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Life Cycle Assessment of Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Nanowire Anode for Electric Vehicles

Authors:

Abstract

While silicon nanowires have demonstrated great potential for application on lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, their environmental impacts have never been investigated. For a comprehensive environmental impact assessment, a life cycle assessment (LCA) has to be used to evaluate the potential impact of the product from cradle to grave. In this paper, the LCA is carried out on the environmental impacts of a high performance lithium ion battery system with silicon nanowire anode. The LCA modeling is based on laboratory data, literature references and the Gabi 6 Professional Database on a 43.2 kWh battery system for an EV with 10 year life. The environmental impacts of lithium ion battery system are analyzed in the whole life cycle. Introduction: Electric vehicles (EVs) are more environmental friendly than conventional internal-combustion-engine powered vehicles and are expected to be used in large fleet vehicle applications in the following several decades worldwide. It has been predicted that the global market for EVs will expand from 1.2m in 2010 to 6.1m in 2015 and to 19.8m in 2020 (Watabe, 2011). Current EVs are powered by lithium ion batteries. Current lithium ion batteries are made of graphite anode which has a relatively small specific capacity (372 mAh/g), and accordingly, can only power the EV for a limited driving range. In comparison, silicon has a high theoretical specific capacity (4200 mAh/g) and has been widely recognized as the ideal anode active material for next generation high capacity lithium ion batteries (Chan, 2008). Such novel lithium ion batteries, in theory, can power electric vehicles for up to 10 times the driving range of current lithium ion batteries based on graphite anode materials.
Life Cycle Assessment of Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon
Nanowire Anode for Electric Vehicles
Abstract: While silicon nanowires have demonstrated great potential for application on
lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, their environmental impacts have never been
investigated. For a comprehensive environmental impact assessment, a life cycle assessment
(LCA) has to be used to evaluate the potential impact of the product from cradle to grave. In
this paper, the LCA is carried out on the environmental impacts of a high performance lithium
ion battery system with silicon nanowire anode. The LCA modeling is based on laboratory
data, literature references and the Gabi 6 Professional Database on a 43.2 kWh battery
system for an EV with 10 year life. The environmental impacts of lithium ion battery system
are analyzed in the whole life cycle.
Introduction: Electric vehicles (EVs) are more environmental friendly than conventional
internal-combustion-engine powered vehicles and are expected to be used in large fleet
vehicle applications in the following several decades worldwide. It has been predicted that the
global market for EVs will expand from 1.2m in 2010 to 6.1m in 2015 and to 19.8m in 2020
(Watabe, 2011). Current EVs are powered by lithium ion batteries. Current lithium ion batteries
are made of graphite anode which has a relatively small specific capacity (372 mAh/g), and
accordingly, can only power the EV for a limited driving range. In comparison, silicon has a
high theoretical specific capacity (4200 mAh/g) and has been widely recognized as the ideal
anode active material for next generation high capacity lithium ion batteries (Chan, 2008).
Such novel lithium ion batteries, in theory, can power electric vehicles for up to 10 times the
driving range of current lithium ion batteries based on graphite anode materials.
Silicon nanowires (SiNW) are most commonly studied as a potential active material for lithium
ion battery anode. However, the environmental impacts associated with silicon nanowires on
lithium ion battery applications have never been investigated. For the comprehensive
environmental impact assessment, life cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective tool to evaluate
the potential environmental impacts from cradle to grave. In the past, a few LCA studies on
lithium ion batteries for EV applications have been conducted on conventional battery
technologies. For example, Notter conducted a life cycle inventory analysis of a conventional
lithium ion battery (Graphite as anode and Manganese Oxide as Cathode) and a rough LCA of
Bingbing Li, Jianyang Li, Chris Yuan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
cyuan@uwm.edu
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technologies (ISSN 2329-9169) is
published annually by the Sustainable Conoscente Network. Melissa Bilec and Jun-ki Choi, co-editors.
ISSSTNetwork@gmail.com.
Copyright © 2013 by Bingbing Li, Jianyang Li, Chris Yuan. Licensed under CC-BY 3.0.
Cite as:
Life Cycle Assessment of Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Nanowire Anode for Electric Vehicles. Proc. ISSST, Bingbing Li,
Jianyang Li, Chris Yuan. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.805147. v1 (2013)
Copyright © 2013 by the Authors
European electricity fueled EV, which showed that the environmental impacts of vehicles are
dominated by the operation phase regardless of vehicle type (Notter, 2010). The U.S. EPA
conducted a screening environmental impact analysis of the production of next generation
battery anode using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) comparing with battery-grade
graphite anode, based on the laboratory modeling data (U.S. EPA, 2013).
Methodology
In this paper, a LCA is carried out on the environmental impact assessment of a high capacity
lithium ion battery system using SiNW anode. Detailed analysis and procedures are presented
in the following sections. Life cycle inventory data are mainly collected from laboratory
experimentation, literature references and the Gabi 6 Professional database, in general US or
global averages.
2.1 Product system
The EV analyzed in this paper is powered by a 43.2 kWh lithium ion battery with 3000 cycles at
80% maximum discharge, using the SiNW anode material. Based on the data from U.S.
Highway Statistics 2011 by the US Department of Transportation, the average annual miles per
vehicle is 12332.02 miles (19846.46km) in 2010 (Federal Highway Administration, 2013). In this
study, the operation distance of the battery is set to 200,000 km during its 10 years service life.
2.2 Goal and Scope
The goal of this study is to investigate the potential environmental impact of a future EV product
system using the 43.2 kWh lithium ion battery travelling 200,000 km during a 10 year service life.
The functional unit is per kilometers driven. In the analysis, all life cycle data including energy
consumptions, material uses, emissions and environmental impacts are ultimately presented in
terms of the functional unit (km).
In this paper, the whole life cycle stages include material extraction, material processing,
component manufacturing, battery manufacturing, battery use in EV operation and end-of-life.
The waste disposal during the materials processing and component manufacturing is included
within the system boundary, while the disposal during the end of life stage is excluded from the
system boundary. Only the recycled materials being used in the production of materials
processing are considered in this study. All the inventory data in the materials extraction stage
are using cradle to grave data from the Gabi 6 Professional database. Materials not found in the
Gabi 6 Professional database are modeled from elements available in the database using
stoichiometric calculations and estimations of energy use without estimation of losses. Due to
the lack of metrics and methods for nano-materials, the environmental impacts of SiNWs are not
included in this study. Due to the limitation of data collection and availability of commercial
pouch cell with SiNW anode, some inventory data for materials processing, component
manufacturing and battery manufacturing use a combined theoretical and laboratory data. The
life cycle process flow within system boundary for the lithium-ion battery with SiNW anode is
illustrated in Figure 1.
Copyright © 2013 by the Authors
Silicon powder
Carbon
Copper
Raw materials for
binder
Lithium core
Silicon nanowire
Carbon black
Copper collector
SBR+CMC
Anode coating
Lithium foil
Separator
Cathode coating
Casing
Raw materials for
lithium salt
Raw materisl for
solvent
LiPF
6
EC:EMC, 1:1
Electrolyte
Lithium-ion
battery
pouch cell
Materials
Extraction
Materials
Processing
Component
Manufacturing End of LifeBattery Use
Electric Vehicles
(EV)
Disassembly
Recycling
Remanufacturing
Copper, steel
Steel and aluminum
BMS
Passive cooling
system
Lithium-ion
battery
Packaging
Power
Grid
Aluminum
Raw material for
plastic
Raw material for
plastic
Polypropylene resin
Monolayer
Polyethylene (PE)
Raw material for
plastic Pack housing
Polyethylene
terephthalate
Stainless steel and
aluminum
Copper wires, steel
and PCB
Theoretical and laboratory data
Database of Gabi 6 Professional
Battery
Manufacturing
Figure 1 Life cycle process flow within system boundary for the lithium-ion battery with SiNW anode
2.3 Environmental impact assessment
Based on the impact categories in the Gabi 6 Professional software and the major concerns of
environmental impacts of lithium ion batteries, four common impact categories are selected in
this assessment including Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP),
Eutrophication Potential (EP), and Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP).
Modeling
Based on the product specifications, the LCA is conducted for the whole life cycle of a lithium
ion battery using SiNW anode. The life cycle inventory data from material extraction and
material processing are collected from the ecoinvent database, while the inventory data for
manufacturing the lithium ion batteries with SiNW anode are collected from our laboratory
experimentation. The inventory data for end-of-life disposal and recycling are modeled from
Umicore® (Umicore Battery Recycling, 2013).
3.1 Electrode
For the lithium ion battery with SiNW anode, the cathode is made of lithium foil with binder. The
lithium high purity foil (99.5%) is produced from cast ingots, which can be found in the database
of Gabi 6 Professional. The binder is a composite with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as the
primary binder and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) as a thickening/setting agent. The
product code of SBR/CMC is PSBR100 made by Targray®. Lithium foils, and SBR/CMC can be
found in the database of Gabi 6 Professional.
Copyright © 2013 by the Authors
For SiNW manufacturing, the data is collected from our lab-scale manufacturing processes. The
silicon powders (Sigma-Aldrich®, -325 mesh, 99.99%) were firstly cleaned by successive
washing using acetone, ethanol, and deionized water to remove the organic contaminants. This
is followed by hydrophilic treatment using a boiling solution of NH3·H2O, H2O2 and H2O (1:1:5,
volume ratio) for 10 minutes. The dioxide layer is then etched away in the following procedure:
The pretreated Si powders are placed in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) beaker and certain
amounts of H2O, HF, and AgNO3 solution (1:1:3, volume ratio) were added subsequently. Silver
plating took 30 seconds for processing. Then certain amount of H2O2 using graduated syringe
was slowly added. The resultant porous silicon was rinsed with copious water and then split into
two portions. One was dried directly in vacuum oven and the other portion was washed with
concentrated nitric acid (30%) for 15 minutes in order to remove the residual silver. The
prepared porous Si material was finally mixed with carbon black and CMC glue (8:1:1, weight
ratio) and coated onto copper foil (5 µm) to make disk-like electrode (1/2 inch). The scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of synthesized
SiNW is illustrated in Figure 2. The carbon black is SUPER C65 made by TIMCAL®, and binder
used is same as cathode.
Figure 2 Imaging of synthesized SiNW (SEM on the left, TEM on the right).
3.2. Electrolyte, separator and casing
The separator is commercial monolayer polyethylene (PE) made by Celgard®. Celgard® uses
dry process, which is typically used in the United States. The blown polymer film is laminated,
drawn down and annealed below the melting point to control the polymer structure, and then it is
followed by rapid stretch to achieve porosity (Gaines, 2000). The porosity of separator is 40%
while porosity of cathode and anode is 38%. The thickness of separator is 20µm and density is
0.2 g/cc. The cell casing is made of aluminum foil and polypropylene resin. LCA data for this
material is extracted from the Gabi 6 Professional database.
The electrolyte is a 1M solution of a lithium salt in an organic solvent (Gaines, 2000). In this
study, the lithium salt is Lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and the organic solvent is ethylene
carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:1, volume ratio). The manufacturing of
LiPF6 is modeled as a unit process. The life cycle data are extracted from the Gabi 6
Professional database.
Copyright © 2013 by the Authors
3.3. Assembly
The battery management system (BMS) mainly consists of copper wires, stainless steel and
printed circuit boards. Based on the literature, the mass of BMS is assumed 2% of total battery
mass while copper wires shares 50%, stainless steel shares 40% and printed circuit boards
share 10% (U.S. EPA, 2013). The pack housing is made of polyethylene terephthalate, which is
assumed 17% of battery mass. The passive cooling system contains stainless steel and
aluminum, which shares 0.5% and 16.2% of battery mass respectively.
The 43.2 kWh battery pack contains 12 modules and each module consists 12 cells. For the
lithium battery with SiNW anode, the total battery weight is 120kg. The single prismatic pouch
cell with SiNW anode is assembled in an inert argon-filled glove box, the energy consumption
and emission of this process is collected from our laboratory process. The material composition
of the lithium ion battery system with SiNW anode is listed in Table 1.
Table 1 Material composition of lithium ion battery system with SiNW anode (total mass: 120kg)
Material name
Mass (kg)
Percent mass (%)
Silicon nanowire
10.80
9.0
Carbon black
3.12
2.6
Copper foil (12µm)
9.36
7.8
Lithium foil
22.68
18.9
SBR+CMC binder (10-20µm, 1:1)
1.56
1.3
PE (20µm, 1.2 g/cm3)
2.64
2.2
Poly-aluminum-poly (200µm)
14.76
12.3
LiPF6 (1M)
12.24
10.2
EC:EMC (1:1)
Copper wires
1.20
1.0
Stainless steel
0.96
0.8
Printed circuit board
0.24
0.2
Polyethylene terephthalate
20.40
17.0
Stainless steel
0.60
0.5
Aluminum
19.44
16.2
3.4. Use phase
In the use phase of a lithium ion battery during EV operation, the life cycle inventory data is a
function of the amount of electricity consumed to operate the EV. It includes the electricity
consumption for charge and discharge, electricity losses in the battery during service lifetime,
and transport of the battery from the car manufacturer to the consumer. The electricity is
modeled as power plant mix, distribution and transformation efficiency and grid mix in the United
States, including the environmental emissions from the power plant. The inventory information
of electricity in the United States can be found in the Gabi 6 Professional database. The use
phase is modeled based on the following assumptions:
EV weighing 1896 kg, electric motor 137 kW and battery power 166 kW.
90% charging efficiency.
Driving mix of 55% urban and 45% highway.
Electricity consumption from grid is 164.8 Wh/km (U.S. EPA, 2013).
Copyright © 2013 by the Authors
Transformation and distribution efficiency 91.4% (Energy Information Administration,
2013).
3.5. End-of-life phase
In this study, battery recycling mainly focuses on the materials (including cobalt, nickel, copper,
carbon, lithium, manganese, separator, aluminum, steel, electrolyte, plastics and printed circuit
boards) materials recycling and recovery (Ra, 2006). Primary data collected from the recyclers
while secondary data are from the Gabi 6 Professional database. The transportation of the end-
of-life battery is modeled as 500km to the recycling site.
Results
After life cycle inventories and modeling of the battery system, the whole life cycle of lithium ion
battery is modeled in the Gabi 6 Professional including all related flows, processing and plans.
Then the life cycle assessment results are obtained using balance function in the Gabi 6
Professional.
Figure 3 shows the life cycle environmental impacts of the Lithium ion battery with SiNW anode,
using the four common impact categories: GWP, AP, EP, and ODP. For GWP and EP, material
processing stage releases most emissions and is followed by the battery use stage. Based on
the previous literature, the battery use stage dominates the GWP impact (over 70%) during the
whole life cycle of lithium ion battery system with graphite anode (Energy Information
Administration, 2013). The environmental impacts of GWP and EP in this study are mainly
caused by the electricity generation, because the material processing of SiNW anode is quite
energy intensive.
Materials extraction takes quite a significant share of AP and ODP impacts, whereas the battery
use stage is only of secondary impact in the category of AP and end of life stage impacts rank
second in the category of ODP. ODP is the potential impact of various CFCs while AP is the
potential impact of acid gases. Both are mainly caused by the material extraction process and
electricity generation. These results demonstrate that the high energy consumption in preparing,
processing and handling the SiNW materials plays an important role in the environmental
impact generations. It also indicates that the impacts in the battery use stage consume large
amount of energy during the whole life cycle of lithium ion battery, which is consistent with
literatures (Notter, 2010; U.S. EPA, 2013).
Figure 3 Life cycle impact of lithium-ion battery with SiNW anode
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Copyright © 2013 by the Authors
Conclusion
SiNW has a great potential for application on high capacity lithium ion batteries. However, its
environmental impacts have never been investigated. This study provides a comprehensive life
cycle assessment of lithium ion battery with SiNW anode for use in EV. Based on the
environmental impacts in the whole life cycle, material extraction and processing dominate in
the whole life cycle impacts, which is mainly due to the high energy consumption in preparing,
processing and handling the SiNW materials.
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There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.
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Battery-powered electric cars (BEVs) play a key role in future mobility scenarios. However, little is known about the environmental impacts of the production, use and disposal of the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery. This makes it difficult to compare the environmental impacts of BEVs with those of internal combustion engine cars (ICEVs). Consequently, a detailed lifecycle inventory of a Li-ion battery and a rough LCA of BEV based mobility were compiled. The study shows that the environmental burdens of mobility are dominated by the operation phase regardless of whether a gasoline-fueled ICEV or a European electricity fueled BEV is used. The share of the total environmental impact of E-mobility caused by the battery (measured in Ecoindicator 99 points) is 15%. The impact caused by the extraction of lithium for the components of the Li-ion battery is less than 2.3% (Ecoindicator 99 points). The major contributor to the environmental burden caused by the battery is the supply of copper and aluminum for the production of the anode and the cathode, plus the required cables or the battery management system. This study provides a sound basis for more detailed environmental assessments of battery based E-mobility.
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Through the usage of life cycle assessment methods, two different battery systems are benchmarked. One is composed by traditional Li-ion NMC graphite cells and the other, Li-ion NMC silicon nanowire ones. Their characteristics are displayed and challenged throughout different impact categories, such as climate change, human toxicity, and cumulative energy demand. These impact categories highlight the damages provoked during manufacturing, usage, and recycling of the battery systems within an electric vehicle usage scenario. Results show that silicon nanowire systems have slightly more impacts in climate change and cumulative energy demand categories, while regarding human toxicity, NMC graphite–based cells display higher scores.
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Depleted LiCoO2 cathode material in spent lithium ion rechargeable batteries was recovered and renovated in a single synthetic step using Etoile-Rebatt technology. The structural and compositional purities of the recovered and renovated LiCoO2 were confirmed by elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction pattern analyses, and Raman spectroscopy. In spite of the simple and economical recycling, the recovered and renovated LiCoO2 exhibits a prospective electrochemical activity; an initial discharge capacity of 134.8mAhg−1 and the discharge capacity retention of 95.9% after 50 cycles.
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One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.
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LiB Materials Industry: Automotive LiB materials Get Set for Growth Phase in 2011. FITT Research at Deutsche Bank Group
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Watabe T., and Masashi M. 2011. LiB Materials Industry: Automotive LiB materials Get Set for Growth Phase in 2011. FITT Research at Deutsche Bank Group. URL: http://www.fullermoney.com/content/2012-02-02/LiB12611.pdf.
Battery to Battery: Closing the Battery Loop, Umicore Group
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Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles
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Notter D. A., Gauch M., Widmer R., Wager P., Stamp, A., Zah R., and Althaus H.-J. 2010. Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles. Environmental Science and Technology, 44 (17): 6550-6556. DOI: 10.1021/es903729a