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Research in Art and Design

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... In order to internalize and to solve this problem students enrolled in music and visual arts classes worked through the paradigms of contextual art and critical pedagogy. The present text is structured around the art-based research model (Frayling, 1993;de Laiglesia, 2009), describing and conceptualizing the project and focusing in the concept of degraded beauty through four parts: context, concept, actions and publicity. After considering the teacher as a public intellectual, the object of the project was to generate a critical thinking in students from a theory-grounded perspective. ...
... Los alumnos de las asignaturas de música y de artes plásticas y visuales trabajaron desde los paradigmas de arte contextual y de pedagogía crítica con el fin de, no solo tomar conciencia de la realidad, sino también influir en la resolución de esta problemática. El texto se articula en torno al modelo de investigación "dentro del arte" (Frayling, 1993;de Laiglesia, 2009) y en él se describe y conceptualiza el proyecto, ahondando en el concepto de la belleza de la gradación. A través de cuatro apartados -contexto, concepto, acciones y difusión-la teorización propuesta cristaliza la idea del profesor como intelectual público, permitiendo generar un pensamiento crítico en los alumnos desde postulados teóricamente fundados. ...
... En lo metodológico, se propone una argumentación discursiva del proyecto desde una perspectiva estética y educativa, desarrollada a través del paradigma investigativo "dentro del arte" (Frayling, 1993;de Laiglesia, 2009). Por ello, el texto no ahonda en la descripción de los aspectos didácticos y metodológicos, sino en los conceptos teóricos que sirvieron para su creación. ...
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Uno de los retos a los que se enfrenta actualmente la educación es la necesidad de conectar el currícu-lo escolar con la realidad que los alumnos viven fuera del aula. En este sentido, la educación artística resulta especialmente relevante, ya que permite a estos establecer vínculos afectivos y emocionales con dicha realidad a través de un proceso creativo. El proyecto que se presenta fomentó un trabajo crítico y creativo sobre la degradación del paisaje en el entorno próximo de un instituto de educación secundaria. Los alumnos de las asignaturas de música y de artes plásticas y visuales trabajaron desde los paradigmas de arte contextual y de pedagogía crítica con el fin de, no solo tomar conciencia de la realidad, sino también influir en la resolución de esta problemática. El texto se articula en torno al modelo de investigación “dentro del arte” (Frayling, 1993; de Laiglesia, 2009) y en él se describe y conceptualiza el proyecto, ahondando en el concepto de la belleza de la gradación. A través de cua-tro apartados –contexto, concepto, acciones y difusión– la teorización propuesta cristaliza la idea del profesor como intelectual público, permitiendo generar un pensamiento crítico en los alumnos desde postulados teóricamente fundados.
... Tinkering with materials is a way to integrate the study of materials early in the design process [5]. The material driven design method (MDD) [6] is based on a 'researchthrough-design' [7] methodology, which emphasizes both the technical and the experiential characteristics of the material, through comparison with similar materials, and the creation of samples and user studies. ...
... To better understand and develop the this methodology, we approach it as a researchthrough-design project. The term was coined by Sir Christopher Frayling in his seminal 1993 essay, Research in art and design [7]. In it, a distinction is made between 'research for design', 'research about design' and 'research through design'. ...
... To better understand and develop the this methodology, we approach it as a research-through-design project. The term was coined by Sir Christopher Frayling in his seminal 1993 essay, Research in art and design [7]. In it, a distinction is made between 'research for design', 'research about design' and 'research through design'. ...
Article
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Design has an important role in shaping the modes of production, consumption and disposal. Decisions made early in the product, service and system development influence the majority of the environmental impact and social consequences. With sustainability emerging as the major challenge of our times, the creation of novel methodologies, economic models and innovative materials is critical. In this paper, we put forward a new methodology that aims to bridge the ecomodernist business-focused circular economy models with the expressive material driven design (MDD) approach. The ‘design out waste methodology’ (DOWM) bridges existing concepts, methods and practices, creating an innovative design and production process that redefines waste and sets it up as a subject of creative study. The purpose of this process is to help designers understand the importance of evaluating the entire life cycle of a product; it also enables local ‘degrowth’ by shifting our modes of production towards a human scale with local makers exchanging knowledge and expressing themselves through upcycled materials, while simultaneously eradicating the very concept of waste. The methodology has been developed in an iterative research-through-design process that combines experiential and tacit knowledge from local case studies with desk research of emerging case studies in MDD.
... Controversies about artistic and scientific knowledge production. Holert, 2009Holert, , 2020Almeida, 2015. Frayling, 1993Almeida, 2015;Vaage, 2020. Fisher & Mottram, 2006Elkins, 2009;Borgdorff, 2012;Wilson & Van Ruiten, 2013;Benschop et al., 2014;Mäkelä et al., 2011;Almeida, 2015;Bippus, 2016;Caduff, 2017;Borgdorff et al., 2020;Vaage 2020. ...
... Note: According to Frayling, 1993, based on Herbert Read, 1943 Frayling distinguishes research for, into, and through art by providing examples of each category: he connects research for art to an interview with Picasso (1923) 95 in which Picasso discussed the reference material that he used to paint Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Picasso clearly stated that the research was not the objective but served "to produce a finished painting" (Frayling, 1993, p. 2). ...
Thesis
Zweck: In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat das Interesse an sozial engagierter Kunst, Art in Action, stetig zugenommen. Bisher fehlt allerdings eine Praktiker-Forschung (practitioner research), welche Fragen aus der Arbeitswelt in den Forschungsmittelpunkt stellt und die glokalen Gegebenheiten praxisrelevant diskutiert. Diese Studie untersucht die Grundannahmen der Kunstgeschichte, welche bisher die Einführung der Praktiker-Forschung erschweren. Die Studie kontextualisiert und diskutiert zudem die Besonderheiten der künstlerischen Forschung sowie der Praktiker-Forschung in anderen disziplin ren Feldern. Daran anschliessend formuliert diese Studie die Prinzipien der Art in Action Methodik. Methodik: Diese transformative Studie arbeitet mit dem Global Studies Paradigma. Der konzeptionelle Apparat umfasst die Kaleidoskopische Dialektik, das Konzept der Glokalisierung und die Theorien der Transdisziplinarit t und der Meta-Narrativen Synthese. Ergebnis: Diese Studie formuliert die Prinzipien der Art in Action Methodik (AiAR). AiAR stellt Fragen aus der Arbeitswelt in den Mittelpunkt der Forschung, berücksichtigt glokale Gegebenheiten und organisiert den Forschungsprozess in Relation zu den projektrelevanten Partikularit ten (grounded methodology).
... Despite the advantages of the quantitative methods based on the questionnaire and big data, qualitative methods were applied widely in the case of the architectural studies (Groat & Wang, 2002;Niezabitowska, 2018;Silverman, 2004) such as content analysis (Krippendorff, 2003;Silverman, 2010), structured observation (Frankfort-Nachmias, Nachmias, & DeWaard, 2014;Tafahomi & Nadi, 2020;Tafahomi, 2020), graphical analysis (Tafahomi, 2020;Tafahomi, 2021b;Tafahomi, 2021c). This kind of research is also mentioned as a supportive system in architecture to bring other knowledge in the architecture areas for the application (Frayling, 1993). ...
... Despite the absence of the critical point of view in the presentation of the students, they applied summative, integrated, and related sources (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2019) to support their idea about the architectural components in terms of reflection of the Journal of Design Studio, v:3 n:2 Tafahomi, R., (2021), An Attempt to Fill the Gap between the Architectural Studies and Conceptualization in Architectural Thesis Design lessons learnt (Williams, 2018) to deal with the architectural problems (Borden & Ray, 2006), studies (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007), and conceptualization (Tafahomi, 2021b). The students preferred to exemplify the studies through images and graphics to refer to the precedents studies as the lessons learnt without differentiation between of the research 'in or for' architecture that advocated by Frayling (1993). It means that the students applied different approaches to discover their own theoretical framework than a structured research process (Tafahomi, 2021a). ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the application of a theoretical framework in the architecture thesis project to discover the effectiveness of the exercise on the thesis projects. It was common to observe that the students prepared the architectural thesis project with limited, unstructured, or disconnected studies to analysis, programming, and conceptualization phases. A theoretical framework model was tested to evaluate the effects on the learning outcomes of the students. The methodology of the research was designed based on structured observation and content analysis. The findings of the research reveal that the students perceive and understand the studies and the theoretical framework differently. The students demonstrated their theoretical framework with four categorical specifications including information, application, presentation, and communication. The information referred to data and structure of the organization, the application implied the relation between the data collection, analysis and other phases of the thesis project, the presentation illustrated how they applied graphical tools to illustrate the data, and communication revealed the interaction between the students and the panel of juries and participants. In conclusion, the theoretical framework connects the studies to the concept generation and opens a new door for the discussion of the architectural studies and lessons learnt between the panel of juries, the students, and peers. For an effective expectation from the theoretical framework outputs, detailed guidelines could harmonize the students’ outputs due to the varieties of the application, interpretation, and demonstration of the architectural theoretical frameworks.
... However, when framing practice-based research, contradictions arise from how established research definitions in the academy are often less relevant to practice. The tension has become apparent in designoriented disciplines such as architecture, and led to several debates on its meaning, types, and stages over the last decades (Frayling 1993;Archer 1995;Cross 1999;Rendell 2004;Till 2005;Jenkins, Forsyth, and Smith 2005;Geiser 2008;Fraser 2013;Hensel and Nilsson 2019). Despite differences in approach, they have all consistently argued for the need to establish a unique definition of design-related research, but also continued to predominantly frame this in terms arising in an academic context. ...
... Perhaps most influential, if we take Frayling's (1993) famous tripartite model for practice-related research, traditional research falls largely within his 'into' and 'for' practice classification, whereas research 'through' practice opens new research trajectories and means, commonly referred to now as practice-based research. Frayling's strict division of design research methods and outputs has been questioned, especially by Australasian schools of design research that foreground multi-modal forms of enquiry that are often linked to issues of representation (Wiszniewski and French 2019). ...
... On the one hand, it builds on discourses on paradox theory in organisational studies (Lewis & Smith, 2014;Smith & Tracey, 2016). On the other hand, and noting the need to integrate these theoretical discussions in practice (Friedman, 2008), our study combines them with empirical input by employing a 'research through design' approach that draws on the implicit knowledge of design through contextual design experiments (Bang & Eriksen, 2014;Frayling, 1993). Applying a research-through-design approach enabled us to investigate the research question in a process that posed us with an opportunity to reflect on the process and the specifics of the design (Bang & Eriksen, 2014). ...
... The experiments were staged through a series of participatory design workshops that the authors conducted and in which people came together to explore issues of concern. Five experiments took place in an organization as part of an ongoing three-year action research project (Frayling, 1993). Three experiments were embedded in an academic context, i.e., in classes for service design master students. ...
... The way of working here is broadly within the domain ofresearch through design (RtD) a designled approach, which generates knowledge by a design-led approach, where knowledge is generated through all stages of a design process, from initial ideation, through to the deployment of functioning prototypes, probes and research products [55,60]. Our participatory approach to RtD particularly emphasises engaging with a wide variety of stakeholders and publics, alongside the more traditional RtD focus on materials and objects. ...
... This approach is used within studies of human computer interaction (HCI) [155], especially when looking at work 'in the wild' -aiming to study technology use in real-world contexts with likely end-users [8,122]. The type of research is often iterative in nature; active, participatory, playful and performative [60] and its main aim is to allow publics to experience potential novel technologies and their implications through experiential and embodied rather than purely academic or technical ways, as Frayling put it: "How can I tell what I think till I see what I make and do?" [55]. As researchers and practitioners who are focusing on engaging multiple audiences with concepts of blockchain technology, design and creativity play an important role in creating engaging experiences for our participants. ...
Preprint
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This paper presents an annotated portfolio of projects that seek to understand and communicate the social and societal implications of blockchains, distributed ledgers and smart contracts. These complex technologies rely on human and technical factors to deliver cryptocurrencies, shared computation and trustless protocols but have a secondary benefit in providing a moment to re-think many aspects of society, and imagine alternative possibilities. The projects use design and HCI methods to relate blockchains to a range of topics, including global supply chains, delivery infrastructure, smart grids, volunteering and charitable giving, through engaging publics, exploring ideas and speculating on possible futures. Based on an extensive annotated portfolio we draw out learning for the design of blockchain systems, broadening participation and surfacing questions around imaginaries, social implications and engagement with new technology. This paints a comprehensive picture of how HCI and design can shape understandings of the future of complex technologies.
... It is also important to note that researchers in this type of research are not involved in the design process. With respect to research through design, knowledge is produced by doing design, in other words, making artifacts [43,128]. Since research through design is one of the central topics in this dissertation, the remaining of this section further discusses what research through design is, what kinds of knowledge that it could produce, and its implications on research practice. ...
... The intention of knowledge production plays an important role here, since it distinguishes research through design from typical design practice, which primarily aims towards creating commercial products [175]. Although research through design was originally introduced within art and design communities (see Frayling [43]), it has been progressively developed as a research approach within human-computer interaction and interaction design communities [142,174]. Re-searchers in these communities often develop novel interactive artifacts that could be used for research purposes [37]. ...
Thesis
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Operating heavy machinery, such as mobile cranes and excavators, is a complex task. While driving the machine, operators are also performing industrial tasks, e.g. lifting or digging, monitoring the machine’s status, and observing the surroundings. Modern heavy machinery is increasingly equipped with information systems that present supportive information to operators, so that they could perform their work safely and productively. Supportive information in heavy machinery is generally presented visually using head-down displays, which are placed in lower positions inside the cabin in order to avoid obstructing operators’ view. However, this placement makes visual information presented using head-down displays tend to be overlooked by operators, as the information is presented outside their field of view. This dissertation investigates the possible use of transparent mediums for presenting visual information on the windshield of mobile cranes and excavators. By presenting information on the windshield, operators are expected to acquire visual information without diverting their attention away from the operational area. The design process includes (1) observing heavy machinery operators in natural settings through available videos on the Internet, (2) conducting an empirical study on the impact of different information placements, (3) reviewing the state of the art of display technologies that could be used to visualize information around the windshield of heavy machinery, (4) reviewing relevant safety guidelines to determine what kinds of critical information that operators should know, (5) conducting design workshops to generate visualization designs that represent critical information in operations of mobile cranes and excavators, (6) involving professional operators to evaluate and improve the proposed visualization designs, and (7) developing a functioning transparent display prototype that visualizes one kind of critical information that professional operators considered as the most important one. The main finding from the observation using online videos suggested that heavy machinery operators spent considerable amount of time looking through the front windshield, and thus the front windshield could be used as a potential space for presenting visual information. The main finding of the empirical study also indicated that presenting information closer to the line of sight produced higher information acquisition and lower workload, compared to when information was presented farther from the line of sight. Based on the evaluation with professional operators, there seemed to be a good match between the proposed visualization designs and the operators' way of thinking, since the operators were able to understand and use the proposed visualization designs with little explanations. On the basis of the three most important findings above, there is a strong indication that placing the developed transparent display on the front windscreen of heavy machinery would make it easier for operators to perceive and process the presented information.
... The first is the defence of research specificity [56][57][58][59]; as described by Frayling, RtD treats design as a unique form of thinking and a unique method for establishing knowledge that can further our understanding of non-design topics. The second is the foundation of design research based on existing academic research precedents or methods, particularly in the context of natural sciences, social sciences, and the arts [53,60,61]. Gaver and Bowers proposed that the similarities and familial resemblances of artefacts manifested through design research can be summarised using annotated portfolios, which combine visual information with concise descriptions. ...
... Consequently, when we return to the material as a starting point in MDD to examine how the essence of materials and their samples inspire design concepts (for the purpose of highlighting the application value of crafting), we must exploit the objectives of RtD [63] to systematically examine the concepts pertaining to material sampling, material tinkering, and prototyping, and gradually adjust the designs in our study. Furthermore, the annotated portfolios were empirical designs for validating MDD practices in design research [59,60]. Lastly, the experimental product designs were completed with the application of RtD concepts and subsequently used to establish a guiding method for designers [64,65]. ...
Article
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For a long time, local craft traditions were passed on through apprenticeships. Consequently, new generations of designers and industries cannot easily intervene or produce new designs. This inability to integrate craft traditions in a modern context and changing cultural environment has resulted in the stagnation, decline, or even elimination of such crafts. This study focused on the use of banana fibres in the craft traditions of the Kavalan people of Taiwan, and research-through-design concepts were applied to the creative study of materials that are essential to ecological sustainability and cultural heritage. The method, Material Driven Design (MDD), was implemented through participation to experience traditional processes and explore the visible properties of craft materials. The goal was to gain a holistic understanding of materials and leverage the participants’ expertise in determining which steps in the methods could be improved. This process was supplemented with grounded theory, which was used to analyse and summarise the data in order to understand the factors influencing the creations of participants. Lastly, in addition to producing semifinished and finished products in our experiment, we believe that our findings regarding the examined materials and material tinkering to develop a material-tinkering loop based on the MDD can be (i) combined with the unique insights and technical expertise of designers and (ii) used alongside contemporary technical and digital aids to effectively support the continued development of innovative craft designs.
... Theories from urban informatics, human computer interaction (HCI) and architecture were brought together in this research by employing a research through design (RtD) approach (Dow et al. 2013). The purpose of RtD is to develop and implement designed artefacts with the intention to learn about particular facets of human experience (Dow et al. 2013;Frayling 1993). ...
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Equality in the city is an aspiration. Cities have never been equal, equitable or fair. Now, optimum efficiency is celebrated as progress, and reconfigurations of urban spaces are focused on the clean lines of punctual service delivery. Smart cites are controlled cities, where data is the fuel that pumps through the heart. The common denominator in smart city rhetoric is the assumption that organization, planning and programmability will provide optimum conditions for comfortable urban life. Yet some aspects of our cities and our lives within them will never be machine-readable (Mattern 2014) and there may be a growing disparity between the natural and the constructed; the vagaries and messiness versus the program-mable and measurable life in cities. Giddens's theory of social structure suggested that spaces and buildings are what people do with them-spaces themselves structure social relations and practices, and therefore 'relations of power and discipline are inscribed into the apparently innocent spatiality of social life' (Soja 1989: 6). If urban life is to be smart, digital and codified, then what becomes of the varied human experiences and how can we consider their relation to power? How can this be married to digital futures? The smart city emerges from networked urbanism, propagated by the promises of efficiency, using technologies to deliver and manage services to city dwellers; embedded sensors, drone surveillance and real-time monitoring to give us more effective transportation, waste, security and energy systems. Within this discourse, people are sources of data that are fed into algorithms; their experience of the city is muted in favour of the foregrounding of digital efficiency. Much great work on the neo-liberal ideals that underpin smart discourse has already been done (Kitchin 2014; Mattern 2017; Cardullo et al. 2018; Kitchin et al. 2018; Cardullo and Kitchin 2019). The various essays in this collection consider the promises of the smart future and provide some new discussions and provocations, moving 2 EqUALITY IN THE CITY beyond the field of human geography and urban planning to a social, personal and egalitarian approach. By theorizing and interrogating various theoretical approaches to the promises of the smart city, we question how humans can feasibly have fair and equal access to those smart technologies that promise a better future. How can cities better support human life? What makes cities liveable in an era of growing urban inequality? While housing, service provision, health care, education and other important social needs are critical issues in imagining future cities, this collection looks more broadly at how we conceive of the city of the future and what sorts of steps can be taken to 'take back the city' in the digital future. Smart futures and smart urbanism are situated in a paternalistic ethos rather than focused on human rights, citizenship and fair access to digital technologies that ostensibly improve human life. Such technologies are changing the places in which we live and the way we live in them. They also impact on our ideas about how and where we might live in the future. There is a reverence for what is called 'disruptive technologies' and the way in which disruption is deemed not just ok, but excellent, when it comes to how we live, work and exist in spaces. Disparate fields such as human geography, information and communications technology (ICT), engineering and social sciences have addressed many of the debates around the forms of (digitized) governance that smart cities propose. Here, we bring together scholars from across disciplines to consider ideas of active participation in the imagined smart cities of the future. The essays consider the ruptures in smart discourse , the spaces where we might envisage a more user-friendly and bottom-up version of the smart future and imagine participation in novel ways.
... European Commission, 2013) del Trentino, in quanto questa disciplina progettuale può essere un motore chiave dell'innovazione dei servizi, dell'innovazione sociale e dell'innovazione centrata sull'utente (Dervojeda et al., 2014). Durante i primi anni di attività, il DRLab ha progettato e applicato formati, processi e strumenti attraverso attività sperimentali 2 con attori sul territorio trentino provenienti da contesti che tradizionalmente non adottano la cultura progettuale come leva Archer, 1995;Chow, 2010;Findeli, Brouillet, Martin, Moineau, & Tarrago, 2008;Frayling, 1993;Glanville, 2005;Jonas, 2015;Manzini, 2015). Da qui la progettazione di un framework per il trasferimento di conoscenze progettuali da poter applicare a livello locale secondo un approccio human-centred dove collaborazione, sperimentazione inclusiva e innovazione design-based sono i valori che ispirano e guidano le diverse azioni. ...
Technical Report
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Questo documento descrive le attività e i risultati dell’iniziativa Trentino Ideation Days (TID) promossa dal Design Research Lab (DRLab) in collaborazione con la Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT) a supporto della riprogettazione del Sistema Culturale Trentino (SCT). TID è un percorso collaborativo, human-centred, basato sulle metodologie di Service Design (SD), che ha avuto l’obiettivo di individuare con le comunità locali opportunità, idee e scenari per il futuro del SCT. In questo documento si riportano quindi gli elementi di contesto e il background del percorso TID, le metodologie utilizzate e i risultati dell’esperienza compresa una panoramica complessiva degli output ottenuti tramite il coinvolgimento diretto di attori sul territorio. Il percorso TID si è focalizzato sul ruolo dei giovani nel SCT esplorando, con gli stessi utenti, indicatori che consentono di comprendere le caratteristiche progettuali del contesto. Successivamente, quanto emerso è stato oggetto di una fase convergente in cui gli stessi partecipanti a TID sono stati coinvolti nella generazione di idee, scenari, e concetti utili a definire opportunità future per il SCT. Da questa esperienza emergono, non solo risultati e valori di una sperimentazione sul campo tramite di strumenti innovativi del DRLab, ma anche la possibilità di: • comprendere come questi strumenti siano utili a livello di sistema per facilitare la riduzione del gap tra necessità delle istituzioni ed esigenze dei cittadini; • definire un primo insieme di dati per leggere il contesto dal punto di vista progettuale e per comprendere la sostenibilità di operazioni progettuali future secondo il quadro che emerge dalla fase esplorativa; • delineare opportunità progettuali per e con gli attori del SCT a favore di progettualità e innovazioni da attivare sul territorio. Il report si conclude tracciando una lettura progettuale sintetica del SCT, del ruolo dei giovani e delle opportunità per proseguire quanto emerso dal percorso TID. La discussione dei risultati ottenuti e quindi degli output che visualizzano lo status e le possibilità del SCT, permettono di aprire nuovi fronti progettuali che, se percorsi in modo sistematico, e se supportati con apposite strategie di trasferimento di competenze e conoscenze progettuali, consentirebbero di tracciare cambiamenti significativi nella progettazione del sistema culturale, soprattutto se approcciati dal punto di vista della progettazione delle politiche pubbliche locali.
... In 1993, Frayling wrote a famous piece about different approaches and contributions of design research (Frayling, 1993) and in the beginning of 2000, researchers more intensively began to articulate how design theory and critical design could take a more prominent role in the HCI field (Rogers, 2012). Rogers describes how this constituted a theoretical and contemporary turn toward design in HCI, leading to confusion of previously coherent aims and goals. ...
Article
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Design methods and approaches are common within Human-Computer Interaction. And while design is recognized as a discipline with its own epistemology and pedagogy outside of HCI, there is a lot of work to be done in incorporating, facilitating, and developing designerly knowledge in HCI education. The abrupt shift toward distance education caused by COVID-19 surfaced the necessity for course design to purposely support online informal learning environments and facilitating tacit knowledge as previously prevalent in the design studio environment. Firstly, we present theory on design epistemology, related to “designerly ways of knowing” and the role of the studio in the learning process. Secondly, a case study presents the set up of a digital studio for a course in Designing User Experiences, with an emphasis on supporting a community-based studio. The empirical material includes an overview of the course set up and a thorough qualitative analysis of the feedback provided by a cohort of 48 students with diverse backgrounds. The course was conducted online and heavily based on the use of software such as Zoom and Miro. We conclude by offering a set of themes in three categories to be considered when designing community-based “designerly” courses within HCI. As future work, we suggest the Community-Based Designerly Scale to be used, adapted, and developed by teachers and students as a tool in their educational practice.
... Obiettivo di questa fase è quello di identificare il flusso operativo, tramite più opzioni di concept di modelli, per la gestione dell'operatività dello HUB Trentino delle ICC. Dal punto di vista metodologico si adotta un approccio di research through design (Findeli, Brouillet, Martin, Moineau, & Tarrago, 2008;Frayling, 1993;Jonas, 2015), considerando i dati fino ad ora emersi come parte di ricerca sulla quale basare il processo stesso di design strategico dei concept di modelli operativi. Il design stesso dei modelli, a partire dalle ipotesi create in concomitanza con l'avvio del progetto, rappresenta l'artefatto progettuale dal quale estrapolare elementi di conoscenza utili a comprendere come strutturare il design definitivo del modello operativo dello HUB. ...
Book
Le Industrie Culturali e Creative (ICC) sono un settore che sta dimostrando un significativo impatto sul territorio europeo da molteplici punti di vista ed è per questo sostenuto da piani nazionali e da programmi della Commissione Europea come Creative Europe. Articolato e dal grande potenziale, questo settore è considerato strategico anche in alcune regioni italiane ed è in questo panorama che si inserisce il progetto “HUB Trentino delle Industrie Culturali e Creative” che ha l’ambizione di progettare in Trentino, con influenza nazionale, un organo che si occupi della governance delle ICC come settore e come vettore per uno sviluppo sostenibile, inclusivo, innovativo, basato sulla cultura come risorsa trasversale. Il presente documento dunque riporta il lavoro svolto dal team del Design Research Lab (DRLab) nel progettare un concept di modello operativo per lo HUB Trentino delle ICC. Questo documento è suddiviso in due parti: la parte A introduce il concept dello HUB in termini di progetto di sviluppo concentrandosi su punti chiave al fine di descrivere il background nel quale si inserisce il lavoro svolto nella parte successiva. La parte B del report raccoglie il lavoro svolto nella progettazione del concept di modello a partire dalla fase esplorativa orientata alla raccolta di dati e alla ricerca di base, nonché all’analisi degli stakeholders. Questa parte descrive inoltre la progettazione di concept progettuali di modelli operativi e presenta una infografica che visualizza le interazioni derivanti dalla relazione tra obiettivi generali del progetto e possibilità operative dello HUB. Questo documento riporta anche una proposta di orientamenti della policy operativa e una proposta di lettura delle aree tematiche (cluster creativi) alle quali, per entrambi, si riferisce l’operatività dello HUB. A concludere, un paragrafo è stato dedicato alle descrizioni degli sviluppi futuri che includono una lista ragionata e dettagliata di azioni necessarie a proseguire, migliorare e soprattutto applicare quanto concettualizzato in questo report. Si tratta di una serie di raccomandazioni che evidenziano a quali necessità, risorse, competenze, azioni, e riflessioni è necessario prestare attenzione affinché quanto scritto in questo report sia utilizzato in modo efficace.
... DSR is centred on the development of novel artefacts supported by the rigorous research in the knowledge space and also relevant for the society. Zimmerman and colleagues [43] argue that one criterion for evaluating the contribution of a DSR project is assessing the relevance of the developed technology, and where design knowledge resides in the artefact [14]-something that will transform the world from the current state to a desired state. Hence, we have taken an iterative, longitudinal approach to study the practice of guided iCBT at a mental health clinic, in order to understand how to best support the clinical and therapeutic practices with visualisations of relevant aspects of their clinical work. ...
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As Internet-based technology spreads to most areas of life, it becomes a challenge to grasp opportunities arising from enormous amounts of data being generated from various sources such as smart homes, smart cities, health care systems and industries. Efficient utilization of these data can enable us to improve many human practices, including those connected to health care. In the present study, we focus on the health care sector, as it consists of large-scale organizations that rely on the processing of big data and complex processing of information. Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of this domain, it is essential to develop sophisticated technologies for the efficient processing of vast amounts of information. There is, for example, a need for interactive tools that can visualise actual care processes being executed in the hospital. A tool visualising real-time data could give a dynamic view of the processes, with accurate quantitative information, which can be used to improve the quality and efficiency of health care provision. These tools should be built on the requirements of practitioners needs and requirements, to ensure their relevance and practical utility. In this paper, we present a user-driven design process for developing therapy data visualisation components of guided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) and their evaluation. In order to ensure the reusability of the visual components, we propose to utilise a model-based approach which allows data analysts to adapt domain models by means of model transformation and transform them into visualization.
... The 1980s brought rather important insights into design research that led to an understanding that the nature of design has its own 'designerly way of knowing' (Cross 1982), a way that is different from the construction of knowledge in the positivistic Cartesian sciences and from the humanities, too (Luck 2019, 154). In the early 1990s, the discourse on the marriage of the terms 'research' and 'design' became lively in various design disciplines (Carroll 1997;Frayling 1993;Gero 1990). ...
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This study takes stock on how research through design (RTD) is interpreted in urban and landscape design practice in relation to the scholarly meaning of RTD. The results indicate that the term ‘RTD’ in Dutch practice largely refers to the typical procedures and resources of a practical design process. This interpretation differs from definitions of scholarly RTD which have more focus on the rigid testing of design alternatives. Such a scholarly RTD approach is advisable to ensure the validity and robustness of design products. This study recommends that this approach to RTD is adopted in urban and landscape design practice.
... The backbone of my design research is the annotated Research through Design methodology. In the Research through Design (RtD) methodology design researchers focus on making the right thing; artifacts intended to transform the world from the current state to a preferred state (Frayling 1993). RtD can be used to tie ...
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Sketches in Voice User Interface explores the conversational and evocative aspects of peoples’ interactions with no-screen embodied voice user interfaces (VUIs) in domestic spaces. The project uses an annotated research through design methodology to create a series of Sketches in Voice User Interface for relational conversations with users. The research involves an autoethnographic study of existing voice-based virtual personal assistants (VPAs). Informed by these precedents Sketches in VUI are designed through iterative prototyping to explore ways in which VUIs can go beyond the existing virtual personal assistant in our everyday conversations. Unlike the conventional voice-based VPAs (Siri, Alexa, Google Assistant) operating on the commands of the user, the Sketches in VUI drive conversations and take an agentive role in human-computer conversations. Using the design research approach, this project serves as a bridge between two key contextual voices in the domain of conversational technologies. On one hand, is the tech industry’s case for usability that VUI is ‘the most natural interface.’ On the other hand, is the social sciences case critically calling VUI ‘an artificial nature’ and questioning if conversations with a machine are conversations at all. The project concludes with an ‘experience study’ to enquire into the experience of participants as they converse with the designed Sketches. The study observes how participants react to the Sketches (behavioural response) and how they feel (emotional response), comparing them to their experience of existing voice-based VPAs, captured via videography and qualitative interviews. The study findings along with the designed Sketches form an annotated portfolio of generated knowledge about relational conversations with embodied voice user interfaces in our intimate spaces.
... The majority of AI imagery also succumbed to 'AI's dualism', underscoring the need to develop a visual language to enhance AI legibility. Research through Design (Frayling, 1993) (RtD) was the adopted approach as it is inherently generative (Gaver, 2012), allowing us to thread together various hypotheses: such as Semiotics, for example, Peirce's philosophical study on signs (Peirce, 1991); theories such as Human-Computer Interaction relating to both; richer concepts for inter-relationships between users and computer (Bowers & Rodden, 1993;Ferreira et al., 2006); and merging disciplines such as Design and AI, for instance, questioning how design can implement trust in AI services (Arnold et al., 2019) while considering Machine Learning bias (Angwin et al., 2016). ...
... Betydelsen av dokumentation och reflektion har under de tre senaste decennierna lyfts fram inom den akademiska världen som en följd av behovet av att definiera och hitta former för vetenskaplig forskning inom konst och formgivning (Mäkelä & Nimkulrat, 2018). Inom dessa områden används begreppen practice-based eller practice-led research vilket innebär att konstnären eller formgivaren behöver artikulera sitt skapande och kunnande verbalt och visuellt för att verksamheten ska kunna beforskas (Frayling, 1993;Mäkelä & Nimkulrat, 2018;Siukonen, 2011;Sjöberg, 2009a). ...
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De gällande läroplansgrundernas betoning på multilitteracitet framträder i slöjdämnet genom ökat fokus på dokumentation av den multimodala verksamheten. Detta föranleder ett nytänkande och en utveckling av den dokumentationstradition som historiskt funnits inom ämnet. Via en diskussion om multilitteracitet, samt dokumentation och reflektion på ett allmänt plan, styrs studien in på en deskriptiv diskussion kring olika dokumentationssätt och hur de kan anpassas till undervisning i slöjd. De dokumentationssätt som beskrivs och definieras är både analoga och digitala bestående av portfolio, skissbok, dagbok, blogg och mikroblogg. Den deskriptiva diskussionen visar på de presenterade dokumentationssättens särdrag och funktioner under lärandeprocessens olika faser.
... A research through design approach explicitly attempts to integrate tacit knowledge from design practice into design research (Frayling, 1993). As a practice-driven approach, it has been used commonly to develop service design processes (e.g., Clatworthy, 2011). ...
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Historically, social structures such as norms, rules, roles, and beliefs have represented externalities in service design. However, a view of service as a multi-actor value cocreation process, guided by institutionalized social structures, brings them to the fore as central service design materials. With the current article, we seek to extend understanding of social structures as service design materials and build knowledge regarding how to integrate these materials in service design processes. Drawing from institutional theory, we elaborate on the materiality of social structures and propose a conceptual framework that highlights their invisibility and duality, as well as their composition of multiple institutional pillars. Then with a research through design approach, we build on this conceptual framework to develop a practical process for exposing and working with social structures as service design materials.
... Due to the fact that the first approach explicitly puts influencing factors such as social or cultural conditions, political, legal and ethical framings or technological developments (which have apparently always informed and predisposed design projects) in the centre and turns towards respective established research disciplines, their knowledge sets and outputs, it sidelines the act of designing as such. The second approach, which has become known as "research through [or: by] design" (Frayling 1993) is often equally problematic as it frequently creates an unholy alliance between modes of text production, which are imported from the humanities and conventional design practice producing overcomplicated curatorial texts along with rather undistinguished design proposals. ...
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Based on an ethnographic study on studio teaching at five leading European architecture schools, the paper at hand identifies three repeatedly occurring deficiencies (as well as one related problem) in the teaching of architectural design. Drawing on empirical data, the paper describes how ‘epistemic positions’ are shifted without reflection, that serious efforts at translating tacit into propositional knowledge are (too) scarce, and how procedures are not rigorously linked to the respective objects of study. In addition to tackling these three deficiencies, the paper calls for developing corresponding ways of critique assessment that reflect the aspired improvements.
... In order to identify the narrative themes, a qualitative content analysis was conducted on 22 research cases that had employed SD to gain design insight on human-AI interaction. As such, this research is positioned as "research into" SD by studying cases of "research through" (Frayling, 1993) SD. The analysis yielded five narrative themes, which carried socio-technical issues associated specifically with AI, supported the imagination of alternative human-AI interaction, and stimulated discussions on the design of AI and its social implications. ...
... These three domains define the knowledge base of the MA Design program and demarcate the boundaries for scaling and growing the research capacity of the Faculty's School of Design Communication. Building upon Frayling's (1993) definition of research into, through and for art and design, Table 4 presents the pedagogical rubric that frames the program's philosophy of design research. Research in falls within the disciplinary boundaries of design, where the theoretical perspectives are rooted within design history and practice. ...
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Design has embedded itself as part of the everyday through perspectives of professional practice, cultural identity, technological advancement and economic forces. The very nature of design, driven by a need for newness and change, poses challenges affecting its disciplinary foundations. As a field of study, the future paradigm of design education should rely less on controlled boundaries of theory and practice but explore new modes of inquiry to impact different applications and outcomes. Design plays a central role within the context of rapid change, defining new discourses on design education for creative placemaking and cultural production. Through the introduction of mapping as a research tool, this paper advocates for a significant change in the design education agenda to address how future designers can critically embark on new research inquiries pertinent to the creative landscape. This research examines and outlines existing understandings of design that are limited by traditional specialisms and proposes future directions for design research and pedagogy. Through a discussion of the disciplinary divide of design, its relevant knowledge and cultural considerations, this paper explores gigamapping as a pedagogical approach that generates visual expressions and articulations. The thinking and reflective practice of mapping is presented as an exploratory and conversational tool for interdisciplinary design research and practice, functioning as a creative site to challenge the epistemological foundations of design and developing forms of visual knowing.
... During the project we followed an approach that recalls Research through Design (RtD, Frayling, 1993;Stappers & Giaccardi, 2017;Zimmerman et al., 2007) and Action Design Re-search (Sein et al., 2011). While moving towards our goals, the design activities played a significant role in identifying appropriate solutions, balancing factors, and background theories that at times appeared contradictory. ...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the design report of an experimental data visualization artwork that deals with sexual harassment in academic environments. The visualization employs a qualitative dataset of stories of abuse and aims at nurturing emotional involvement by creating connections with the people behind the data. In the paper, we outline our theoretical background, considering previous research on anthropomorphic and artistic visualizations. Successively, we disclose our design approach and discuss the visualizations’ capability to nurture reflection, stimulate conversations, and empower the community of people fighting against sexual harassment in academia and beyond.
... Christopher Frayling, a British cultural historian, helps to further focus the various goals of design research. Frayling identifies three main strategies: research into design -research that focuses on design history, aesthetics, or theoretical views; research through design, echoing the generative approach, which uses design as an action tool or method; and research for design, geared toward the production of artifacts, reflecting the instrumental approach (Frayling, 1993). ...
Thesis
Architecture and site have been linked since the dawn of civilization, as early societies adapted their environments using found materials and developed custom tools towards construction. However, the tradition of sourcing local materials diminished dramatically with the advent of industrialization and the ease of transporting materials to construction sites. In the past decade, robotic tools have been permeating the field of architecture, reconnecting makers and matter. The advent of in situ robotic tools offers to further deepen this connection by performing fabrication on-site. This critical capacity provides the possibility to transform terrains and modulate native matter into architectural grounds and structures. Under the environmental imperative to reconsider material sourcing, and with the pressing need to develop alternatives to the rapidly depleting construction sand, architects are assuming a resource-conscious approach. The thesis seeks to advance this approach and forwards a vision for post-Anthropocene, large-scale, architectural, and landscape construction – territorial-based digital fabrication. This vision seeks to shift the focus of digital fabrication in architecture from an object-oriented process to an environment-directed endeavor. To this end, the thesis explores four aspects: Informing Grounds – the capacity to embed information in sand and soil; Customizing Territories – the modulation of terrains into performa- tive grounds and structures; Reconstituting Geomaterials – the transformation of geomaterials into architectural elements and systems using additive manufacturing; and Contextualizing Ad- ditive Construction – the tailoring of the production process to the site. These issues bridge disparate research avenues – the automation of earthworks, the robotic forming of landscapes, in situ resource utilization, and on-site robotic construction. The thesis contributes conceptual, theoretical, and methodological foundations for performing territorial-based robotic fabrication. Based on the experimental investigation of the presented case studies, it develops, demonstrates, and discusses territorial-based strategies. These include experimental frameworks, workflows, methods, protocols, technical setups, and expanded terminology. The thesis concludes with the notion of Matter-to-Structure, anchoring digital fabrication in the territory it is situated in and linking terrains, found matter, and the architecture they nurture.
... I work from Unander-Scharin's notion of "research-through-the-art-form-opera." Based on Frayling's (1993) categorization "research into/through/for art and design 38 ," Unander-Scharin suggests the need to narrow the common division even further, and holds "that this research is carried out through opera by probing its environment in utilizing its own artistic toolbox" (2014, p. 49). However, the environment and toolbox of opera could of course be extended through even finer measurements, innovations, and new discoveries, evolving from its own principles. ...
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How can live-performed chamber operas be conceptualized as immersive games with interactive features? This artistic study has resulted in a system model through which degrees of immersion may be generated and analyzed from physical, social, and psychical stimuli. A differentiation of immersive modes has been made possible by the framing of opera-making as game design. The findings indicate that so-called ludo-immersive opera could be developed into operatic chamber opera play for self-reliant participants, constituting an intimate and alternate practice in which dynamic game-masters may replace supervising directors. However, this practice is entangled with the question of future training for operatic practitioners outside the mainstream opera format, and beyond both Wagnerian and Brechtian spectatorship. The shift from the traditional audience/performer relationship to a novel form of immersive interaction requires a new mind-set and training for opera practitioners, to encourage autonomy and active participation by individual visitors. Theoretically, the study connects recent innovations in opera to the aesthetic principles of the Apollonian and the Dionysian and positions ludo-immersive opera in relation the these. The principles bridge immersion, opera, and game-playing, articulated by a reinterpretation of Roger Caillois’ taxonomy of play. The issue of immersion as an artistic aim in opera is highlighted. Moreover, artists’ and visitors’ reciprocal participation in ludo-immersive opera is discussed in regard to its historical context of operatic event-making and forms of presentation. The project explores the detailed consequences of perception and performance in chamber opera with ludic and immersive features, primarily inspired by live-action role playing. The main objective has been to investigate how operatic events can be presented as immersive adventures rather than spectacles, and consequences that the integration of playing visitors in professional opera implies for artistic practice. In four operas created during the period 2016–2020, interventions and encounters between artists and visitors in musically driven situations framed by fictional settings have been staged and studied. The artistic researcher has iteratively been engaged in action as opera singer, librettist, dramaturge, and director. Data from the research cycles include field recordings from the productions and reports from the participants in the form of interviews and surveys.
Chapter
This paper proposes the use of design tools and studio environment in psychology teaching, based on a type of outcome that is already produced in this field—interventions to support people’s well-being. In a class with 24 students from a post-graduation study in positive psychology, we introduced a sequence of six canvases (persona, empathy canvas, journey mapping, design vision, well-being matrix, and a blank canvas to draw the intervention) and distributed students in multidisciplinary groups. Introducing a studio format with design tools aimed to offer a different perspective on thinking about potential patients/clients/users and contexts through an action-based, opportunity-driven setup. Results show an impactful effect, a successful production of interventions to apply in practice, and overall high levels of engagement and satisfaction. While this paper reports a single case, it proposes that this approach is worth exploring further. Its contribution is twofold: considering process and content, it introduces human-centered design thinking to an educational context that already sought it tacitly; considering format, it empowers psychology students to think like designers and approach the educational experience in a more horizontal perspective of knowledge transfer. We discuss how design tools and educational modalities might be appropriate to introduce into the education of other disciplines, still considering their specific needs and aims—like a globalized approach to education, which we call Education through Design. Also, we discuss it in the context of the future of education, from a convergency tendency perspective at a European level.
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Contemporary research problems are complex, and design must better integrate with the social sciences to have an equal part in addressing them. The terminal master’s degree in design (usually an MFA or MDes in the United States) can prepare students for this integration, but doing so requires that design activity be adapted to ultimately contribute to evidence-based research, rather than remaining unchanged and retroactively deemed to be a form of research. To achieve this end, I present design-based discovery, a model of design inquiry that situates design within the theory development cycle as theory building, not theory testing. Design-based discovery has recently been codified in a master’s program in graphic design at a public research university in the US. In this article, I outline six investigation components that together represent this model, and support these with examples. Notably, the investigation components include a standardized format for research questions, as well as the derivation of design principles from processes that involve exploration rather than those that yield solutions. This model can readily be adopted in other master’s programs with the requisite resources, which has the potential to make design essential within research universities.
Article
The subject matter of this paper is artistic research. The number of international publications on artistic research has soared in especially last few years. The related literature seems to have focused on in what ways artistic research could collide with scientific approaches and methods. In this context, the main purpose of our study is to contribute ongoing discussion by determining definitions and criteria to assess artistic research in respect to scientific sufficiency. To reach this aim; firstly, definitions, methodological approaches, and discussions as to what the science is reviewed, and the necessity of avoiding restrictive definitions of science in favor of a flexible approach suitable for all categories of scientific inquiry is defended. In doing so, a discussion is also made on the basic criteria any research should meet for being qualified scientific research. And then, the literature on artistic research is dealt with to review definitions and typologies. In this section a new typology for artistic research is proposed. Thanks to the related literature, for any artistic research to be eligible for scientific research some basic qualities are assumed necessary, such as subject/problematic presentation, presentation of contribution to existing knowledge/literature, findings, and conclusion presentation. However, it is also suggested that artistic research may differ from established scientific research in terms of problematic presented, methods employed, and formal structure of the text. Afterwards, with the method of purposive sampling we analyzed three publications that we think well exemplify artistic research “in narrow sense” which is in the main of the art institutions of higher education. A qualitative content analysis is used to see if case studies have basic information categories of typical scientific research, and if they do so in what ways they do it. It is concluded that case studies meet the criteria of basic scientific information; yet, they have diverging ways in comparison to typical examples of scientific research in respect to method presentation, findings presentation, layouts, and language.
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Despite the abundance of methods and models, the design research is still often entangled in concepts irrelevant to design practice. This paper rethinks the discourse of design research and the evolving role of a designer. The most important attempts to build a design as an academic discipline are mentioned, along with research communities that are operating in the field of design. Art-and-design-based approach in design research in Donald Schön’s works on architecture and design practice, rises the importance of sketches in the creative idea generation. Implementing sketching techniques into the cultural probes, as one of an art-and-design-based research method, opens up ways to innovative design solutions. This paper discusses the relationship between the method and sketching in the context of the case study “When Nobody Sees”. Sketching is discussed as an art-based tool for problem-setting.
Article
This paper highlights a recently identified by the community perspective of design research, so far described as “inaccessible”, discusses the potential of “designerly” way of approaching it in order to let designers excavate tacit knowledge from their own finished projects. We frame demonstrators as a category of design outcomes that can be a great source of such knowledge. Skills of empathy and intuition are called crucial for researchers to position themselves inside the design system looking inwards.
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Music has always been a key element for people to connect with themselves and others. For this study, the main focus is to investigate pre-recorded music playing experiences through time with changing technology and design. As technology develops, many habits and behaviours of people change. Listening to music is an experience that has changed throughout the decades, with regards to technological developments and social contexts. From radio and gramophones to mobile phones and online streaming, the means of listening to music has been through many great changes. Various products and interfaces have been used to organize and deliver recorded music, such as Walkman’s, CD players, and iPods. In this sense, designers have always been involved in presenting the pre-recorded music playing experience to people. As the needs and expectations of users have evolved, so designers’ contributions have also developed, especially in the transition from physical to digital music players. The history of this evolution will be explored in this study, plotting how pre-recorded music playing experiences have changed or remained the same alongside the changes in product design and means of delivering music. A proposal of design and future music playing experiences will be presented at the end of the thesis.
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En el contexto de la Universidad de Nariño, de manera reciente se ha venido incorporando una visión actualizada de formación a todo nivel, que busca enfrentar los nuevos desafíos contemporáneos de nuestra sociedad. En este sentido, se ha despertado un especial interés por implementar dinámicas académicas y administrativas, con una mirada hacia la conservación de los recursos, desde un compromiso con el desarrollo sostenible. Esta realidad no es ajena a otras instituciones universitarias del país, las cuales, de igual manera, le han apostado al compromiso con la sostenibilidad integral. Así, observamos iniciativas y espacios en común con otras universidades, que también han optado por incluir la perspectiva del desarrollo sostenible tanto en los procesos administrativos como en los académicos. Es el caso de la Institución Universitaria Pascual Bravo, que en el plano académico le ha apostado a la generación de nuevo conocimiento, desde la investigación dirigida hasta la consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible ODS, (Lopera, 2019). Desde el programa de Diseño Industrial de la Universidad de Nariño, alineado con esta intención, el grupo de investigación CORD ha formulado una propuesta de formación orientada desde esta perspectiva: el Diplomado en desarrollo de productos sostenibles. Este tiene como propósito exponer/entregar un análisis que muestre la manera en que el desarrollo de los proyectos, correspondientes a los trabajos de grado modalidad diplomado, en el caso específico de la primera cohorte del Diplomado en desarrollo de productos sostenibles, puede ser considerado dentro del modelo de generación de nuevo conocimiento identificado en la investigación-creación, siendo este modelo más cercano a las disciplinas creativas. Inicialmente, se describe un recorrido general respecto a la naturaleza del diplomado, esto es, la necesidad de su creación y su fundamentación, así como los parámetros generales que orientan los proyectos de los estudiantes del diplomado en términos de su planteamiento, metodología y proceso. Posteriormente, se presentan de manera más específica tres proyectos sobresalientes; aquí, se abordan las características relacionadas con sus resultados tangibles: artefactos a manera de productos sostenibles, su validación e implementación. Concluido lo relacionado con la descripción a profundidad del diplomado y sus proyectos, se procede a fundamentar teóricamente el modelo de investigación-creación (IC), para así contrastarlo con la naturaleza proyectual de los procesos desarrollados por los estudiantes del diplomado. Fruto de lo anterior se realiza un análisis que faculta develar, precisamente, cómo el desarrollo de productos sostenibles se puede equiparar a los procesos característicos de investigación-creación. Finalmente, se presentan una serie de reflexiones desde la experiencia vivida por parte de los docentes del diplomado y autores de este texto, las cuales reflejan el carácter crítico del aporte realizado a la hora de analizar y comparar los procesos de diseño con aquellos que se suscitan desde el modelo de investigación-creación.
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This paper employs Research through Design (RtD) approach to customizing building components to address Socio-Environmental issues within the built environment and utilizes shapeshifting artifacts that can be integrated into existing spaces to extend those spaces’ functionality, consequently improving occupants’ social and physical experience. The paper focuses on the steps and processes necessary to design, program, and fabricate such components and present two types of Dynamic Environmental Plugins that are inspired by Islamic tessellated structures.
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HCI has material attributes. As a sociotechnical assemblage, HCI mediates and/or translates technologies to public(s) and vice versa. It is malleable, ‘made’ and crafted and as a material media technology changes our relationships to ‘things’, each other and our surrounding world. Thinking through HCI as material allows us to unite disciplines with technologies, ensuring that how we conceptualise work is tangible and applicable. Working from this understanding of HCI, allows the authors to contextualise Engagements2 as an emerging ‘material’ space uniting art, design and other practices often fractured through disciplinary conventions. Traditionally, public engagement encompasses ways organisations engage with external parties. HCI contemporaries, Public Interest Technologies (PITs) empower public stakeholders and municipalities. PITs unravel intractable problems, through design, data, and delivery, thus providing user agency and yields wider societal benefit(s). We question how digital technologies can transition ‘public(s)’, to sustainable approaches. In time, Engagements2 will be commonplace as technologies (PITs, augmented reality, IoT sensing and more) are embedded into public environment(s), if engagement can be defined as a ‘craft-able’, material concern. The article unites contemporaries in: the public realm, social design, and public engagement methods to identify the: pitfalls, benefits, and opportunities. There is a need for creating a ‘best practice’ roadmap to creative, active engagement. These values go well beyond designing for inclusion and seek for more sustainable and integral interactions, impacts and culture creation.
Conference Paper
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This paper will explore recent collaborative design research into Symbiotic Colony of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY), also known as Kombucha. This material is being utilised by both product and fashion designers working within the field of bio-design. Suzanne Lee's BioCouture SCOBY garments are well known examples of SCOBY used in an experimental fashion context. However, up until now upscaling of SCOBY and the challenges of working with it as an architectural medium, both structural and expressive, have not been investigated. In this research, the architectural possibilities of this biodegradable leather-like material have been investigated - supported by three separate, yet related, projects: a team-teaching development grant that brought together chemistry and architecture/design, research undertaken by a student in a Deans Summer Research Scholarship programme, and other students in an Advanced Design Research unit. In this paper, the collaborative cross-disciplinary process will be outlined, including the challenges encountered and the SCOBY outcomes produced. The process of up-scaling the growing process will also be described. To facilitate this up-scaling of the growing process, large 'farms' were constructed - the largest 2.4m x 1.2m. This process extended the dialogue beyond the initial team to include the knowledge and expertise of a SCOBY artist. The next stage of the research and investigation involved students exploring the bio-fabrication possibilities of the material. SCOBY presents unique challenges for fabrication. It has variable moisture content, lacks self-supporting structural integrity and is a living material. The 3D-printability of SCOBY was piloted; and subsequently, through further student research development, techniques of folding and creasing tested. This multi-dimensional project, with its various outputs and investigations, represents a collaborative, cross-disciplinary material investigation that seeks to operate at the porous edges of disciplines, technologies and design paradigms.
Article
Co-design with communities interested in heritage has oriented itself towards designing for polyvocality to diversify the accepted knowledges, values and stories associated with heritage places. However, engagement with heritage theory has only recently been addressed in HCI design, resulting in some previous work reinforcing the same realities that designers set out to challenge. There is need for an approach that supports designers in heritage settings in working critically with polyvocality to capture values, knowledges, and authorised narratives and reflect on how these are negotiated and presented in the designs created. We contribute “Designing with Genius Loci” (DwGL)—our proposed approach to co-design for polyvocality. We conceptualised DwGL through long-term engagement with volunteers and staff at a UK heritage site. First, we used ongoing recruitment to incentivise participation. We held a series of making workshops to explore participants’ attitudes towards authorised narratives. We built participants’ commitments to collaboration by introducing the common goal of creating an interactive digital design. Finally, as we designed, we enacted our own commitments to the heritage research and to participants’ experiences. These four steps form the backbone of our proposed approach and serve as points of reflexivity. We applied DwGL to co-creating three designs: Un/Authorised View, SDH Palimpsest and Loci Stories, which we present in an annotated portfolio. Grounded in research through design, we reflect on working with the proposed approach and provide three lessons learned, guiding further research efforts in this design space: (1) creating a conversation between authorised and personal heritage stories; (2) designing using polyvocality negotiates voices; and (3) designs engender existing qualities and values. The proposed approach places polyvocality foremost in interactive heritage interpretation and facilitates valuable discussions between the designers and communities involved.
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Suh introduced two design axioms to the engineering community about four decades ago. Compared with other theories which presuppose an algorithmic or an iterative approach specific to a field of engineering, Axiomatic Design (AD) can be applied to solve a wide variety of problems.
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This chapter examines how industrial design has influenced and been influenced by additive manufacturing, viewed in the context of the major technological breakthroughs of the last century, and the different views of the user brought about by societal change, a key factor for industrial designers.
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Lo que denomino arqueodiseño consolida en parte una práctica para la recuperación de técnicas y tecnologías ancestrales bajo la perspectiva del Diseño del Sur, corresponde a una propuesta original para avanzar con sostenimiento, para caminar mirando el futuro – pasado (42, 43), aprendiendo de los pueblos Abya-yala en las sociedades contemporáneas. ¿Hacia dónde caminar? una alternativa es acercarse al tejido de los diseños vernáculos, otrora descalificados, hilos del fieltro de culturas originarias, armónicas con la pachamama. Es plausible esta aproximación futurada y con ello andar- desandar, tejer-fieltrar otras posibilidades de prácticas re-directivas en/del/para el diseño. Entender la cadena de defuturación que ha conllevado ideales implantados por la colonización, en especial del modelo neoliberal desigual, tienen un particular significado para desmantelarlos y optar por esta alternativa. Saberes y prácticas ancestrales se pueden reivindicar con el diseño del Sur mediante la praxis del arqueodiseño. En ese sentido, una propuesta en ciernes de la industriosidad del diseño del Sur, propende por Allwiya kamay como chakana para un allin kausay1, que pueden contribuir al campo del diseño y en complemento, a la construcción de otro devenir social, simbólico y técnico con sostenimiento. ¿Cómo opera y en qué consiste la apuesta por el arqueodiseño como un promisorio campo del Diseño del Sur, en especial, diseño desde la filosofía andina? Es parte de la aproximación del presente trabajo.
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