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Abstract

A recent qualitative review by Wood, Froh, and Geraghty (2010) cast doubt on the efficacy of gratitude interventions, suggesting the need to carefully attend to the quality of comparison groups. Accordingly, in a series of meta-analyses, we evaluate the efficacy of gratitude interventions (ks = 4-18; Ns = 395-1,755) relative to a measurement-only control or an alternative-activity condition across 3 outcomes (i.e., gratitude, anxiety, psychological well-being). Gratitude interventions outperformed a measurement-only control on measures of psychological well-being (d = .31, 95% confidence interval [CI = .04, .58]; k = 5) but not gratitude (d = .20; 95% CI [-.04, .44]; k = 4). Gratitude interventions outperformed an alternative-activity condition on measures of gratitude (d = .46, 95% CI [.27, .64]; k = 15) and psychological well-being (d = .17, 95% CI [.09, .24]; k = 20) but not anxiety (d = .11, 95% CI [-.08, .31]; k = 5). More-detailed subdivision was possible on studies with outcomes assessing psychological well-being. Among these, gratitude interventions outperformed an activity-matched comparison (d = .14; 95% CI [.01, .27]; k = 18). Gratitude interventions performed as well as, but not better than, a psychologically active comparison (d = -.03, 95% CI [-.13, .07]; k = 9). On the basis of these findings, we summarize the current state of the literature and make suggestions for future applied research on gratitude. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... Despite their ease of use and encouraging findings specific to disability, recent meta-analyses and review suggest a need for moderation in expectations of gratitude interventions (Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017;Jans-Beken et al., 2020). Comparing gratitude interventions with a measurementonly control, meta-analysis data showed that interventions marginally outperformed measurement-only control studies on wellbeing. ...
... Comparing gratitude interventions with a measurementonly control, meta-analysis data showed that interventions marginally outperformed measurement-only control studies on wellbeing. No detectable difference was found between intervention and nonintervention groups on change in gratitude (Davis et al., 2016). Dickens (2017), building on the findings from Davis et al. (2016), found that gratitude interventions outperformed a neutral condition across multiple outcomes (e.g., well-being, happiness, life satisfaction, grateful mood, grateful disposition). ...
... No detectable difference was found between intervention and nonintervention groups on change in gratitude (Davis et al., 2016). Dickens (2017), building on the findings from Davis et al. (2016), found that gratitude interventions outperformed a neutral condition across multiple outcomes (e.g., well-being, happiness, life satisfaction, grateful mood, grateful disposition). However, gratitude interventions only minimally outperformed alternative positive intervention participants in well-being. ...
Article
Purpose/objective: Flourishing, a primary outcome of rehabilitation psychology, is understudied among adults with disabilities. Gratitude has emerged as an individual strength that is both malleable and robust in predicting flourishing and adaptation to disability. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gratitude on flourishing over time and to analyze the potential mediating role of adaptation to disability on this relationship for a group of adults with disabilities. Research method/design: Data were collected at 3 time points over 21 months (N = 429). A single mediator model with external demographic variables was tested to determine the relationship of gratitude (Time 1) with adaptation to disability (Time 2) and flourishing (Time 3). Approximately 40% of the initial sample was retained across all time points. Results: Gratitude predicted later flourishing and adaptation to disability accounted for a significant portion of this relationship, accounting for 27% of the total effect. Conclusions/implications: Results of this single mediator model indicate that adaptation to disability serves as a partial mediator of the relationship between gratitude and flourishing, with both gratitude and adaptation to disability having a significantly positive influence on flourishing. Understanding gratitude's influence on later adaptation and flourishing provides data to inform rehabilitation psychology interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... In this study, we focus on three positive-psychological interventions that are popular among researchers and practitioners: first, the best-possible-self (BPS) intervention (King, 2001), which has been repeatedly shown to increase positive affect and optimism and to decrease pessimism (see Heekerens & Eid, 2020;Loveday et al., 2016;Malouff & Schutte, 2016, for reviews and meta-analyses); second, the gratitude letter exercise (Seligman et al., 2005), which has been repeatedly shown to increase gratitude and psychological well-being (see Davis et al., 2016, for a meta-analysis); and third, self-compassionate writing (Shapira & Mongrain, 2010), a frequently used component of comprehensive interventions that focus on the cultivation of compassion, which might increase compassion, self-compassion, and mindfulness, as well as alleviate depressive and anxious symptoms (see Kirby, 2017;Kirby et al., 2017, for a review and meta-analysis). The magnitude of the effects of brief stand-alone positive-psychological interventions is typically small to medium and decreases over time (Bolier et al., 2013) and may even be smaller when using online formats (e.g., Heekerens & Eid, 2020). ...
... Positive-psychological interventions have been proposed to target positive emotions and cognitions, which in turn increase well-being . In line with this, meta-analytic evidence shows that different positive interventions successfully induce positive affect (e.g., Davis et al., 2016;Heekerens & Eid, 2020). One experimental study has shown that increases in positive emotions during a 8-weeks loving-kindness meditation program predicted later increases in personal resources and life satisfaction (e.g., Fredrickson et al., 2008). ...
... For example, the BPS intervention is theorized to build positive future expectations, the gratitude letter should allow to adopt a grateful outlook, and self-compassionate writing has been proposed to induce a mindful awareness that allows to overcome negative thoughts and feelings involved in personal suffering (see Gross, 1998;Quoidbach et al., 2015, for detailed conceptual frameworks). In line with this, meta-analytic evidence shows that individuals report higher levels of optimism after writing about their best-possible future (Heekerens & Eid, 2020;Malouff & Schutte, 2016), higher levels of gratitude after writing a gratitude letter (Davis et al., 2016), and higher levels of self-compassion after a self-compassionate writing task . In addition, results from one waitlist-controlled study suggest that a 12-week comprehensive positive intervention program successfully promoted specific cognitions and emotions (e.g., hope, self-compassion, and gratitude) that were targeted during the weekly online or in-person sessions of the program and that this change partially accounted for increased subjective well-being after the program (Heintzelman et al., 2020). ...
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Growing evidence suggests that online positive-psychological interventions effectively increase well-being, and a wealth of evidence describes cognitive-affective responses to such interventions. Few studies, however, have directly compared responses across popular exercises such as the best-possible-self intervention, the gratitude letter, or self-compassionate writing. In addition, current evidence is ambiguous regarding the effects of potential moderator variables such as trait gratitude and emotional self-awareness. To address these issues, we randomized 432 German adults to perform either optimism, gratitude, self-compassion, or control writing interventions in an online setting. Participants reported trait gratitude and trait emotional self-awareness before the interventions, as well as momentary optimism, gratitude, self-compassion, positive affect, and current thoughts immediately after the interventions. Results indicate higher momentary optimism after the best-possible-self intervention and higher momentary gratitude after the gratitude letter than after the control task. There were no differences when comparing the best-possible-self intervention with the gratitude letter. Both interventions increased the number of positive self-relevant thoughts. The self-compassion condition showed no effects. Moderation analysis results indicate that neither emotional self-awareness nor trait gratitude moderated the intervention effects. Future studies should compare responses across different positive-psychological interventions using more comprehensive exercises to ensure larger effects.
... However, the experimental effects of such interventions do seem to depend on the type of control group they are compared with. Recent meta-analyses have indicated that while they are typically found to be more successful than inactive control groups or alternative activity conditions (such as recording hassles), gratitude interventions are not often more effective when compared with psychologically active control groups performing other positive activities, such as completing acts of kindness or using signature strengths (Davis et al., 2016). The outcome variables measured also appear to make a difference. ...
... Several reviews and meta-analyses have highlighted the promising potential of gratitude interventions for increasing well-being (e.g. Cregg & Cheavens, 2020;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017;Renshaw & Olinger Steeves, 2016;Wood et al., 2010). Therefore, promoting gratitude may be of value to schools in supporting the emotional and mental health of young people. ...
... At present, there is a relatively limited evidence base to suggest how trait or interventionelicited gratitude may contribute to well-being (Davis et al., 2016;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). As acknowledged by Wood et al. (2010), the mechanisms by which trait and intervention-elicited gratitude operate may be different, and it is not a given that gratitude interventions promote well-being through increased gratitude. ...
Thesis
School-based gratitude interventions show evidence of enhancing student well-being but there is limited research suggesting how gratitude increases well-being. There is also the need for a suitable tool to measure children’s gratitude and evaluate the impact of gratitude interventions. The researcher sought to address these literature gaps. A systematic literature review was used to address the question ‘which variables mediate the association between young people’s gratitude and well-being?’. Stronger evidence was found for cognitive and social resources as mediators, compared to mediators related to affect. A lack of experimental and longitudinal studies in the current evidence base was identified, highlighting avenues for future research. In an empirical study, the researcher designed and screened a new questionnaire of children’s gratitude, the Questionnaire of Appreciation in Youth (QUAY). Items were developed using the literature to identify a comprehensive definition of gratitude and its key features, and through discussion with the research supervisors who have extensive experience of studying gratitude. The initial items were screened in a focus group with three children aged eight to nine. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with responses from 107 children aged eight to 10. This led to the development of an 11-item scale with good reliability and convergent validity with an existing measure of gratitude, the GQ-6. A three-factor structure was retained, with subscales addressing gratitude, appreciation, and sense of privilege. Limitations include the lack of a more diverse sample, the absence of reverse-scored items, positive skew in responses, and the need to establish discriminant validity. Implications include new insights into the structure of children’s gratitude, providing a working tool which could be further developed in order to measure children’s gratitude more effectively.
... More and more studies are trying to verify the effectiveness of gratitude interventions, such as a gratitude journal or a gratitude visit. While not all gratitude interventions have as strong an effect as might be expected (Davis et al., 2016), some have been successful in improving the quality of life of their users. For example, keeping a gratitude journal may contribute to a long-term increase in life satisfaction and self-esteem (Rash et al., 2011) and an increase in optimism and hedonistic well-being (Jackowska et al., 2015), increase in eudaimonic well-being and flourishing), as well as a decrease in perceived stress (Killen & Macaskill, 2015). ...
... Most positive intervention studies are carried out in healthy populations and often collegians (Wood et al., 2010), while a recent meta-analysis suggests that especially in populations with health problems, gratitude may be one of the best predictors of increased well-being (Iodice et al., 2021) -they might benefit from these interventions even more than the healthy ones. Another meta-analysis on the effectiveness of gratitude interventions admits that more research on clinical populations is needed, especially ones that exhibit symptoms of depression or trauma (Davis et al., 2016). ...
... Gratitude interventions are cost-effective, widely available, and easy to selfadminister, therefore they might be a self-help tool of choice for women who live in a situation that continuously poses a threat to their mental health (e.g., cancer). Yet, they should be designed with care to ensure the highest efficacy (Davis et al., 2016). For example, if we aim to verify the effectiveness of a gratitude intervention, it is important to choose the right comparison group, preferably an inactive control group that is not involved in an alternative intervention -as it might be impossible to compare them (in line with the "dodo bird verdict"; Budd and Hughes, 2009). ...
Preprint
Introduction: Gratitude is known to have beneficial effects on the well-being of various populations, including women with breast cancer. The present diary study examined if daily feelings of gratitude would affect the daily functioning of women with breast cancer and if after a 2-week-long gratitude intervention they would function better than before it.Methods: Participants were 62 women with breast cancer. Half of them were randomly assigned to the gratitude condition, half to the control condition. All of them completed a 14-day diary that measured their daily gratitude, well-being, affect, satisfaction with life, perceived social support, and other aspects of daily functioning. The gratitude group took part in an intervention that involved wearing a smartwatch that asked them what they were grateful for, three times a day for 14 days. The control group wore smartwatches that sent neutral notifications. Before and after the study, participants completed a set of trait-level scales that measured their dispositional gratitude, depression, anxiety, stress coping styles, and other correlates of gratitude.Results: Daily gratitude was positively correlated with all aspects of good daily functioning (e.g., positive affect, well-being, acceptance of illness), and negatively with negative affect – regardless of the study condition. There were no significant differences in the functioning of women in the gratitude intervention and the control group, besides in daily perceived social support: women who practiced gratitude felt more supported by others on an everyday basis. All participants had a higher level of acceptance of illness and a lower level of anxiety after the study, compared to their baseline scores.Conclusion: We found that daily feelings of gratitude were associated with the good functioning of the patients in everyday life. Keeping a two-week diary that involved self-monitoring of one’s mood and well-being led to better functioning after the study, compared to the initial levels. Yet, research into the effectiveness of gratitude interventions in this population should continue and we conclude the paper with suggestions for future research. We believe this study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms behind a breast cancer patient’s daily functioning.
... Although there seems to be amble support that gratitude interventions positively affect mental well-being, there also have been challenges to the efficacy of gratitude interventions (Wood et al., 2010). Davis et al. (2016) conducted a series of meta-analyses investigating the efficacy of gratitude interventions across three outcomes (gratitude, anxiety, psychological well-being). They concluded that gratitude interventions generally have limited effects. ...
... A supplemental analysis will be performed with a focus on within-group changes. Metaanalytical findings indicate that gratitude interventions have small to medium effects on mental well-being (Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017). The supplemental analysis will investigate the changes within the control and treatment groups. ...
... Furthermore, the supplemental analysis showed that the withingroup effect size of the gratitude intervention was small (Cohen's d = 0.35). This finding confirms recent research that gratitude interventions, specifically in a single-component intervention approach, have a small effect (Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017;Wood et al., 2010). ...
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Previous research suggest that gratitude interventions are effective in improving mental well‐being, which might be beneficial to university students during the COVID‐19 pandemic. This quasi‐experimental study sought to investigate if a gratitude intervention will lead to higher mental well‐being of university students during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Participants (N = 47) mental well‐being was assessed before and after 10 weekly gratitude reflection journals and statistically compared with a control group (N = 40). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the data. The treatment group showed significantly higher well‐being after the gratitude intervention compared with the control group (Cohen's d = 0.74). The treatment group significantly increased (Cohen's d = 0.35) and the control group significantly decreased (Cohen's d = −0.41). Gratitude interventions may be effective in improving the mental well‐being of university students even during a crisis such as the COVID‐19 pandemic. Gratitude interventions seem suitable for improving mental well‐being for temporary mental challenges of university students such as a pandemic or other forms of crisis.
... The current study aims to contribute to the current knowledge about gratitude interventions in several other ways as well. First, recent meta-analyses of gratitude interventions, such as the gratitude letter and gratitude list, found limited evidence for small average effect on well-being and distress across studies (Wood et al., 2010;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017). One explanation is that most studies included in these reviews evaluated single interventions of short duration (1 or 2 weeks). ...
... Gratitude interventions have shown promise in improving mental well-being (Wood et al., 2010;Davis et al., 2016). Gratitude interventions also have been found to promote adaptive processes such as appreciating small pleasures resulting in experiencing more positive emotions, the use of positive reframing and interpersonal responsiveness and reduce barriers for adaptation such as repetitive negative thinking (Fredrickson, 2004;Lambert et al., 2012;Algoe, 2019;Heckendorf et al., 2019;Bohlmeijer and Westerhof, 2021). ...
... These findings suggest that a longer duration of a gratitude intervention is needed before the changes in gratitude as mood start to impact the effect of gratitude interventions on mental wellbeing. Most gratitude interventions that have been studied in RCTs had a duration of 1 or 2 weeks (Davis et al., 2016). Systematic reviews of these studies found evidence for the effectiveness of brief gratitude interventions, but the effect sizes were generally small across studies (Davis et al., 2016). ...
Article
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There is a gap of knowledge about the extent to which gratitude is indeed the working mechanism of change in gratitude interventions aiming to promote mental well-being. This study explores the mediational role of gratitude as mood in the context of a recently conducted randomized controlled trial on the effects of a 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being in comparison with a waitlist control group. Gratitude as mood was measured at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Both simple and multiple mediation models were conducted as well as various sensitivity analyses. Results showed a gradual increase of gratitude as mood during the intervention. The effects of the 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being were mediated by increases of gratitude as mood at 4 weeks but not at 2 weeks. These findings suggest a dose-response relationship for gratitude interventions, but more research is warranted.
... Numerous gratitude interventions aiming to create a sense of appreciation have been developed (Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017;Wood et al., 2010). Among these, journaling interventions, including their variants (e.g., gratitude lists), have been used most frequently and show promising results (Dickens, 2017;Jans-Beken et al., 2020). ...
... Moreover, they appear to increase well-being and positive affect and to reduce negative affect (Dickens, 2017;Jans-Beken et al., 2020). Although such findings are encouraging, they are inconsistent (Davis et al., 2016;Wood et al., 2010). For example, some studies indicate these interventions are effective for depressive symptoms (e.g., Cheng et al., 2015), positive and negative affect (e.g., Emmons & McCullough 2003), whereas others fail to find similar effects (e.g., for positive and negative affect Froh et al., 2009, for depressive symptoms Kerr et al., 2015). ...
... One possible explanation for the apparent heterogeneity in findings on gratitude interventions is that variables related to the intervention, such as intervention type or duration, may influence its outcomes. However, existing data do not support this hypothesis (Davis et al., 2016). Another possible explanation is that sample characteristics, such as age and gender, may impact on these interventions. ...
Article
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Outcomes of gratitude interventions are encouraging, but inconsistent across studies. In addition, both mechanisms of change and effect modifiers for these interventions are largely unknown. Recent data point toward potential candidates and suggest reward processing may be a promising mechanism underlying these interventions, while childhood adversity (CA) and trait gratitude may impact on them. However, existing research aimed at investigating these hypotheses is scarce. Building on these, we examined the effectiveness of a gratitude intervention for decreasing depressive symptoms and negative affect and increasing positive affect. We also investigated changes in reward processing following intervention and explored differences in adherence and drop-out between groups. Finally, we investigated the moderating role of CA and trait gratitude. Participants (N=237, ages between 18–56) were randomly allocated to a gratitude or active control condition (14 days). Following intervention, findings indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and negative affect in both conditions. While positive affect remained stable, a significant time effect emerged for reward processing. CA severity, but not multiplicity, moderated the effectiveness of the intervention, adherence and drop-out. Trait gratitude moderated the effectiveness of the gratitude intervention only on depressive symptoms. Gratitude interventions may not be the best fit for everyone. Thus, we recommend tailoring interventions, especially in individuals reporting a history of severe CA.
... It should be noted that the outcomes that were found to be significant, as well as the corresponding effect sizes, depended upon the comparison group. As a general trend, benefits and effect sizes were smaller when gratitude interventions were compared to a positive control (e.g., listing daily acts of kindness), larger when compared to a negative control (e.g., listing daily hassles), and somewhere in between when compared to a neutral control (e.g., measurement only or listing daily activities) (36,37,39). The benefits of gratitude interventions outlined above focus on comparison to neutral control groups. ...
... The findings of this study suggest that practicing Tiny Habits Recipes and participating in the Tiny Habits 5-Day Program can significantly increase hope and gratitude in the short term, and that focusing specifically on gratitude in the process can sustain the increase in gratitude for up to 1 month thereafter. Congruent with previous studies (36,37,39), greater differences were seen when the intervention (Tiny Habits for Gratitude) group was compared to a neutral (Inactive) vs. positive (Tiny Habits) control group. For instance, relative to the Inactive Control group, the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group exhibited statistically significant increases in gratitude scores post-intervention and at 1-month follow-up, with a large and medium-to-large effect size, respectively. ...
... Most individuals, however, can easily design 3 Tiny Habits Recipes for gratitude into their daily routine, with assistance from a Tiny Habits Coach in the 5-Day Program. This simple behavioral intervention can have an outsized effect in terms of boosting gratitude, which is good in and of itself and may also lead to other changes and benefits, such as improved psychological wellbeing and subjective sleep quality (36)(37)(38)(39). Further, the Tiny Habits Method can also be utilized to promote consistent engagement in other gratitude interventions that have been shown to be effective. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to diminished sleep and increased stress, anxiety, and burnout for many health professionals and health professions students. One simple approach that may be effective for bolstering personal well-being is consciously cultivating gratitude. Gratitude is positively associated with physical health, psychological health, hope, sleep, and health behavior engagement; and randomized studies indicate that gratitude interventions can improve psychological well-being and sleep. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of practicing Tiny Habits® on self-reported gratitude, as measured by the 6-Item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). In January 2021, 154 adult participants with GQ-6 <35/42 were randomized to one of 3 groups: Tiny Habits for Gratitude (n = 50), Tiny Habits Control (n = 52), and Inactive Control (n = 52). Both Tiny Habits groups chose 3 Tiny Habits Recipes to practice daily and participated in the free, email-based 5-Day Program with automated daily check-in emails and personalized feedback from a Certified Tiny Habits Coach. The Recipes for the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group focused on cultivating gratitude, while those for the Tiny Habits Control group did not. Post-intervention, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude (Δ = ↑6.9 ± 5.6; n = 37/50, 74%; p< 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.85) and Tiny Habits Control (Δ = ↑5.6 ± 4.1; n = 31/52, 60%; p = 0.009, Cohen's d = 0.71) groups were greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.5 ± 4.4; N = 42/52, 81%). At 1 month, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group (Δ = ↑7.0 ± 5.3; N = 28/50, 56%) was greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.9 ± 5.4; N = 39/52, 72%; p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.78). These findings suggest that practicing Tiny Habits Recipes and participating in the 5-Day Program can significantly increase gratitude in the short term and focusing specifically on gratitude during this process can sustain the increase in gratitude for up to 1 month. Implementation is quick, simple, and free. This has significant implications for healthcare education stakeholders.
... To date, numerous studies have established the benefits of expressing gratitude for improved social relationships [6,24], physical health [5,10,14,25], and psychological wellbeing [7,26]. Further, two recent gratitude meta-analyses concluded that gratitude interventions outperformed measurement-only (d = 0.20), alternative activity (d = 0.17), and neutral control (d = 0.18) conditions in improving well-being [27,28]. Building on past research [8,29], we posit that writing a single gratitude letter may immediately engender the following positive outcomes: increased connectedness, elevation, humility, and positive affect, as well as decreased negative affect. ...
... Although gratitude is itself a positive emotion [43], several studies have shown that gratitude letter interventions can induce higher levels of other positive emotions, such as happiness and enjoyment, relative to controls [8,27,28,44]. Pausing to acknowledge the goodness in the world and the fact that other people cared enough to help may elicit a surfeit of positive feelings. ...
... In both studies, participants were randomly assigned to write gratitude letters either to someone who did a kind act for them (both studies), to someone who helped them with their health (both studies), or to someone who helped them with their work (Study 1) or academics (Study 2). Participants in the control conditions in both studies wrote an emotionally neutral outline of their weekly activities (i.e., listing what they did during the past week), which is a common alternative activity control that has frequently been deployed in numerous gratitude letter studies [27]. ...
Article
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Although gratitude is typically conceptualized as a positive emotion, it may also induce socially-oriented negative feelings, such as indebtedness and guilt. Given its mixed emotional experience, we argue that gratitude motivates people to improve themselves in important life domains. Two single-time point studies tested the immediate emotional and motivational effects of expressing gratitude. We recruited employees (N = 224) from French companies in Study 1 and students (N = 1,026) from U.S. high schools in Study 2. Participants in both studies were randomly assigned to either write gratitude letters to benefactors or outline their weekly activities (control condition). Expressing gratitude led to a mixed emotional experience (e.g., greater elevation and indebtedness) for both employees and students relative to controls. Students also felt more motivated and capable of improving themselves, as well as conveyed stronger intentions to muster effort towards self-improvement endeavors.
... The program type findings were mixed with Carr et al. (2020) demonstrating that multicomponent PPIs showed greater effects than single component PPIs, but Hendriks et al. (2018) showed no effect for this moderator. The impacts of duration were also mixed with Carr et al. (2020), Koydemir et al. (2020), and Sin and Lyubomirsky (2009) finding that longer interventions led to greater effects, but Carrillo et al. (2019) found the opposite and Davis et al. (2016), Geerling et al. (2020), Hendriks et al. (2018), and Slemp et al. (2019) not finding this effect. Frequency was only tested by Slemp et al. (2019) study of contemplative interventions and was not found to be a moderator. ...
... December 2021 | Volume 12 | Article 739352 Drozd et al., 2014, p. 380 Feicht et al., 2013, p. 2 Ivtzan et al., 2016 to theories and activities that have been shown to improve well-being across many studies (see Table 1), such as practicing gratitude (Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017), kindness (Curry et al., 2018), mindfulness (Lomas et al., 2019;Slemp et al., 2019), and best possible self (Carrillo et al., 2019), as well as job crafting, strengths, and PsyCap in the workplace (Donaldson et al., 2019a). The curriculum of these interventions can be adapted to fit the needs and contexts of participants, including those from non-WEIRD countries. ...
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The second wave of devastating consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic has been linked to dramatic declines in well-being. While much of the well-being literature is based on descriptive and correlational studies, this paper evaluates a growing body of causal evidence from high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that test the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPIs). This systematic review analyzed the findings from 25 meta-analyses, 42 review papers, and the high-quality RCTs of PPIs designed to generate well-being that were included within those studies. Findings reveal PPIs have the potential to generate well-being even during a global pandemic, with larger effect sizes in non-Western countries. Four exemplar PPIs—that have been tested with a high-quality RCT, have positive effects on well-being, and could be implemented during a global pandemic—are presented and discussed. Future efforts to generate well-being can build on this causal evidence and emulate the most efficacious PPIs to be as effective as possible at generating well-being. However, the four exemplars were only tested in WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, and Democratic) countries but seem promising for implementation and evaluation in non-WEIRD contexts. This review highlights the overall need for more rigorous research on PPIs with more diverse populations and in non-WEIRD contexts to ensure equitable access to effective interventions that generate well-being for all.
... Gratitude interventions have also been shown to effectively increase individuals' psychological well-being including their subjective happiness (Davis et al., 2016). The beneficial effect of gratitude interventions on subjective happiness may be explained by broaden and build theory (Fredrickson, 2001). ...
... Grateful people are happier because the experience of gratitude not only increases positive emotions but also facilitates the development of lasting personal resources such as trust in others and social bonds (Alkozei et al., 2018;Wood et al., 2008). In contrast, only a few studies have examined the effects of gratitude interventions on anxiety (Davis et al., 2016). According to Broaden and Build theory, the positive emotion of gratitude may have an 'undoing effect' on the negative emotions of anxiety (Fredrickson, 2001). ...
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The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology program for adolescents with moderate levels of anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong, China. The program combined elements and techniques of gratitude and emotional intelligence intervention delivered in the group format. Adopting a two-armed randomized controlled trial research design, a total of 92 secondary school students who scored 9–11 in the Chinese Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. After the seven-session program, participants of the intervention groups showed a significant decrease in anxiety and significant increase in subjective happiness. Furthermore, the two active components of this program, gratitude and emotional intelligence, mediated the relationship between the intervention and the change in subjective happiness. In addition, emotional intelligence mediated the effect of the intervention on the change in anxiety symptoms. Findings of this study shed light on the applicability and efficacy of multicomponent positive psychology programs in alleviating anxiety and enhancing subjective happiness of adolescents. Future research is called for to advance our understanding of multicomponent positive psychology programs across different types of active components, samples, and conditions.
... Wood and colleagues (2008) offer evidence that those with a grateful disposition see more opportunities for experiencing grateful moods due to their positive (or lenient) appraisals of benefits, i.e., interpreting help received as more valuable, costly or altruistically intended. Some intervention studies have also demonstrated that experiencing state gratitude, through practices such as letter writing and counting blessings, can increase trait gratitude over time (Toepfer & Walker, 2009), however, findings are inconsistent here and complicated by measurement issues (see Davis et al., 2016). ...
... Seligman (2003) identified gratitude as a positive emotion that can reliably increase one's satisfaction about the past. Intervention studies have shown that practising gratitude boosts wellbeing (Davis et al., 2016), helping to cement the view of gratitude as positive. However, the characterization of gratitude as purely positive has been challenged by recent research which has shown a possible "shadow side" of gratitude associated with impression management and manipulation (Gulliford et al., 2019) indebtedness and guilt (Morgan et al., 2014) and even sadness in some cultural contexts (Titova et al., 2017). ...
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Examinations of the influence of culture on how gratitude is experienced are sparse, as are studies that simultaneously explore developmental differences in understandings of gratitude. This paper presents three studies that examine whether perceptions and experiences of gratitude differ across children, adolescents and adults in two individualistic, WEIRD and Commonwealth cultures—Australia and the UK. Studies 1a ( N = 88, ages 17–39) and 1b ( N = 77, ages 17–25) provide initial insights into “features of gratitude” in Australia through two stages of a prototype analysis. These features are compared to a previous prototype study of gratitude in the UK, alongside a further comparison to the US. Study 2 employs vignettes to examine how perceptions of the benefactor, benefit and mixed emotions influence the degree of gratitude experienced across adolescents and adults in Australia ( N = 1937, ages 11–85), with a comparison to the UK ( N = 398, ages 12–65). In Study 3, factors examined in Study 2 are adapted into accessible story workbooks for younger children (Australia N=135, ages 9–11; UK N=62, ages 9–11). Results across these studies demonstrate similarities and differences in understandings and experiences of gratitude across cultures. While adults across Australia and the UK responded similarly to gratitude scenarios, cross-cultural differences are observed between children and adolescents in these two countries. Developmental differences are noted in relation to more sophisticated reasoning around gratitude, such as recognition of ulterior motives. These findings highlight the need for gratitude research and interventions to be cross-culturally, and developmentally, responsive.
... Thus, these approaches focus on the effects or results of gratitude on students, their groups, and so on. Recent positive psychology research has suggested that having or expressing gratitude increases one's mental, physical, and social health and well-being and deepens relationships with others (e.g., Davis et al., 2016). Some researchers have designed educational programs to increase well-being through experiences of gratuitous feelings. ...
Article
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The current article reiterates the diversity of the educational significance of gratitude by identifying three standpoints based on three aspects of gratitude; “gratitude itself,” “the results of gratitude,” and “causes of gratitude.” These standpoints are explained with intrinsic tasks related to them, i.e., the tasks included in each perspective. Free PDF file, https://www.academia.edu/64349016/Gratitude_in_Education_Three_perspectives_on_the_educational_significance_of_gratitude
... For example, Emmons refers to "gratitude lite" being a form of superficial, ethereal gratitude (2016), where gratitude is isolated to the individual and divorced from obligation. This form of transient gratitude has gone viral (#blessed) in modern society and may explain why gratitude interventions are so ephemeral (Davis et al., 2016). On the other hand, virtuous or transcendent gratitude is relational and imbued with a sense of obligation and indebtedness (Emmons, 2016;Roberts, 2004;Tudge et al., 2015). ...
... 6 Gratitude has been intensely affiliated with numerous constructive coping styles of seeking positive reframing, active coping strategies, social support, and problem solving, and as well as mental health growth. 7 Hope is another positive response like gratitude, recognized as a force that facilitate community individuals, even when faced with the most overwhelming obstacles, to envision a promising future and to set and pursue goals. 8 Positive emotions hope and gratitude positively facilitate caregivers especially to the parents who care the patients (child) who are experiencing loss, pain and uncertainty. ...
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Objective: To investigate the liaison between gratitude and hope with stress appraisal on caregivers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methodology: The cross- sectional had 150 care givers of CVD consisting of 84 men and 66 women selected from public and private hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Purposive sampling technique was used. We used Urdu versions of questionnaires the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item, Adult Dispositional (Trait) Hope Scale and the Stress Appraisal Measure. Results: Gender differences were significantlypresent in hope and gratitude. Hope and gratitude affirmatively and negatively were related to different ways of appraising stress. A positive correlation between gratitude and hope was found. Conclusion: Caregivers with possession of positive aspects of gratitude hope and stress appraisal can inculcate positive aspect of thankfulness and level of hope and stress management while care giving. Keywords: Gratitude, hope, stress appraisal, caregivers, cardiovascular disease.
... From a social perspective, gratitude increases the perceived quality of relationships (Algoe et al., 2010), the comfort with which one can express relationship issues (Lambert & Fincham, 2011), and predicts the quantity of prosocial behaviors (Grant & Gino, 2010;McCullough et al., 2001;Tsang & Martin, 2019). These results should be interpreted cautiously though, given the weak to moderate effect sizes observed (for meta-analyses, see Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017). ...
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In the past two decades, gratitude has been shown to be closely related to mental health and well-being. However, there is no consensus about its definition, and self-gratitude was hastily dismissed. This research aimed to analyze how self-gratitude is considered by laypersons. We conducted three online studies to test the hypothesis according to which self-gratitude is prototypically organized. In Study 1, participants (N = 152) listed the features of self-gratitude: 55 categories emerged from the data processing. In Study 2, participants (N = 146) significantly distinguished the features according to their degree of centrality. In Study 3 (N = 108), the analysis showed that the centrality of features influenced cognition through a recognition task. The results provide preliminary evidence of the internal structure of self-gratitude. Overall, this study showed the lay conceptions, allowing us to define self-gratitude as acknowledgment and appreciation of meaningful benefits involving the self.
... The effectiveness of gratitude intervention to mental health among older people has been established. For example, gratitude intervention has demonstrated consistent associations with improved psychological well-being (Davis et al., 2016), including increased happiness (Dickens, 2017;Wood et al., 2010), and decreased depressive and anxiety symptoms (Cregg & Cheavens, 2020). Gratitude intervention is relatively easy to implement. ...
Article
Objectives : Having gratitude is associated with reduced social isolation and depression, which are risk factors for dementia. However, it is unknown whether gratitude is directly associated with cognitive function. This study aimed to determine associations between gratitude and cognitive function and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism by testing the mediating role of brain regions among healthy older people. Methods : We used cross-sectional data from the 2017 Neuron to Environmental Impact across Generations (NEIGE) study of community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years (n = 478). Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Levels of gratitude were assessed using the two-items of Gratitude Questionnaire. Volumes of brain regions associated with emotional processing and social interaction were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Linear regression models and structural equation models were used to examine associations between level of gratitude, brain volume, and cognitive function. Results : The mean gratitude score was 6.3 (SD=0.9) and the mean MMSE score was 27.1 (SD=2.5). Regression analysis showed that higher levels of gratitude were associated with better cognitive function (coefficient=0.25, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of gratitude were associated with larger volumes of right amygdala and left fusiform gyrus. Structural equation model analysis showed that amygdala volumes mediated the association between gratitude and cognitive function. Conclusion : Higher levels of gratitude were positively associated with cognitive function, partially mediated through the amygdala, which is involved in processing emotion and memory.
... Furthermore, Wood et al. (2010) also concluded that though the gratitude intervention is a key concept in positive psychology, the lack of focus on the "dark" side indicated that the concept has been taken for granted by the positive psychology community. Similarly, findings of meta-analysis study on gratitude interventions also provide weak evidence for the efficacy of gratitude interventions" (Davis et al., 2016). ...
Article
Gratitude has gained attention among health researchers for its benefits among chronic illness. However, most of the studies were focusing on the positive effects, neglecting the complex dimensions of gratitude that can contribute to both opportunities and challenges for chronic illness patients. This study aims to understand gratitude among cancer patients in Malaysia from a sociocultural perspective. This includes understanding how cancer patients view gratitude and the impacts of gratitude throughout their cancer-battling journey. This qualitative study involved 35 cancer patients. A thematic analysis was done to analyze the collected data. Among the themes discovered were searching for meaning, meaningful experience, gratitude through the enrichment activities, and gratitude as religious cultural expectations. This study suggests that gratitude is an important experience for chronic illness patients. The ability to understand this experience is vital to support and empower the patients throughout their daily lives.
... Furthermore, Klibert et al. [31] confirmed the effect of gratitude on maintaining positive emotions generated by positive experiences. Alternatively, placebo effects were attributed to interventions utilizing gratitude [32], which have been reported to exert little effect on anxiety and depression as well [33]. Dickens [34] reported that the effects of gratitude interventions are overemphasized. ...
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Employee engagement has become a critical issue in Japanese companies. One way to develop it is to improve the relationship among employees through gratitude expressions. In the post-COVID-19 remote work environment, digital devices are essential. This paper confirms that expressions of gratitude delivered via digital devices enhance the relationship between employees. We experimented in a small-town government office where participants (n = 88) were asked to (1) use the Thanks App, an app we developed to express gratitude, for two months and (2) respond to an engagement survey we developed before and after the experimental period. Through cross-analysis of the data from the app and questionnaire, we found that the “trust in colleagues” factor had a strong correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.001) with our new index computed by the app’s data. The results suggest that the use of the Thanks App may help visualize the trust relationship among teams. This study has a practical value in providing a new team management tool for visualizing team trust. In addition, it provides a new research method for emotional and social psychology using digital devices.
... The literature on positive psychology offers a range of relatively easy, low-cost evidence-based strategies that can be implemented to increase the frequency of positive emotions and well-being (VanderWeele, 2020). Strategies include mindfulness (Campos et al., 2016;Fredrickson et al., 2008;Grossman et al., 2004), gratitude (Davis et al., 2016), practicing kindness or generosity Curry et al., 2018;Dunn et al., 2014), and selfcompassion or imagining one's best possible self (King, 2001;Malouff & Schutte, 2017). These tools may be especially useful during the pandemic because they target both positive and negative emotions, which people report having declined and increased, respectively, through COVID-19 (VanderWeele, 2020;Waters et al., 2021). ...
Article
COVID-19 has infected millions of people and upended the lives of most humans on the planet. Researchers from across the psychological sciences have sought to document and investigate the impact of COVID-19 in myriad ways, causing an explosion of research that is broad in scope, varied in methods, and challenging to consolidate. Because policy and practice aimed at helping people live healthier and happier lives requires insight from robust patterns of evidence, this article provides a rapid and thorough summary of high-quality studies available through early 2021 examining the mental-health consequences of living through the COVID-19 pandemic. Our review of the evidence indicates that anxiety, depression, and distress increased in the early months of the pandemic. Meanwhile, suicide rates, life satisfaction, and loneliness remained largely stable throughout the first year of the pandemic. In response to these insights, we present seven recommendations (one urgent, two short-term, and four ongoing) to support mental health during the pandemic and beyond.
... This malleability and intentionality of gratitude is particularly relevant in the work context. For example, widely recognized gratitude development interventions (Davis et al., 2016) can be beneficial and effective if applied in the workplace to promote well-being, prosocial behaviors, and other desirable work outcomes. With the contribution of the current study, employee levels of work gratitude can be regularly assessed, monitored, and targeted for short and effective training interventions to promote grateful appraisals, gratitude toward others, and intentional attitudes of gratitude in employees. ...
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This study explores gratitude as a multidimensional and work-specific construct. Utilizing a sample of 625 employees from a variety of positions in a medium-sized school district in the United States, we developed and evaluated a new measure, namely the Work Gratitude Scale (WGS), which encompasses recognized conative (intentional), cognitive, affective, and social aspects of gratitude. A systematic, six-phased approach through structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore and confirm the factorial structure, internal consistency, measurement invariance, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity of the WGS. The results supported a 10-item measure with three dimensions: "grateful appraisals" (three items), "gratitude toward others" (four items), and "intentional attitude of gratitude" (three items). Thereafter, first-order, second-order, and bifactor confirmatory models were estimated and compared. Work gratitude was found to be best described by a second-order construct with three underlying first-order dimensions. Measurement invariance was supported in relation to gender. Concurrent validity was supported in relation to two existing dispositional gratitude scales, namely the Gratitude Questionnaire and the Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Scale (GRAT). Convergent validity was supported in relation to the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES) and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was supported in relation to various demographic factors such as age, gender, occupation, and tenure. The findings support the WGS as a multidimensional measure that can be used in practice to measure overall work-related gratitude and to track the effectiveness of gratitude-related workplace interventions.
... In philosophical traditions, virtue and character strengths are considered an essential constituent of a flourishing life 12,13 . Some prior empirical studies on specific traits of character strengths suggested associations between happiness-related strengths (e.g., hope, love, gratitude) and greater subsequent psychological well-being 33,71,72 . In comparison, this study assessed character strengths with more generic measures of global character strengths. ...
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The longitudinal interrelationships between domains of human well-being or flourishing remain understudied empirically. While different aspects of flourishing may be sought as their own end, it is also the case that well-being in one domain may influence well-being in other domains. Using longitudinal data form a sample of employees from a large national employer in the United States (N = 1209, mean age = 43.52 years, age range 20–74 years), this study examined the temporal associations between various domains of flourishing, based on a 40-item index that assessed six domains of flourishing. These domains include emotional health, physical health, meaning and purpose, character strengths, social connectedness, and financial security. A set of linear regression models were used to regress subsequent composite flourishing on flourishing domain-specific scores at baseline. The results indicated that all domains were each independently associated with greater composite flourishing subsequently. The strongest and most robust links were observed for meaning and purpose (β = 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13, 0.25), social connectedness (β = 0.17, 95% CI 0.12, 0.22), and financial security (β = 0.32, 95% CI 0.28, 0.37). Further analyses that regressed subsequent composite flourishing on individual item indicators at baseline suggested that, out of all 40 items, one item under the character domain “I always act to promote good in all circumstances, even in difficult and challenging situations” and one item in the physical health domain (“Based on my past health, I expect to be healthy long into the future”) had the most robust association with subsequent composite flourishing. Implications of these results for understanding the constituents of a flourishing life and for refinement of the flourishing assessments are discussed.
... Thus, these approaches focus on the effects or results of gratitude on students, their groups, and so on. Recent positive psychology research has suggested that having or expressing gratitude increases one's mental, physical, and social health and well-being and deepens relationships with others (e.g., Davis et al., 2016). Some researchers have designed educational programs to increase well-being through experiences of gratuitous feelings. ...
... Although we found that, on average, older adults were higher in gratitude than younger adults, there is likely a great deal of heterogeneity in changes in gratitude across life (i.e., some people increase in gratitude more dramatically, some decrease in gratitude, and some report stable gratitude levels). To date, experimental manipulations of gratitude serve as a promising indicator that momentary feelings of gratitude are malleable (Davis et al., 2016). However, it is unclear about the long-term consequences of either gratitude interventions or the developmental processes already described above in determining how people change in gratitude. ...
Article
Recent research suggests that the association between age and gratitude might be curvilinear—despite gratitude ostensibly being higher in middle-age, it might be lower in older adulthood. It is unclear if this curvilinear pattern of age differences in gratitude is found in other samples and whether its manifestation depends on contextual (i.e., national/cultural) characteristics. The current study examined cultural variation in the curvilinear effect of age on gratitude in a sample of over 4.5 million participants from 88 countries. Participants from countries with lower levels of human development, a shorter-term orientation, and higher levels of indulgence reported higher levels of gratitude. Cultural moderation effects were very small, suggesting that curvilinear effects of age on gratitude may be relatively comparable across cultures.
... There was a positive relationship between expressing gratitude and meaning in life and psychological wellbeing, and a negative relationship between expressing gratitude and symptoms of anxiety and depression Taking into account the issue of expressing gratitude, encouraging it seems important because, as researchers emphasize, the beneficial effects of gratitude can only be fully realized when it is expressed outwardly (Lambert et al., 2010). As expressing gratitude is considered one of the most potent ways to practice it (Lambert et al., 2013) people who do not share their gratitude with benefactors may not derive optimal benefits from gratitude interventions (Davis et al., 2016). Thus, it seems a good idea to implement interventions where participants would be encouraged to express their gratitude in various ways. ...
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Background: Strengthening the sense of meaning in life and psychological well-being brings benefits for mental health. The group particularly vulnerable to mental problems are young adults, therefore the aim of our research was to explore how a gratitude intervention will affect the sense of meaning in life, psychological well-being, general health and perceived stress among them. The research also took into account the issue of expressing gratitude. Method: The study involved 80 young adults (58 women and 22 men) who were randomly assigned to the experimental group that filled out the specially prepared diaries for a week (participants were asked to list three things for which they feel grateful, to whom they are grateful and if and how they expressed their gratitude) or the control group. Participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), the General Health Questionnaire – 28 (GHQ-28), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWBS) twice (before and after intervention). Results: In the experimental group significant increases were observed in three areas of psychological well-being: environmental mastery, relationships with others and purpose in life. The significant decrease was also noted in anxiety/insomnia and depression symptoms as well as in perceived stress. There were no differences in the level of meaning in life. There was a positive relationship between expressing gratitude and meaning in life and psychological well-being. Conclusion: Proposed gratitude intervention has the potential to enhance psychological well-being among young adults, however, it may not be effective in enhancing meaning in life.
... PPIs refer to intentional activities or methods (training and coaching, etc.) based on (a) the cultivation of valued subjective experiences, (b) the building of positive individual traits, or (c) the building of positive institutions (Meyers et al., 2013). Examples of well-known PPIs are interventions that try to enhance feelings of gratitude (Davis et al., 2016), optimism (Malouff and Schutte, 2017), or kind behavior (Curry et al., 2018). Whereas the ultimate aim of PPIs is to increase the well-being of an individual or group (Schueller et al., 2014), when considered in an organizational context PPIs may also be applied to indirectly enhance outcomes such as performance, job satisfaction, leadership skills, and worklife balance (Meyers et al., 2013). ...
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Research indicates that Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) in the work context have a small positive impact on improving desirable work outcomes, and a small to moderate effect on reducing undesirable work outcomes, suggesting that the effects of PPIs are not trivial, but also not large. Whereas this may be related to the difficulty of changing oneself or one’s happiness levels, the relatively small effects of PPIs may also be due to the predominant use of one-off interventions instead of more structural interventions that reflect policy level commitment. Furthermore, since most PPIs tend to focus on the individual, one could question the long-term effectiveness of such interventions, especially when the work environment remains unchanged. In this manuscript, I introduce a typology of PPIs in organizations by distinguishing between the organizational level they target (the individual or group level), and between one-off and structural interventions. I argue that different types of interventions can strengthen each other, and that to make a sustainable contribution to the optimal functioning of workers, PPIs need to comprise a wide variety of one-off and structural interventions targeting both individuals and groups in organizations. Furthermore, I make suggestions for improving the long-term effectiveness of PPIs by drawing on the literature on transfer of training, nudging, and positive design.
... Several recent meta-analyses found that interventions focused on increasing gratitude may increase psychological well-being and decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety, although the effect sizes may be small (Cregg & Cheavens, 2020;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017). For example, women with breast cancer who participated in a two-week daily diary gratitude intervention showed increases in daily psychological functioning, greater perceptions of support, and increased use of adaptive coping strategies. ...
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Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... Nevertheless, among all three meta-analysis studies, gratitude interventions are perceived as one of the most effective positive psychology interventions. In addition, a recent meta-analysis of gratitude interventions showed the effect of gratitude interventions to promote mental wellbeing [16]. Consequently, we designed Be Grateful app based on gratitude interventions. ...
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Despite the increasing number of mental health applications (apps), the perceived usability of these apps from the viewpoint of end users has rarely been studied. App usability can impact users’ acceptance and engagement with a self-guided mobile health intervention. This study aims to evaluate the usability of a gratitude application called Be Grateful from the perspective of end-users to identify existing design, functionality, and usability issues and elicit users’ views and experiences with the app. We designed the app and conducted usability testing, a combination of interview and questionnaire study of 14 participants who have experienced mental health issues based on self-diagnosis. Participants used Be Grateful app for ten days, completed the System Usability Scale (SUS) validated measure of system usability, and were interviewed at the end of the study. We found that the end-user appreciated the simplicity, straightforwardness of the app and provided positive feedback about the layout. Participants also gave the system high scores on the SUS usability measure (mean = 83.93). Results indicated that the Be Grateful app is usable and will be more likely to be adopted and used by users. Participants were generally excited about the app and eager to use it. This paper reports the lessons learned from the design and evaluation of the app’s usability. We discuss design implications for future work in the area of designing interactive mobile apps for health and wellness, with a focus on mental health interventions.
... For instance, McCullough et al. (2001) provided a review only on the moral outcomes of different forms of gratitude. Davis et al. (2016) meta-analyzed the efficacy of gratitude interventions for cultivating individuals' psychological well-being. Ma, Tunney, and Ferguson (2017) meta-analyzed the links that trait gratitude and state gratitude have with prosociality (morality). ...
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
... Gratitude is 'a sense of thankfulness and joy in response to receiving a gift, whether the gift be a tangible benefit from a specific other or a moment of peaceful bliss evoked by natural beauty' (Emmons, 2004, p. 554) and is, therefore, present focused. Research, including meta-analyses, have shown that gratitude interventions increase well-being, happiness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and PA (Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017;Rash et al., 2011). Gratitude has also been shown to mitigate distress, with gratitude interventions reducing the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and aspects of health anxiety (e.g., death worry) (Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Otto et al., 2016). ...
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Research indicates that brief 2-min positive psychology interventions (PPIs) increase well-being during COVID-19 lockdowns. The present study extended this to assess the effectiveness over two-weeks. Participants (n = 150) were randomly allocated to one of three PPIs; nostalgia, gratitude, best possible self (BPS), or control. The interventions were slightly adapted for the lockdown and were completed three times, every seven days over two-weeks. Well-being measures were completed immediately after the first intervention (T1), after the next two interventions (T2-T3) and at one-week follow-up (T4) (but no baseline measure of well-being was taken). At T1, participants in the nostalgia, gratitude, and BPS intervention had higher self-esteem than those in the control intervention. At T1 and T2, participants in the gratitude and BPS intervention reported higher social connectedness than participants in the nostalgia and control intervention. Then at follow-up (T4), participants in the nostalgia, gratitude, and BPS intervention had lower fear of COVID-19 than those in the control intervention. Overall, the results show the benefits of nostalgia, gratitude and optimism, compared to the control, during lockdown. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-022-00513-6.
... At the individual level, educators should strive to foster gratitude, resilience, mindfulness, and joy in their trainees. Interventions to promote active reflection on gratitude have been shown to increase subjective well-being, 18,39 and similar exercises can be readily incorporated into the clinical learning environment. Efforts to train providers in the practice of mindfulness have been shown to reduce burnout, increase empathy, and enhance attitudes associated with patientcentered care. ...
Article
Medical students and residents experience burnout at a high rate and encounter threats to their well-being throughout training. It may be helpful to consider a holistic model of education to create educational environments in which trainees flourish. As clinician educators, the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of patient care has helped shape the way we care for patients. Using the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of patient care as a framework, we examine the ways in which clinician educators can support the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs of their trainees. The current state of trainee well-being in each of these areas is reviewed. We discuss potential interventions and opportunities for further research to help clinician educators develop a contextualized, holistic approach to the formation of their trainees.
... Gratitude is strongly associated with subjective well-being (McCullough et al. 2002;Watkins et al. 2003) and prospectively predicts well-being (e.g., Wood et al. 2008). Furthermore, numerous experimental studies have shown that gratitude exercises increase happiness (for reviews, see Davis et al. 2016;Watkins and McCurrach 2021). As described above, studies have also shown that gratitude enhances relational well-being (Algoe 2012). ...
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The authors used a prospective design to investigate how gratitude to God predicts religious well-being over time. Gratitude to God is a central aspect of monotheistic religions, and thus may be particularly important to the religious/spiritual well-being of believers. Participants completed online measures of trait and state gratitude to God, along with spiritual well-being, nearness to God, and religious commitment scales over a one-to-two-month period. General well-being, trait gratitude, and the Big Five personality traits were also assessed. After controlling baseline levels, trait gratitude and the Big Five personality traits, dispositional gratitude to God at Time 1 predicted increased religious well-being, nearness to God, and religious commitment at Time 2. Although gratitude to God was significantly related to general well-being variables in cross-sectional analyses, it did not predict these variables over time. Validity data for the gratitude to God measures are also presented. The results suggest that gratitude to God is important to religious/spiritual well-being, and gratitude to God may be a critical variable for research on positive psychology and the psychology of religion/spirituality.
... It is worth Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org noting how gratitude diary and similar positive practices are often used by cognitive-behavioral therapists as between-session homework (Davis et al., 2016). This is because gratitude naturally aids the therapeutic process of cognitive restructuring, or positive reappraisal (Lambert et al., 2012). ...
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Introduction Gratitude is commonly known as a positive emotion, but it can also be understood as a disposition—one’s inherent quality that includes being grateful for the positive aspects of one’s life and appreciating altruistic gifts. A growing body of research suggests that having a disposition of gratitude is positively related to wellbeing and psychological adjustment. The present study examined the extent to which acceptance of illness—a measure of adjustment to a distressing condition—mediated relationships between dispositional gratitude and wellbeing among women who had elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 131 women who, based on scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, were at-risk for experiencing clinical depression. Thirty-five of these participants had been diagnosed as depressed at some point in their lives and 96 had not. Participants completed measures of dispositional gratitude, wellbeing, anxiety, and acceptance of illness. Results Dispositional gratitude was positively correlated with wellbeing and was negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Dispositional gratitude was also positively correlated with acceptance of illness. Mediational analyses found that acceptance of illness mediated relationships between dispositional gratitude and wellbeing, between dispositional gratitude and anxiety, and between dispositional gratitude and depression. Moreover, such mediation varied as a function of whether women had ever been diagnosed as depressed. Acceptance of illness was related more strongly to wellbeing for women who had been diagnosed as depressed at some time in their lives than it was for women who had never been diagnosed as depressed. Conclusion Women with elevated depressive symptoms who were more grateful (compared to those who were less grateful) were more accepting of their condition, which was related to increased wellbeing and decreased feelings of depression and anxiety.
... Furthermore, reverse causation is plausible, where healthier lipid profiles may contribute to higher dispositional gratitude. As gratitude has been shown to be modifiable even with a short intervention [48][49][50] , the current findings should be followed up by a high-powered gratitude intervention study in the future to provide causal evidence. Moreover, future studies should replicate the current finding in other cultures and age cohorts to ascertain generalizability, as our sample was limited to midlife adults in the United States. ...
Article
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Dispositional gratitude has emerged in the literature to be associated with many health benefits in measures ranging from self-reported health to biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. However, little is known about the link between dispositional gratitude and lipid profiles. Drawing from the Gratitude and Self-improvement Model that grateful individuals are more likely to strive for actual self-improvement such as engaging in healthy lifestyles, we investigated the relation between dispositional gratitude and serum lipid levels. Participants consisted of 1800 adults from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) 2: Biomarker Project ( N = 1054) and MIDUS Refresher: Biomarker Project ( N = 746). Serum lipid profiles were measured through fasting blood samples. After controlling for demographics, use of antihyperlipidemic mediation, and personality traits, we found that higher dispositional gratitude was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Results also revealed that healthy diets and lower BMI partially mediated the gratitude-triglyceride association. However, some variations in the analytic method may influence the associations between gratitude and triglycerides levels. Our findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting dispositional gratitude as a promising psychological factor that is associated with a healthier lipid profile.
... We discussed how these two lists were similar and different: similar in that they both accessed good things and different in that one emphasized more discrete things that happened recently and the other emphasized longerlasting aspects of life in general. Such gratitude interventions have been shown to improve mood (Dickens, 2017) and psychological well-being (Davis et al., 2016), and have demonstrated benefit for individuals with alcohol use disorders (Krentzman et al., 2015). ...
... Research has revealed a number of practices that can boost wellbeing-for example, mindfulness (Lomas et al., 2019) or gratitude (Davis et al., 2016)-and circumstances that can positively or negatively influence wellbeing, such as standard of living (Eger and Maridal, 2015) or workplace culture (Sojo et al., 2016). However, there is debate about the relative influence of different determinants of wellbeing, and the degree to which individuals can exercise agency in their wellbeing. ...
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Wellbeing in schools is often focused at the individual level, exploring students’ or teachers’ individual traits, habits, or actions that influence wellbeing. However, studies rarely take a whole-school approach that includes staff wellbeing, and frequently ignore relational and organizational level variables. We take a systems informed positive psychology approach and argue that it is essential to build greater understanding about organizational and relational influences on wellbeing in order for schools to support educator wellbeing. Our study evaluated the relative contributions of individual, relational, and organizational factors to educator wellbeing. Our measure of wellbeing focused on the life satisfaction and flourishing of 559 educators in 12 New Zealand schools. We used a social network analysis approach to capture educators’ relational ties, and demographic data and psychometric scales to capture individual and organizational level variables. Results of hierarchical blockwise regressions showed that individual, relational, and organizational factors were all significantly associated with educator wellbeing; however, it was educators’ perceptions of trusting and collaborative school conditions that were most strongly associated with their wellbeing. The number of relational ties educators had explained the least amount of variance in wellbeing. Educators were more likely to experience high levels of support when their close contacts also experienced high levels of support. However, for many educators, there was a negative association between their most frequent relational ties and their reported levels of support. Our results suggest that attending to the organizational factors that influence wellbeing, through creating trusting and collaborative school conditions, may be one of the most influential approaches to enhancing educator wellbeing. We call for whole-school approaches to wellbeing that not only consider how to support and enhance the wellbeing of school staff as well as students, but also view the conditions created within a school as a key driver of wellbeing within schools.
... Por otro lado, se observa que la gratitud ha cobrado gran importancia en la psicoterapia (Davis et al., 2016;Kerr, O'Donovan y Pepping, 2015;O'Connell, O'Shea y Gallagher, 2017;Rashid y Seligman, 2018;Wong, McKean, Goodrich, Gabana y Li, 2017). En este sentido, si bien, uno de los aspectos más relevantes de la gratitud es el reconocimiento de un beneficio recibido de alguien y su consecuente expresión, se debe tener en cuenta que, en muchas ocasiones, las personas que acuden a consulta psicológica presentan un grave deterioro en las relaciones sociales. ...
... It was first developed by Emmons and McCullough (2003), and then successfully applied to a range of populations, such as college students (Işık & Ergüner-Tekinalp, 2017), adolescents (Froh et al., 2008), teachers (Chan, 2010), the elderly (Killen & Macaskill, 2015) and prisoners (Deng et al., 2018). Although the results overall demonstrated an increase in well-being indicators and a decrease in ill-being, independently of the gratitude target (Berger et al., 2019), this was not always the case as outlined by Davis et al. (2016) and Dickens (2017), who suggest the need to consider some moderating factors, such as positive affect (see, e.g., Froh et al., 2009;Wood et al., 2010), and the practices in which the control group is involved. ...
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... Therefore, all types of psychological interventions will be included in this meta-analysis. Other meta-analyses merely focused on specific parts of well-being, such as psychological well-being (Weiss et al., 2016) or specific concepts or interventions related to well-being such as kindness, optimism, posttraumatic growth, strengths, resilience, gratitude, and forgiveness (Akhtar & Barlow, 2018;Baskin & Enright, 2004;Curry et al., 2018;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017;Malouff & Schutte, 2017;Roepke, 2015;Schutte & Malouff, 2019;Wade et al., 2014). ...
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The contemporary version of the science of positive psychology introduced by Professors Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi at the turn of the 21st century rests on the shoulders of some of the earlier pioneers and thought leaders in the discipline and profession of psychology. Donaldson et al. recently systematically reviewed and analyzed the findings from 22 meta‐analyses and 231 randomized controlled trials designed to determine the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPIs). They found that the science of PPIs has matured to the point where we now have numerous systematic reviews and meta‐analyses to determine which PPIs are most effective under specific conditions. Drawing from streams of science under the positive work and organizations umbrella, including positive organizational psychology, positive organizational behavior, and POS, Donaldson et al. set out to find which positive organizational psychology interventions seem the most promising to date for enhancing well‐being and optional functioning at work.
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Lee, N., Setti, A., & Cassarino, M. (2022). Gratitude as a predictor of pro-environmental behaviour? A survey investigation considering the role of environmental values and nature connectedness. Journal of Ecopsychology, 2, 2, 1-12. https://joe.nationalwellbeingservice.com/volumes/volume-2-2022/volume-2-article-2/ Background: Implementation of effective environmental policies requires an understanding of the psychological factors predisposing people to engage in pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). Dispositional gratitude, a psychological resource strongly associated with prosocial behaviour, holds promise as a psychological antecedent of PEB. While nature relatedness and environmental values have received a lot of attention in research about PEB, gratitude remains underexplored. Informed by advancements in Ecopsychology, the present study investigated the relationship between dispositional gratitude and PEB, while also looking at the potential moderating roles of nature relatedness and environmental value orientation. Methods: A convenience sample of 229 adults, recruited via social media and email, completed an online survey including measures of PEB, dispositional gratitude, environmental value orientation (biospheric, egoistic, hedonic, and altruistic values) and nature relatedness. Correlational and regression analyses were conducted to test the associations. Results: Gratitude exhibited a statistically significant, although weak, correlation with PEB, suggesting that dispositionally grateful individuals engaged in more PEB (r = 0.29; p < .001). However, in multivariate regression analyses the effect of gratitude disappeared, while biospheric values and nature relatedness remained the strongest predictors of PEB. Conclusion: The results provide preliminary insight into the relationship between dispositional gratitude and PEB, and act to further substantiate the valuable roles of nature relatedness and biospheric values in predicting PEB. Further research will help to clarify the role of gratitude as a potential psychological resource to foster as part of interventions to promote PEB.
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Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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IntroductionIndividual studiesThe summary effectHeterogeneity of effect sizesSummary points
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