed using a household microwave oven at a working frequency of 2450 MHz and the experiment was carried out regarding a 3 × 3 full factorial design with the micro-wave powers (300, 450, and 600 W) and at extraction times (3,5, and 10 min) were the independent values. The tomato waste powder was added to citric acid solution (1.0 M) at the solid/liquid ratio of 1:20 and then the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 1.5. ...
Article
This work aimed to study the effect of ultrasound-assisted (UAE), microwave-assisted (MAE), and ultrasound-microwave-assisted (UMAE) methods for pectin extraction from industrial tomato waste. The overall performance index from the fuzzy analytical method with three criteria, pectin yield, galacturonic acid, and lycopene content, was applied to evaluate the best extraction conditions by using the weight of 75, 20, and 5, respectively. The UAE conditions was performed at a temperature of 80 °C for 20 min with the variations in the extraction pH and the solid liquid (SL) ratio. The best UAE conditions with high pectin yield, and high total carboxyl group, as well as a lycopene content, was the pH of 1.5 and the SL ratio of 1:30. The MAE conditions was performed with variations in the microwave powers and times. The results showed that the best MAE conditions were 300 W for 10 min, which gave high pectin yield with high galacturonic acid and lycopene content. Various conditions of UMAE at the best conditions of MAE and UAE were performed and exhibited that the UAE had more positively affected the pectin yield. However, the FTIR spectra of obtained pectins from different extraction techniques showed a similar pectin structure.
... According to the authors, HVED was more efficient due to the product fragmentation and the release of phenolic compounds linked to the cell wall. UAE has also been successfully implemented to extract pectins, carotenoids, and lipids, as reported by Grassino et al. (2016), Goula et al. (2017), and Samaram et al. (2015), respectively. For instance, Grassino et al. (2016) Linalool for the extraction of pectin from aqueous tomato waste. ...
... UAE has also been successfully implemented to extract pectins, carotenoids, and lipids, as reported by Grassino et al. (2016), Goula et al. (2017), and Samaram et al. (2015), respectively. For instance, Grassino et al. (2016) Linalool for the extraction of pectin from aqueous tomato waste. By varying the temperature conditions (from 60 up to 80 • C) and exposure time (from 15 up to 90 min), they could achieve extraction yields up to 36%. ...
... By varying the temperature conditions (from 60 up to 80 • C) and exposure time (from 15 up to 90 min), they could achieve extraction yields up to 36%. Furthermore, Grassino et al. (2016) stated that to achieve the same yield by a conventional extraction, the process would last 1440 min. Goula et al. (2017) extracted carotenoids from pomegranate waste using sunflower oil and soy oil as extraction solvents. ...
Article
Industries in the agro-food sector are the largest generators of waste in the world. Agro-food wastes and by products originate from the natural process of senescence, pretreatment, handling, and manufacturing processes of food and beverage products. Notably, most of the wastes are produced with the transformation of raw materials (such as fruits, vegetables, plants, tubers, cereals, and dairy products) into different processed foods (e.g., jams, sauces, and canned fruits/vegetables), dairy derivatives (e.g., cheese and yogurt), and alcoholic (e.g., wine and beer) and nonalcoholic beverages (e.g., juices and soft drinks). Current research is committed not only to the usage of agro-food wastes and by products as a potential source of high-value bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and organic acids) but also to the implementation of emerging and innovative technologies that can compete with conventional extraction methods for the efficient extraction of such biomolecules from the residues. Herein, specific valorization technologies, such as membrane-based processes, microwave, ultrasound, pulsed electric-assisted extraction, supercritical/subcritical fluids, and pressurized liquids, have emerged as advanced techniques in extracting various added-value biomolecules, showing multiple advantages (improved extraction yields, reduced process time, and protection to the bioactive properties of the compounds). Hence, this comprehensive review aims to analyze the ongoing research on applying such techniques in valorization protocols. A last-five-year review, together with a featured analysis of the relevant findings in the field, is provided.
... Food industries use pectin as stabilizer and gelling agent for mass-produced food because of their emulsifying and gelation effects (Funami, 2011). There is a growing need for pectin with differing properties to stabilize the food products, which has necessitated the studies for new pectin sources such as sugar beet residues, papaya peel, tomato waste, and cocoa pod husks (Chen, Fu, & Luo, 2015;Grassino et al., 2016;Koubala, Christiaens, Kansci, Van Loey, & Hendrickx, 2014;Vriesmann, Teófilo, & de Oliveira Petkowicz, 2012). Pectin from some sources exhibits immunomodulatory, antihypertensive, antioxidant, cytoprotective, prebiotic, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and other functions that offer a compelling context for their use in a broad variety of functional foods (Nara, Yamaguchi, Maeda, & Koga, 2009;Torkova et al., 2018;Wang, Hu, Nie, Yu, & Xie, 2016). ...
... In a study to extract pectin from the Punica granatum (Pomegranatum) by-product, immersed sonotrode at 20 kHz frequency and ultrasound system power of 130 W was used with 1.27 pH, 28.31-min processing time, and temperature at 61.9 C. In this the SWs were produced using a flat tip 2-cm-diameter probe. The highest pectin extraction was obtained with a solidÀliquid ratio of 1:17.52 g mL 21 (Grassino et al., 2016). Wang et al. (2007) also used grapefruit peel to extract pectin by RSM and the conditions optimized were 12.56 W cm 21 power frequency, 66.7 C extraction temperature, and 27.95-min sonic time. ...
Chapter
Pectin is ubiquitously present between the cell wall of terrestrial plants. It is a structural heteropolysaccharide present as rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, and rhamnogalacturonan II. It is proven to be an excellent biomaterial in various sectors such as food processing, food packaging, nutraceuticals, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. In the food-processing industry, it has found multiple utility due to its excellent gelling, emulsifying, and texture-modifying properties. It is a suitable biopolymer to replace synthetic packaging material with natural substitute. Owing to these properties, it is used in nutraceuticals and as a promising delivery agent for drugs and probiotics. Because of its nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable nature, pectin is used in pharmaceuticals to cure critical diseases like cancer. It is used in the preparation of pectin-based composite material, nanoparticles, and cartilages for tissue engineering. Recent advances in extraction methods have increased the yield of pectin from fruit and vegetable wastes simultaneously reducing environmental pollution generated by these wastes.
... The higher yield at the longest exposure time and lowest frequency (30 min and 37 kHz) may be explained by the higher destruction of glycosidic and ester bonds at longer exposure times [23]. This was in agreement with Grassino et al. [24], who obtained a similar behaviour when extracting pectin from tomato residues. ...
... As shown in Table 2, the ash content in pectin from mango peels after 20 min extraction ranged from 0.4% to 0.8%, being much lower at the lowest frequency. These values were below those International Journal of Food Science reported by Grassino et al. [24], who obtained 1.2%-2.6% ash content in pectin extracted from banana peels under similar extraction conditions to this work. ...
Article
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Valorisation of food processing by-products is a welcome and developing area. The mango processing industry produces 40% to 60% of the fruit as solid waste, in which components of industrial interest, such as pectin, are lost. This study reports on energy-efficient high-intensity ultrasound-assisted extraction (HIUAE) to extract pectin from mango peels. The analysis considered the ripening stage of the fruit (0, 2, and 4), HIUAE frequency (37 kHz and 80 kHz), and extraction time (20 min, 25 min, and 30 min). Extractions of pectin from mango peels with HIUAE have been fairly studied. However, this work differs from those studies in including mango maturity grade as a factor. Pectin extraction yields ranged from 13% to 30%, with no influence ( p > 0.05 ) of time, and the highest yields were obtained at the lowest maturity stage (0) and lowest frequency (37 kHz). This latest condition (37 kHz) also yielded pectin with the highest gel strength, purity, and quality. This work demonstrated that the mango maturity stage influenced pectin extraction yield. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectin from mango peels could be an efficient approach toward waste valorisation and extraction of pectin with high yield and good quality attributes for the food industry.
... The spectra obtained adjusted the wavenumber between 4000 and 400 cm −1 , 16 sweeps per sample, and the output was reported in percentage of transmittance vs. wave number. The effect on the DE was observed by comparing the intensity of the bands between 1740 and 1630 cm −1 corresponding to methyl-esterified and non-methyl-esterified carboxyl groups, respectively [23]. ...
... The peaks at 1740 and 1630 cm −1 or in nearby wavenumbers could represent the esterified and free carboxyl groups, respectively. Therefore, the DE could be estimated by a relationship of intensity from these peaks [17,23,32,33]. ...
Article
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Grape pomace is a high potential by-product due to its content of valuable compounds, such as pectin. It is highly perishable and requires pretreatment for its conservation. Therefore, this work aims to evaluate the effect of four drying methods: convective drying, freeze-drying, infrared-radiation drying, and solar drying, on the properties of pectin fractions obtained from pisco grape pomace. Freeze-drying and convection drying reported the highest extraction yields. The drying of grape pomace by all the methods evaluated decreased the degree of esterification on the pectins. The highest reducing sugar content (19.8%) and antioxidant capacity (7238 µmol TE/100 g d.m.) were obtained from freeze-drying pretreatment. The highest galacturonic acid content (28.4%) and molecular weight (63.3 kDa) were found in the pectin obtained from the convective drying pretreatment. Thus, each drying method evaluated affects the pectin’s physicochemical properties differently. Also, pectin fractions with a high degree of methoxylation and a high antioxidant capacity were obtained from pisco grape pomace. This study provides information about the effect of drying as a pretreatment of pisco grape pomace on the properties of the pectin obtained from it. Graphical abstract
... The UAE creates acoustic cavitation in the solvent. This process helps in cell wall disruption, particle size reduction, increased target molecules-solvent interaction, and improved mass transfer rate (Grassino et al., 2016). Furthermore, the UAE method consumes little energy and less solvent, facilitating safer performance and higher product quality, all in a minimum time and yielding high extraction efficiency (Hosseini, 2019;Hundie, 2020). ...
... The pectin was solubilized in D 2 O and the chemical shifts were expressed as δ (ppm) in relation to the resonance of an internal standard. (Grassino et al., 2016;Westerlund et al., 1991). ...
Article
Biowastes generated from the food processing industries cause environmental issues due to nitrogen, phosphorous, macronutrients, and water contents. These nutrients make the wastes more susceptible to fermentation, thus causing pollution. However, these biowastes contain a high level of marketable bioproducts extracted for value-added products like pectin. The current study deals with the pectin extraction from pineapple peel (PP) waste employing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique. Further, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimum conditions for maximum pectin extraction using independent variables like ultrasonication time (15-30 min), liquid to solid (LS) ratio (10-20 mL/g), temperature (50-80°C) and pH (1-2). A maximum pectin yield (16.24%) was attained at 15.20 mL/g of LS ratio, 21.88 min of ultrasonication, 70.83°C and pH 1.0. The extracted pectin was purified using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE cellulose), and the purity index was 89.5-90%. The purified pectin fractions were analyzed through thin-layer chromatography and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, 1D and 2D NMR. The polysaccharide content was quantified using the phenol-sulfuric assay. Other functional properties like emulsification, oil and water holding capacity were also measured. In addition, based on antinutritional and antioxidant properties, the extracted PP pectin was confirmed to be a toxic-free compound. A detailed structural and physio-chemical properties study confirmed the pectin from PP was of good quality and could be utilized as a value-added product in the pharmaceutical industry.
... Since tomato pomace is a good source of polysaccharides, it becomes even more important to exploit the possible uses of these polysaccharides for sustainable utilization of tomato waste. A study was conducted to sequentially extract polysaccharide fractions from black tomato pomace and further investigate their emulsifying and physicochemical properties [28]. The emulsifying capacity of these polysaccharide fractions ranged from 53.17% to 82.46%, which was significantly higher than that of acid-extracted potato pectins (44.97-47.71%), ...
... Limited studies have focused on the use of tomato fiber from peels rather than seeds due to the higher fiber content of the former (41%) compared with the latter (18%) [4,52]. Tomato byproducts have great potential to be used as alternatives to apple pomace and citrus peels for pectin production, but only a few studies have addressed pectin extraction by and primarily through traditional extraction strategies [28]. Recently, Zhang et al. [29] investigated the emulsifying properties of pectic polysaccharides (water soluble, chelator extractable, and sodium carbonate extractable) and hemicellulose from freeze-dried black tomato pomace. ...
Article
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Tomato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is a crop that is widely cultivated around the world due to its sweet, sour, salty, juicy, and nutritious berries. The processing of tomato generates a significant amount of waste in the form of tomato pomace, which includes seeds and skin. Tomato seeds are reservoirs of various nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins. These components make tomato seeds as an important ingredient for application in food matrices. The review discusses the functional food properties of tomato seeds and their scope of utilization as major ingredients in functional food industry. In addition, this review describes the development of tomato seed as a potential nutritional and nutraceutical ingredient along with recent updates on research conducted worldwide. This is the first review that demonstrates the nutritional profile of tomato seeds along with diverse functional food properties and application as functional food ingredient.
... Дополнительной задачей удаления покровной оболочки является использование последней в качестве альтернативных источников пектинового сырья [6,7]. В работе A. N. Grassino и др. ...
... В работе A. N. Grassino и др. отмечено, что свежие томатные выжимки содержат около 32 % белка, 30 % углеводов, что является ценным вторичным продуктом [7]. Другими авторами отмечено, что содержание пектиновых веществ в покровной ткани томата может достигать 25 % [8]. ...
Article
Electrophysical technologies are a global trend of sustainable agriculture and food industry. Peeling is an energy-intensive procedure of fruit and vegetable processing. The research featured the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on tomato peeling effectiveness. The assessment included such factors as specific effort, energy costs, and product losses in comparison with thermal and electrophysical methods. Tomatoes of Aurora variety underwent a PEF treatment at 1 kV/cm. The expended specific energy was 1, 5, and 10 kJ/kg. The tomatoes were visually evaluated with optical microscopy before and after processing. The peeling effectiveness and mass loss were measured with a texture analyzer and digital scales. The PEF treatment decreased the specific force of mechanical peel removal by 10% (P < 0.05). The mass loss decreased by 4% (P < 0.05) at 1 kJ/kg. The PEF method resulted in cell electroporation, which activated the internal mass transfer of moisture from the endocarp region between the mesocarp and the integumentary tissue. The hydrostatic pressure produced a layer of liquid, which facilitated the peeling. In comparison with thermal treatment (blanching), ohmic heating, and ultrasonic processing, the PEF technology had the lowest production losses and energy costs. The research proves the prospects of the PEF treatment in commercial tomato processing.
... This increase may be attributed to the additional heating performed along with ultrasound treatment. Pectin extraction from grape pomace (Minjares-Fuentes et al., 2014), tomato waste (Grassino et al., 2016), passion fruit peel (Freitas de Oliveira et al., 2016) and mango peel (Guandalini et al., 2019) was also performed. Minjares-Fuentes et al. (2014) found that using an ultrasonic bath having a frequency of 37 kHz and a maximum power of 140 W, it is possible to obtain the maximum pectin extraction yield of 29.38% at a temperature of 75°C, with an extraction time of 60 min and a pH of 2.0. ...
... This yield value is 20% higher than the yield value obtained when the extraction took place without any ultrasonic assistance and the other condition remained the same as before. Grassino et al. (2016) reported that the conventional extraction method took 96 min more than UAE to obtain the same amount of yield. The yield value obtained by using UAE is 69.2% higher than the yield value obtained in the conventional extraction process. ...
Article
Purpose – The amount of food wasted every year is 1.3 billion metric tonne (MT), out of which 0.5 billion MT is contributed by the fruits processing industries. The waste includes by-products such as peels, pomace and seeds and is a good source of bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds, flavonoids, pectin lipids and dietary fibres. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to review the novel extraction techniques used for the extraction of the bio active compounds from food waste for the selection of suitable extraction method. Design/methodology/approach – Novel extraction techniques such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pulsed electric field extraction and pressurized liquid extraction have emerged to overcome the drawbacks and constraints of conventional extraction techniques. Hence, this study is focussed on novel extraction techniques, their limitations and optimization for the extraction of bioactive compounds from fruit and vegetable waste. Findings – This study presents a comprehensive review on the novel extraction processes that have been adopted for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food waste. This paper also summarizes bioactive compounds’ optimum extraction condition from various food waste using novel extraction techniques. Research limitations/implications – Food waste is rich in bioactive compounds, and its efficient extraction may add value to the food processing industries. Hence, compressive analysis is needed to overcome the problem associated with the extraction and selection of suitable extraction techniques. Social implications – Selection of a suitable extraction method will not only add value to food waste but also reduce waste dumping and the cost of bioactive compounds. Originality/value – This paper presents the research progress on the extraction of bioactive active compounds from food waste using novel extraction techniques.
... Data in Table 4 show the basic ingredients and content of IPF pectin, and a comparison between IPF pectin and commercial pectin (Sigma-Adrich, St. Louis, MI, USA). The total sugar and galacturonic acid content in IPF pectin was significantly lower than that of commercial pectin, indicating the presence of potential small molecule carbohydrate impurities in IPF [47], which might be because IPF pectin was extracted only once, and no repurification process was performed. Additionally, both the protein and ash content of IPF pectin was dramatically lower than commercial pectin. ...
Article
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The immature honey pomelo fruit (IPF) is a huge agro-industrial by-product generated during pomelo planting. Although IPF is rich in nutrients, more than 95% of IPF is discarded annually, which causes resource waste and a serious environmental problem. Here, we report a novel continuous phase transition extraction technology (CPTE) to improve the comprehensive utilization of IPF by sequentially generating high value products and solve pollution problems related to their disposal. First, essential oil was successively extracted by CPTE at a yield of 1.12 ± 0.36%, in which 43 species were identified. Second, naringin extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM), resulting in a maximum extraction rate of 99.47 ± 0.15%. Finally, pectin was extracted at a yield of 20.23 ± 0.66%, which is similar to the contents of commercial pectin. In conclusion, this study suggested that IPF was an excellent potential substrate for the production of value-added components by CPTE.
... elma posasından (%14) ve daha az oranda şeker pancarı posasından (%0.5) üretilmektedir [8], [41]. Muz kabukları [42], ayçekirdeği tablaları [43], nar kabukları [44], [45], havuç posası [46], domates kabuğu atıkları [47], [48], nohut kabukları [49], yeşil fıstık kabukları [50] ve şeftali posası [51] olmak üzere diğer birçok gıda atıkları ve tarımsal yan ürünlerin pektin üretimi için alternatif kaynak olarak kullanılmasının uygunluğu yapılan birçok çalışmada araştırılmaktadır. ...
... The contents of serum pectin in US-Break-22 and US-Break-65 pastes were significantly higher than that of Break-65 and Break-90 pastes. This was attributed to the cavitation effect of ultrasound, which caused a greater deconstruction on the cell wall than the conventional thermal treatments, thereby eliminating the physical constraint of the matrix and finally favoring the extraction of pectin [37]. Besides, it could also be seen that the content of serum pectin in US-Break-65 paste was significantly higher than that of the US-Break-22 paste (p < 0.05), attributing to the synergistic effect of ultrasound and heat on the enzyme inactivation and cell wall destruction. ...
Article
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Ultrasound-assisted processing has potential application advantages as an emerging technology for preparing tomato paste. This work explored the influence of ultrasound break at 22 °C (US-Break-22) and 65 °C (US-Break-65) on the viscosity, rheological properties and nutritional values of newly prepared tomato paste, compared with traditional thermal break at 65 °C (Break-65) and 90 °C (Break-90). Results showed that the US-Break-65 paste had the largest apparent viscosity, yield stress, consistency coefficient, solid-like nature, and large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior, followed by the US-Break-22 paste, Break-90 paste, and Break-65 paste. Based on the results of the pectin-related enzymes, particle size, and serum pectin of the pastes, it was revealed that the above-mentioned properties were mainly determined by the particle size and pectin content in their serum. The level of ascorbic acid followed the order of US-Break-22 paste > US-Break-65 paste > Break-65 paste > Break-90 paste. The level of total carotenoids followed the order of US-Break-22 paste ≈ US-Break-65 paste > Break-90 paste ≈ Break-65 paste. The level of total cis-carotenoids followed the order of US-Break-65 paste > US-Break-22 paste > Break-90 paste > Break-65 paste. The level of phenolics and antioxidant activities followed the same order of US-Break-22 paste > US-Break-65 paste > Break-90 paste > Break-65 paste. Overall, the viscosity, rheological properties and nutritional values of the tomato pastes prepared by US-Break-65 and US-Break-22 were significantly higher than those prepared by Break-65 and Break-90. Therefore, ultrasound assisted processing can prepare high quality tomato paste and can be widely implemented in the tomato paste processing industry.
... The band appeared around 1047.40 cm −1 is characteristic of the C-OH stretching band [42]. Finally, the peaks located at 879.54 and 720.06 cm −1 indicate the R-CH = CH-R [65] and the C-C bond deformation vibrations [72], respectively. ...
Article
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The present study adopted electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and ultrasonic (US) pretreatments to enhance the extraction of phenolic compounds from Melissa officinalis. The effects of pretreatment time (EHD: 0–20 min and US: 0–60 min) and diffusion conditions (including ethanol/water ratios of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 (w/w), time of 30, 45, 60 min, and the temperature of 30, 50 and 70 °C) on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the extracts were investigated using Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assay, respectively. The results showed that EHD and US pretreatments could enhance the process of the extraction of phenolic compounds and also improve the extracts’ antioxidant activity. The highest extraction occurred at EHD time of 10 and 20 min, ethanol/water ratio of 1.2 and diffusion temperature of 70 °C. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra also revealed that the structure of the extracted compounds was not altered as a result of EHD pretreatment. No changes, however, occurred in the functional groups of the extracts by increasing the EHD duration, diffusion temperature, and ethanol/water ratio.
... However, differing results were also reported, possibly related differences in extraction parameters applied, since severe conditions like high temperature or strong acid may facilitate the de-esterification of poly-galacturonic acid [40]. For example, Grassino, et al. [41] showed that UAE operating at 80 • C would lead to de-esterification of pectin, but no significant influence was observed if the UAE was operated at 60 • C. Wikiera, Mika, Starzyńska-Janiszewska and Stodolak [25] found that the catalytic action of purified endo-xylanase resulted in pectin with the highest degree of poly-galacturonic acid methylation (73.4%), exceeding by 17% the DE of pectin obtained with acid-based technique. Yang, Wang, Hu, Xiao and Wu [16] indicated that EAE, UAE and UAEE of pectin from sisal waste resulted in higher DE than acid extraction. ...
Article
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The structural and functional properties of Citrus grandis Osbeck (CGO) seed mucilage by different extraction practices, including conventional citrate buffer, ultrasonic-assisted (UAE), enzymatic-assisted extraction (EAE) with cellulase or Celluclast® 1.5 L and various ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) procedures were investigated. It was found that CGO seed from agricultural and processing byproducts is an excellent new source of high methoxyl pectin with quite high intrinsic viscosity (about 108.64 dL/g) and molecular weight (about 1.9 × 106) as compared with other pectin sources. UAEE with Celluclast® 1.5 L enhanced the extraction yield most pronouncedly (about 2.3 times). Moreover, the monosaccharide composition of CGO seed mucilage is least affected by EAE with Celluclast® 1.5 L. In contrast, EAE with cellulase dramatically reduces the galacturonic acid (GalA) content to less than 60 molar%, and increases the glucose (Glc) content pronouncedly (to about 40 molar%), which may be considered as an adverse effect in terms of pectin purity. Though extraction procedures involved with ultrasound and cellulolytic enzymes generally show a decrease in GalA contents, weight average molar mass and intrinsic viscosity, EAE with Celluclast® 1.5 L is least affected, followed by UAE and UAEE with Celluclast® 1.5 L. These features can be leveraged in favor of diversified applications.
... Pektin juga dapat diperoleh dari limbah nangka sebesar 8,94-14,14% berdasakan berat kering dengan perbedaan kondisi ekstraksi dan jenis pelarut, namun kelarutan yang dihasilkan lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan pektin komersial 20 . Pada penelitianGrassino et al., (2016) memanfaatkan limbah tomat untuk menghasilkan pektin dengan metode ekstraksi yang berbeda yaitu metode ekstraksi konvensional dan ultrasonik, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa limbah tomat menggandung pektin sekitar 15,1-21,1% dengan metode ekstraksi konvensional dan 31-35,7% dengan metode ekstraksi ultrasonik 21 . Berdasarkan jumlah perolehan pektin pada berbagai sumber bahan, kandungan terbesar dapat diperoleh dari limbah tomat dan kulit pisang. ...
Article
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Abstrak Pektin merupakan polisakarida yang berlimpah di alam dan memiliki kegunaan yang menjanjikan dalam bidang farmasi. Pektin tahan terhadap enzim pencernaan namun gel pektin dapat membengkak dalam media berair dan sejumlah kecil senyawa dapat dilepaskan ke saluran gastrointestinal. Masalah ini dapat diatasi dengan mengembangkan komposit pektin yang diperoleh dari penggabungan polimer pektin dengan polimer lain. Artikel ini membahas tentang interaksi pektin dengan polimer lain dalam berbagai sistem penghantaran obat. Metode yang digunakan dalam artikel review adalah dengan meninjau jurnal ilmiah yang diterbitkan secara nasional dan internasional yang diperoleh dari Google, Google Scholar, Pubmed dan Science Direct dengan kata kunci menggunakan Bahasa Indonesia dan Bahasa Inggris berupa "komposit polimer", "komposit pektin", "pektin", "sistem penghantaran obat", "pectin", "pectin composite", "polimer composite", dan "drug delivery system". Literatur yang digunakan kemudian dilakukan skrining jurnal dengan kriteria inklusi yaitu waktu terbit dengan rentang tahun 2011-2021. Dari beberapa penelitian terkait, sistem penghantaran yang telah dikembangkan dan dilaporkan berupa film, hidrogel, sistem partikulat dan tablet. Polimer lain seperti alginat, protein, kitosan, gelatin dan pati diketahui dapat memperbaiki sifat pektin sehingga komposit pektin dapat digunakan sebagai penghantaran obat terkontrol. Dengan demikian, pengembangan sistem penghantaran obat lainnya dengan komposit pektin menjadi peluang dan tantangan di masa yang akan datang. Kata kunci: Pektin, Komposit Pektin, Sistem Penghantaran Obat
... In comparison, the n values for 2% strawberry pectin solutions were 0.52, while for 5% strawberry pectin solutions they were 0.54 (Mierczyńska et al., 2017). Pseudoplastic fluid behaviour is important in the food industry (gelatinization of jellies and jams, thickening of juices and purees, and stabilization of liquids) (Grassino et al., 2016) and in medicine production (thickening of syrups or ointment, encapsulation of preparations) (Jouini et al., 2018). ...
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As the market indicates a growing interest in organically grown fruit, there is a need for biostimulants to counter the adverse effects of pathogenic fungi and fungal-like-pathogens. Four microbial pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium sp., Phytophthora sp., and Colletotrichum sp.) which are the most often causes of strawberry diseases were selected. Five kinds of biostimulants (C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5) containing bacterial consortia were developed to combat the pathogens. The antagonistic effect of selected microorganisms against strawberry pathogens was observed. The effectiveness of various beneficial bacteria in combating fungal pathogens of cv. Honeoye strawberries was compared and the impact of their activity on fruit quality was assessed. The most significant effect on the strawberry firmness was found for the C2 consortium, which provided the strawberries infected with the pathogens group (MIX: B. cinerea, Verticillium sp., Phytophthora sp., and Colletotrichum sp.) with a 140% increase in maximum load in a puncture test compared to the positive control (C0). Strawberries contaminated with Phytophthora sp. after the application of Consortium C4 (C4) showed the largest increase (127%) in soluble solid content (SSC) when compared to the C0. Fruit contaminated with Colletotrichum sp. and B. cinerea after the application of C2 and Consortium 5 (C5), respectively, had the highest levels of anthocyanins and total phenolic content, when compared to C0. The largest increase, which reached as high as 25%, in D-galacturonic acid content was observed for the group of pathogens after Consortium 1 (C1) application. The extraction of strawberry pectin allowed for the study of the rheological properties of pectin solutions; on this basis, strawberry pectin from the control (NC) was distinguished as it showed the highest viscosity (0.137–0.415 Pas). Taking into account the individual effects of bacteria on strawberry pathogenic fungi and fungal-like-pathogens, it is possible to reduce the adverse effects of fungal disease and to improve the properties of strawberries by selecting the appropriate bacterial consortium. Interactions between microorganisms are often complex and not fully understood, which suggests the need for further research in this direction.
... Additionally, mixed-polarity solvents (n-hexane-ethanol-acetone and (b) ethyl lactate-ethanol-acetone) have been used to enhance the solubility of lycopene in tomato peels [34]. Numerous publications are devoted to the topic of the production of lycopene or pectin [35] from tomato pomace, and methods of intensification of extraction using low-temperature plasma [36], ultrasonic or microwave treatment [37]. The extraction of lycopene has been performed using a hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent (DL-menthol and lactic acid) [38]. ...
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The objective of this research was to investigate the efficacy of deep eutectic solvents (DESs)to extract polyphenolic compounds from tomato pomace with the assistance of ultrasound. The phytochemical constituents of tomato pomace extracts (TPE) were verified with a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and FTIR analysis. The extracted phenolic compounds from tomato pomace were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The predominant components in tomato pomace extracts were phenolic acids and flavanols. Chlorogenic acid was detected as the main phenolic compound in tomato extracts. The redox behavior of tomato pomace extracts was evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Antioxidant activities of the obtained extracts were determined using the DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The reduction capacity of the extracts was assessed using ferric reducing power (FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum (PM) assays. extracts with DESs are characterized by the highest level of antioxidant activity. Theoretical study based on quantum chemistry/molecular modeling were performed to confirm the antioxidants capacity of compounds of tomato pomace extracts. Quantum chemical descriptors such as the frontier orbital energies (EHOMO and ELUMO), the energy gap between EHOMOand ELUMO (ΔE), hardness, and electrophilicity index have been calculated and discussed. Graphical abstract
... This method enhances the mass-transfer rate of the solute mechanically 125 A study performed in extracting orange essential oil using diolbased deep eutectic solvent signifies the cumulative effect of diol structure and ultrasound application on selective extraction of terpenoids. 126 Similarly, optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of isoflavones, such as ononin and sissotrin from chick peas, was performed and it was found that pH along with polarity of DES influence the recovery ratio to a great extent. 127 Higher amount of flavonoids including myrecetin, rutin, and morin (96.9%) could be selectively extracted by UAE using p-toluene sulfonic acid and choline chloride mixture-based DES as a task-specific solvent. ...
... A strong absorption peak at 1020.82 cm -1 region is associated with the linked glycosides in D-arabinofuranose (Bayar et al., 2017). The band with peak at 628.09 cm -1 is associated with low frequency vibrations of pyrenoid ring, i.e., pectin ring skeletal C-C deformation vibrations (Grassino et al., 2016). Absorption at the region of 1000 to 1250 cm -1 attributes to C-O-C vibrations of glycoside bonds . ...
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Saffron flower waste is a new source of pectin and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the microwave-assisted acid extraction process. The optimal extraction conditions of pectin obtained from saffron flower waste were in microwave power of 700 W, irradiation time of 2.43 min, and pH of 1.5. The physicochemical and functional properties of pectin was evaluated and the results demonstrated that pectin extracted under optimal conditions was low methoxyl with emulsifying activity of 67.97%, surface activity of 36.89 mN/m and 33.24 mN/m at 0.10 and 0.50 % w/v, total phenolic content (TPC) of 2.86 mg EGA/g pectin and degree of esterification (DE) of 40.99%. In addition, the FT-IR and 1 H-NMR spectra were used to identify the functional groups existing in the structure of extracted pectin.
... -1 ) were obtained for citric acid extraction and particle sizes between 125 and 200 µm. Grassino et al. (2016) worked on ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of pectin from tomato waste. Using oxalic acid as solvent, a comparison of the pectin yields showed that extraction at 80 o C for 24 h using the conventional method gave similar results as that of extraction by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. ...
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The impact of fruit and vegetable waste is becoming a significant concern for the environment. The biomaterial waste generated from fruit processing industries is very high. When discharged as processed waste, it also increases water pollution. 45% of the total industrial organic pollution originates from food processing industries. These generated wastes are suitable for the production of biochemicals. Pectin is one such biochemical that plays a vital role in reducing the burden on the environment. Pectin helps in the manufacturing of confectionaries. Vegetable waste like beetroot, carrot, beans can also act as a source for pectin production. This study depicts extracting Pectin from mixed fruit pomace waste. Mixed fruit (Orange, Pomegranate, Banana & grapes) pomace waste reacts with 0.1N HCl. This reaction uses a 2-stage crosscurrent solid-liquid extraction technique. For its nature, obtained pectin was tested as calcium pectate using methylated spirit. The filtrate from 2-stage crosscurrent leaching was further dried in an oven. RSM technique helps in optimizing parameters like drying time, temperature, pH, and concentration. The experimental setup generated Pectin gave an efficiency of 11.52% for 22.4g of dried mixed fruit pomace waste.
... However, the activation of such a mechanism was not clearly defined and was related to a combination of effects: fragmentation, erosion, sonocapillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation [69]. The use of ultrasounds is further driven by the chance to extract more thermolabile compounds, like polyphenols and pectin [70,71]. ...
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The agri-food sector creates a significant waste stream, mainly due to inefficiencies arising from damage and loss of product throughout the supply chain. Therefore, a thorough utilization of food waste via a bio-refinery approach could play a crucial role in sustainable and zero-waste global development. This article focuses on the current status of valorization routes of selected agri-food processing waste and byproducts within an integrated biorefinery concept. First, the state-of-art extraction technologies for food-waste valorization are described, focusing on apple, tomato, grape, and defatted olive oil pomace as representative substrates. Second, the article investigates a cascade of treatments suitable for the extraction of various useful chemicals. Viable options of integrated biorefineries applied to food waste streams are presented. Selected agri-food processing side streams were divided into two different categories that, in turn, can be valorized through two different integrated combinations. Highly wet residues can be firstly treated by subcritical water to release fermentable saccharides and then valorized by hydrothermal carbonization. Conversely, oily residues can be initially treated using supercritical fluids to extract oils and subsequently converted through anaerobic digestion. Graphic Abstract
... Pectin extractions were carried out applying the techniques proposed by Bayar et al., 42 Grassino et al., 22 and Ganesh et al., 43 with some modifications. A sample weight of 0.5 ± 0.001 g was placed in 15 mL Falcon tubes previously filled with the citric acid solution. ...
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The objective of this study was to optimize the pectin extraction from industrial quince biowaste using citric acid as a hydrolytic agent and assisting the process with ultrasound technology. For this, the process was modeled using the Box− Behnken design (BBD) to find the factors' optimum values and their interactions. The quince pectin extraction was carried out by adding to the biowaste a citric acid solution at different pH values (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0) in mass volume ratios of 1/25, 1/20, and 1/15 g/mL and immersing it in an ultrasound bath for 30, 45, and 60 min at controlled temperatures of 70, 80, and 90°C. Pectin yield, process cost, and CO 2 emission were calculated under different conditions according to the BBD model, and a polynomial function was adjusted for each dependent variable. A multi-objective optimization technique known as "Genetic algorithms" was used to find the proper extraction conditions that would maximize the pectin yield and minimize the process cost. The optimal extraction conditions obtained were as follows: pH = 2.12, mvr = 0.04 g/mL, time = 48.98 min, and temperature = 85.20°C, with response variables of pectin yield = 12.78%, cost = 1.501 USD/kg of pectin, and calculated CO 2 emission = 0.565 kg of CO 2 /kg of pectin.
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Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) is commercially used for production of Gac oil. Gac pulp, which accounts for 40-50% of fruit weight, is major by-product. This study aimed to optimise extraction conditions including pH, temperature, time, ratio and ultrasonic power for recovery of pectin from Gac pulp, and compare its properties using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and acidic hot water extraction (AHWE) techniques, the typical advanced and conventional techniques for pectin extraction. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design was applied for both techniques. The results showed that pH was the most influential factor. Optimal AHWE conditions were identified at 90°C for 100 min with solvent to sample ratio of 50 mL/g and pH of 1.5, while optimal UAE conditions were 35 min, pH of 1.5, and ultrasonic power of 200 W. The recovery yield of pectin from UAE (53.80% ± 6.04) was significantly higher than that of AHWE (42.97%± 5.08). Pectin obtained from two techniques were low methoxyl pectin (DE <50%) with good solubility, potent free radical scavenging capacity, and similar structure. As UAE has advantages of short extraction time, more efficient recovery of pectin with better properties, UAE is recommended for recovery of pectin from Gac pulp for further applications.
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Chapter
This chapter will explore the main techniques and commercialized methodologies for the extraction and formulation of valuable components from tomato processing by-products, predominantly carotenoids and phenolic compounds, along with vitamins, dietary fibers, proteins, and essential oils. Following a brief outline regarding the salient properties of the valuable ingredients present in tomato processing waste, a survey will be conducted on their potential applications in relation to health and well-being, whereas market existing products and their characteristics will be described, too.
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Tomato is a basic ingredient in human nutrition, provided its beneficial properties, plus its versatility as a cooking ingredient. However, up to 30% tomato are discarded, most of the times, disposed in landfills. In general, food waste constitutes a serious environmental issue, as animal feeding cannot consume all residues produced yearly. In this sense, the concept of circular economy and, thus, biorefinery gains importance. In this economic model, residues are considered as natural resources that are introduced again in the system, giving them a second life. As a result, waste is recovered and recycled, thus contributing to a sustainable growth. Tomato waste includes many highly valuable components such as bioactive compounds (carotenoids, antioxidants, pectins, oleoresins, etc.). Extraction methods, including alternative technologies, that is, ultrasound-assisted, encapsulation, pulsed electric fields, or supercritical fluid extraction are described and other alternatives mainly for energy recovery through anaerobic digestion. In sum, this new concept of biorefinery could provide different valuable products, including energy and high value-added products. Hence, this chapter also focuses on the revision of main bioactive extraction methodologies from tomato waste. This small step for mankind could be a big one to mitigate negative consequences of climate change in order to contribute in the establishment of the European Green Deal Strategy.
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Several studies are described that contribute to the systematic exploration of new aspects of digestion, fermentation, and biological activities of pectic polysaccharides (PPS) leading to a better understanding of prebiotics. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is thought to be associated with the dysbacteriosis induced by different environmental agents in genetically susceptible persons. PPS are considered as an indispensable gut-microbiota-accessible carbohydrate that play a dominant role in maintaining gut microbiota balance and show a better effect in ameliorating IBD than some traditional prebiotics. The aim of this review is to summarize the fermentation characteristics of PPS, highlight its role in improving IBD, and propose a view that PPS may be a new and effective prebiotic.
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of semi-defatted unripe genipap (SDG) using supercritical CO2 was performed to enhance the recovery of natural colorant iridoids genipin and geniposide. There are currently few natural sources of iridoids, and their application as colorants is scarce. The UAE resulted in extracts with blue and green colors using water and ethanol, respectively. The highest global yield and genipin content was recovered with water, and the geniposide was significantly recovered with ethanol. With water at 450 W, the UAE raised the maximum global yield (25.50 g/100 g raw material). At 150 W and 7 min, the maximum content of genipin (121.7 mg/g extract) and geniposide (312 mg/g extract) was recovered. The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity with the oxygen reactive antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay were also high in aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts showed high ferric-reducing ability antioxidant potential (FRAP) values. UAE showed an efficient and fast method to obtain different extracts’ fractions from SDG, which have a wide spectrum of applications, especially as natural food colorants.
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Fermented food and beverages constitute a significant part of the human diet (5%–40%) worldwide. Fermentation has been used for preservation and to augment the flavor, texture, and nutritional qualities of the food, since antiquity. During fermentation, the bioavailability of vitamins, minerals, and other constituents increases due to the microorganisms’ metabolic activities. Besides enhancing nutritional quality, fermented foods contain live organisms reported to prevent/treat many health disorders. Types of the fermentation process are also classified based on these microorganisms. In developing countries, fermented foods were usually prepared using traditional methods without any standardized techniques. Considering the beneficial effects of fermented foods, industrial-level production requires consistent specific microorganisms, fermentation methods, evaluation of nutritional compositions, and food safety testing. This chapter discusses the fermented foods and associated organisms, different sources available for the consumption of fermented foods, and food component’s effect on microorganism’s efficacy.
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In this study, apple pectin (AP) and tomato pectin (TP) were demonstrated to be a high-ester (74.8%) polysaccharide with the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of ∼ 243 kDa and a low-ester (45.9%) polysaccharide with the Mw of ∼ 19 kDa, respectively. The semi-rigid chain conformations of pectic polysaccharides in NaNO3 aqueous solution were deduced according to the Smidsrød “B values” of AP (0.025) and TP (0.029), while AP and TP exhibited higher stiffness in water due to the electric repulsion of carboxyl groups, which was visually observed by AFM images. Under steady shear, the shear-thickening behaviors of AP and TP in NaNO3 aqueous solutions were observed in the shear rate range of < 1 s⁻¹, which were attributed to the disruption of the ordered arrangement induced by semi-rigid pectin chains into randomly entangled structure by weak shear force. AP exhibited stronger shear-thickening behavior due to the formation of more entanglements resulted from the higher Mw and longer side chains highly branched at RG region. This study provides the scientific basis for the construction of the relationship of steady-shear property with chain conformation and molecular weight of pectin.
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The yield, physicochemical and rheological parameters of grape pomace pectin (Fetească Neagră and Rară Neagră) obtained by conventional extraction (CE) were compared to those acquired by pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE). Extraction temperature (70–90 °C), pH (1–3) and time (1–3 h) were considered as independent variables for CE, while amplitude (20–100%), pH (1–3) and time (20–60 min) for PUAE. The optimal conditions for maximum yield and physicochemical parameters of pectin samples extracted by CE were temperature of 90 °C, pH 1.9 for 164 min (9.96% yield, 79.91 g/100 g of galacturonic acid (GalA) content, 81.28% of degree of esterification (DE) and 5.52 × 104 g/mol of molecular weight (Mw) for Fetească Neagră (FN) pectin; 11.08% yield, 80.05 g/100 g of GalA content, 80.86% of DE and 5.59 × 104 g/mol of Mw for Rară Neagră (RN) pectin), while for PUAE they were amplitude of 100%, pH 1.8 for 60 min (8.83% yield, 80.24 g/100 g of GalA content, 81.07% of DE and 4.19 × 104 g/mol of Mw for FN pectin; 8.94% yield, 78.64 g/100 g of GalA content, 80.04% of DE and 4.23 × 104 g/mol of Mw for RN pectin). The yield and physicochemical parameters of CE pectin were higher than PUAE pectin. The FT-IR spectra of pectin samples revealed the occurrence of polysaccharide compound, while rheology characteristics confirming its application in different food products.
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Food is an essential commodity for the survival of any form of life on earth. Yet generation of plethora of food waste has significantly elevated the global concern for food scarcity, human and environment deterioration. Also, increasing use of polymers derived from petroleum hydrocarbons has elevated the concerns towards the depletion of this non-renewable resource. In this review, the use of waste food for the production of bio-polymers and their associated challenges has been thoroughly investigated using scientometric analysis. Various categories of food waste including fruit, vegetable, and oily waste can be employed for the production of different biopolymers including polyhydroxyalkanoates, starch, cellulose, collagen and others. The advances in the production of biopolymers through chemical, microbial or enzymatic process that increases the acceptability of these biopolymers has been reviewed. The comprehensive compiled information may assist researchers for addressing and solving the issues pertaining to food wastage and fossil fuel depletion.
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The aim of this work is to investigate the structural features, physicochemical, rheological, and emulsifying properties of pectin extracted from pumpkin “Cucurbita maxima” pulp and peel. After the peel and pulp of fresh pumpkin were solubilized in water at high temperature (80°C) and clarification, the obtained filtrate was treated with aluminum sulphate, which precipitates a fibrous coagulum. The results found that the major functional groups of pectin isolates identified by Fourier transform infrared are: –OH, CH2, C═C, –C–O–C–, and CH3. The results obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance methods suggest that these polysaccharides consist of two domains: the first one is homogalacturonan and the second is formed by rhamnogalacturonan. Mineral and metal ions on pectin surface detected using scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analysis were different pulp and peel pectin. Rheological behavior of these biopolymers is suitably represented by the Herschel–Bulkley and power law models. The extracted pectin has a viscosity spectrum expressed by the following properties: G′, G′′, G*, and ∣ η ̇ ∣ ( ω ) which, respectively, have the following values: 0.28–57.63, 0.15–34.38, 0.39–67.12, and 1.82–831.08 Pa s. These macromolecules have a negative charge on their surface. Rheological properties and emulsifying activity are significantly influenced by the structural composition and physicochemical properties.
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Breaking methods have been shown to affect the sensory attributes of tomato paste, including volatile compounds and pectin content. This study aimed to explore the roles of interactions between pectin and aroma active compounds in the flavor release of tomato paste. Based on our results, phenethyl alcohol (PA) was one of the representative aroma active compounds and showed highly negative correlation with pectin content in tomato paste. According to ultraviolet–visible, fluorescence emission spectra and DLS analysis, PA could interact with pectin through hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The IGM analysis showed that van der Waals forces played a dominant role in the formation of PA-pectin complexes, which was further confirmed by ¹H NMR spectra and MD simulation. Overall, the non-covalent interaction of volatile compounds with pectin remarkably affected their release in tomato paste. These findings provide some insights into methods for improving the sensory quality of tomato paste.
Chapter
This review aims to discuss the current advances in green methods for the isolation and characterization of pectic polysaccharides with a focus on unconventional extraction sources and their bioactive applications in the pharmaceutical industry as new biopolymers or drug delivery systems. The physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of crude pectins, fractions (pectin oligosaccharides), and their domains (homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, rhamnogalacturonan-II, and xylogalacturonan) isolated from underutilized raw and agro-waste materials are compared using novel analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and rheology. The advantages and drawbacks of green and innovative methods are analyzed to indicate the best ecofriendly techniques for extracting bioactive pectins from unconventional sources and their structural effects. Chemical modifications and potential pharmaceutical applications of bioactive pectins are considered to assess the effects of their biological activity in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Finally, trends and future opportunities related to bioactive pectins and their fragments isolated from unconventional pectin sources are critically analyzed to provide guidelines for research in innovative technological developments and their possible applications in emerging public health problems such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
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The induced voltage was applied to assist extracting the pectin from apple pomace. At an optimum voltage of 1200 V, frequency of 20 kHz within 20 min at 55°C, the pectin yield was higher (32.5%) when compared to conventional heat extraction (CHE) at 90°C for 2 h (16.6%). Meanwhile, the induced voltage‐assisted extraction's (IVAE) pectin had higher DE%, GalA%, acetyl value% and low molecular weight with well‐preserved color than those of CHE pectin. Its functional properties, such as water‐holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) had better performance than those of CHE pectin. The results for emulsifying activity and stability were also investigated for one month during the storage at 4°C and 25°C. Based on the observation of pomace morphology, its structure was punctured when subjected to this electrical effect. Comparing these two extraction methods, the IVAE method has proven to be a time‐saving and eco‐friendly process.
Chapter
Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum (L.)) are one of the most consumed and nutritious vegetables in the world, rich in lycopene, other carotenoids (β-carotene), phenolics, organic acids, vitamins, and many other bioactive and health-promoting components. Besides its bulk consumption as a fresh vegetable, tomato is also used to produce a series of processed products, such as juice, puree, sauce, paste, and ketchup. Tomato processing leads to a solid residual called tomato pomace (abbreviated as TP), which mainly consists of peels and seeds as well as a small amount of pulp. On average, TP accounts for approximately 3%–5% (w/w) of the processed raw tomatoes. Statistically, the most up-to-date FAO data showed that the harvested area and the global production of tomatoes are rising.
Chapter
The present chapter shows an overview of the production of bioactive peptides (BAPs) obtained from food matrices, using fermentation processes. It shows that it is possible to obtain BAPs from milk, meat, and vegetable proteins and emphasizes scientific production and the proven benefits that milk protein-derived BAPs provide to health. It also emphasizes a promising outlook in BAP production by fully using meat and vegetable proteins using food industry by-products, which also helps to mitigate waste environmental issue. For viable and safe BAPs industrial production, advances about in vivo research and adaptations of biotechnological processes for this scale of production are required.
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Every year, huge amounts of fruit and vegetable by-products in the food processing factories are produced. These by-products have great potential to be used for different targets especially the extraction of value-added ingredients. The target of this study is to review the challenges of extraction of value-added ingredients from fruit and vegetable by-products on the industrial scale and to describe current trends in solving these problems. In addition, some strategies such as multi-component extraction as well as application of fermentation before or after the extraction process, and production of biofuel, organic fertilizers, animal feeds, etc. on final residues after extraction of value-added ingredients are discussed in this review paper. In fact, simultaneous extraction of different value-added ingredients from fruit and vegetable by-products can increase the extraction efficiency and reduce the cost of value-added ingredients as well as the final volume of these by-products. After extraction of value-added ingredients, the residues can be used to produce biofuels, or they can be used to produce organic fertilizers, animal feeds, etc. Therefore, the application of several appropriate strategies to treat the fruit and vegetable by-products can increase their application, protect the environment, and improve the food economy.
Chapter
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important edible plant containing high levels of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, fiber, protein, and pectin. These bioactive compounds are known as good protective constituents against several human diseases. Tomato is processed into many products such as ketchup, paste, sauce, puree, soup, juice, and canned tomatoes. Considerable amounts of waste are generated after the tomato is processed. These wastes are sources of bioactive compounds that contribute to human health. More than half of the composition of tomato waste constituted of fiber and sugar, and protein. Besides, carotenoids are important minor components in tomato by-products. Among carotenoids, lycopene is a valuable component that is beneficial for human health. Tomato pomace, which is a by-product of tomato processing, consists of peel and seeds as well as small amounts of pulp. Seed, skin, and tomato pomace are generally reused in different products. Dried tomato wastes can be used as animal feed, and as additive in meat products. Seeds were incorporated into the bakery and fermented cereal food. The seeds are rich in oils with a high carotenoid amount, which contribute to the oxidative stability of the oil. Tomato seed oil can also be used in non-food applications such as biodiesel. This work discusses the utilization of tomato by-products in food ingredients, animal feed, and non-food applications.
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The use of non-thermal processing technologies has grown in response to an ever-increasing demand for high-quality, convenient meals with natural taste and flavour that are free of chemical additions and preservatives. Food processing plays a crucial role in addressing food security issues by reducing loss and controlling spoilage. Among the several non-thermal processing methods , ultrasound technology has shown to be very beneficial. Ultrasound processing, whether used alone or in combination with other methods, improves food quality significantly and is thus considered beneficial. Cutting, freezing, drying, homogenization, foaming and defoaming, filtration, emulsification, and extraction are just a few of the applications for ultrasound in the food business. Ultrasounds can be used to destroy germs and inactivate enzymes without affecting the quality of the food. As a result, ultrasonography is being hailed as a game-changing processing technique for reducing organoleptic and nutritional waste. This review intends to investigate the underlying principles of ultrasonic generation and to improve understanding of their applications in food processing to make ultrasonic generation a safe, viable, and innovative food processing technology, as well as investigate the technology's benefits and downsides. The breadth of ultrasound's application in the industry has also been examined. This will also help researchers and the food sector develop more efficient strategies for frequency-controlled power ultrasound in food processing applications .
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Tomato processing leads to the production of considerable amounts of residues, mainly in the form of tomato skins, seeds and vascular tissues, which still contain bioactive molecules of interest for food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. These include carotenoids, such as lycopene and β-carotene, tocopherols and sitosterols, among others. Supercritical fluid extraction is well positioned for the valorization of tomato residues prior to disposal, because it remains an environmentally safe extraction process, especially when using carbon dioxide as the solvent. In this article, we provide an extensive literature overview of the research on the supercritical fluid extraction of tomato residues. We start by identifying the most relevant extractables present in tomatoes (e.g., lycopene) and their main bioactivities. Then, the main aspects affecting the extraction performance are covered, starting with the differences between tomato matrixes (e.g., seeds, skins and pulp) and possible pretreatments to enhance extraction (e.g., milling, drying and enzymatic digestion). Finally, the effects of extraction conditions, such as pressure, temperature, cosolvent, flow rate and time, are discussed.
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Saccharides play a vital role in the human diet due to their beneficial biological and functional properties. The adverse limitations of conventional extraction methods for plant saccharides have led to the search for advanced, ecofriendly, and cost-effective extraction techniques. This review focuses on the five major emerging advanced non-conventional green techniques: ultrasound-assisted, microwave-assisted, enzyme-assisted, supercritical fluid, and pressurized liquid extractions. The review briefly describes the extraction principle and mechanism, advantages and limitations, and the influential operating parameters for each technique. In addition, recent trends and progress in these advanced extraction methods are discussed with a critical comparison of these techniques. Furthermore, the various process modifications and integration aspects of extraction techniques are scientifically commented upon. Challenges and future research prospects for these emerging green technologies for lignocellulosic biomass extraction are also pointed out, emphasizing the industrial realization of these techniques. Graphical abstract
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This research aimed to utilize a solution of hydrochloric acid to extract pectin from durian rind combined with coconut husk. This experimentation was carried out and analyzed using the Minitab program with a focus upon three factors, pH, extraction time and temperature. Fifteen extraction treatments were carried out within pH in a range of 2 – 3, with an extraction time range of 30 – 240 minutes and a temperature range at 70 – 90oC. The result showed that treatment 12 (80oC, pH 2.0, 30 min) had the greatest pectin yield of 9.1%, whereas treatment 15 ((90oC, pH 2.5, 30 min) had the lowest pectin yield of 0.16%. In the degree of esterification (%DE), treatment 2 (80oC, pH 3.0, 30 min) had the highest value of degree of esterification (%DE) at 65.8. By analyzing the data using Minitab program using the Box–Benhken mode, the main factor influencing the extraction of pectin was pH–temperature, with a correlation coefficient of 1.59925.
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The waste-to-wealth concept has attracted remarkable attention for generating values out of waste materials along with the effective management of notorious agri-food wastes. Globally, agri-food industries are generating daily mammoth pre- and postprocessing wastes, of which most of the untreated waste fractions are severely leading to environmental problems. This waste can be designed to be valorized in a sustainable way with cutting-edge technologies not only to generate value-added products but also to offer jobs. Valorization of agri-food wastes into alternative and renewable energy generation is a popular practice in several industries to meet the in-house energy requirement as well as for returns to offset the economic constrain of the ongoing process. Moreover, bio-energy from waste has been an efficient alternative resource for the depleting fossil fuel usage, which also improves the carbon footprint of the bioprocess. Today, food waste is a comparatively less explored resource mainly due to its high organic nature. The technological hurdles are associated with utilizing it as the main source for generating valuable bioproducts. The agro-food processing waste has been utilized for the production of bioactive molecules, platform chemicals, biofertilizers, enzymes, etc.
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The aim of present study was to extract pectin from dried citrus fruit peels. In order to increase profits for citrus fruit growers and processors, citrus fruit peels, a by-product of citrus fruit processing, were investigated as a source of pectin. Pectin extraction was optimized from this by-product. Pectin was extracted under pH 2; Ethanol ratios(ER) 1:1 and extraction periods 120 min, at this condition highest yield was obtained 18.21%. Pectin assess its binding property in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. Thereafter, four batches were formulated using pectin in different proportions. A reference batch of starch was also prepared to carry out the comparative study and to assess the binding property of pectin. Pre-compression and post-compression studies were performed for each formulation and compared to range as per pharmacopoeias. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that batch M3 showed 81.88% drug released. In-vitro release kinetic of all four batches followed korsmeyer-peppas models. Citrus peel pectin can act as excellent binder in dosage forms. Since it is of natural origin and citrus peels available at low cost it may prove to be better binder over commercially used synthetic binders.
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The research was conducted to find out the various extraction conditions of pectin from lemon pomace under different of solvents (6M HCl, 1N H 2 SO 4 , 1N HNO 3 , 6.2g/100g citric acid, 1N acetic acid, combination with acetic acid and ammonium oxalate and distilled water), temperatures (70, 80, 90 and 100 0 C), times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) and maturity stages (premature, mature and over ripen). Preliminary results showed that optimum conditions for extraction of pectin were found at a temperature of 100 0 C by 60 min on the basis of pectin yield and equivalent weight extracted with distilled water. Pectin extracted with distilled water was characterized in terms of yield, moisture content, ash content, equivalent weight, methoxyl content, degree of esterification and neutral sugar contents. There were significant differences (p< 0.05) in yields, equivalent weights, degree of esterifications and neutral sugars among the lemon pomace pectin extracted from premature, mature and over ripen maturity stages. The degree of esterification and methoxyl contents were varying depending upon the maturity stages. Therefore, the premature lemon pomace can be considered as rich source of pectin in terms of yield, methoxyl content, degree of esterification and anhydrouronic acid content.
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Electromagnetic induction (EMI) and conventional (CV) heating have been employed to extract pectin from citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) albedos under the same extraction conditions (pH 1.2, temperature 80 °C and extraction time 90 min). The electromagnetic induction heating process was investigated at different extraction times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 min) and at different power levels. The high pectin yield obtained with this process was found to be 29% (w/w) of dried albedos, which was almost equal to that found using conventional heating (24% (w/w)). However, a considerable reduction in the extraction time was observed. It was found that 30 min of electromagnetic induction extraction of pectin from dried albedos yielded the same amount (24% (w/w)) of pectin obtained by conventional heating process for 90 min. Also, the electromagnetic induction heating at higher power and for only 2.09 min gave half the amount of pectin extracted by conventional heating for 90 min. Moreover, it was found that both extracted pectins showed almost similar compositions and physicochemical properties, presenting a galacturonic acid content of 29.10–29.40% and an esterification degree of 61.00–62.50%. The average molecular weight for both pectins extracted by EMI and CV heating ranged from 0.84 × 105 to 1.63 × 105. Hence, the electromagnetic induction heating can be suggested as a promising method for the extraction of pectin from citrange albedos at a short time, with a remarkable yield and keeping the composition and the physicochemical properties of the pectin unchanged.
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Recent research suggesting the existence of potential source of pectin from roselle calyces. Pectin was successfully extracted from seven different varieties of roselle calyces. Pectin extraction was conducted using hydrochloric acid (HCl, 0.03 N, pH 1.5) or ammonium oxalate (0.25% w/v, pH 4.6) at 85oC for 1 h. Chemical characteristics of the HCl- and ammonium oxalate extracted pectin were compared. Results indicated that ammonium oxalate exhibited greater efficiency in pectin extraction than HCl. Highest pectin yield at 18.7% was obtained by ammonium oxalate extraction of roselle calyx variety Acc.6 compared to only 9.77% by HCl extraction. The lowest pectin yield at 11.3% and 5.78% were observed respectively in ammonium oxalate and HCl extractions of roselle calyx variety UKMR-3. Some important characteristics of ammonium oxalate extracted pectin of roselle Acc.6 were 5.98% moisture, 3.81% ash, 4.64% methoxyl content, 42.24% anhydrouronic acid (AUA) and degree of esterification (DE) 60%. This study suggested that the high DE% roselle pectin is an alternative source of pectin for food industry.
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Aliphatic components of tomato, pepper, and apple fruit cuticles, and the leaf cuticles of mature olive trees, were characterized using elemental analysis, carbon (C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cuticular fractions isolated for analyses included bulk, dewaxed, nonsaponifiable, and nonhydrolyzable cuticles. Results from C NMR and FTIR spectra indicate that the cuticles of all the plant materials studied are comprised of extractable lipids, polysaccharides, and cutin, whereas the cuticles extracted from the olive leaf, pepper fruit, and apple fruit also contained nonsaponifiable, nonhydrolyzable residues, likely to be cutan. Hydrogen (H)/C and [oxygen (O)+nitrogen(N)]/C atomic ratios for the olive leaf, pepper fruit, and apple fruit cuticle fractions indicate that their bulk cuticle, dewaxed cuticle, and lipid fractions are more aliphatic than but have a similar polarity to their respective cutan‐like fraction. These results provide evidence that pepper fruit, apple fruit, and olive leaf cuticles each contain a cutan‐like fraction, but in the olive leaf and apple fruit, this fraction has a slightly different chemical structure from that of the pepper fruit and makes up a smaller percent of the total cuticle.
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Pectin extracted from the apple pomace was evaluated for the in vitro inhibition of pancreatic lipase (steapsin). Pectin was extracted from two different varieties of apples, i.e., Malus pumila and Spondias dulcis using two extractants, i.e., hydrochloric acid and citric acid (CA), separately at pH 2.5. The effect of the extraction process on the structure of the extracted pectin was evaluated by the physico-chemical parameters and different techniques such as XRD, 13C NMR, FTIR or Raman spectroscopy. The lipase inhibition was observed to be dependent both on the source as well as the extractant process used. The maximum lipase inhibition (94.30%) was obtained with the pectin extracted from Malus pumila by CA process, which is comparable to that of the commercial pectin, i.e., 94.15%. Tetrahydrolipstatin was used as reference steapsin inhibitor. Therefore, the extracted pectin has potential use in the anti-obesity formulations and other applications like personal care products.
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Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. High intensive ultrasound applied to the milk can destroy some microorganisms and save energy and process time significantly, using milder thermal treatment and obtaining product with higher nutritive value. Therefore, ultrasound treatment has proved to be potentially very successful technique of milk sterilization, particularly in combination with increased temperature.
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This research study aimed at comparing the characteristics of three different pectins and to see which one is more suitable for industrial applications. Pectin, which is a family of complex polysaccharides that contains 1, 4-linked x and &betagalactosyluronic acid residues was extracted using alcohol precipitation method from peels of lemon, grape and sweet orange after which it was characterized using both qualitative and quantitative analysis to determine and compare the color equivalent weight methoxyl content, each content solubility in cold and hot alkali, pH as well as sugar and organic acid. The result showed that the colors of the pectin from these 3 sources were the same i.e., Brown they were all soluble in hot and cold alkali and water, the moisture content, the methoxyl content and the ash were all higher in the pectin extracted from peels of sweet orange with 95.25, 5.79 and 35%, respectively. However, the equivalent weight of the pectin extracted from peels of grape was higher with 793.6 mg/mol. The overall results showed that the pectin from these sources were suitable for industrial use.
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The effects of three independent variables in pectin extraction process, including extraction time (60 & 90 min), pH of extraction solution (1.5 & 2.0) and water bath temperature (75 & 90°C) on yield and quality of apple pomace pectin were investigated. The highest pectin yield of 15.20% was obtained at pH 1.5 for 90 min at 90°C, but the highest pectin quality factors were obtained at pH 2.0 for 60 min at 75°C Statistical analysis indicated that variations of tem-perature, pH and time had the strongest effects on yield and quality of pectin, respectively.
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Industrial recovery and application of valuable mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel constituents, such as dietary fiber and pectins, require the conversion of the yet under-utilized and highly perishable by-product into a stable commodity. Focusing on efficient pectin recovery, the impact of different cultivars and ripeness degrees as well as various technological procedures on pectin quality by affecting pectin yield, molecular size distribution of pectic polymers, galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, and content of interfering substances was analyzed. Cultivar and ripeness degree revealed a significant effect on pectin quality. Preservation processes, i.e. oven drying and lyophilization each with and without previous blanching of integral fruits as well as gamma irradiation, notably influenced the quality of the obtained pectin. Blanching prior to drying reduced arabinogalactan and ash impurities, whereas galacturonic acid contents were increased. Most importantly, grinding of dried mango peels to obtain a particle size of ca. 42 μm (d43) significantly enhanced both extraction yield (+70%) and galacturonic acid content (+20%) without increasing the contents of the above mentioned impurities as compared to a peel particle size of ≥10 mm. Mango pectin produced from such peel powders with a small particle size (≤120 μm) improved breaking and sugar binding capacities as well as gelling units (up to 5476 GU). The production of mango peel pectin and its applications were favored by implementing the proposed procedures into the valorization cascade of mango peels.
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A three-level, four-factor Box–Behnken response surface design was used in this study to investigate the influence of process variables (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio) on the ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigments (betacyanin and betaxanthin) from Amaranthus tricolor L leaves. Second-order polynomial mathematical models were developed from the experimental data in order to predict the experimental data. Extraction temperature, ultrasonic power and solid-liquid ratio significantly influenced the extraction of natural pigments from A. tricolor L leaves. The optimal extraction was extraction temperature of 56C, ultrasonic power of 86 W, extraction time of 39 min and solid-liquid ratio of 1:14 g/mL, respectively.Practical ApplicationsAmaranthus tricolor L (red amaranth) is widely available in South/South East Asia and eastern/south eastern regions of Africa. However, most of this precious plant was only used as cuisine materials and many of its functional components, such as betacyanin and betaxanthin, healthful natural food colorant, were not fully developed and used. In this paper, ultrasound-assisted extraction was applied to extract pigments from red amaranth leaves. This research helps to develop a new and economical method of extracting natural pigments and to fully use this edible plant. The process studied could be an alternative method for the production of natural colorant in the food industry.
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The increase of waste quantities from tomato processing industry is an important ecological and also financial problem. Seeds are the major component of this waste and one valuable alternative of transforming them into raw materials is oil extraction. The isolated oil can be used for nutritive or industrial purposes. In this research, the influence of some extraction parameters (time, solvent and granularity of tomato milled seeds) on the fatty acid (FA) composition, water content and water reaction rate has been evaluated. The FA composition of tomato seed oil, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, has shown a high content of linoleic acid (20.8-39.9 mg/mL), followed by palmitic acid (6.3-19.3 mg/mL), oleic acid (2.5-14.2 mg/mL), linolenic acid (0.7-4.9 mg/mL), stearic acid (0.1-0.8 mg/mL), palmitoleic acid (0.03-0.5 mg/mL), arachidic acid (0.08-0.4 mg/mL), myristic acid (0.05-0.2 mg/mL) and margaric acid (0.02-0.11 mg/mL). The oil content of tomato seeds was registered in the range of 13.3-19.3 %. For evaluation of water content, a method using Karl Fischer titration (KFT) has been established. Comparing with the physical methods that do not distinguish the water content from volatile matter, KFT is an important technique, very accurate, that determines water content by a chemical reaction.
Article
Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste pomegranate peel was investigated and optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design coupled with numerical optimization technique. The individual and interactive effect of process variables (solid-liquid ratio, pH, extraction time and temperature) on the pectin yield was studied. The experimental data obtained were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second-order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. The models developed from the experimental design were predictive and good fit with the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value. The optimal extraction condition was found to be 1:17.52g/ml of solid-liquid ratio, 1.27 of pH, 28.31min of extraction time and 61.90°C of extraction temperature respectively. Under the optimal conditions, experimental yield was very close to the predicted values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
An increased interest has been shown by both food technologists and food industry regarding Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves (Stevia) for their high content of bioactive components (phenolic compounds, vitamin C, carotenoids). The aim of this work was to study the effect of emerging technologies such as high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) and ultrasounds (US) on the intensification of the extraction of valuable compounds from Stevia leaves. The proposed processes combined pretreatment (HVED, PEF and US) and extraction of intracellular compounds using water as solvent at ambient temperature. The energy inputs of the treatments varied from 24 to 141 kJ/kg and the results were compared to control diffusion experiments. Chlorophyll a, and b, total carotenoid, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) were determined. A significant increase in soluble matter and antioxidant compounds was found after HVED, PEF and US-assisted extraction as compared to control samples. Results showed that HVED, PEF and US treatments improved both kinetics and extraction yield of soluble matter. These results show the ability of HVED to be used as a potential technology to enhance protein recovery using water and avoiding the use of other solvents and grinding. Chlorophyll content was significantly higher (3-fold increase) after HVED assisted extraction at 141 kJ/kg in comparison to control sample (0.352 and 0.355 mg/L for chlorophyll a and b, respectively). The same energy input for HVED permitted attain highest extraction diffusivities of total soluble matter (D = 3.06 × 10−09 m2/s), followed by total phenolic compounds (D = 2.60 × 10−10 m2/s) and then proteins (D = 6.00 × 10−11 m2/s).
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The tomato processing industry generates annually high amounts of waste. In respect of a possible recycling of these materials, the seeds of the two tomato varieties Waltinger and Red Currant were analysed. Contents of carotenoids and vitamin E were determined by HPLC. The antioxidant capacity was analysed by several assays (Folin–Ciocalteu, TEAC, ORAC), whereby hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were gathered separately. The fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. The seeds contained only little amounts of (all-E)-lutein and (all-E)-zeaxanthin. Vitamin E content of Waltinger seeds was nearly twice as high as that of Red Currant seeds with γ-tocopherol as the main vitamer. Red Currant seeds showed always higher antioxidant capacity. Hydrophilic extracts contributed mainly to the total antioxidant capacity. The oil of the seeds was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially in linoleic acid. Finally, the results showed that tomato seeds contain some important substances. So concerning waste management, they can serve as a secondary raw material for new products such as edible oil.
Article
In this study, an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of pectin from sisal waste was investigated and optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three-level four-factor Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction conditions (ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio). Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield. The experimental yield (29.32%) was obtained under the optimal condition (ultrasonic power of 61W, temperature of 50°C, time of 26min and SL ratio of 1:28g/ml) was well agreement with predicted values. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted extraction could be used as an alternative method to extract pectin from sisal waste with the advantages of lower extraction temperatures, shorter extraction time and reduced energy consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400W, temperature of 45°C, extracting time of 20min and solid-liquid ratio of 24g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted.
Article
Pectin-enriched material (PEM) was extracted from sugar beet pulp using subcritical water combined with ultrasonic-assisted treatment. Optimisation of the reaction parameters for maximum extraction yield of PEM was carried out using response surface methodology. Optimum modification conditions were as follows: liquid/solid ratio 44.03, extraction temperature 120.72 °C, extraction time 30.49 min and extraction pressure 10.70 MPa. Under optimal conditions, the maximum yield of PEM was 24.63%. The composition of the PEM was determined. The data showed that the contents of galacturonic acid and arabinose were 59.12% and 21.66%, respectively. The flow behaviours were investigated by a rheometer. The effects of PEM on the pasting and thermal properties of maize starch were also conducted. The results showed that the addition of PEM increased pasting temperature and decreased other pasting parameters. Increasing PEM concentrations resulted in increased gelatinisation temperature and enthalpy.
Article
In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction technology was employed to investigate and optimize the crude polysaccharide extraction from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel using three levels, four factors (LS ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time) Box-Behnken response surface design. The results showed that, highest polysaccharide yield of 8.31% was obtained with an LS ratio of 32:1ml:g, ultrasonic power of 110 w, extraction temperature of 53°C and extraction time of 41min. The experimental yield of polysaccharide (8.29±0.03%) at optimal condition was well agreed with predicted value. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the identification of functional groups present in the extracted polysaccharide. The results suggest that ultrasound-assisted extraction could be a good alternative for the extraction of polysaccharide from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel at industrial level.
Article
Hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main inorganic component of natural bone and is widely used in various biomedical applications. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles by banana peel pectin mediated green template method. The pectin extracted from the peels of banana and its various concentrations were exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology of HAP. The extracted pectin was characterized by spectral techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the functional group analysis, proton-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR) for the identification of H and C atoms in the extracted pectin, respectively. The HAP nanoparticles were synthesized using different concentrations of the as-extracted pectin. The purity, crystallinity and morphology of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were evaluated by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Moreover the antibacterial activity of HAP nanoparticles was evaluated against the gram positive and negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. The experimental results revealed that the HAP nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of an optimized concentration of pectin are pure, low crystalline, spherical and discrete particles with reduced size. Also, the HAP sample derived in the presence of pectin showed an enhanced antibacterial activity than that of the HAP synthesized in the absence of pectin. Hence, the HAP nanoparticles synthesized using pectin as a green template can act as a good biomaterial for biomedical applications.
Article
Chemical modification of pectin was successfully accomplished as a solvent free process. It involved acylation of alcoholic functions of the polysaccharide by using several fatty acid anhydrides. The reaction was performed by simply mixing the reagents with a catalytic amount of the inorganic base potassium carbonate and heating the obtained mixture at a temperature of 160 °C. The desired esters were fully characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy.
Article
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa L.) yellow variety is composed of 50–55g peel per 100g of fresh fruit which is discarded as waste during processing. Utilization of passion fruit peel for pectin extraction was studied. Passion fruit peel obtained after juice extraction was blanched in boiling water for 5min, dehydrated in a cross flow hot air drier at 60±1°C to a moisture content of 4g/100g of dried peel. The dehydrated passion fruit peel was used for extraction experiments of pectin. The effect of pH, peel to extractant ratio, and number of extractions, extraction time and temperature on the yield and quality characteristics of pectin were investigated. The optimized conditions for extraction of pectin from passion fruit peel yielded 14.8g/100g of dried peel. Pectin extracted from the dried peels had a methoxyl content of 9.6g/100g, galacturonic acid content of 88.2g/100g and jelly grade of 200. Extraction of pectin from dried peels of passion fruit may be considered for effective utilization of passion fruit processing waste.
Article
Skin, rich in lycopene, is an important component of waste originating from tomato paste manufacturing plants. A central composite design with five independent variables, namely solvent/meal ratio (20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, and 60:1v/w); number of extractions (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5); temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C); particle size (0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.43mm); extraction time (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20min) was used to study their effects on lycopene extraction. The experimental values of lycopene ranged between 0.639 and 1.98mg/100g. The second order model obtained for extracted lycopene revealed a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 and a standard error of 0.03. Maximum lycopene (1.98mg/100g) was extracted when the solvent/meal ratio, number of extractions, temperature, particle size and extraction time were 30:1v/w, 4, 50°C, 0.15mm and 8min, respectively. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Cocoa husks, a by-product of cocoa processing, were investigated as a source of pectins. Preliminary results of pectin recovery and characterization are shown; they constitute the first part of a study for the optimization of pectin extraction from this by-product. Husks of two different origins (Ghana and Venezuela) were used whole or minced and pectins were extracted under various conditions (pH 7.0, 4.0, 2.5, 1.5 and 1.0; extraction periods 1–3h): the highest yield is obtained with minced husks after 1h of extraction at pH 2.5. A preliminary characterization of pectins, in terms of methyl and acetyl ester contents, was also carried out in order to investigate the influence of different extraction conditions on the chemical composition of the extracts.
Article
The influence of ultrasound treatments of tomato pulp on microstructure and lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility was investigated. To this purpose, samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency and amplitude of 24kHz and 100μm, respectively, for increasing lengths of time. Results showed that ultrasound was responsible for loss of tomato cell integrity, as well as a decrease in the degree of pectin esterification. In contrast, rheological measurements showed that ultrasonically treated tomato pulp had greater gel-like properties than an untreated sample. It was inferred that ultrasound promoted the formation of a new network due to hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions among the de-esterified pectin molecules. Such a reinforcement of the tomato pulp structure resulted in a decrease in lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility of the ultrasonically treated tomato pulp, probably due to the fact that the presence of a stronger network may make lycopene less available to the digestion process.
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There is a rapidly growing body of literature covering the role of plant secondary metabolites in food and their potential effects on human health. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly aware of diet related health problems, therefore demanding natural ingredients which are expected to be safe and health-promoting. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned, but they are also promising sources of compounds which may be used because of their favourable technological or nutritional properties. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential of selected by-products as a source of functional compounds.
Article
Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants are an essential part of the human diet, and are of considerable interest due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds posses an aromatic ring bearing one or more hydroxyl groups and their structures may range from that of a simple phenolic molecule to that of a complex high-molecular weight polymer. Flavonoids, which bear the C6–C3–C6 structure, account for more than half of the over eight thousand different phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds depends on the structure, in particular the number and positions of the hydroxyl groups and the nature of substitutions on the aromatic rings. Fruits, vegetables and beverages are the major sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The food and agricultural products processing industries generate substantial quantities of phenolics-rich by-products, which could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. Some of these by-products have been the subject of investigations and have proven to be effective sources of phenolic antioxidants. When tested in edible oils, and in fish, meat and poultry products, phenolic-rich extracts have shown antioxidant activities comparable to that of synthetic antioxidants. Practical aspects of extraction and production of sufficient amounts of natural antioxidants from most of these sources remain to be elucidated.
Article
Eleven fruit and vegetable byproducts and two minor crops were screened for industrial polyphenol exploitation potential by determination of their extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC, Folin–Ciocalteu), and antioxidant activity (NTZ/hypoxanthine superoxide assay, ferric thiocyanate method). Extracts with the highest activity, economic justification and phenolic content were obtained from apple (TPC maximum 48.6 ± 0.9 mg Gallic acid equivalents g−1 dry extract), pear (60.7 ± 0.9 mg GAE g−1), tomato (61.0 ± 3.0 mg GAE g−1), golden rod (251.4 ± 7.0 mg GAE g−1) and artichoke (514.2 ± 14.9 mg GAE g−1). Apple, golden rod and artichoke byproducts were extracted at pilot plant scale and their antioxidant activity was confirmed by determination of their free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and the inhibition of stimulated linoleic acid peroxidation (TBA and Rancimat® methods). The preservative effect of the three extracts (determination of the peroxide value in test crème formulations with 0.1–1.0% extract concentrations) was similar to the established antioxidants Oxynex® 0.1%, Controx® KS 0.15%, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 0.01%. This study demonstrates the possibility of recovering high amounts of phenolics with antioxidant properties from fruit and vegetable residuals not only for food but also cosmetic applications.
Article
Two different options for the combined recovery of pectin and phenolic compounds from mango peels, a byproduct of industrial mango processing, were developed. After extraction of dried mango peels with diluted sulfuric acid, the phenolic compounds were adsorbed using a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymerisate resin, and pectin was obtained from the effluent by precipitation with ethanol. Phenolic compounds were recovered from the resin with methanol and the eluate was lyophilized (Process I). Alternatively, the pectin was precipitated by adding the crude extract to ethanol. After removal of the organic solvent, the phenolic compounds were obtained from the aqueous phase of the precipitation bath using the adsorbent resin as described before (Process II). While in total, 129.4 mg/g polyphenols were detected in the lyophilizate obtained from Process I, only 71.0 mg/g dm could be recoverd from Process II. The profiles of the polyphenols were almost identical, revealing that during pectin precipitation preferential adsorption of polyphenolic compounds to the pectin may be excluded. Besides the characterization of the pectins and the phenolic compounds, investigations into the influence of the drying temperature on the polyphenolic content of the peels were carried out, indicating a significant loss of flavonol glycosides depending on heat exposure. On the other hand, some xanthone glycosides were formed during the drying process. Furthermore, antioxidative capacities of the lyophilized eluates were investigated using the DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assays. The antioxidative capacity of the extracts exceeded that of mangiferin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside, respectively, thus demonstrating mango peels to be a suitable source of health-beneficial compounds. The lyophilizates obtained from Process I showed higher antioxidative capacities in all three assays. These findings indicate a correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative capacity.
Article
Apple pomace which is the main waste of fruit juice industry was utilized to extract pectins in an environmentally friendly way, which was then compared with chemically-extracted pectins. The water-based extraction with combined physical and enzymatic treatments produced pectins with 693.2 mg g(-1) galacturonic acid and 4.6% yield, which were less than those of chemically-extracted pectins. Chemically-extracted pectins exhibited lower degree of esterification (58%) than the pectin samples obtained by physical/enzymatic treatments (69%), which were also confirmed by FT-IR analysis. When subjected to steady-shear rheological conditions, both pectin solutions were shown to have shear-thinning properties. However, decreased viscosity was observed in the pectins extracted by combined physical/enzymatic methods which could be mainly attributed to the presence of more methyl esters, thus limiting polymer chain interactions. Moreover, the pectins which were extracted by combined physical/enzymatic treatments, showed less elastic properties under high shear rate conditions, compared to the chemically-extracted pectins.
Article
Plant cell walls consist of carbohydrate, protein, and aromatic compounds and are essential to the proper growth and development of plants. The carbohydrate components make up approximately 90% of the primary wall, and are critical to wall function. There is a diversity of polysaccharides that make up the wall and that are classified as one of three types: cellulose, hemicellulose, or pectin. The pectins, which are most abundant in the plant primary cell walls and the middle lamellae, are a class of molecules defined by the presence of galacturonic acid. The pectic polysaccharides include the galacturonans (homogalacturonan, substituted galacturonans, and RG-II) and rhamnogalacturonan-I. Galacturonans have a backbone that consists of alpha-1,4-linked galacturonic acid. The identification of glycosyltransferases involved in pectin synthesis is essential to the study of cell wall function in plant growth and development and for maximizing the value and use of plant polysaccharides in industry and human health. A detailed synopsis of the existing literature on pectin structure, function, and biosynthesis is presented.
Article
The gelling properties of pectins are known to be closely related to the degree of methylation (DM) and the distribution of the ester groups. In order to investigate this dependency, a natural citrus pectin (DM 64%) has been methylated to pectins with higher DM or saponified to achieve pectins with lower DM. A simple method for determination of DM by 1H NMR spectroscopy is presented. New modified pectins have been prepared by treatment of pectins having different DM with NaBH(4) to reduce selectively the methyl esters to primary alcohols in the presence of free acids. The degree of reduction (DR) and the DM of the remaining carboxylic acids could likewise be determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The new reduced pectins are recognized by the pectin degrading enzymes polygalacturonase PGI and PGII as well as by pectin lyase, all from Aspergillus niger, but the enzymes exhibit lower specific activities as compared with unmodified pectin. The new reduced pectins exhibit high gelling properties.
2012 laying down specifications for food additives listed in Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 1333
Regulation (EU) No. 231/2012 laying down specifications for food additives listed in Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council 1, European Commission 9 March 2012.
EU) No. 68/2013 on the Catalogue of feed materials 1, European Commission 16
Regulation (EU) No. 68/2013 on the Catalogue of feed materials 1, European Commission 16 January 2013.
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N. Grassino et al. / Food Chemistry 198 (2016) 93–100