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Tweeting the Lecture: How Social Media Can Increase Student Engagement in Higher Education


Abstract and Figures

The higher education sector increasingly uses social media as an educational tool to develop a sense of community and foster student engagement, particularly as social networking sites have become an integral part of the lives of digital natives. The current study sought to explore whether the use of Twitter could foster student engagement in a sport marketing course, speciically by embedding Twitter through two assessments, online lectures and weekly tasks. Mean score comparisons indicated that over a 13-week semester, students (N = 68) felt more engaged and included in the course because it had Twitter, found Twitter to be relatively easy to use, and the use of social media aligned with course objectives. The results of the current study have salience in sport management education, because the effective use of Twitter within a higher education context demonstrates how the use of social media can foster engagement with course materials.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Sport Management Education Journal, 2015, 9, 91 -101
© 2015 North American Society for Sport Management
Olan Kees Martin Scott is with the University of Canberra
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise and in the Faculty of
Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT, Australia. Alicia R.
Stanway is with the School of Business, Edith Cowan Univer-
sity, Joondalup, WA, Australia. Address author correspondence
to Olan Scott at
Tweeting the Lecture: How Social Media Can Increase
Student Engagement in Higher Education
Olan Kees Martin Scott
University of Canberra
Alicia R. Stanway
Edith Cowan University
The higher education sector increasingly uses social media as an educational tool to develop a sense of com-
munity and foster student engagement, particularly as social networking sites have become an integral part
of the lives of digital natives. The current study sought to explore whether the use of Twitter could foster
student engagement in a sport marketing course, specically by embedding Twitter through two assessments,
online lectures and weekly tasks. Mean score comparisons indicated that over a 13-week semester, students
(N = 68) felt more engaged and included in the course because it had Twitter, found Twitter to be relatively
easy to use, and the use of social media aligned with course objectives. The results of the current study have
salience in sport management education, because the effective use of Twitter within a higher education context
demonstrates how the use of social media can foster engagement with course materials.
Keywords: Twitter, social media, engagement, university courses, higher education
The Internet has transformed the ways in which stu-
dents, professors, and universities interact. Historically,
the media acted as a lter or gatekeeper of information
and only published stories that were vetted by editors
or producers. The media landscape continues to evolve
rapidly: “online gaming, Internet-mediated communities
(IMCs), and social networking sites (SNSs) have all con-
tributed to Internet users being able to foster discussion
and create meaning in ways which were not possible
ve years ago” (Scott, Hill, & Zakus, 2014, p. 740). The
Internet provides a new medium for communication as all
users are able to both create and produce media content
simultaneously as the traditional barriers to dissemination
have been removed (Arsenault & Castells, 2008; Mahan &
McDaniel, 2006). The recent advent, and quick uptake, of
SNSs has provided users with a new interactive platform
for communication and continuous accessibility between
the consumer and other organizations (Meân, Kassing, &
Sanderson, 2010). Social media websites “are a collection
of Internet websites, services, and practices that support
collaboration, community building, participation, and
sharing” (Junco, Heiberger, & Loken, 2011, p. 119). A
common element of SNSs is the creation and maintenance
of social networks (Boyd, 2006; Boyd & Ellison, 2007),
which can help communities to form based on common
elements, such as celebrity worship or a favorite sports
team, or to voice one’s support for a politician.
A more recent development of SNSs is their use in a
university context, particularly when technology is inte-
grated into the classroom environment (Chao, Parker, &
Fontana, 2011). Studies have found that the use of social
media in a university context can enable the instructor
to develop a community of co-creators of course content
(Retelny, Birnholtz, & Hancock, 2012), enable instructors to
bring real-world examples into the course (Lowe & Laffey,
2011), and foster enhanced engagement with course materi-
als (Junco et al., 2011). There exists a plethora of research
on student engagement; however, much of the focus is at a
macro level (e.g., engagement within a university environ-
ment) rather than at a micro level (e.g., student engagement
within a course). Subsequently, the current study seeks
to bridge the gap in the literature between the adoption
of social media by educators by examining whether the
use of Twitter could foster enhanced student engagement
within a university sport marketing course. Specically,
the sport marketing course was designed to develop
student competencies in two objectives: (1) explain the
theories underpinning the marketing of sport and mar-
keting through sport, and (2) apply consumer research
methodologies to the consumption of sport.
92 Scott and Stanway
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
Literature Review
Over the past 10–15 years, the emphasis on university
content has changed. The traditional emphasis on con-
tent has become less important with a shift to teaching
students “how to learn and to think critically about both
content and process” (Light & Dixon, 2007, p. 159).
Further, Skinner and Gilbert (2007) suggested that it
is important that sport management educators deliver
a high-quality curriculum in an attempt to ensure that
graduates of sport management programs can have suc-
cess on the job. Increasingly, there has been a shift from
teaching students content, to teaching critical think-
ing (Zakus, Malloy, & Edwards, 2007). In the current
ever-changing environment, it is becoming increasingly
important that students are taught critical thinking skills
through the focus on curriculum that teaches the how of
learning rather than the what of content. As suggested by
Brooks and Brooks (1999), traditional linear approaches
to education foster neither creative thinking nor adapt-
ability in real-world situations.
It has been suggested that learning occurs best when
“individuals encounter an experience, deal with it through
observation and reection, ask questions and form gen-
eralizations, and seek to answer the question or solve
problems” (Jowdy, McDonald, & Spence, 2004, p.
217). Therefore, it is important for university instruc-
tors to create a course curriculum in which students
can blend theory and practices from the perspectives
of both peers and instructors (Dane-Staples, 2013).
Students are naturally curious individuals who seek to be
active participants in the learning process, provided the
right environment is provided by the instructor (Dane-
Staples, 2013).
Social Media and Social Networking Sites
Through the advances of Web 2.0 technologies and the
popularity of SNSs, organizations have shifted away
from one-to-many mass media advertising and market-
ing to more personal one-to-one communications to
nurture relationships with various stakeholders, mainly
consumers (Williams & Chinn, 2010). The concept of
social media and user-generated content has existed for
many years; Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) reported that the
rst social media started with Open Diary around 1988,
which was a website where blog writers came together
to form a community of writers. Social media has been
dened as “a group of Internet-based applications that
build on the ideological and technological foundations
of Web 2.0, which allows the creation and exchange of
user-generated content” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, p.
61). Further, Safko and Brake (2009) suggested that social
media encompasses “activities, practices, and behaviors
among communities of people who gather online to share
information, knowledge, and opinions using conversa-
tional media,” which enable a user to “create and easily
transmit content in the form of words, pictures, videos,
and audios” (p. 6).
Since the advent of the Internet and the proliferation
of SNSs, consumers have been able to communicate with
their favorite businesses, athletes, celebrities, and other
Internet users in ways, which were not possible before
the 2000s. The rise of social media, such as Facebook,
Twitter, and the photo-sharing service Instagram, have
provided consumers with new opportunities to communi-
cate (Chao et al., 2011). Further, Booth (2010) suggested
that contemporary media has never been more “personal-
ized, individualized, and made pleasurable to use” (p. 2).
Moreover, SNS users both simultaneously produce and
consumer media content (Mahan & McDaniel, 2006),
which suggests that consumers are actively engaged
(Booth, 2010).
Social networking sites enable consumers to create
and maintain “social networks” (Boyd & Ellison, 2007,
p. 210) and help others to connect with others based on
common interests. Social networking sites have been
dened as “web-based services that allow individuals
to (1) construct a public or semi-public prole within a
bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with
whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse
their list of connections and those made by others within
the system” (Boyd & Ellison, 2007, p. 211). Similarly,
Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) describe SNSs as “applica-
tion that enable users to connect by creating personal
information proles” (p. 63) and allowing others, cowork-
ers, friends, and family members to connect to one’s
prole. Further, SNSs can contain a myriad of types of
information, such as blogs, photographs, videos (Kaplan
& Haenlein, 2010). Each SNS, such as Facebook and
Twitter, allow users to create a prole that the user can
set to be either publicly or only privately visible on the
Internet. Further, a user’s connections are often available
for others to view and with whom they will possibly con-
nect (Boyd & Ellison, 2007).
With the ease of communication through social
media platforms, it would seem that university instruc-
tors would adopt these media quickly, but uptake, until
recently has been slow. It was found that 80% of uni-
versity faculty in the United States of America had used
YouTube in their teaching but only 20% had used either
Facebook or Twitter for teaching and learning purposes
(Moran, Seaman, & Tinti-Kane, 2011). More recent
research has found that instructors are adopting SNSs
with greater frequency (Wang, Scown, Urquhart, & Hard-
man, 2014) and there is a positive correlation between
SNS usage and student engagement in university activi-
ties (Evans, 2014). With Facebook and Twitter being the
preferred social media platforms of university students,
it would seem that instructors would also adopt these
platforms in the teaching environment, especially in sport
management courses, because the industry has been so
quick to adopt social media platforms (O’Boyle, 2014).
Twitter is a 140-character microblogging service where
users can send short messages of 140 characters or less,
Tweeting the Lecture 93
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
which are known as Tweets (Twitter, 2015). The take up
of Twitter has been quite rapid, from 5,000 Tweets per
day in 2007 (Weil, 2010) to over 400 million Tweets per
day in 2012 (Farber, 2012). Twitter has evolved from
prompting users to tell others “what are you doing?”
(Marwick & Boyd, 2011, p. 116) to its current slogan
“Twitter helps you create and share ideas and informa-
tion instantly, without barriers (Twitter, 2015), wherein
Twitter suggests that its service enables users to connect
in real time and “is the best way to connect with people,
express yourself and discover what’s happening” that a
person nds compelling (Twitter, 2015, para. 1). Further,
Twitter is increasingly being used as an educational and
professional networking tool whereby users gather at
regularly scheduled time periods to take part in a Twit-
ter chat, using an established hashtag to keep track of
conversations. Hashtags are keywords used in Tweets
signied by a # symbol before a word (e.g., #hashtag).
Given that the sports industry has been quick to
use social media, there has been a recent increase in the
number of studies specically exploring the use of Twitter
(Blaszka, Burch, Frederick, Clavio, & Walsh, 2012; Fred-
erick, Lim, Clavio, Pedersen, & Burch, 2014; Hambrick,
Frederick, & Sanderson, 2015). Many of the studies on
Twitter have focused on self-presentation, parasocial
interaction, relationship marketing, crisis management,
and as a public relations tool; however, in regard to
sport studies using Twitter as its basis, there have been a
number of foci: from athletes and teams, to leagues and
events. For example, Hull (2014) analyzed professional
golfers’ Tweets during the U.S. Masters Golf Tournament
and found that golfers were able to give fans a more inti-
mate view of their life. In terms of self-presentation, golf-
ers used both onstage and backstage personas when using
social media, which is consistent with self-presentation.
In another study on athlete presentation on Twitter, it was
found that athletes from North America’s major sports
(football, baseball, basketball, and ice hockey) attempted
to develop both social and parasocial relationships with
consumers on Twitter (Frederick, Lim, Clavio, Pedersen,
& Burch, 2014 ).
During the Lance Armstrong doping scandal, Ham-
brick, Frederick, and Sanderson (2015) analyzed both
traditional and social media around the Armstrong narra-
tives in 2012 and 2013. They found that Armstrong used
a multifaceted approach to the image repair strategies he
employed, such as showing contrition and regret. Further,
Armstrong may have been able to reinforce and perhaps
increase his followers’ attachment and engagement to
him in the period prior to and after his interview with
Oprah Winfrey. Twitter users have also been studied
around North America’s baseball nals series (Blaszka,
Burch, Frederick, Clavio, & Walsh, 2012) and during
the London 2012 Olympic Games (Frederick, Burch, &
Blaszka, 2015). Both studies found that the majority of
people posting on Twitter were individuals who were able
to discuss their fandom, rather than athletes or profession-
als (e.g., coaches, journalists, or administrators). In addi-
tion, Twitter has been described as a platform that is best
used for interaction and real-time updates (such as score
updates or a play-by-play of a game) (Hopkins, 2013).
Student Engagement
The concept of student engagement was originally
developed by Astin (1984), whose focus was on involve-
ment for university students. Astin (1984) characterized
engagement as “the amount of physical and psychological
energy that the student devotes to the academic experi-
ence” (p. 297). Kuh (2009) characterizes the notion of
engagement in higher education as having two distinct
elements: academic (in class) and nonacademic (outside
the classroom). Furthermore, the notion of engagement
has evolved to encompass many other facets, such as time
and effort that one spends to meet desirable goals at uni-
versity. Additional features of engagement are interaction
with instructors, involvement in other university environ-
ments or activities, and peer interactions (Chickering &
Gamson, 1987; Kuh, 2009).
An ongoing issue for university instructors in higher
education is to engage students both within the institution
and with course materials. Online communications have
changed the scholastic landscape because students and
their instructors can collaborate on tasks online (Chao, et
al., 2011). Online collaboration can create new chances
for enhanced participation in university materials (Parker
& Chao, 2007), both inside and outside of the classroom.
The current generation of university students have been
online their whole lives and have been called digital
natives (Prensky, 2001). Digital natives have used mobile
phones, played video games, surfed the Internet, and used
MP3 players and iPods their entire lives (Prensky, 2001).
It is therefore important for instructors to seek new and
novel ways in which to engage students through inter-
active avenues, many of which students would already
be intimately familiar, such as the use of technology to
search for information or social media to connect with
others. Such an approach would ensure work-ready
graduates (Skinner & Gilbert, 2007).
In their seminal work, Chickering and Gamson
(1987) suggested seven principles for best practice in
higher education, which were related to student engage-
ment: (1) encourage contact between students and
instructors, which does not necessarily have to occur in
the classroom itself, (2) develop reciprocity and coopera-
tion among students, (3) encourage active learning, (4)
provide prompt feedback, (5) emphasize time on task, (6)
communicate high expectations, and (7) respect diverse
talents and ways of learning. Furthermore, Kuh (2009)
suggested that “each of these [principles] represents a
different dimension of engagement” (p. 694).
As the current study seeks to investigate whether
the use of a social medium can foster engagement with
course materials, it is useful to review each of Chicker-
ing and Gamson’s (1987) seven principles of good prac-
tice. The rst principle recommends that the instructor
encourage contact between students and instructors in
motivating students for peak performance (Bangert, 2004;
94 Scott and Stanway
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
Chickering & Gamson, 1987). Further, several instructor
characteristics have been identied to positively create
a classroom climate wherein all students can potentially
feel comfortable (Bangert, 2004). Some of these charac-
teristics are friendliness, good communication skills, and
enthusiasm (Chickering & Erhmann, 1996; Marsh, 1982;
Young & Shaw, 1999). The advent of social media and its
use in the classroom enables instructors the opportunity
to foster student engagement during nonteaching periods
when, historically, instructors may have had little, if any,
student contact. Further, social media enables third-
parties, such as other academics, students, and industry
professionals, to engage with the course, which was not
possible before the proliferation of social media. For
example, historically, a third-party organization would
not be aware that it was being discussed in a university
classroom, because the discussion would occur exclu-
sively on a university campus. With the use of social
media and the ability to tag an organization in a post,
the organization is able to both follow the conversation
and be an active participant in the discussion. Therefore,
social media gives university instructors the ability to
engage with the sporting industry without the need for
the industry to actually attend the classroom.
The second principle recommends that a course
should encourage cooperation among students, because
learning should be a cooperative experience (Chickering
& Gamson, 1987) and working with fellow students can
increase an individual’s involvement in learning (Chicker-
ing & Ehrmann, 1996). Social media applications enable
students to open up communication between students,
instructors and external networks when they are not in
the same physical space.
The third principle posits that instructors should
promote active learning. Chickering and Gamson (1987)
suggest that instructors should provide students with
opportunities to discuss what they are learning, reect
on course content, relate course materials to their lives,
or see how course teachings may be applied to the real
world. Utilizing social media in the classroom can help
to aid active learning, because students can search vari-
ous social media websites and apply relevant course
materials to real-world examples or contemporary case
studies rather than applying their knowledge to case stud-
ies in textbooks that may be outdated. Further, Dwight
and Garrison (2003) suggested that lecturers empower
students to become active in the learning process during
the design of university courses. Using the Internet and
a variety of social media platforms may enable students
to both investigate numerous digital pathways and also
to create and coauthor relevant content (Edwards &
Finger, 2007).
It is important for instructors to provide students
with prompt feedback, which is the fourth principle of
good teaching (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996; Chickering
& Gamson, 1987). This principle suggests that students
need help in assessing their knowledge to benet from
courses. Further, Chickering and Gamson (1987) noted
that feedback must be timely to be most benecial. The
use of social media can enable instructors to provide
prompt feedback on tasks and prevent students from dis-
engaging from the materials. Moreover, the utilization of
social media also facilitates the ability for other students
to comment on another’s post and further develop their
thinking about a topic.
It is important for instructors to ensure that students
remain on task and complete assessments on-time.
Emphasizing time on task helps students learn effective
time management, which forms the basis for the fth
principle (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996; Chickering &
Gamson, 1987). Using social media and having weekly
graded tasks encourages students to stay on top of their
reading and workshops because there are weekly online
Another tactic that instructors can use is to promote
high expectations of students. Chickering and Gamson
(1987) argue that high expectations are important,
because when instructors expect more, they will “get
more” from their students. In addition, Chickering and
Ehrmann (1996) suggested that technological use aids
this sixth principle of good teaching, because students are
more motivated to do well when their work will appear on
the Internet. As such, the use of social media can foster
high performance in students because their comments
are posted on the Internet in a public forum and they will
seek to portray themselves positively.
The nal principle of good practice in teaching
suggests that instructors need to respect the many dif-
ferent ways of learning (Chickering & Gamson, 1987).
There are many different ways to learn a concept and a
myriad of ways to study, and instructors should attempt
to provide students with a variety of ways to demonstrate
their learning (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996; Chickering
& Gamson, 1987). The inclusion of technology into the
learning environment can foster collaboration in learning,
group problem solving, and be more open ended than
traditional forms of teaching, such as tests. As such, the
use of social media in classroom teachings aids instructors
in using new and innovative methods. Further, as social
media is in the public domain, students are able to help
each other in collaborative learning online. Based on the
reviewed literature on social media, SNSs, and student
engagement, the following research question is posed:
Can the use of Twitter foster enhanced student engage-
ment within a sport marketing course?
On-campus students (N = 68) enrolled in a sport mar-
keting course of an Australian university participated
in a social media module. The course examined the key
concepts and practices in the process of sport market-
ing and was available to students enrolled in a business
undergraduate degree. The majority were domestic stu-
dents (77.9%), studying full time (95.6%), comprised
primarily of male students (60.3%). Before enrolling
Tweeting the Lecture 95
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
in the current course, 40 students did not have a current
Twitter account. Of the 28 students with current Twitter
accounts, usage was inconsistent with approximately a
third of participants accessing Twitter daily. During the
semester, students reported a signicant increase of Twit-
ter usage, with the majority of students accessing Twitter
once or twice per week. Usage of other social media
accounts included Facebook (99%), a personal blog (9%),
and MySpace (13%). Facebook was predominantly used
on a daily basis, as was their personal blog, while use
of MySpace was nonexistent (refer to Table 1), which is
consistent with national average of social media uptake
(Adcorp, 2015). Twitter was selected over other social
media platforms because it is best used for real-time
interaction (Hopkins, 2013), which formed the basis for
the two online discussion lectures and the wider sport
management industry could engage in the discussions
in a public forum.
Enrolled students were required to sign up to the Twitter
service as part of the assessment requirements for the
sport marketing course. As part of the course’s assess-
ment items, there were two components to the use of
Twitter. First, students participated in two discussion
lectures, which were conducted using Twitter. Second,
students were to regularly post contemporary issues in
sport marketing based on course content. Both aspects
are explained below.
In the rst part of the assessment, the instructor
conducted an online lecture where the students discussed
contemporary issues in sport marketing in Week 5 and
10 of the semester, which was based on 4 weeks of
course content (Weeks 1–4 and 6–9). Each online
lecture had ve topics with three to ve questions in
each; resulting in between 15 and 25 total questions
that the students were to answer (e.g., How does Tennis
Australia use the interest of #AusOpen to market tennis to
wider public and increase overall participation?). Topics
were provided to the students via a public website 48 hr
before the discussion lecture. Students were required
to answer each question posted, reply to at least one
answer for each question, provides examples showing
mastery of course content, show evidence of application
of course materials in either an answer or reply, and to
demonstrate an ability to generate answers that attempt
to engage other students.
Before the online lectures, the local sport manage-
ment industry (professional and semiprofessional team,
National and State Sporting Organizations, and volunteer-
run sport clubs) was also engaged to gauge whether
they would be interested in participating along with the
students to discuss the relevant issues. This allowed the
discussions to have real-world content and engagement
with the wider sport community in the discussion, and
application of, sport marketing principles. As the institu-
tion is the only one with a sport management degree in its
state, acceptance of this offer was positive and students
were engaged by the wider community during both online
discussion lectures.
In addition to the two online lectures, the instructor
set weekly tasks for the students to complete, which were
related to that week’s lecture content. In the weekly tasks,
students were required to post two original Tweets about
the relevant sport marketing topic that was covered during
that week’s lecture and post two replies to other students
between Weeks 3 and 12 of the semester. Therefore, stu-
dents were required to post, at a minimum, four Tweets
per week. To facilitate the online experience, students
were required to include the course code in a hashtag in
their Tweets to enable others who followed the course
code to see and respond to fellow students’ Tweets.
Further, students were advised that they did not have to
censor their regular Twitter activity, as the instructor only
followed the course hashtag and not their Twitter feeds
unless the student followed the instructor. In that case,
the instructor would follow the student back.
As not all students were signed up to Twitter before
enrolling in the sport marketing course, students were
Table 1 Demographic Use of Social Media
Social Media Platform
Frequency of Use (%)
Once or twice
per week
per month Irregularly Total
Twitter (n = 28)
35.7 25 10.7 28.6 100
Facebook (n = 67)
89.5 10.5 0 0 100
Personal blog (n = 6)
71.4 14.3 0 14.3 100
MySpace (n = 9)
0 0 0 100 100
Twitter use during semester (N = 68)
Once or twice
per week
Only during
Weeks 5 and 10 Total
23.5 69.1 7.4 100
Note. n = number of participants who had existing respective social media accounts.
96 Scott and Stanway
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
given two supplementary lectures on (1) Internet etiquette
(otherwise known as netiquette) and (2) how to use Twit-
ter and various methods of Tweeting to ensure that each
student had basic knowledge of using Twitter. Students
were taught the basics of netiquette, which “are social
norms that individuals choose to follow to facilitate
effective communication on the internet (Network
Etiquette, 2011, para. 1). Further, students were instructed
on how to sign up to Twitter, send messages (Tweets),
send replies, retweet, what hashtags were, and how
to use hashtags. Students were encouraged to follow
their instructor and send the instructor an introductory
Tweet, so the instructor could follow each student.
At the commencement of the course, students were
provided with an overview of the current study project
by a colleague, who was not the course instructor, and
subsequently invited to voluntarily participate, which
involved completing a self-administered questionnaire
in Weeks 3 and 13 of a 13-week semester. Although all
students used the Twitter service as part of the require-
ments of the course, only participants who volunteered
to participate in the research component completed the
questionnaires. To ensure voluntary participation, the
advantage of anonymity and minimal threat of disclosure
to the course instructor, data collection was administered
by a colleague at the end of the Weeks 3 (Time 1) and 13
(Time 2) lectures and students who wished to participate
in the project were invited to complete the questionnaire.
Ethics was approved by the institutions Human Research
Ethics Committee.
Based on a review of relevant literature and student
feedback from the pilot implementation of the social
media module, questionnaire items were developed by
the authors to broadly measure aspects of student engage-
ment that specically relate to the social media module,
including social media engagement (e.g., “Twitter has
kept me connected with what’s happening in sport”),
community engagement (e.g., “Twitter has kept me con-
nected with the lecturer in this course”), application of
course objectives (e.g., “Twitter has allowed me to apply
sport marketing principles to real-world examples”),
perceived ease of use (e.g., “Twitter is relatively easy
to use”) and overall satisfaction (e.g., “I really enjoyed
using Twitter this semester”). Before collecting data for
the current study, the questionnaire was piloted with a
sample of students enrolled in the social media module
in a previous semester to ensure the design of the ques-
tionnaire, as well as to identify and rene problematic
items. A 6-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 6
= strongly agree) was selected to encourage participants
to make a choice, rather than accommodate indecision
(Frazer & Lawley, 2000; Sekaran, 2003). In addition,
gender, enrolment status (full-time vs. part-time and
international vs. domestic), social media usage patterns
and perceived skill level (1 = very low skill to 6 = very
high skill) were included as demographic items.
Paired-samples t tests were conducted to compare mean
scores across the 13-week semester. There was a statisti-
cally signicant increase in means scores for 7 of 15 items
(refer to Table 2). The largest mean score increases were
Item 7 “I will feel/felt more engaged in this course
because it had Twitter” (mean increase of 0.90, t(66) =
–5.15, p < .001, η
= .29), Item 6 “I will feel/felt more
included in the course content because it had Twitter”
(mean increase of 0.87, t(65) = –5.40, p < .001, η
.31), Item 8 “I believe Twitter will be/was relatively
easy to use” (mean increase of 0.82, t(66) = –5.26, p <
.001, η
= .30), Item 11 “I believe tweeting aligns with
the course objectives” (mean increase of 0.45, t(66)
= –3.00, p < .005, η
= .12), and Item 12 “I believe
I will/did enjoy using Twitter this semester” (mean
increase of 0.44, t(66) = –2.88, p < .005, η
= .11). In
addition, there was a statistically signicant increase
in perceived skill level from Week 3 (Time 1) (M =
2.82, SD = 1.68) to Week 13 (Time 2) (M = 4.18, SD
= 1.20), t(65) = –7.12, p < .001, with the η
(.43) indicating a large effect size. An independent-
samples t test was performed to analyze differences in
perceived skill level based on participants who had an
existing Twitter account, compared with those who had
not. Results indicated that although both groups reported
a signicant mean increase from Time 1 to Time 2, the
perceived skill level increase was to a greater extent for
participants who did not have Twitter at the start of the
course. There were also signicant differences in scores
for 13 of the 15 items for participants who had an existing
Twitter account compared with those who did not (refer
to Table 3). Finally, there were no signicant differences
in Week 13 mean scores by gender or enrolment status.
The current study sought to investigate whether the use
of a SNS would foster enhanced student engagement
with university course materials. Findings suggest that
social media is an effective tool to be used in the univer-
sity classroom, as levels of engagement with a course’s
content increased over the 13-week semester. The use
of SNSs in a university context is an ever-growing phe-
nomenon, which builds on Kuh’s (2009) two elements,
in-class and outside of the classroom engagement. In
using SNSs in the educational context, instructors are
able to facilitate additional opportunities for students to
be engaged in course materials. Further, SNSs enable the
creation of a cohort of learners where online collaboration
can enhance participation. In the current study, students
reported that they felt more included in the course, spe-
cically with the largest mean increases in two items, “I
felt more included in the course content because it had
Twitter” and “I was more engaged in this course because
it had Twitter,which relate directly to how the course
was facilitated.
Tweeting the Lecture 97
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
The concept of student engagement has evolved
to include more facets than simply academic and non-
academic involvement, the use of SNSs and Twitter can
enable other desirable goals for both universities and
instructors. In terms of the current study, students felt
more engaged with the content, the instructor, and there
was a feeling that the use of Twitter was effective in
achieving learning outcomes, which was to (1) explain
the theories underpinning the marketing of sport and
marketing through sport and (2) apply consumer research
methodologies to the consumption of sport. These are
important ndings as they suggest that students under-
stand the value in using newer modalities of learning.
Further, this nding might be explained by the fact that
digital natives have always used technology in their lives
and therefore, this population might not be hesitant to
adopt these technologies and platforms in their learning
For university instructors, there is a strong push glob-
ally to have more courses and degrees online, with over
30% of USA higher education students taking at least one
course in a fully online mode (Friedman & Friedman,
2013). As such, it is increasingly important for educators
to have an online presence so students are able to connect
to their instructor and also to create new channels of com-
munication. Further, utilizing a wide variety of media
in the classroom, course management software (e.g.,
Blackboard or Moodle), SNSs (e.g., Facebook, Twitter,
and Instagram), along with the traditional media in teach-
ing (e.g., PowerPoint and Prezi) will expose students to
a variety of media and their uses. Given the reliance of
technology in the workplace, as well as the increasing
advertisement of “social media” job positions, such an
emphasis will enable instructors and higher education
institutions that have a curriculum and course materials
that will ensure work-ready graduates (Skinner & Gil-
bert, 2007). In the current study, students were able to
discuss (sport) marketing examples outside of class time
and use real-world examples in their discussions, which
applied the rst principle of good practice (Chickering &
Gamson, 1987). For example, the instructor would Tweet
relevant (sport) marketing examples using the course code
as the hashtag, which students were encouraged to follow.
As all students had a Twitter account, they were able to
communicate with one another about (sport) marketing
and co-create course content (Retelny et al., 2012). Stu-
dents were able to more easily connect and engage with
the instructor and other students about course related
Table 2 Paired-Samples t Test
Time 1 Time 2
Twitter will keep/has kept me connected with what’s happening in
the sport industry
4.01 1.20 4.28 1.36 –1.56
Twitter will keep/has kept me socially connected with peers in this
3.94 1.29 4.15 1.39 –1.12
Twitter will keep/has kept me connected with the lecturer in this
4.43 1.20 4.32 1.39 0.56
Twitter will keep/has kept me connected with third parties 4.00 1.15 3.75 1.38 1.60
Twitter will allow/has allowed me to apply sport marketing
principles to real-world examples
3.93 1.15 4.15 1.18 –1.36
I will feel/felt more included in the course content because it has/had
3.28 1.32 4.15 1.45 –5.40**
I will feel/felt more engaged with this course because it has/had
3.57 1.36 4.47 1.38 –5.15**
I believe Twitter will be/is relatively easy to use 4.25 1.26 5.07 1.15 –5.26**
I believe Tweeting will be/is an effective learning resource 3.72 1.28 4.12 1.38 –2.58*
I believe Tweeting will be/is an effective assessment item 3.60 1.35 4.06 1.54 –2.29*
I believe Tweeting aligns with the course objectives 3.76 1.04 4.21 1.13 –3.00**
I believe I will/did enjoy using Twitter this semester 4.03 1.47 4.47 1.42 –2.88**
I believe I will/did enjoy this course this semester 4.76 1.11 4.75 1.11 0.11
I understood what was expected of me in the social media
4.81 1.03
I encourage other courses to use social media in the classroom 4.37 1.15
Perceived skill level 2.82 1.68 4.18 1.20 –7.12**
*p < .05, **p < .01. N = 68.
98 Scott and Stanway
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
materials that would not have been possible during the
three-hour lecture. Further, Twitter enabled conversations
to be taken online and/or ofine depending on where
the discussion originated to foster motivation in course
materials (Chen, Lambert, & Guidry, 2010; Junco et al.,
2011). Through the extended discussions that could take
place either ofine or online, students were provided
opportunities to engage with university materials using
media that would not have been possible 5 years ago.
These opportunities encourage students to be active in
their learning by discussing relevant and contemporary
sport marketing examples with one another online, which
applies Chickering and Gamson’s (1987) third principle
of good practice. Moreover, new media has enabled
students and their instructors to continue classroom con-
versations online, therefore enhancing and increasing the
quantity of discussions about course materials.
With weekly tasks being set by the instructor, stu-
dents were encouraged to stay up-to-date on their tasks
and complete activities in a timely manner. The task also
exposed students to new ways of learning and because
they were assessed on a weekly basis, they had to be
active participants in the process. Through the 10-week
assessment, students were able to be active in the learn-
ing process as they were compiling information about
their weekly lecture topics and posting relevant infor-
mation online that was shared with the rest of the class
through the use of the course hashtag. In addition, the
on-going tasks encouraged students to be active in their
learning through the use of social media and presenting
the course content online. The use of social media sup-
ported students to stay up-to-date in course materials and
promoted active learning, which applies the second and
fth principles of good practice in education, which is
developing reciprocity and cooperation, and emphasiz-
ing time on task.
The use of social media in a classroom environ-
ment enables instructors to create a course that promotes
cooperation and collaboration among the instructors and
students, and long-term information retention of course
materials (Chen et al., 2010). As the weekly tasks required
students to Tweet about the week’s lecture and apply
Table 3 Independent-Samples t Test
Twitter Account No Twitter Account
t 𝛈
Twitter has kept me connected with what’s
happening in the sport industry
4.79 1.26 3.39 1.33 2.688** 0.10
Twitter has kept me socially connected with peers
in this class
4.71 1.33 3.75 1.30 2.988** 0.12
Twitter has kept me connected with the lecturer in
this course
4.89 1.26 3.93 1.35 2.996** 0.12
Twitter has kept me connected with third parties
4.21 1.20 3.43 1.41 2.411* 0.08
Twitter has allowed me to apply sport marketing
principles to real-world examples
4.25 1.08 4.08 1.25
I felt more included in the course content because
it has/had Twitter
4.68 1.19 3.73 1.51 2.778** 0.10
I felt more engaged with this course because it
has/had Twitter
5.11 1.03 4.03 1.42 3.636** 0.17
I believe Twitter is relatively easy to use
5.46 0.84 4.80 1.26 2.428* 0.08
I believe Tweeting is an effective learning resource
4.68 1.25 3.73 1.34 2.970** 0.12
I believe Tweeting is an effective assessment item
4.61 1.37 3.68 1.60 2.548* 0.09
I believe Tweeting aligns with the course
4.61 0.96 3.93 1.16 2.556* 0.09
I enjoyed using Twitter this semester
5.25 0.75 3.93 1.53 4.733** 0.25
I enjoyed this course this semester
5.11 0.92 4.50 1.18 2.286* 0.07
I understood what was expected of me in the
social media assignment
5.07 0.81 4.63 1.12
I encourage other courses to use social media in
the classroom
5.00 1.09 3.93 1.56 3.348** 0.15
Perceived skill level (Time 1)
3.71 1.61 2.16 1.42 4.155** 0.21
Perceived skill level (Time 2)
4.64 1.03 3.83 1.20 2.939* 0.11
*p < .05. **p < .01. N = 68.
Tweeting the Lecture 99
SMEJ Vol. 9, No. 2, 2015
real-world cases to the materials in their Tweets, students
were actively synthesizing course content and showing
their understanding of their sport marketing course. In
addition to working through relevant sport marketing
examples, students were provided with feedback from
one another on their mastery of the week’s learning and
were also providing feedback to others. As a result of the
Twitter experience, students were actively engaged in co-
creation of course content, as well as receiving feedback
from the instructor and each other through the social
media tasks. The practice of prompt feedback conrms
Chickering and Gamson’s (1987) fourth principle of good
practice in university education.
Limitations and Future Directions
The strength of the current study is that is furthers our
understanding of how social media can enhance student
engagement in an educational context. There are, how-
ever, several limitations that deserve discussion. A central
limitation is that the current study had a relatively small
sample of 68 university students, and despite a reasonable
sample size given similar studies (e.g., Browning & Sand-
erson, 2012), it would be useful to replicate the results
using a larger sample size, as well as a more diverse
sample, such as students across various disciplines.
Accompanied with a longitudinal design (see Junco et al.,
2010) to measure how SNS usage can enhance student
engagement across the degree and a control group, as well
as connecting the grades to the achievement of the stated
course outcomes, would enable a more diverse view of
the potential of SNSs to enhance student engagement
and learning in an educational context. In addition, col-
lecting data across multiple modes of platforms such as
Facebook and Discussion Forums would enable better
insight into the most effective platforms to enhance
student engagement. Given the importance of student
engagement and its impact on student retention in the
educational sector (Thomas, 2012; Tinto, 2010), further
research that explores how interaction with SNSs can
improve student engagement and subsequently student
success, is warranted.
As the social media landscape continues to change, future
studies are warranted to explore best practice in the
use of social media platforms in university classrooms.
In the current study, two lectures were replaced with
online discussion-type tasks, as well as weekly tasks.
Both assessment items were created so students could
show their mastery of the course materials. However,
there are many other ways in which social media and
Twitter could be used in a university environment.
For example, instructors have used (closed) Facebook
groups, wikis, blogs, and many other social media. Each
of these media has its own benets depending on the
course objectives. As such, it would be worthy to create
a best practice framework and recommendations for each
of these media to enable instructors to best choose which
social media to use.
The current study provides novel insights about the
use of Twitter in an education context and how engage-
ment with course materials can be enhanced through
the use of social media. Further, setting weekly social
media tasks encourages students to stay up-to-date in
their studies while fostering a collaborative learning
environment. The current study also bridged the gap in
terms of the use of social media in the classroom and how
it can be adopted to foster engagement in a university
course. As the use of social media continues to develop
among university instructors and students, most of whom
are digital natives, it is suggested that social media be
adopted as an integral part of the learning environment
in the educational context.
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... For some time, the Internet has transformed how teachers and students relate (Scott & Stanway, 2015). This change in relationships between different educational actors has reshaped the teaching-learning process. ...
... The authors supported Twitter as a pedagogical tool and provided theoretical and practical advice to implement it in class successfully. Finally, Scott and Stanway (2015) introduced Twitter into the dynamics of a sport marketing course with two assessments and some weekly tasks. The results obtained demonstrated a positive increase in student engagement towards the course. ...
... A 30-item questionnaire based on previous literature on social media in teaching was used. First, thirteen items (see Table 2) were adapted to the LinkedIn context from Scott and Stanway (2015). ...
Full-text available
Social media have burst into people's lives, transforming their personal and professional spheres. The sports industry has not been indifferent to these changes. Indeed, the management of these digital tools has become prized in workplace settings. Among all social media, LinkedIn has the strongest link to the professional world. Nevertheless, there is a gap in the literature so far regarding the incorporation of LinkedIn into sport management courses. Thus, this work aims to share the results of an educational innovation that uses LinkedIn as its main pedagogical element through blended-learning teaching method based on the learning by doing methodology. A total of 105 undergraduate sport management students from two Spanish universities participated in this study. A pre-test and a post-test were carried out to perform diverse statistical analyses to assess the educational experience's impact. The results show significant outcomes in students' professional profile development and interaction with the sport industry; class engagement and interaction between students and professors; and LinkedIn's suitability to develop the content of the relevant course. These results highlight the educational potential of LinkedIn and encourage sports management faculty to incorporate LinkedIn into their classes as a pedagogical resource.
... Firstly, an extensive review of social media in higher education literature was carried out by the authors of the paper, in order to assess whether it was possible to adapt several items from other instruments for the purposes of this study, even if these were intended to measure the educational impact of other social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube). In this sense, two items (items 2 and 3) from the Scott and Stanway [46] questionnaire, and seven items (items 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 11) from the Adams et al. [47] questionnaire-originally posed as educational experiences through Twitter-were selected for their adaptability to the context of LinkedIn and sport management as well as their suitability for the objectives of the study (see items in Table 2). 3 LinkedIn will make it easier for me to be connected with stakeholders from the sport industry (clubs, sport managers, sport entities, sport companies, etc.) ...
... Scott and Stanway [46] 4 LinkedIn gives you the opportunity to follow and/or be connected with relevant people in my professional sector ...
... LinkedIn facilitates discussions with professionals on sports industry topics that interest me Secondly, based on their specific knowledge of social media, teaching and professional development in sport management, the three authors of the study made a separate proposal of items to complement those adapted from Scott and Stanway [46] and Adams et al. [47]. A total of twelve items were proposed, which, after being discussed jointly, resulted in a selection of eight additional items (see items 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 in Table 2). ...
Full-text available
Social media are one of the most valuable management tools used by sport managers in the fulfilment of their daily tasks. However, the studies that share and analyse the impact of educational experiences that incorporate social media into sport management education for professional purposes are scarce to date. Thus, this study presents an educational innovation piloted in a sport management course where LinkedIn—the social media most associated with the professional sphere—is introduced through an experiential learning methodology, as a driver of students’ career development and as a tool to keep up to date and interact with the sport industry. To assess the learning outcomes, a new scale was developed and tested. A total of 90 Spanish undergraduate sport management students (M = 22.71; SD = 3.84) participated in the study, partaking in a pre-test and a post-test. Regarding the results linked to the testing of the scale, the statistical analysis reflects the scale’s two-dimensional nature, explaining 68.78% of the variance, presenting good psychometric properties (α = 0.95). On the other hand, significant increases in all the scale items between the two measures were obtained, with large effects size in the two dimensions (Cohen’s d ≥ 0.80). Therefore, it is concluded that LinkedIn can help to develop the professional profile of sport management students, Linked(In)g what is taught in the classroom with what the sport industry demands.
... Despite the various benefits that the inclusion of social media in the educational and professional fields can have and although there are several studies that value and reflect the educational impact of the class introduction of specific social media such as Facebook [35], Twitter [32,35,36,40,44,45], or LinkedIn [38,44], to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies that have created and validated an instrument to measure the perceptions that sports-management university students have of these tools as a whole. Likewise, there are no validated scales to measure social media's potential to develop students' professional profiles and as a tool for interaction with the sports industry. ...
... This study has some limitations, which are necessary to acknowledge. First, the sample size is not very high nor representative, even though in the sports-management educational context, several studies collect educational experiences that include social media present similar size samples [44,45]. Nevertheless, higher sample sizes are required to be certain of generalising the results. ...
... Despite the limitations set out in the previous subsection, once taken into consideration, the research raises several theoretical and practical implications that contribute to advancing the topic under study. First, linked to the theoretical field, the research approach to design the SMEPT-SPS is highlighted, since it is the first instrument in sportsmanagement education scope that in a transversal way, allows one to explore the students' perceptions about these tools at a global level, instead of being focused on a particular one [45]. This will enable a broader understanding of these tools' educational impact as a whole, rather than focusing specifically on one. ...
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Although social media has an increasing presence both in university and sports settings, in the sports-management education context, no instruments (without being focused on one particular social-media platform, e.g., Facebook and Twitter) have been developed and validated that globally allow the academy to explore the perceptions of sports-management students concerning the educational and professional learning potential that these tools offer. Therefore, this research’s main objective is to develop and perform a preliminary validation of the social media as an educational and professional tool student perceptions scale (SMEPT-SPS). This study sample was composed of 90 Spanish undergraduate sports-management students (M = 22.56; SD = 3.55). A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the psychometric properties of the SMEPT-SPS. The statistical analysis reflects the scale’s three-dimensional nature, explaining 67.87% of the variance and presents adequate psychometric properties (α = 0.87). Nevertheless, further validity and reliability analysis are required to confirm these initial findings with a larger and more representative sample. Considering the foregoing limitation, this research contributes to the literature by providing a new instrument, the SMEPT-SPS, that could help sports-management faculty expand the scope and understanding of social media’s educational and professional potential.
... For example, different learning models such as blended learning (Geng et al., 2019), collaborative learning Zheng et al., 2019), or mobile learning (Caldwell, 2018;Patteti, 2020), among other, are gaining prominence. In the case of sport sciences academic field, several studies have remarked the positive impact of SM in learning areas such as student engagement (O'Boyle, 2014;Scott & Stanway, 2015), discovery and creativity (Marr & DeWaele, 2015) active learning (Manning, Keiper, & Jenny, 2017), professional development (López-Carril, Anagnostopoulos, & Parganas, 2020) or class community (Sanderson & Browning, 2015), among other positive aspects. ...
... First, the size of the sample (n=65) is small. Although this circumstance is similar in studies that include SM educational experiences in HE (e.g., Adams et al., 2018;Menkhoff et al., 2015;Scott & Stanway, 2015) it would be positive to replicate this experience using a larger sample size. Second, in this work, the sample comes from the context of a Corporal studies to incorporate at least one control group and set up a retest after a period of time has passed from the end of the educational experience to assess the permanence of the results in the students. ...
Social media have revolutionised the way humans communicate and socialise. Education is also changing; social media are transforming educational environments, and online or blended learning are increasingly used. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated this change. In this paper, we present an educational innovation where TikTok (a social media that is based on creating and sharing 15–60-s video, which has experienced a significant breakthrough during the COVID-19 pandemic) is used as a pedagogical tool. 65 Spanish sport science students participated in this study. A mixed research method was designed to analyse the effect of TikTok use on students. The SPSS 23.0 and NVivo12 software were employed to analyse the data, including the paired sample t-test. The main results indicate that the use of TikTok promotes student motivation, creates an engaging learning environment, and encourages the development of skills such as creativity and curiosity. Therefore, TikTok is recommended to be introduced as a teaching–learning tool in corporal expression courses of the sport science Bachelor's degree owing to its positive educational potential and because TikTok suits the expressive and creative content of the course through music and movement.
... However, in thearea area of sport education, social media studies are still limited (Luguetti, Goodyear, & André, 2019). Within the university context, the arrival of the Internet has transformed the way in which students, teachers, and university institutions interact (Scott & Stanway, 2015). Indeed, higher education institutions have embraced the adoption of these digital tools such as virtual learning environments or social media (Lacka & Wong, 2019). ...
... Nevertheless, some studies (e.g., O'Boyle, 2014; Sanderson & Browning, 2015;Scott & Stanway, 2015) share practical experiences related to the introduction of social media for pedagogical purposes in sport management studies, where the results regarding the teaching-learning process are positive. These authors highlight the increasing level of student engagement in the courses, which is attributed to the creation of digital environments that facilitate interaction between students. ...
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The rise of social media has reshaped today's society by affecting how people communicate and build social relationships. The sports industry has not been indifferent to these shifts and embraced these communication tools. Indeed, social media is an essential management element in the day-to-day routine of sports managers. Furthermore, athletes, coaches, clubs, professional leagues, federations, and other sport actors have also adopted the use of social media. Therefore, owing to the increasing prevalence and growing role of social media in the sports industry, the mastery of digital skills related to the use of social media is one of the aspects that is most sought after by employers. In fact, the COVID-19 pandemic has recently boosted these demands as well as having further accelerated the process of digitalization of the sport sector. Furthermore, owing to restrictions on citizens' mobility, the pandemic has also pushed distance learning methods (where social media serve as facilitators) to take on a more prominent role in the educational context. Nevertheless, there is a lack of comprehensive studies addressing the effect of these tools in the scope of sport management education; in addition, there are few studies that provide guidelines for teachers to incorporate social media into the different areas of the teaching–learning process. Thus, this article focuses on the inclusion that social media have in sport management studies and also presents a proposal for the classification and possible application of social media which, owing to their characteristics and educational/labor potential, are considered suitable for introducing them into sport management courses. Furthermore, this study aims to encourage the sport management teaching community to introduce social media into the dynamics of their courses, given their pedagogical value, and the positive effect they have on student education.
... In sport management curricula, Twitter has emerged as a preferred platform. Two empirical studies have collected survey data from instructors (Lebel, Danylchuk, & Millar, 2015) and sport marketing students (Scott & Stanway, 2015). The Lebel et al. (2015) study found enthusiasm for the platforms was also accompanied by trepidation on the part of many sport instructors, because use of the platforms represented a change to classroom management. ...
... The Lebel et al. (2015) study found enthusiasm for the platforms was also accompanied by trepidation on the part of many sport instructors, because use of the platforms represented a change to classroom management. Respondents in Scott and Stanway (2015) supported the concept of Twitter use in class but suggested further analysis of the platforms can improve their effectiveness as a teaching tool. More recently, Feito and Brown (2018) provided a roadmap for adopting Twitter for in-class exercises in consuming news, analysis, and writing. ...
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As sport management pedagogy has evolved, an effort has been made to incorporate popular and innovative social media technologies into classroom instruction. Academic research has suggested how the technology can be utilized to provide real-world skills for students and develop proficiencies in an area where many sport management graduates find employment. Notable among the recommendations about social media use by sport management scholars is a lack of research testing the efficacy of these tools in improving curricula. The current study relied on the recommendations of Sanderson and Browning (2015) to use the social media site Twitter to create online partnerships, testing the perceived benefits of such an arrangement through end-of-semester surveys with student participants. While the survey data show a true partnership may be difficult to realize—particularly during a single semester—the benefits of such an assignment were clearly articulated.
... Telegram is one of the social networking sites that can be used in language teaching. It is a valuable extension of the classical learning method that particularly useful outside of the online classroom to promote further practice and improvement of skills (Yinka & Queendarline, 2018 (Scott & Stanway, 2015), motivate students, and enabling distance learning (Alshammari et al., 2015;Hosny & Fatima, 2012). Social networking site provides students an alternative way to take an active part digitally without feeling anxious to ask questions and exchange ideas and knowledge (Hamid et al., 2010). ...
This study investigated the use of social networking site Telegram in improving students’ pronunciation of eleventh grade students in one of senior high school in Tangerang, Indonesia. A total of 24 students were taken as the sample in the current study. Non-randomized one class pretest-posttest design was used in the study. Using quasi experimental research one-class pretest-posttest design, the students in the experimental class completed the process through Telegram. The tests and questionnaires were used to collect the data. In order to test whether there was an improvement within the class, the hypothesis was tested using the t-test and obtaining the gain scores. The result showed that the pronunciation of students was improved. They were interested in learning through the media, wanted to learn new things, and active throughout the learning process. Based on the percentages, students’ posttest showed that the pronunciation of students was improved after using social networking site Telegram. Moreover, this research also found that the evaluation of learning model was good, the students’ learning motivation was very good, and made a good class atmosphere in the experimental class throughout the learning process by using social networking site Telegram.
... Social networking has become an essential part of life, where popular social media tools such as Twitter fostered student engagement in sport management education (Scott & Stanway, 2015). In order to enhance engagement, students preferred to use social media, i.e. ...
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Mobile learning technologies and social media tools have not been studied to an exhaustive extent in terms of student engagement and learning outcomes. Using a quasi-experimental research method, the authors randomly selected 101 participants who were divided into three groups. Each group received English teaching assisted by mobile learning technology (Rain Classroom), a social media tool (WeChat) and the traditional multimedia projecting system for one semester. The authors concluded that mobile learning technologies could significantly improve behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional engagements and English learning outcomes compared with social media tools. The traditional teaching tools did not improve behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional engagements and learning outcomes as much as Rain Classroom and WeChat did. Future research could focus on development of serious games to improve student engagement and learning outcomes.
... Technology has opened the path for many educational reforms and innovations (Tayag, 2020). For instance, the Internet has reshaped the way students, teachers and universities interact (Scott & Stanway, 2015), enabling the emergence of new learning models, such as online learning, which, since the beginning of the century, started to experience high growth (Goodyear, Salmon, Spector, Steeples, & Tickner, 2001). The expansion of these new pedagogies in the educational fieldwhich include the use of digital technologies and new communication channels, such as social mediaexperienced a boom during the COVID-19 pandemic that has impacted the whole educational community. ...
Social media provide innovative teaching and learning pedagogical frameworks that change means of communication within academic institutions and enable students to develop digital skills that are helpful for a successful professional career. LinkedIn, a social media tool that focuses on professional networking and career development, has become the most popular professional social network, used by all stakeholders of the sport industry, and can therefore be used by students to stay in touch with experts and the latest trends in the sports industry. The purpose of this article is to define the main features and functionalities of LinkedIn from a sport management perspective and share guidelines to embrace and introduce it effectively into sport management courses.
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Sendo uma língua radicalmente diferente da sua primeira língua, os aprendentes chineses normalmente demonstram algumas dificuldades durante a aprendizagem inicial de português, especialmente em relação à flexão que não existe naquela. Considerando a popularização das redes sociais dentre a comunidade juvenil, aproveitamos a plataforma de microblogue de origem chinesa Weibo para criar um ambiente virtual de interação entre estudantes chineses e falantes nativos da língua portuguesa. Duas intervenções respectivamente com cinco estudantes portuguesas de mandarim e uma leitora portuguesa de Português Língua Estrangeira foram realizadas nos anos letivos 2018/2019 e 2019/2020 com os objetivos principais de entender as suas maiores dificuldades causadas pelos conceitos lingüísticos adquiridos na sua língua materna durante a aprendizagem e identificar a influência trazida pela interação com os falantes nativos durante quatorze semanas no domínio do sistema flexional na língua portuguesa, nomeadamente, concordância verbal, formação dos tempos e modos verbais e concordâncias nominais de gênero e de número pelos aprendentes. Posteriormente, erros cometidos durante as atividades foram analisados consoante a ferramenta MaxQDA. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, alguns participantes chineses demonstraram um progresso no uso dos tempos e modos verbais e na concordância nominal de número, evidenciando as potencialidades da aplicação da rede social como uma abordagem possível para reforçar o domínio da flexão da língua portuguesa pelos falantes chineses iniciantes. Ainda assim, os estudantes revelaram certas dificuldades na aprendizagem, especialmente quanto aos conceitos que não existem no sistema linguístico da sua primeira língua.
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Television broadcasters often exhibit bias in the reporting of sport events. Through framed discourse, networks embed multiple storylines to build and maintain audiences over the duration of an event. Research has typically focused on mega-events occurring every four years. This study, through content analysis of American Broadcast Company’s announcer discourse of a smaller annual event, the 2007 National Basketball Association finals series, found that the framing function of the media continued to be employed. Findings also revealed significant associations existed for play-by-play and colour commentary on the two competing teams that would serve to reinforce viewer beliefs. Commentary on the winning team emphasized skill, speed and creativity, whereas star players became the focus of the losing team. Sport marketers can gain practical utility for use of framing in broadcasts by providing commentators with prepared frames that could support viewer beliefs or expectations.
As accountability and the nature of higher education are changing to an emphasis on teaching, it is critical for faculty to have pedagogical training to develop their classroom skills. Currently, most doctoral programs do not require pedagogical courses therefore faculty must independently seek knowledge on how to engage students and to teach the specifics of sport management. This article discusses the foundations of constructivist learning and some specific teaching strategies relevant for a sport management classroom. Drawing on educational and psychological theory, a six-element framework is outlined where instructors attempt to reach long-term learning, not just a memorization of facts. The overall framework and each element are discussed and then strategies such as the Fishbowl, Active Opinion, Talking in Circles, and group selection options are introduced. The benefit of this approach to the classroom is that it is not topic specific, and can be implemented in a variety of sport management classrooms.
Sport organizations, teams, and athletes are growing constituencies that use socialmedia platforms such as Facebook and Twitter to engage in dialogue with their respective audiences. The purpose of this study was to examine Twitter hashtag use during a major sporting event. Specifically, this study analyzed #WorldSeries during the 2011 World Series. The study employed a content-analysis methodology to determine who was using the hashtag and how it was being used. Using systematic sampling, 1,450 tweets were analyzed. The results demonstrated that #WorldSeries was being used predominantly by laypersons to express fanship, as well as interactivity. When individuals were being interactive with this hashtag, they were doing so mainly with MLB/league officials and other laypersons. Most of these interactive tweets were also expressions of fanship. The implications of these findings are discussed further.
Twitter has become a popular topic in sport communication research. Little research to date, however, has examined Twitter from the perspective of student-athletes. This research explored how student-athletes at an NCAA Division I university used Twitter and reacted to critical tweets from fans. Semistructured interviews with 20 student-athletes were conducted. Analysis revealed that student-athletes used Twitter in 3 primary ways: keeping in contact, communicating with followers, and accessing information. With respect to critical tweets, student-athletes reported various perceptions about them and diverse strategies for responding to them. The results suggest that Twitter is a beneficial communicative tool for student-athletes but also presents challenges, given the ease with which fans attack them via this social-media platform. Accordingly, athletic departments must be proactive in helping student-athletes use Twitter strategically, particularly in responding to detractors.
Sport industry marketers have long understood the importance of nurturing customer relationships. The new challenge is how best to face the shifts in customer relationship marketing posed by sports organizations and proactive consumers, or “prosumers.” In this article, the elements of the relationship-building process are presented with a focus on communication, interaction, and value, concepts identified in Gronroos’s (2004) relationship-marketing process model. An expanded version of Gronroos’s model is developed to include prosumers and to describe the interactions that occur through social-media exchanges. The value of specific social-media tools and Web 2.0 technologies in helping sport marketers meet their relationship-marketing goals is also discussed. Finally, directions for future research employing the expanded model are suggested.
A student development theory based on student involvement is presented and described, and the implications for practice and research are discussed.
This study identifies characteristics manifested in the classrooms of effective college and university teachers. Students rated teachers on items gleaned from the teaching effectiveness literature that were shown to be correlates of excellent teaching. Results support the notion that the construct of teacher effectiveness is not only multidimensional but may also require multiple definitions.
This case study explored how professional golfers participating in the Masters tournament used Twitter during the week of the event. Basing the research in self-presentation theory, the author conducted a content analysis of 895 tweets by 39 golfers. The results suggest that athletes are using Twitter to give fans both a front-stage and a backstage glimpse into their lives, with engaging with fans (front stage) being the most prominent. By balancing between front stage and backstage, the athletes are able to give fans a more intimate view of their life, while also maintaining a public persona that can please sponsors. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.