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The Effect of Higher-Order Gratitude on Mental Well-Being: Beyond Personality and Unifactoral Gratitude

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The purpose of this study was to examine whether higher-order gratitude consisting of multiple components (i.e., thanking others, thanking God, cherishing blessings, appreciating hardship, and cherishing the moment) explains variances in integrated mental well-being, including depression, self-esteem, and psychological well-being after controlling for gender, age, religion, the Big Five personality traits (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), and unifactorial gratitude (GQ). A total of 231 participants were recruited to complete questionnaires measuring the variables of interest. The results indicated that higher-order gratitude made a significant unique contribution to psychological well-being, self-esteem, and depression (3 % to 5 % of the variance, p < .05) above the effects of demographic variables, personality traits, and unifactorial gratitude. These findings suggested that higher-order gratitude is more than just personality traits or unifactorial gratitude, and it is important in its own right for integrated mental well-being.
... Trait gratitude has been shown, with overwhelming support, to lead to diffuse affective states such as increased positive affect (McCullough et al., 2002;Măirean, et al., 2019;Simons et al., 2019;Sun & Kong, 2013;Swickert et al., 2019;Watkins et al., 2003), decreased negative affect (Simons et al., 2019;Sun & Kong, 2013;Swickert et al., 2019;Watkins et al., 2003), affective well-being (Aghababaei et al., 2018;Bhullar et al., 2015;Chan, 2013;Chopik et al., 2019;Corona et al., 2020;Hill & Allemand, 2011;Jiang et al., 2016;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Kim et al., 2019;Lin, 2014Lin, , 2015aLin, , 2015bLin, , 2016Lin, , 2017Lin & Yeh, 2014;McCullough et al., 2002;Măirean et al., 2019;Yue et al., 2017;Zhang, 2020), and eudaimonic well-being (Barrett-Cheetham et al., 2016). These studies have largely been cross-sectional in nature, but Simons and colleagues (2019) examined this relationship using a seven-day experience sampling study and found that trait gratitude predicted daily positive affect. ...
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
... Selain itu, Jung percaya bahwa membuat mandala menimbulkan efek menenangkan pada kliennya (Hall & Nordby, 1973) dan menyebabkan peningkatan rasa integrasi psikologis (Clarke, 1994 (Emmons, 2004). Memiliki rasa syukur bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan kebahagiaan jangka panjang individu sebanyak lebih dari 10% (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Seligman et al., 2005), meningkatkan psychological well-being (Lin, 2017), dan meningkatkan self-esteem (Rash et al., 2011). Rasa syukur yang dirasakan oleh para partisipan salah satunya adalah dari partisipan T yang merasa selama ini kurang bersyukur atas berkat yang diberikan Tuhan, dan melalui sesi perlakuan ini, T menyadari bahwa sesungguhnya hidupnya sudah beruntung. ...
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... Dispositional trait gratitude may allow for several individual-level benefits such as increased positive affect, energy and enthusiasm, fewer illnesses, improved sleep, decreased feeling of loneliness and an increased connection with others McCullough, 2003 as cited in M airean et al., 2019). Not surprisingly, gratitude has been consistently linked to a range of wellbeing factors such as the pursuit of activities that are intrinsically motivating and social activities that are rewarding, as well as an increased daily self-regard (Lin, 2017;Göcen, 2012;M airean et al., 2019;Wood et al., 2009). ...
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Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace friendship with affective well-being (AWB) at work amongst millennial employees. Specifically, it details the mediating effect of workplace friendship in explaining the linkages between gratitude and AWB at work.
... Being this way, we will become a more tolerant and understanding person. (有知足 心,才懂感恩;有感恩,才會善解;有善解,才能凡事包容。)" Because gratitude involves feelings of appreciation toward others, it might also allow children and adolescents to take others' perspectives to broaden to alternative thoughts and actions in regulating their emotions (Lin, 2015(Lin, , 2017. Empirically, Boggio et al. (2020) found that those in an intervention group who wrote about gratitude were more effective with emotion regulation, compared to those in the control group. ...
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Research has provided empirical support for the effectiveness of group psychotherapy. However, we have little understanding of mechanisms that account for the effectiveness. Thus, there is a need for complex theory-driven hypotheses and analytical models to understand the complexities of change in group counseling. We used Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory as well as Yalom and Leszcz's proposition about adaptive spirals as guiding frameworks. We then examined the process of how positive emotions or positive relations and emotional cultivation (regulation) reciprocally influence one another to create an upward or adaptive spiral toward greater well-being over the course of group interventions. A total of 196 Taiwanese children and adolescent clients across 33 groups participated in an 8-session emotional cultivation/regulation group intervention. The random intercepts cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) was used for the data analyses in Mplus. Overall, our results supported the broaden-and-build theory and its broaden-, build-, and upward-spiral effects, with the exception of positive affect. Specifically, positive emotions (i.e., gratitude and psychological need satisfaction) and positive relations (i.e., teacher-student relationship and perceived social support) predicted future improvements on emotional cultivation (i.e., the broaden effects). Additionally, improved emotional cultivation was a long-lasting characteristic that could be drawn upon at later moments to drive greater positive emotions and relations (i.e., the build effects). Together, the results supported a reciprocal model with positive emotions and relationships being associated with greater future emotional cultivation and subsequently emotional cultivation being associated with greater future positive emotions and relationships (i.e., the upward spiral or adaptive spiral effects). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... People who have a gratitude attitude, stay positive, and have a purpose in life are happier and healthier than their counterparts; even just by appreciating what we have in our lives can help us feel more optimistic and positive [41,42]. Other studies suggest that a high level of gratitude can have a significantly positive influence on individuals' physical and psychological health, promoting their self-esteem and decreasing depression [43,44]. People with a purpose feel more hopeful in life [45,46] and more fulfilled in work [47]. ...
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... From a latest research (Lin, 2017)it has been observed that advanced order gratitude, consisting of various parts (i.e. appreciating others, thanking God, relishing miracles, appreciating adversity, and appreciating the moment), explained variance in integrated mental well-being in terms of depression, self-respect, and psychological wellbeing in terms of gender, age and religion. ...
... Gratitude. Gratitude has also been shown to protect against depression Lin, 2017;Ng & Wong, 2013) and anxiety (Ng & Wong, 2013;Petrocchi & Couyoumdjian, 2016) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally (Disabato, Kashdan, Short, & Jarden, 2017;Sirois & Wood, 2017;Southwell & Gould, 2017). It is worth mentioning that gratitude has been indirectly related to internalizing symptoms in past work (Disabato et al., 2017;Liang et al., 2018;Petrocchi & Couyoumdjian, 2016), perhaps due to its influence on self-compassionate thought processes (Petrocchi & Couyoumdjian, 2016) and because it promotes positive selfconcept , short-term positive life events (Disabato et al., 2017), and reduces rumination (Liang et al., 2018). ...
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... From a latest research (Lin, 2017)it has been observed that advanced order gratitude, consisting of various parts (i.e. appreciating others, thanking God, relishing miracles, appreciating adversity, and appreciating the moment), explained variance in integrated mental well-being in terms of depression, self-respect, and psychological wellbeing in terms of gender, age and religion. ...
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