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A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

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A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

Abstract and Figures

The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.
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Accepted by D. Rider: 14 Oct. 2015; published: 17 Nov. 2015
ZOOTAXA
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4044.1.3
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:58CC37BB-5B66-417F-BEE1-66070F8F401A
A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes
(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
PETR KMENT
1
& MANUEL BAENA
2
1
Department of Entomology, National Museum, Cirkusová 1740, CZ-193 00 Praha – Horní Počernice, Czech Republic.
E-mail: sigara@post.cz
2
Departamento de Biología y Geología, I.E.S. Alhaken II, c/ Manuel Fuentes "Bocanegra" 14005 Córdoba, Spain.
E-mail: tiarodes@gmail.com
Abstract
The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae:
Triplatygini), containing a single species—Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first
descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is desig-
nated.
Key words: Pentatomoidea, taxonomy, redescription, lectotype designation, faunistics, Madagascar
Introduction
The tribe Triplatygini (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) was established by Cachan (1952) to accommodate three
genera endemic to Madagascar—Triplatyx Horváth, 1904 (currently 6 species—Horváth 1904; Jensen-Haarup
1931; Cachan 1952; Kment 2008, 2011), Anoano Cachan, 1952 (one species—Cachan 1952, Schouteden 1954,
Kment 2012), and Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (one species—Cachan 1952). A fourth genus, Nene Kment, 2015
(one species), also endemic to Madagascar, was described recently (Kment 2015).
The tribe Triplatygini is defined by the following characters of external morphology (Cachan 1952, Kment
2015, Kment & Garbelotto in press): i) Lateral margins of head explanate, sharp. ii) Mandibular plates large,
foliaceous, longer than clypeus and meeting in front of it, with anteocular spine or angle and small adjacent
anteocular incision. iii) Antennal segment I completely covered by head margins or only its apex visible. iv)
Humeral angles of pronotum forming large lobes, apically incised or spinose; lateral margins of pronotum never
completely lamellate and sharp. v) Pronotum and scutellum much convex; scutellum triangular, large, posteriorly
rounded. vi) Corium laterally not sharply lamellate. vii) Connexivum large and exposed, lateral margin of abdomen
usually undulated or serrate. viii) Mesosternum grooved (except of Nene with mesosternum carinated). ix)
Metathoracic scent gland peritreme small, spout-shaped; metapleural evaporatorium small to medium sized. x)
Femora incrassate (especially profemora) and unarmed (but see below).
New discoveries of several pentatomid bugs more or less similar in habitus to Triplatygini in tertiary fossil
record of Argentina (Petrulevičius & Popov 2014), USA, and Germany (Wedmann et al. 2014), as well as in recent
fauna of both Madagascar (Kment 2013, 2015) and central Africa (Kment & Garbelotto in press), raised new
questions concerning definition of Triplatygini, its present and historical distribution, and relationships with other
pentatomid taxa. To facilitate the need of deeper understanding of the morphology of Triplatygini we redescribe
here the genus Tricompastes including first descriptions of its male and female genitalia.
Material and methods
In quoting the labels of the type specimens, a slash (/) is used to divide data on different rows of one label, double
slash (//) is used to divide data on different labels, authors’ comments are given in square brackets [ ], and the
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following abbreviations are used: hw = handwritten, p = printed; the cited labels are white with black print or
handwriting unless stated otherwise.
External observations, dissections, measurements and line drawings were made under a Leica MZ75
stereomicroscope provided with an ocular micrometer and camera lucida. The following dimensions were
measured: body length (from apex of mandibular plates to apex of membrane or apex of tergite VII, dorsal view),
head length (from apex of mandibular plates to anterior margin of pronotum, anterodorsal view, i.e with surface of
the head parallel with the plane of frons), head width (maximum width across eyes, anterodorsal view), interocular
width (between inner margins of compound eyes, anterodorsal view), length of each antennal segment (maximum
length), pronotum length (medially, most exposed, i.e. anterodorsal view), pronotum width (maximum width
between processes on humeri, anterodorsal view), scutellum length (medially from base to apex, dorsal view),
scutellum width (maximum width at base, dorsal view), and abdomen width (maximum width across abdominal
segment IV, dorsal view). The measurements were subsequently standardized to provide absolute lengths. The
measurements are given in millimetres and presented as median, with minimum and maximum values given in
parentheses.
Non-coated specimens were examined by Hitachi S-3700N environmental electron microscope at the
Department of Palaeontology, National Museum, Prague. Habitus photographs were taken using a Canon MP-E 65
mm macro lens attached to a Canon EOS 550D camera and stacked from multiple layers using the Helicon Focus
5.1 Pro software.
The general morphological terminology follows mostly Tsai et al. (2011) and Tsai & Rédei (2014); parts of the
thoracic efferent system of the metathoracic scent glands are named in accordance with Kment & Vilímová (2010).
Examined specimens belong to the following collections:
BMNH Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom;
HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary;
MNHN Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France;
MBCS Manuel Baena collection, Córdoba, Spain;
NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria;
NMPC National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic;
PMPF Philippe Magnien collection, Paris, France;
ZISP Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Taxonomy
Tricompastes Cachan, 1952
Tricompastes Cachan, 1952: 373, 377. Type species: Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, by original designation.
Tricompastes: Kment (2008): 545 (key to genera), 556: Fig. 27 (thoracic external scent efferent system); Kment (2011): 279
(listed); Kment (2012): 379 (differential diagnosis); Kment (2015) (key to genera).
Redescription. Structu re. Head (Figs 6, 14–16) strongly sloping downwards (Figs 3, 16), nearly perpendicular to
body axis, slightly wider than long; lateral margins with small conical anteocular spine (Figs 14–16: aos), then
narrowly and deeply incised. Mandibular plates (Figs 14–16: mp) foliaceous, flattened, wide, together as wide as
distance between ocelli, each of them separately rounded, meeting or nearly meeting in front of clypeus, leaving
deep V-shaped incision anteriad of clypeus apex (Figs 14–15); clypeus narrowing and closed (or nearly closed)
anteriorly, strongly convex, its apex surpassing to ventral side of the head (Figs 6, 16: cl); dorso-posterior surface
of head between ocelli and base of clypeus markedly gibbose (Fig. 16); head posteriad of eyes convex, rounded,
surrounded by anterior pronotal margin. Compound eyes small, rounded, protruding out of the head outline in most
of their width (Figs 6, 14–15). Postgenae (= tempora) (Fig. 15) behind eyes very narrow, vanishing and not
surpassing eye laterally. Ocelli (Figs 14–15) small, situated posteriorly and medially behind eyes, approaching
anterior margin of pronotum. Antenniferous tubercles (Figs 6, 16: at) small, situated ventrally under compound
eye, not visible from above. Antennae 5-segmented, slender. Antennal segments from shortest to longest: I < IIa <
IIb = III < IV; antennal segment I cylindrical, shortest and stoutest; antennal segments IIa and IIb cylindrical, slender,
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slightly thickened towards apex; antennal segments III and IV spindel-shaped. Bucculae (Figs 6, 16: bc) short, rather
high, rounded anteriorly, ca. rectangular posteriorly, covering the labial segment I only anteriorly (Figs 6, 16: lb1).
Labrum (Figs 6: lr, 16) flat and narrow. Labial segment I stout, markedly surpassing posterior margin of bucculae and
reaching anterior pronotal margin; apex of labium reaching between mesocoxae.
Pronotum (Figs 1, 4–5, 18–20). Anterior pronotal margin deeply, arcuately concave; anterolateral angles
rectangular to slightly acutangular, unarmed; lateral margins (Figs 18–20) nearly straight anteriorly, diverging
posteriad, indistinctly carinate, bearing two triangular teeth, the anterior one behind the anterolateral angles, short, the
posterior one ca. in middle of the straight section, distinctly larger, then lateral margin of pronotum strongly bent
laterad towards humeral angles. Humeri strongly produced laterally and slightly dorsally, bearing 3−6 triangular to
lobe-like teeth apically; posterolateral margins of pronotum (behind humeri) bisinuate, posterior angles of pronotum
arcuately rounded; posterior margin of pronotum nearly straight, only slightly concave medially. Pronotum strongly
gibbose (Fig. 3), anterior part of pronotal disc nearly orthogonally sloping downwards, without median ridge, only
anteriorly slightly roof-like elevated in middle just posteriad of head; posterior part of pronotal disc horizontal,
slightly convex.
Scutellum (Figs 1, 4–5) triangular, longer than wide at base; sides slightly convex in frenal portion, medially
incised at apices of frena (ca. in two thirds of its length); apex of scutellum not surpassing anterodistal angles of
corium, widely rounded. Disc of scutellum strongly gibbous, highest in anterior third, postfrenal portion nearly flat
(Fig. 3).
Hemelytra (Figs 1, 4–5). Clavus narrowly triangular, irregularly punctate at the widest part, with two lines of
punctures medially and only a single line posteriorly, reaching only about two thirds of the scutellar length. Corium
laterally arcuate, in basal half widening posteriad, widest ca. in its midlength, then narrowing posteriad;
anterodistal angles rounded apically, much surpassing apex of scutellum. Membrane translucent, widely rounded
apically, reaching or slightly surpassing apices of triangular projections of ventrites VIII. Membrane bearing five
prominent and simple veins, without reticulate venation.
Thoracic pleuron and sternum (Fig. 2). Procoxae placed close to each other, leaving only narrow space for
labium; meso- and metacoxae remote but only with shallow furrow between them; no trace of median longitudinal
keel. Ostiole (Figs 8–11, 17: o) situated ca. in middle third of the metapleuron width, small, rounded, directed
posterolaterad, accompanied with short, elevated, spout-shaped peritreme (Figs 10: pes; 11, 17: pe); periostiolar
depression shallow; evaporatorium (Figs 10−11, 17: ev) small, developed on metapleuron, forming narrow stripe
encompassing ostiole and spout, and prolonged laterad along posterior margin of metathoracic spiracle, on
mesopleuron forming only narrow stripe on anterior margin of metathoracic spiracle (Figs 13, 17), gyrification not
developed. Metathoracic spiracle (Figs 9, 12–13: sp) long, well visible in ventral view.
Legs (Fig. 2) short; profemora as long as, mesofemora slightly longer, and metafemora slightly shorter than
appropriate tibiae; femora cylindrical, rounded in cross section; protibiae slightly slender, meso- and metatibiae
distinctly slender than appropriate femora. Profemora (Fig. 7) and mesofemora ventrally with 1–4 minute denticles
(see Variability), metafemora unarmed. All tibiae ca. triangular in cross section, their outer surface flattened,
slightly emarginated and irregularly undulated laterally. All tarsi with segment II shortest, III longest, but shorter
than I and II combined; all tarsal segments dorsally regularly rounded, not grooved.
Pregenital abdomen (Figs 1–2, 4–5) slightly narrower to slightly wider than pronotum across humeri (ratio
pronotum width / abdomen width 0.86−1.03, median 0.965). Connexivum wide, fully exposed dorsally (Figs 1, 4–
5); each ventrite with two large projections in its lateral margin, an anterior, simply triangular one, and a posterior
one usually provided with a small additional triangular tooth on its posterior margin; in females ventrite VIII with
both projections approached and simply triangular (Figs 35). Abdominal venter (Fig. 2) slightly convex laterally,
nearly flat medially, neither grooved nor keeled. Ventrite III neither spinose nor depressed medially, spiracle on
ventrite II covered by metapleuron or its posterior margin exposed. Spiracles placed on flat tubercles, largest one
being on ventrite III (Fig. 2). Ventrites III–VII laterally with well visible transverse lateral muscle scars (=
pseudosutures, i.e., outer impressions associated with the inner attachment points of the tergosternal muscles)
posteriad of spiracle; two trichobothria situated transversely posteriad of the muscle scar and slightly laterad of
spiracular line on each side of abdomen.
Male genitalia. Genital capsule (Figs 21–26) large, longer than wide (e.g., 3.82 : 3.33 mm), rectangular in
outline, basally cylindrical, slightly dorsoventrally flattened, with posterior aperture opening posteriorly; posterior
margin broadly concave, trapezoid, with a pair of large and long posterolateral projections (Figs 21–26: plp)
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directed posterolaterad. Posterolateral projections basally depressed (Fig. 23), both its dorsal and ventral margin S-
shaped, insinuated anteapically, with apex narrowly rounded (Figs 21–25). Ventral rim infolding hardly developed,
dorsally horizontally truncate (Figs 24–25: vif); lateral rim infolding shallowly dish-shaped, narrow, posteriorly
insinuated to form paramere socket (Fig. 21: lif); dorsal rim infolding (Figs 21–22: dif) short, widely arcuate
posteriorly, merging with lateral rim infolding. Dorsal sclerite lacking. Paramere (Figs 27–30) simple, narrow,
crescent-shaped, with large, widely arcuate, apically narrowly rounded apical process (Figs 21–22, 27–30: app),
and distinctly smaller, conical basal process (= sensory lobe) (Figs 22, 27–30: blp), the latter one slightly bent
upwards, apically subacute, provided with apical tuft of long setae. Phallus (Figs 31–34) with phallotheca barrell-
shaped, strongly sclerotised, without any process; second pair of conjunctival processes (cp-II) laterally
membranous, ventromedian portions sclerotized, forming median penial plates (Figs 31–34: mpp) closely
associated with the tubular, posteroventrally directed aedeagus (= vesica sensu authors) (Figs 31–34: aed).
Female genitalia (Fig. 35). Laterotergites VIII (Fig. 35: lt8) ca. rhomboid, with dorsolateral margin bearing
two large triangular projections; laterotergites VIII dorsally (= posteriorly) encompassing laterotergites IX and
segment X and medially fused. Visible portion of valvifers VIII (Fig. 35: vf8) quarter-circular, dorsal (= posterior)
margian concave submedially; valvifers VIII ventrally (= anteriorly) not meeting each other, leaving triangulin
widely exposed externally (Fig. 35: tr); laterotergites IX small, subtriangular, dorsally (= apically) subacute (Fig.
35: lt9); valvifers IX fused, trapezoid and gibbose (Fig. 35: vf9). Gynatrium (Fig. 36) with distinct triangular
sclerite surrounding spermathecal opening (Fig. 36: so); ring sclerites possibly reduced to small plate-like sclerites
(Fig. 36: rs). Spermatheca (Figs 36–37): proximal duct longer than gynatrium, narrow (Fig. 36: pd); dilation long,
narrow (Fig. 36: dil), basal constricted portion restricted to about basal 1/5 of total length of distal invagination;
distal invagination of spermathecal duct (= sclerotized rod) (Fig. 36: div) basally constricted, narrow, then abruptly
widened, further slightly narrowing distad, narrowest anteapically, then slightly widened again apically; distal duct
(Fig. 36: dd) shorter and slightly narrower than proximal duct; intermediate part of spermatheca (= spermathecal
pump,
Fig. 37: ip) short, both proximal and distal flange wide, distal flange asymmetrical (Fig. 37: df, pf); apical
receptacle hemispherical, low (Fig. 37: ar), with two short projections directed proximad, both hardly surpassing
distal flange.
Differential diagnosis. The genus Tricompastes is easy to recognize from all other Madagascan genera of
Pentatomidae by its large and robust body (length 18.5−22.7 mm); head and anterior part of pronotum, in lateral
view, inclined nearly orthogonally downwards; humeri of pronotum produced and apically bearing 3−6 teeth; and
lateral margin of each ventrite with two sharp triangular projections. The genus was included in generic keys by
C
ACHAN
(1952) and K
MENT
(2008, 2015).
Etymology. Neither the etymology nor the gender of the name Tricompastes were explicitly given in the
original description, but Cachan (1952) mentioned the resemblance of the new genus to the Oriental Compastes
Stål, 1867 (preoccupied by Compastes Gistel, 1848, replaced by Rolstoniellus Rider, 1995—see Rider 1995) and
its relationship with Triplatyx, so we can consider the name as composed of both the names. The generic name
certainly contains the Greek noun κομπαστής (-οϋ, = braggart, a person who boasts loudly) which is masculine
according to the Liddell & Scott (2015), therefore Tricompastes is masculine (see ICZN 1999: Article 30.1.1).
Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952
(Figs 1–38)
Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952: 373, 377−378 (redescription, key). Syntypes:
♂♀
(number of specimens not specified),
Madagascar (collections Bergevin and Noualhier) (MNHN).
Tricompastes gigas: Kment (2008): 545 (identification key), 556: Fig. 27 (thoracic external scent efferent system), Kment
(2015) (identification key).
Type locality. Madagascar (Cachan 1952).
Type material examined. L
ECTOTYPE
(here designated): ♂, ‘AVRIL [p] // MADAGASCAR /
COLLECTION LE MOULT [p] // 3522 [hw] // COLLECTION / E. de BERGEVIN [p] // ♂ [p] // LECTOTYPUS /
TRICOMPASTES / GIGAS / Cachan, 1952 / des. P. KMENT 2015 [p, red label] (MNHN). Specimen pinned; both
antennal segments IV, left protarsus, right middle and hind leg, and right protarsal segments II and III missing;
genital capsule partly detached, outstretched.
P
ARALECTO TYPE
: ♀(?), ‘MUSEUM PARIS / MADAGASCAR / COLL. NOUALHIER 1898 [p] // TYPE [p,
red label] // Tricompastes / gigas n. sp. / Cachan det. [hw]’ // ♀ [p] // PARALECTOTYPUS / TRICOMPASTES /
GIGAS / Cachan, 1952 / des. P. KMENT 2015 [p, red label] (MNHN). Specimen pinned; right metatarsal segments
II and III missing; abdomen badly damaged, empty, with several holes, apex of abdomen with genitalia missing.
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FIGURE S 1–3. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, male, lectotype (body length 18.46 mm): 1—dorsal view, 2—ventral view,
3—lateral view.
Additional material examined. MADAGASCAR: MUSEUM PARIS, no other labels, 1 ♀, det. P. Kment
(MNHN); Madagascar, 1896, 1 ♀, Sikora lgt., Brit. Mus. 1953-240, R. J. Izzard 1955 det., P. Kment revid.
(BMNH); Madagascar, 1896, 1 ♀, Sikora lgt., R. J. Izzard 1955 det., P. Kment revid. (NHMW); Madagascar,
5.v.2000, 1 ♂ 1 ♀, J. Vicens lgt., M. Baena det., P. Kment revid. (MBCS, NMPC). Antananarivo: Antananarivo,
viii.1999, 1 ♂, local collector lgt., M. Baena det., P. Kment revid. (MBCS); La Mandraka [Park], xii.2000, 1 ♂ 1 ♀,
Ph. Magnien & M. Baena det. (PMPF). Toamasina: Moramanga, 900 m a.s.l., without date and collector, 1 ♂, P.
Kment det. (HNHM); Périnet [= Andasibe], xii.1932, 1 ♂, Olsuf’ev lgt., I. M. Kerzhner 1966 det., P. Kment revid.
(ZISP); Alanamazotra, Périnet [= Andasibe], 12.−20.xii.1932, 1 ♀, Olsuf’ev lgt., I. M. Kerzhner 1966 det., P.
Kment revid. (ZISP).
Redescription. Coloration. Body above brown with more or less well expressed dark markings as follows:
posterior margin of head, anterior part of pronotum, humeral angles, two large spots on anterior third and two small
spots on median third of scutellum, spots on sutures between laterotergites and on triangular processes of ventrites,
and very small spots on discs of posterior part of pronotum, scutellum, and along cubital vein of corium, black.
Impunctate callose spots on corium whitish. Membrane brown infumated. Antennal segment I brown, segments
IIa–IV and labium black. Head underside and pleura mostly black with irregular yellowish brown spots; lateral
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FIGURE S 4–5. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, variability of habitus. 4—female, Madagascar, BMNH (body length 21.54
mm); 5—male, Périnet, ZISP (body length 19.39 mm).
margins of pronotum from beneath anteriorly yellowish brown. Legs black, only apices of femora and bases of
tibiae yellowish brown. Abdomen ventrally yellowish brown with numerous small black dots.
Integument and vestiture. Body above covered with dense, irregular, concolorous to black punctures, head
with dense, mostly shallow and concolorous punctures; pronotal disc punctures coarser and sparser, leaving wider
flat impunctate interspaces; scutellum with coarse black and shallow concolorous punctures; clavus and corium
with shallow brownish punctures, a large impunctate spot present medially at the end of cubital vein, additional
smaller irregular spots distributed especially in the median and posterior parts of corium. Head underside and
pleura with large and deep black, scattered punctures; surface of abdominal ventrites with scattered small, shallow,
and large, coarse, black punctures, and with very fine longitudinal wrinkles. Legs impunctate.
Body glabrous except antennal segments IIa to IV with sparse, pale, short, semierect setae; tibiae (on inner
surface and apically) and tarsi (ventrally), dorsal rim infolding and apical half of inner surface of posterolateral
projections of genital capsule (Figs 21–22) with dense golden setae; external female genitalia (valvifers VIII
dorsally (= posteriorly), valvifers IX, laterotergites IX, and segment X) with sparse golden setae, laterotergites IX
with a tuft of dense golden setae in each basal angle (Fig. 35: vf9).
Structure. See the generic redescription.
Measurements (mm). Males (n = 5, except antennal segment IV: n = 4); median (minimum—maximum)).
Body length 19.54 (18.46–19.85); head: length 3.43 (3.04–3.43), width (including eyes) 4.12 (3.82–4.12),
interocular width 3.04 (2.84–3.04); lengths of antennal segments: I—0.78 (0.69–0.78), IIa—0.88 (0.74–0.98),
IIb—1.42 (1.27–1.62), III—1.42 (1.42–1.47), IV—1.99 (1.81–2.16); pronotum: length 6.18 (5.20–6.27), width
15.08 (14.62–16.46); scutellum: length 9.02 (7.84–10.10), width 6.86 (6.08–7.16); abdomen: width (across
segment IV) 15.69 (15.08–16.62).
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FIGURES 6–13. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952. 6—head, ventral view (magnification 30×). 7—profemur, ventral view
(30×). 8—meso- and metapleuron with external scent efferent system of metathoracic scent gland (20×). 9–11—ostiole and
peritreme (9—35×, 10–11—180×). 12–13—metathoracic spiracle (12—60×, 13—110×). Abbreviations: cl—clypeus, ev—
evaporatorium, lr—labrum, mp—mandibular plate, o—ostiole, pes—peritremal surface, pt—teeth on profemur, sp—spiracle.
Scale bars: 0.2 mm—10, 11; 0.5 mm—12, 13; 1 mm—6–9.
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FIGURE S 14–17. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952. 14–16—head: 14—lectotype, anterodorsal view; 15–16—specimen from
Périnet (15—dorsoanterior view; 16—lateral view). 17—meso- and metapleuron with external scent efferent system of
metathoracic scent gland. Abbreviations: aos—anteocular spine, at—antenniferous tubercle, bc—buccula, cl—clypeus, ev—
evaporatorium, lb1—labial segment I, mp—mandibular plate, o—ostiole, pe—peritreme, pg—postgena, sp—metathoracic
spiracle. Scale bars: 1 mm.
Females (n = 5; median (minimum—maximum)). Body length 21.23 (20.15–22.77); head: length 3.53 (3.33–
3.73), width (including eyes) 4.02 (3.92–4.51), interocular width 2.94 (2.84–3.33); lengths of antennal segments:
I—0.78 (0.74–0.78), IIa—0.98 (0.83–1.08), IIb—1.47 (1.32–1.47), III—1.47 (1.32–1.62), IV—2.01 (1.81–2.21);
pronotum: length 5.88 (5.39–6.76), width 15.85 (14.00–17.54); scutellum: length 9.31 (8.92–10.78), width 6.96
(6.47–7.75); abdomen: width (across segment IV) 16.77 (15.39–17.39).
Variability (Figs 1, 4–5). The specimens examined differ in the body measurements; extent of the black
colouration (palest specimens (see Fig. 5) lack black markings on anterior pronotal margin, scutellum,
connexivum, and lateral projections of ventrites, have the head underneath, pleura, and legs prevailingly yellowish
brown, only femora with two black rings (one basally, one anteapically) and tibiae with irregular dark markings);
presence and extent of whitish callosities on abdominal ventrites (ventrites completely blackish/brown without
callosities, or blackish with prominent and large whitish callose stripes laterally, or with callose stripes extending
throughout the ventrite); extent of whitish callosities on corium (well apparent in some specimens (Fig. 4) while
hardly visible in others (Figs 1, 5)); markedly in the shape of the teeth on humeral pronotal angles, the teeth on
lateral pronotal margins,
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FIGURES 18–20. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, variability of pronotum. 18—male, lectotype; 19—male, Périnet; 20—
male, Antananarivo. Scale bars: 2 mm.
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FIGURES 21–30. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, male genitalia. 21–26—pygophore: 21–22—dorsal view, two slightly
different orientations (magnifications 23×); 23—lateral view (30×); 24–26—ventral view (24–25—intact specimen, two
slightly different orientations, 25×; 26—defective specimen, 25×). 27–30—paramere (four different orientations; 27—70×, 28–
30—65×). Abbreviations: app—apical process of paramere, blp—basal process of paramere, dif—dorsal rim infolding, lif—
lateral rim infolding, plp—posterolateral projection of genital capsule, pro—proctiger, vif—ventral rim infolding. Scale bars:
0.5 mm—27–30, 1 mm—21–26.
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FIGURE S 31–34. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, phallus. 31–32—non-inflated phallus (31—ventral view, 32—lateral
view); 33–34—details of apex of partly inflated phallus (33—ventral view, 34—lateral view). Abbreviations: aed—aedeagus
(= vesica), bp—basal plate, mpp—median penial plates, phth—phallotheca. Scale bar: 1 mm.
and lateral projections of the ventrites (usually also different on the left and right side of the same specimen);
denticulation of pro- and mesofemora (profemora with two and mesofemora with one pair of minute denticles
anteapically in male lectotype; with three pairs on profemora and one pair on mesofemora of minute denticles in
female from Périnet; with four pairs of stronger denticles (two smaller pairs subapically and two larger pairs in
middle) on both pro- and mesofemora in male from Périnet); and undulation of the flattened outer surface of tibiae
(especially of the two anterior pairs; for example the right mesotibia of the Périnet male has two distinct denticles
on anterior margin but there are no such outgrowths in any other of its tibiae). It is very striking that segment VIII
of the lectotype is large, well-sclerotized and provided with lateral projections (see Fig. 2), however, in all the
remaining examined males the segment VIII is slightly sclerotized, ring-shaped and fully inserted in the male
abdomen; the condition in lectotype seems most probably teratological. The different shape of genital capsule
found in the male specimen from Antananarivo (Fig. 26) is obviously a result of damage (pieces of cuticle being
bitten or broken off) rather than a case of intraspecific variability.
Etymology. The etymology of the specific name was not clarified in the original description. Gigas (-antos, pl.
Gigantes) means ‘one of the Gigants’ (offspring of Gaia) of the ancient Greek mythology; noun in apposition.
Bionomics. Unknown.
Distribution. The localized specimens originate from a limited area within humid and subhumid forest zone of
cenral-eastern Madagascar (Fig. 38).
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Comment on lectotype designation. Tricompastes gigas was originally described based on unspecified
number of specimens (syntypes) of both sexes, originating from Madagascar (but without any exact locality) and
deposited in collections of Bergevin and Noualhier in MNHN (Cachan 1952). Cachan (1952) presented only single
measurement value (without any span) for male and female sex which suggests that only a single specimen of each
sex was available to him. The examination of the MNHN collection revealled two specimens of T. gigas fitting to
the original description: i) One specimen with strongly damaged abdomen and lost genitalia (most probably a
female) from Noualhier’s collection, provided by red label with ‘Type’ and Cachan’s handwritten identification
label. ii) One well preserved male with partly outstretched genital capsule originating from de Bergevin’s
collection but wihout any type or identification label. However, the specimen fits well the original description and
the outstretched genital capsule fits perfectly the situation figured by Cachan (1952: 377, Fig. 350), which left little
doubt about this specimen being an authentic syntype. Concerning the considerable damage of the first specimen,
the male syntype is designated here as lectotype to fix the identity of the species in the sense of Cachan (1952) and
this revision.
FIGURES 35–37. Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, female genitalia. 35—external female genitalia (ventral view); 36—
spermatheca; 37—detail of apical receptacle. Abbreviations: ar—apical receptacle of spermatheca, dd—distal duct of
spermatheca, dil—spermathecal dilation, div—distal invagination of spermathecal duct, df—distal flange, ip—intermediate
part of spermatheca, lt8,9—laterotergite VIII and IX, pd—proximal duct of spermatheca, pf—proximal flange, sp—spiracle,
rs—ring sclerite, so—sclerite surrounding spermathecal opening, tr—triangulin, vf8,9—valvifer VIII and IX, X—segment X.
Scale bars: 1 mm.
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REDESCRIPTI ON OF TRICOMP ASTES
FIGURE 38. Map of the known distribution of Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952.
Acknowledgements
We are obliged to
José Vicens Bordoy (Cuzco, Peru) and Philippe Magnien (Paris, France) for the loan of material
examined, to
Dávid Rédei (Nankai University, Tianjin, China) and two anonymous reviewers for critical reading
and valuable comments on the manuscript. This research recieved support from the SYNTHESYS Project http://
www.synthesys.info financed by European Community Research Infrastructure Action under FP7 Integrating
Activity Programme (project FR-TAF-1820 to PK). This work was financially supported by Ministry of Culture of
the Czech Republic (DKRVO 2015/14, National Museum, 00023272).
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