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Hydrochemistry and isotopic composition of the Sakumo Ramsar Site

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  • School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC)
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... In all cases, the pH of surface water was higher than that of ground water. It may be due to the dominance of dissolved HCO3rather than CO3 2ions in surface water which are known to affect pH of most waters (Laar et al. 2011). The pH of both of ground and surface water are within the permissible limit (6.5 -8.5) for irrigation, drinking and industrial purposes (Bauder et al. 2011;BECR 1997;UCCC 1974, WHO 1993. ...
... The local anthropogenic activities could be the discharges from intensive and prolonged agricultural activities (fertigation, chemigation, etc.) and discharges from industrial and domestic wastes (Dinka et al. 2015). Agricultural activities introduce ion and metals from fertilizers and other agrochemicals (Laar et al. 2011). The relatively high of EC in groundwater could be due to the intrusion of lake water in to groundwater system of the area (Dinka et al. 2015). ...
... In natural waters, dissolved solids are composed of mainly Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Chlorides, Sulphate, Phosphate, Silica, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium (Kumar et al. 2016). Agricultural activities introduce ion sand metals from fertilizers and other agrochemicals (Laar et al. 2011). The principal constituents of TDS are usually major cations and anions. ...
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This study deals with hydro-chemical attributes of surface and groundwater from Khulna District in comparison with standard values for irrigation, industrial uses and drinking purposes. In ground water, pH ranged from 7.02 to 7.43, EC from 0.5 to 5.1 dS m-1 , available Nitrogen from 0 to 69.75 mg l-1 , PO4 3-from 0.34 to 1.26 ppm, K + from 3.35 to 11.65 mg.l-1 , SO4 2-from 0.31 to 3.41 ppm, Ca 2+ from 142.67 to 208 mg.l-1 , Mg 2+ from 16.93 to 48 mg.l-1 , TDS from 126 to 5108 mg l-1 , TSS from 166 to 1422 mg l-1 , Na + from 156.97 to 1007.1 mg.l-1 , Cl-from 106.5 to 887.5 mg l-1 , Boron content from 0.41 to 0.466 ppm, Fe from 0 to 0.08 ppm, no Zinc was detected except Terokhada (0.02 ppm) and Mn content of ground water ranged from 0 to 2.11 ppm. In surface water, pH ranged from 7.17 to 7.75, EC from 0.4 to 2.9 dS m-1 , available Nitrogen from 0 to 31.16 mg l-1 , PO4 3-from 0.001 to 0.97 ppm, K + from 8.65 to 30.10 mg.l-1 , SO4 2-from 0.03 to 0.37 ppm, Ca 2+ from 57.33 to 110 mg.l-1 , Mg 2+ from 8.67 to 47.2 mg.l-1 , TDS from 420 to 2338 mg l-1 , TSS from 106 to 538 mg l-1 , Na + from 156.97 to 804.53 mg.l-1 , Cl-from 106.5 to 887.5 mg l-1 , Boron content from 0.424 to 0.61 ppm, Fe from 0 to 0.37 ppm, no Zn was detected except Dumuria (1.24 ppm) and Phultala (0.11 ppm) and no Mn was detected except Dhamalia (0.011) and Dumuria (0.02). The pH, Nitrogen, Mg 2+ , Zn, Mn, B, SO4 2-, Fe concentration were within permissible limit and can be used for all purposes with reference to standards. K + , Cl-toxicity was exhibited in most of the samples of surface and ground water. Salinity of surface water was within the standard concentration for irrigational and industrial uses whereas ground water would require treatment to reduce salinity. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), PO4 3-, Ca 2+ and Na + content of the water were within the permissible limit for irrigation and industrial uses but crossed the limit for use as drinking water. Thus, the water of Khulna District can be recommended for industrial and irrigational uses but having limitations for drinking purposes.
... Also, few water pollution studies have employed simple hydrochemical tools and stable isotopes of O-18 and D in assessing the quality of the wetland water. Laar et al. (2011) used stable isotopes of water (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) to infer source of waters into the wetland and the effect of mixing of seawater and wetland water. These methods often seem to be unable to characterize and differentiate the origins of the pollutants as well as recommend appropriate water quality standards needed to meet the requirements of all users. ...
... The major ion chemistry and compositional relations among ionic species of a sampled water can reveal the origin of solutes and processes that generates an observed water composition. Data for the correlation analysis was extracted from (Laar et al. 2011). From the matrix plot, strong (r=0.8 to 1.0), moderate (r=0.6 to 0.8), and low (r=0.5 to 0.6) correlation between selected variables was found out. ...
... Published studies on distribution of stable isotopes of 18 O and D in the Sakumo wetland are very limited (Laar et al. 2011) which demonstrated that significant isotopic differences exist between wetland water and the riverine waters (Mamahuma, Onukpawahe, and Dzorwulu). From the stable isotope analysis, δ 18 O and δD values range from −17.96 to 6.22‰ and −3.68 to −0.26‰ for rainwater, 3.42 to 18.30‰ and 0.55 to 3.86‰ for lagoon water while subsurface water (from the piezometers) ranged from 8.09 to 15.43‰ and 2.01 to 3.45‰, respectively (Laar et al. 2011). ...
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The Sakumo wetland is an internationally recognized Ramsar site located in a largely urban area and provides essential ecological and social services to wetland community dwellers. Despite its importance, the wetland has over the years been subjected to human interference resulting in considerable risks of deteriorating water quality, biodiversity loss, and drying up of most parts of the wetland. The conversion of land for residential and agricultural uses has significantly altered the hydrological characteristics of the land surface and modified pathways and flow of water into the wetland. Other drivers identified included drainage (mainly as runoff from agricultural farms), anthropogenic pressure (waste discharge) due to infrastructure development associated with urbanization, chemical contamination as a result of industrial and household pollution, and unsustainable fishing practices (overfishing). The purpose of the study was to review some of the physical and chemical properties of the Sakumo wetland on the changing wetland resources with emphasis on water quality. Rapid urbanization, industrialization, and overexploitation of wetland resources were identified as key causative factors affecting the wetland functions. Their effects on the wetland among others include increased nutrient and toxic chemical load which has resulted in reduced wetland surface water quality and decrease in species diversity. pH of the wetland waters was generally alkaline which is characteristic of water bodies influenced by seawater under oxygenated conditions. The increasing trends of electrical conductivity, phosphates, ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite, though small, point to deteriorating water quality in the wetland. The lagoon water was observed to be heavily polluted with nutrients particularly phosphate. The sequence of nutrient in the wetland was found to be in the order of PO4-P > NH3-N > NO3-N > NO2-N. These, if not checked, will result in further deterioration of the wetland function. In order to protect the wetland structure and function, it is recommended that a determination for both surface water and groundwater (quality and quantity) components of the ecological reserve (aquatic ecosystem) as well as the basic human need should be undertaken. In addition, a complete hydrological study of the wetland must be done. This will enable a well-balanced water allocation scheme to all users while still ensuring long-term survival and sustainability of the wetland.
... Awash River, irrigation canals, reservoirs, drains and groundwater (North Section, N) are slightly basic (pH = 7.7-8.1). Groundwater (AE), hot spring and Lake Basaka are characterized to be highly alkaline (pH > 8.5), indicating the dominance of dissolved HCO 3 rather than CO 3 ions which are known to affect pH of most waters (Laar et al., 2011). The pH of Awash River is in the recommended range for rivers (6.8-7.8) ...
... The local anthropogenic activities could be discharges from intensive and prolonged agricultural activities (fertigation, chemigation, etc.) and discharges from industrial and domestic wastes. Agricultural activities introduce ions and metals from fertilizers and other agrochemicals (Laar et al., 2011). The principal constituents of TDS are usually major cations and anions. ...
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Study region: The Matahara region is located in the East Showa zone of Oromiya regional state (Ethiopia). Matahra Sugar Estate and Lake Basaka (highly saline, alkaline and sodic lake) are situated within the flat plains of Matahara region. The area is vulnerable to the occurrences of various tectonic and volcanic activities due to its location in the upper most part of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley region. Study focus: In this study, the hydrochemical properties of different surface water and groundwater bodies available at Matahara region have been characterized for quality compositions. Water samples were collected from different water sources and analyzed for important major quality parameters following standard test procedures. Other chemical indices were derived from the measured quality parameters. The potential sources of minerals were suggested for each of the considered water sources based on their quality characteristics. New hydrological insights for the region: Overall, the study result elucidates that the chemical composition of different water bodies are due to natural processes and/or anthropogenic activities within the region. The local anthropogenic processes could be discharges from factory, domestic sewage and farming activities. Some of the water types are found to have relatively higher concentration of dissolved constituents. Irrigation waters have almost equal chemical compositions, indicating their hydrochemical sources are almost the same. Most of the concentrations are relatively high in Lake Basaka, groundwater and hot springs. It is easy to imagine the potential damaging effects of such quality waters on crop production, soil properties and environment of the region.
... Electrical conductivity reflects the concentration of all dissolved minerals; it is an excellent indicator of mineralization. It could be related either to the dissolution of evaporitic formations (Pacini et al. 2013) or to local anthropogenic activities (discharges from agricultural activities, industrial and domestic wastes) (Laar et al. 2011). High values of electrical conductivity of surface waters have been observed in the wadis of the eastern part (1294.64 ± 840.64 µS/cm). ...
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The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical quality of surface water in the Jijel region. It also aims at identifying the effects of the water pollution in the region and its origin. A total of 31 samples of water were collected from the eastern and western parts of the region and analyzed for different physicochemical parameters. The results obtained showed an organic pollution of river waters from the eastern part, especially downstream of the later with 1.46–5 mg L−1 of ammonium and from 0.12 to 3.67 mg L−1 of nitrites. For the major elements, higher values of the electrical conductivity (approximately 3460 μS/cm) and high concentrations of some chemical elements (e.g., sulfate 509.43 mg L−1) were recorded in the affluent of the Bourchaid River. The rivers of the western part revealed an acceptable physicochemical quality, as the concentration of chemical elements complies with the standards of surface water (system for evaluating the water quality of rivers, version 2).
... Electrical conductivity reflects the concentration of all dissolved minerals; it is an excellent indicator of mineralization. It could be related either to the dissolution of evaporitic formations (Pacini et al. 2013) or to local anthropogenic activities (discharges from agricultural activities, industrial and domestic wastes) (Laar et al. 2011). High values of electrical conductivity of surface waters have been observed in the wadis of the eastern part (1294.64 ± 840.64 µS/cm). ...
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The use of surface water in the Jijel region for drinking and irrigation purposes has been continuously increased in the last decade due to its availability in this rainy region (1000 mm/year on average). The direct spillage of anthropogenic discharges into the wadis has considerably affected the water’s quality. In order to evaluate the quality of the wadis waters of this region, a sampling campaign was carried out during April 2017 with a total of 31 water samples that were analysed for major elements and nitrogen cycle. Data processing was conducted using a multi-disciplinary approach (statistical analysis, quality index and suitability for irrigation). The obtained results show a degradation of water quality from upstream to downstream of the wadis in relation with anthropic activities (urban areas, agriculture and industry). Statistical analysis indicates that the degradation of water quality is mainly related to organic pollution and nutrients (ammonium from 0.11 to 5 mg/L and nitrite from 0.01 to 3.68 mg/L). High values of the water quality index (113 < WQI < 327) recorded downstream of the wadis of the eastern part reveal that its waters are unsuitable for consumption. However, in the western part, which is characterized by a mountainous relief and small agglomeration, the wadis have a good to admissible water quality, with a WQI between 36 and 62. The evaluation of the suitability of the water for irrigation, based on the percentage of sodium (6 to 57%) and the sodium adsorption rate (0.63 to 3.44) shows that the Kebir wadi waters (the main wadi of the region) have a poor quality for irrigation (high mineralization (EC > 3400 µS/cm) and high sodium contents exceeding 100 mg/L). This study has highlighted the risk of anthropogenic discharges on the surface water quality and the hazard that could reach the agricultural areas and indirectly the human being health.
... Similarly, on left side, highest pH was observed at LW3 (8.6) and LW4 (8.5). It may be because of the high temperature in summer season, which may have reduced the rate of photosynthetic activity and assimilation of carbon dioxide and bicarbonates (Laar et al., 2011;Bhateria and Jain, 2016). ...
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The groundwater samples collected along the cross-section of Pravara river basin is quite distinct in terms of geo-hydrologic and anthropogenic situation. Innovative methods were used to investigate hydrogeochemical phases and groundwater quality for which 33 groundwater samples collected and analysed for pH (7.6-8.7), EC (311-1851 μS/cm), TDS (306-1990 mg/l), Na⁺ (11-296 mg/l), K⁺ (0.6-2.2 mg/l), Ca²⁺ (90-2001 mg/l), Mg²⁺ (1-17.9 mg/l), Cl⁻ (71-1036 mg/l), SO4²⁻ (17-118 mg/l), NO3⁻ (5.1-14 mg/l), CO3²⁻ (14.4-40.8 mg/l), HCO3⁻ (117-698 mg/l) and F⁻ (0.05-1.34 mg/l). The water quality was inferred with the help of water quality index (WQI) and Wilcox diagram. Fluid properties and irrigation water characteristics, as well as ion balance and Piper diagram were coupled to explore the type of water. Resourcesat-2 satellite image was processed to know the land use land cover (LULC) of area and its effect on groundwater. The results of pH, K⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, SO4²⁻, and NO3⁻ were found within the prescribed limit. According to WQI, total 10 samples on RS and 09 samples on LS were found to have excellent quality water (57.58%) and 04 samples on RS and 05 samples on LS are good water (27.27%). The resulting Wilcox diagram also classifies the groundwater as excellent to good and good to permissible. The hydrochemical facies found Ca²⁺-Cl⁻ type along RS and Mg²⁺-HCO3⁻ type along LS. Based on hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater quality, the cross sectional aquifer is inferred to be predominantly influenced by natural as well as man induced causes, which have been validated by LULC results.
... Meanwhile, anthropogenic activities such as irrigation have a great influence on the water salinity, many salts, and agrochemical loadings will affect the water quality with irrigation return flows (Isidoro and Aragüés 2007). Ions and metals are introduced from fertilizers and other agrochemicals (Laar et al. 2011), in this study, it analyzes the suitability of water irrigation suitability from its hydrochemical characteristics (Kirda 1997;Nishanthiny et al. 2010;Mohammed Muthanna 2011). ...
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The surface water hydrochemistry of the Syr Darya River in Kazakhstan was investigated at 39 locations to analyze regional hydrochemical characteristics and evaluate the irrigation suitability of the studied regions. The cations in the surface water are mainly Na⁺, Ca²⁺, and Mg²⁺, while the anions are mainly SO4²⁻. The main hydrochemical type is Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. From the perspective of natural factors, the hydrochemical characteristics in the study area are derived from the dual effects of rock weathering and evaporation-concentration; however, the influence of anthropogenic factors include industrial and agricultural production near the river and the inflow of urban domestic sewage on the hydrochemical characteristic is also present. The irrigation suitability evaluation of the surface water based on SAR, Na% and KI showed that the majority of the water is suitable for irrigation, and from the TDS content analysis, 71.43% of the samples are in a critical state, indicating that the influence of TDS concentration on irrigation suitability cannot be ignored. The results have practical significance for maintaining the sustainable use of water resources in the Syr Darya River.
... The study area is most densely populated with both industrial and residential area and consequently witness higher groundwater abstraction. The nearby anthropogenic activities could be released from intensive and drawn out farming activities which present ions and metals from composts and different agrochemicals (Laar et al. 2011;Dinka et al. 2015). TDS estimate of > 500 mg/ kg during the two seasons shows the nearness of marginally hoisted groupings of salts and is identified with different issues, for example, hardness (Herojeet et al. 2013). ...
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Background This study investigates the common and anthropogenic activities that impact the science of groundwater in and around an industrial zone and exhibits the utilization of multivariate statistical methods for groundwater quality, toxicity and health risk associated with contaminated industrial sites for proficient administration of water assets. A total of 120 groundwater samples were collected during summer and winter season, and analyzed for their twenty physicochemical constituents including seven toxic heavy metals (pH, EC, total dissolved solids (TDS), F, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, CO3, HCO3, NO3, SO4, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Data obtained was treated using principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Correlation coefficient and health risk analysis to find the common pollution source. Results The results for mean abundance during two seasons for cations and anions were 7 and 6.9 for pH; 1875 and 1527 for TDS; 3 and 3.3 (µs/cm) for EC; 655 and 569 for Ca²⁺; 59 and 56 for Mg²⁺; 340 and 211 for Na⁺; 5 and 4 mg/L for K⁺; 148 and 126 for CO3²⁻ 301 and 228 for HCO3⁻; 289 and 223 for Cl⁻ 0.5 and 0.85 for F⁻; 99 and 86 for SO4²⁻ 28 and 23 mg/L for NO3⁻. While for heavy metals 18 and 4 for As; 2 and 0.4 for Cd; 29 and 5 for Cr; 17 and 4 for Cu; 25 and 6 for Ni; 82 and 3 for Pb; 953 and 989 µg/L for Zn, respectively. FA identified six dominant factors for each during summer and winter seasons that explained 70.43% and 71.06% of the variance in the dataset. Health risk assessment of chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) during both seasons were in the order Ca > Na > HCO3 > Cl > CO3 > SO4 > Mg > NO3 > K > F and was as well computed. Conclusion The significant reasons for water quality degrading in the study area were associated with various natural and anthropogenic sources and their unsystematic apportionment, show that proper land uses, industrial planning, design some remedial techniques and implementation of existing laws to have active groundwater resource management.
... The local anthropogenic activities could be discharges from intensive and prolonged agricultural activities (fertigation, chemigation, etc.) and discharges from industrial and domestic wastes. Agricultural activities (use of fertilizers and other chemicals) can introduce ions and metals into the groundwater DINKA et al. 2015;HARITASH et al. 2008;LAAR et al. 2011. Apart from agricultural practices, TDS in groundwater can also originate from the weathering of rocks or soils, sewage systems, urban runoff and industrial wastes ASADI et al. 2007;DINKA et al. 2015. ...
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Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE), located in the flood plain of the Awash River (Ethiopia), has been under long-term (>60 years) irrigation, industrial activities and agro-chemical usage. In this study, the hydrochemical properties of groundwater bodies available at WSSE have been characterized for quality compositions. Water samples were collected from groundwater monitoring piezometers distributed in the sugarcane plantation and then analysed for physico-chemical quality parameters (pH, EC , major cations and anions) following standard procedures. Other chemical indices (e.g., total dissolved solids ( TDS ), total hardness ( TH ), magnesium absorption ratio ( MAR ), base exchange ( r1 ), meteoric genesis ( r2 )) were derived from the measured water quality parameters. The compositional variability and groundwater classification has been presented using the Box and Piper plots. The potential sources of minerals were suggested for each of the considered water sources based on their quality characteristics. Both trilinear Piper plot and meteoric genesis index revealed that groundwater of the area is shallow meteoric water percolation type with a changing of hydrochemical facies and mixing trend. Groundwater of the area, is group 1 (Ca-Mg-HCO 3 ) type, with no dominant cations and HCO 3 are the dominant anions. Overall, the study result elucidates that the chemical composition of GW of the area showed spatial variability depending upon the variations in hydrochemical inputs from natural processes and/or anthropogenic activities within the region. The local anthropogenic processes could be discharges from sugar factory, domestic sewage and agricultural activities.
... The pH in irrigated area varies from 7.69 to 8.10 (Table 2). This is due to the dominance of dissolved HCO 3 (Laar et al. 2011). ...
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The present study is an attempt to decipher physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater collected along Mulmala stream in the Chandanapuri valley through monitoring of its morphological, geological and land use constraints. The Mulmala stream is located in the semi-arid irrigated tract of Western Deccan upland, flowing over Aa and Pahoehoe basalts and alluvium at base of the upland where quality of groundwater is declining. In view of this, 13 groundwater samples (2 borewell + 11 dug well) were collected and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, HCO3⁻², Cl⁻, S04⁻², NO3⁻ using standard methods. Survey of India’s toposheets (47 I/2 and 47 I/3) and geology map were georeferenced and used for extraction of drainage networks and geological information, respectively, in ArcGIS-10 software. Extracted drainage networks were ordered by Strahler method for bifurcation ratio calculation. Topographic and slope values along with a longitudinal profile were obtained from CartoDEM (v3). Land use mapping were carried out from IRS’s Resourcesat-1-LISS III satellite imagery, acquired on December 2008 and October 2010. Finally, incorporation of morphometric, geologic, hydrologic information was carried out with land use. The geochemical and land use data suggests, Chandanapuri valley inching towards vigorous anthropogenic activity having potentially deleterious effects on its natural setting, especially in the northern alluvium strip. The steady decline in forest cover and an equal or more increase in agricultural as well as excavating the Deccan upland for highway construction can have cascading effect on the Mulmala basin ecology. Timely sustainable steps with people participation can halt this deterioration in the study area.
... Em águas supericiais, a evaporação promove o enriquecimento dos isótopos pesados. Entre as aplicações desta propriedade estão os estudos sobre a interação água supericial/ água subterrânea, alguns identiicando os percentuais de mistura (CLARK; FRITZ, 1997;KOHFAHL et al., 2008), a determinação da evaporação no estudo da qualidade das águas (LAAR et al., 2011), de recarga de aquíferos (ADOMAKO et al., 2011), a identiicação de fontes de recarga (LIU; YAMANAKA, 2012;QIN et al., 2011;VANDERZALM et al., 2011;WASSENAAR;ATHANASOPOULOS;HENDRY 2011 A temperatura média da região é de 26°C, com amplitude térmica menor que 7°C no ano, e sofre inluência da maré; quando está mais ou menos nublado, como durante a preamar, as massas de ar perdem parcialmente sua dinâmica deixando de circular, impedindo que o calor seja dissipado para a atmosfera, ocasionando aumento de temperatura. A temperatura local também é inluenciada consideravelmente pela vegetação, principalmente nos brejos que, associados aos recursos hídricos, tornam o local aprazível em muitos dias do ano (FORTES, 2010). ...
... The Sakumo wetland, which is the major water body in the area receiving drainage water from the area, has been severely damaged as a result of environmental degradation from human based activities (Laar et al., 2011). The industries located in the Sakumono catchment did not have any visible waste water treatment plants hence, liquid wastes were discharged directly (untreated) into nearby storm-water canals. ...
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The objective of this research was to assess the level of pollution in the Sakumo wetland with emphasis on heavy metals contamination and their distribution in the wetland, which is being polluted from industrial, domestic and sewage effluents. Samples of water, sediment and fish were collected and analyzed for the concentration of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, nickel and zinc) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The sequence of order of the heavy metals in the water, sediment and fish samples observed in the wetland was as follows: Fe > Mn > Cu >Hg, Mn > Fe> V> Cr > Cu >Zn ≈ As >Co > Cd > Hg, Fe > Cu > Mn> V> Hg > Cd respectively. The results showed high levels of copper and managanese in all three samples (water, sediment and fish) however, mercury and cadmium were available in relatively low concentration in the fish samples. Sampled sediment materials revealed highest concentrations of the heavy metals. Fe, Mn, and Zn concentration in fish samples were higherr than WHO/FAO recommended values; however, these heavy metals did not pose any immediate health risk to humans. It is possible however, that, the concentration of these heavy metals may increase in wetland and subsequently in the fishes (and other animals) living within the wetland. Hence, the need for regular monitoring of these heavy metals in the wetland resources is important.
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Fifty groundwater samples were obtained pre and post-monsoon seasons in parts of hard rock terrain in Andhra Pradesh, South India, in order to assess the drinking water quality. PIG values of groundwater samples ranged from 0.95–1.53 and 0.83–1.28 during pre and post-monsoon seasons. PIG values are slightly higher in the pre-monsoon season when compared to the post-monsoon season. In the pre monsoon season, 96% of the groundwater samples showed insignificant pollution class (< 1), 4% of the groundwater samples are low pollution (1–1.5). 82% of the groundwater samples showed insignificant pollution status (< 1), 18% of the groundwater samples fall under the low pollution (1–1.5), is noticed in post-monsoon season, respectively. WQI values of groundwater samples ranged from 108.5–204 mg/L and 112.6–170 mg/L during pre and post-monsoon seasons; its shows that 100% are very poor for drinking purpose. Piper diagram reveals that groundwater is majorly mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl−, Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl−-SO42−, Na+-K+-Cl−- SO42− type in this region. The Gibbs plot indicates that groundwater samples fall within the field of rock dominance. Through applying GIS techniques, the spatial distribution of groundwater quality analysis reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not comply drinking water quality standards and water needs to be prior treatment before consumption.
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The present study aims at Faecal Sludge (FS) characterization and assessing groundwater and river water quality due to impact of waste dumping in one of the India most polluted cities, Lucknow. Currently, FS is dumped into the urban and peri-urban environment, posing great risks to the soil, surface water and groundwater quality. FS sample was collected from septic tank in the study area in the month of December, 2018 to measure the physicochemical parameters. To assess the water quality for different purposes, 55 groundwater and 23 river water were sampled and analyzed by water quality index (WQI), Wilcox's diagram, US salinity laboratory classification and multivariate statistical analysis. Groundwater samples were collected from different locations covering solid waste dumping area, residential area and slum area while river water samples collected from nearby drains of upstream to downstream region of the Gomti river. The groundwater were grouped into class I, II and III, while river water grouped as class II, III, IV and V by water quality index. Based on the irrigation water quality classification most of the groundwater and river water samples are suitable for irrigation uses. The principal component analysis identified four and three major components that explained 76.10% and 85.40%, of the total variance in the dataset for groundwater and river water, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis depicts three types of clusters for groundwater and two types of cluster for river water in the study area. In the present study groundwater collected from few locations of solid waste dumping and slum area is not suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. River water was found to be more polluted at the downstream of the stretch as compared to the other sampling sites due to the direct discharge of untreated domestic waste, human excreta, garbage and toxic elements from the factories.
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The composition of different surface water and groundwater constituents of the Matahara region (Ethiopia) were studied to understand their hydrochemical sources. Potential hydrochemical origins of different water sources were identified based on ionic indices and standard Piper plots. The findings indicate that pH, electrical conductivity, and concentrations of some major ions (Na⁺, HCO3⁻, Cl⁻, SO4²⁻) were higher in factory waste, groundwater, hot springs, and Lake Basaka than those in irrigation and drainage waters. Groundwater in the study area had a different chemical composition than surface water, which was likely its recharging source. Spring and lake waters acquired characteristics similar to marine water based on their hydrochemical facies and evolution. This study indicates that the hydrochemistry of groundwater, spring water, and lake water have recently been influenced by anthropogenic pollution.
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The Drummond Nature Reserve (DNR), a high-value conservation area 100 km northeast of Perth, Western Australia, contains two rare freshwater claypans and a diverse range of rare and threatened vascular plants. Groundwater/surface-water interactions were investigated via isotopic (delta O-18 and delta D) and major ion analysis. The groundwater chemical and isotope analyses combined with nutrient data allowed for the assessment of potential hydrologically derived threats to the claypans and their associated conservation values. Groundwater composition is typically Na-Cl to Na-Mg-Cl; whereas the claypan's ephemeral fresh surface water is Na-Cl-HCO3. Distinct delta O-18 and delta D isotopic signatures for the claypan surface waters and adjoining groundwaters indicate that there currently is minimal connection between these two hydrological systems. Hence the current threat to the freshwater claypans and associated biota from rising saline and acidic groundwater is minimal. Elevated nutrient (N) levels identified in groundwaters along the reserve's western boundary may be linked to fertiliser regimes employed in adjoining agricultural lands. The ecosystem associated with the southwest claypan is particularly vulnerable to N and P inputs via surface-water flows, which could cause algal blooms, vegetation degradation and weed infestation.
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Environmental impacts of acid mine drainage (AMD) from Dexing Copper Mine, the largest open pit copper mine in Asia, on Le An River were well documented 10years ago. However, ore production of the mine has increased fourfold and the contamination situation of the river now is unknown. Our studies indicated that heavy metal concentrations in riverwaters (dissolved), suspended solids (SS) and sediments all showed highly localized distribution patterns closely associated with two AMD-contaminated tributaries (Dawu River and Ji River) and are significantly different from the previous findings. Compared with the previous reports, most of the sampling sites in Le An River displayed lower contents of sediments of 2005 because several historical upstream and downstream heavy metal sources disappeared or became unimportant. The surprised decrease of copper contents in sediments at the mixing location with Dawu River was mainly due to dilution from the sufficient input of poor copper ore (<0.3%).
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