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Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield treated Resorcinol

Authors:
  • Trivedi Global, Inc

Abstract and Figures

Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., biofield treatment to alter the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which served as control and treated group. The treated group was given biofield treatment and both groups i.e., control and treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a significant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The significant decrease in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations. Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate. Hence, biofield treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use in pharmaceutical industry.
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Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000146
Organic Chem Curr Res
ISSN:2161-0401 OCCR an open access journal
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ISSN: 2161-0401
Trivedi et al., Organic Chem Curr Res 2015, 4:3
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory
Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad
Rd., Bhopal-462026, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +917446660006; E-mail:
publication@trivedisrl.com
Received: August 18, 2015; Accepted: August 25, 2015; Published: September
01, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015)
Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld treated
Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield
treated Resorcinol
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Ragini Singh2 and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Keywords: Resorcinol; Bioeld energy treatment; X-Ray diraction;
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Ultraviolet-Visible
spectroscopy; Dierential scanning calorimetry; ermogravimetric
analysis
Abbreviations
XRD: X-Ray Diraction; FT-IR: Fourier Transform Infrared; DSC:
Dierential Scanning Calorimetry; TGA: ermogravimetric Analysis;
DTG: Derivative ermogravimetry; NCCAM: National Centre for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Introduction
Resorcinol is a dihydric phenol having the hydroxyl group at 1
and 3 positions in the benzene ring [1]. It occurs naturally in argan oil
as main natural phenol. It is white crystalline powder having a faint
odour and bitter-sweet taste [2]. It is used as a chemical intermediate
in manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, dyestus and fungicides such as
p-aminosalicylic acid, hexylresorcinol and light screening agents for
protecting plastics from UV lights [3,4]. It is used in the formulation of
several pharmaceuticals such as acne creams, hair dyes, anti-dandru
shampoos, and sun tan lotions. It also possesses various therapeutic uses
such as topical antipruritic and antiseptic. It is used to treat seborrheic
dermatitis, psoriasis, corns, warts and eczema. It is eective in the
treatment of several dermatological problems due to its antibacterial,
antifungal and keratolytic eects [5,6]. Resorcinol solution in ethyl
alcohol (Jessner’s solution) is used in chemical peeling [7], and it has
special medical use as biological glue (gelatin-resorcinol-formaldehyde
glue) in cardiovascular surgery [8,9]. Despite its wide pharmaceutical
applications, some side eects are also associated with it, for instance,
mild skin irritation, skin redness, etc. It is also hygroscopic i.e., absorb
moisture from the air and turns pink on exposure to air or light [10]. By
conceiving the usefulness of resorcinol, the present study was attempted
to investigate an alternative way that can improve the physical and
thermal properties of resorcinol. In recent years, bioeld treatment
was proved to be an alternative method that has an impact on various
properties of living organisms and non-living materials in a cost eective
manner. It is already demonstrated that energy can neither be created
nor be destroyed, but it can be transferred through various processes
such as thermal, chemical, kinetic, nuclear, etc. [11-13]. Similarly,
electrical current exists inside the human body in the form of vibratory
energy particles like ions, protons, and electrons and they generate a
magnetic eld in the human body [14,15]. is electromagnetic eld
of the human body is known as bioeld, and energy associated with
this eld is known as bioeld energy [16,17]. e human beings are
infused with this precise form of energy, and it provides regulatory and
communications functions within the organism [18,19]. e health
of living organisms can be aected by balancing this energy from the
environment through natural exchange process [20]. National Centre
for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), which is
part of the National Institute of Health (NIH) places bioeld therapy
(putative energy elds) as subcategory of energy medicine among
complementary and alternative medicines. e healing therapy is also
considered under this category [21,22]. us, the human has the ability
to harness the energy from environment or universe and can transmit
it to any living or non-living object. is process is termed as bioeld
treatment. Mr. Trivedi’s unique bioeld treatment (e Trivedi Eect®)
is well known and signicantly studied in dierent elds such as
microbiology [23-25], agriculture [26-28], and biotechnology [29,30].
Recently, it was reported that bioeld treatment has changed the
atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics as well as spectroscopic
Abstract
Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used
for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., bioeld treatment to alter
the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which
served as control and treated group. The treated group was given bioeld treatment and both groups i.e., control and
treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UV-
Vis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed
a signicant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FT-
IR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis
data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which
maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The signicant decrease
in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations.
Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate.
Hence, bioeld treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use
in pharmaceutical industry.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015) Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld
treated Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
Page 2 of 7
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000146
Organic Chem Curr Res
ISSN:2161-0401 OCCR an open access journal
characters of dierent materials. Moreover, alteration in physical,
thermal and chemical properties were also reported in materials
like antimony, bismuth and ceramic oxide [31,32]. Hence, based on
above results the current study was designed to determine the impact
of bioeld treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of
resorcinol.
Materials and Methods
Study design
Resorcinol was procured from Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd., India.
e sample was divided into two parts and referred as control and
treatment. e treatment sample in sealed pack was handed over to Mr.
Trivedi for bioeld treatment under standard laboratory conditions.
Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment through his energy transmission
process to the treatment group without touching the sample. e
bioeld treated sample was returned in the same sealed condition for
further characterization using XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis, DSC, and TGA
techniques. For determination of FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic
characters, the treated sample was divided into two groups i.e., T1 and
T2. Both treated groups were analysed for their spectral characteristics
using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy as compared to control
resorcinol sample.
X-ray diraction (XRD) study
XRD analysis was carried out on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray
diractometer system. e X-ray generator was equipped with a copper
anode with nickel lter operating at 35 kV and 20 mA. e wavelength
of radiation used by the XRD system was 1.54056 Å. e XRD spectra
were acquired over the 2θ range of 10°-99.99° at 0.02° interval with a
measurement time of 0.5 second per 2θ intervals. e data obtained
were in the form of a chart of 2θ vs. intensity and a detailed table
containing peak intensity counts, d value (Å), peak width (θ°), and
relative intensity (%).
e average size of crystallite (G) was calculated from the Scherrer
equation [33] with the method based on the width of the diraction
patterns obtained in the X-ray reected crystalline region.
G=kλ/(bCosθ)
Where, k is the equipment constant (0.94), λ is the X-ray wavelength
(0.154 nm), B in radians is the full-width at half of the peaks and θ the
corresponding Bragg angle.
Percent change in crystallite size was calculated using the following
equation:
Percent change in crystallite size=[(Gt-Gc)/Gc] ×100
Where, Gc and Gt are crystallite size of control and treated powder
samples, respectively [34].
Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic
characterization
e powdered sample was mixed in spectroscopic grade KBr in
an agate mortar and pressed into pellets with a hydraulic press. FT-
IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared
spectrometer (Japan). FT-IR spectra are generated by the absorption
of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 4000-400 cm-1.
e FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of resorcinol (control, T1 and T2)
was carried out to evaluate the impact of bioeld treatment at atomic and
molecular level like bond strength, stability, rigidity of structure etc. [35].
UV-Visible spectroscopic analysis
e UV-Vis spectral analysis was measured using Shimadzu
UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer. It involves the absorption of
electromagnetic radiation from 200-400 nm range and subsequent
excitation of electrons to higher energy states. It is equipped with 1 cm
quartz cell and a slit width of 2.0 nm. e UV-Vis spectra of resorcinol
were recorded in methanol solution at ambient temperature. is
analysis was performed to evaluate the eect of bioeld treatment on
the structural property of resorcinol sample. e UV-Vis spectroscopy
gives the preliminary information related to the skeleton of chemical
structure and possible arrangement of functional groups. With UV-
Vis spectroscopy, it is possible to investigate electron transfers between
orbitals or bands of atoms, ions and molecules existing in the gaseous,
liquid and solid phase [35].
Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study
Dierential scanning calorimeter (DSC) of Perkin Elmer/Pyris-1
was used to study the melting temperature and latent heat of fusion
(ΔH). e DSC curves were recorded under air atmosphere (5 mL/
min) and a heating rate of 10°C/min in the temperature range of 50°C
to 350°C. An empty pan sealed with cover pan was used as a reference
sample. Melting temperature and latent heat of fusion were obtained
from the DSC curve.
Percent change in latent heat of fusion was calculated [36] using
following equations to observe the dierence in thermal properties of
treated resorcinol sample as compared to control:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
H H
% change in latent heat of fusion 100
H
∆ −∆
= ×
Where, ΔH Control and ΔH Treated are the latent heat of fusion of control
and treated samples, respectively.
ermogravimetric analysis/Derivative thermogravimetry
(TGA/DTG)
ermal stability of control and treated samples of resorcinol was
analysed by using Mettler Toledo simultaneous ermogravimetric
analyser (TGA/DTG). e samples were heated from room temperature
to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C/min under air atmosphere. From
TGA curve, onset temperature Tonset (temperature at which sample
start losing weight) and from DTG curve, Tmax (temperature at which
sample lost its maximum weight) were observed [37].
Percent change in Tmax was calculated using following equation:
% change in Tmax = [(Tmax, treated-Tmax, control)/ Tmax, control] ×100
Where, Tmax, control and Tmax, treated are the temperature at which
sample lost its maximum weight due to volatilization in control and
treated sample, respectively. Similarly, the percent change in onset
temperature at which sample start losing weight was also calculated.
Results and Discussion
X-ray diraction
X-ray diraction analysis was conducted to study the crystalline
nature of the control and treated samples of resorcinol. XRD
diractogram of control and treated samples of resorcinol are shown
in Figure 1 and results are given in Table 1. e XRD diractogram
of control resorcinol showed intense crystalline peaks at 2θ equal to
18.04°, 18.18°, 19.11°, 19.68°, 19.93°, and 20.08°. e intense peaks
indicated the crystalline nature of resorcinol. e XRD diractogram
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015) Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld
treated Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
Page 3 of 7
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000146
Organic Chem Curr Res
ISSN:2161-0401 OCCR an open access journal
Spectroscopic studies
FT-IR analysis
e FT-IR spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) samples
are shown in Figure 2. e spectra showed characteristic vibrational
frequencies as follows:
Carbon-Hydrogen vibrations: The aromatic structure of
resorcinol showed the presence of C-H stretching vibrations in the
region 3100-3000 cm-1 which was the characteristic region. The
frequency of C-H stretching was overlapped with O-H stretching
frequencies in all three samples, i.e., control, T1 and T2. The C-H
in-plane bending vibrations were observed at 1379 cm-1 in control
and T1 sample whereas, at 1381 cm-1 in T2 sample. The C-H out-
of-plane bending vibrations appeared at 773 cm-1 in control and T1
sample whereas, at 777 cm-1 in T2 sample.
Oxygen-Hydrogen vibrations: In the present study, the O-H
stretching vibration was observed at 3257-3207 cm-1 in control sample
whereas at 3263-3200 cm-1 in T1 and 3281-3072 cm-1 in T2 sample.
Generally the O-H band were appeared at frequency range 3600-3300
cm-1; however, broadening of the peak may occur in the presence of
H-bonded O-H stretching. Hydrogen bonding may shi the peaks to
lower frequencies as it was seen in FT-IR spectra of control and treated
of treated resorcinol showed the crystalline peaks at 2θ equal to 18.04°,
18.18°, 19.19°, 20.04° and 29.73°. e peaks in treated sample showed
high intensity as compared to control that indicated that crystallinity
of treated resorcinol sample increased along the corresponding plane
as compared to the control. It is presumed that bioeld energy may
be absorbed by the treated resorcinol molecules that may lead to
form a symmetrical crystalline long range pattern that further results
in increasing the symmetry of resorcinol molecules. Besides, the
crystallite size was found to be 139.6 nm in control sample whereas, it
was reduced to 104.7 nm in treated resorcinol. e crystallite size was
reduced by 25% in treated resorcinol as compared to control. Other
parameters like the volume of unit cell and molecular weight showed
very slight change (0.05%) as compared to control sample. e eect
of bioeld treatment on crystallite size was also reported previously
[37,38]. It is hypothesized that bioeld treatment might produce the
energy that causes the fracturing of grains into subgrains hence; the
crystallite size was decreased in treated sample as compared to control.
As resorcinol is used in many topical formulations, the decrease in
crystallite size may improve its spreadability over the skin that further
aects its bioavailability [39]. Hence, the treated resorcinol with
decreased crystallite size may improve its bioavailability when used in
topical formulations.
Control
Treated
Figure 1: X-ray diffractogram (XRD) of control and treated samples of
resorcinol.
Parameter Control Treated
Volume of unit cell × 10-23 (cm3) 57.162 57.190
Crystallite size (nm) 139.60 104.70
Table 1: XRD analysis of control and treated samples of resorcinol.
Control
T1
T2
Figure 2: FT-IR spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) samples of
resorcinol.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015) Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld
treated Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
Page 4 of 7
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000146
Organic Chem Curr Res
ISSN:2161-0401 OCCR an open access journal
samples of resorcinol. Hence, it conrmed the presence of H-bonding
on resorcinol sample.
C-OH group vibration
e most important peaks due to C-OH stretching mode were
appeared at 1311-1298 cm-1 and 1166-1151 cm-1 as doublet peak in
the control sample. In T1 sample, the peaks were appeared at 1310-
1298 cm-1 and 1166-1151 cm-1 whereas; in T2 sample the peaks were
appeared at 1300-1284 cm-1 and 1166-1143 cm-1. e C-OH bending peak
was appeared at 462 cm-1 in all three samples i.e., control, T1, and T2.
Ring vibration
e fundamental vibrational modes of C-C stretching generally
occurred in the region of 1600-1400 cm-1. In the present study, the
peaks observed at 1608 and 1489 cm-1 in control and T1 sample were
assigned to C-C stretching vibrations. Whereas, in T2, these peaks were
appeared at 1604 and 1487 cm-1. Another peak due to ring vibration
was appeared at 545 cm-1 in all three samples, i.e., control, T1, and T2.
e other important peaks were appeared at 842 and 740 cm-1 due to
meta di-substituted ring in control and T1 sample. Whereas, the same
peaks were appeared at 844 and 742 cm-1 in T2 sample. e overall
analysis was supported by literature data [4] and showed that there was
no signicant dierence between observed frequencies of control and
treated (T1 and T2) samples. Hence, it showed that bioeld treatment
might not induce any signicant change at bonding level.
UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis
e UV spectra of control and treated samples (T1 and T2) of
resorcinol are shown in Figure 3. e UV spectrum of control sample
showed absorption peaks at λmax equal to 205, 275 and 281 nm and was
well supported by literature [40]. e absorbance peaks were appeared
at the same wavelength in treated samples. In T1 sample, the peaks
were found at λmax equal to 204, 275 and 281 nm and in T2 sample,
they were appeared at λmax equal to 205, 275 and 281 nm. It showed
that no change was found in UV spectroscopic properties, i.e., related
to structure skeleton, functional groups or energy for electron transfers
between orbitals or bands of atoms of treated resorcinol as compared
to control.
ermal studies
DSC analysis: DSC was used to determine the latent heat of fusion
(ΔH) and melting temperature in control and treated samples of
resorcinol. e DSC analysis results of control and treated samples of
resorcinol are presented in Table 2. In a solid, the amount of energy
required to change the phase from solid to liquid is known as the latent
heat of fusion. e result showed that ΔH was decreased from 179.77
J/g (control) to 103.47 J/g in treated resorcinol. It indicated that ΔH
was decreased by 42.45% in treated sample as compared to control.
It was previously reported that resorcinol molecules possess rigid
structure but as the temperature increases, this rigidity breaks down.
e molecules rearrange into a hydrocarbon resembling structure and
achieve lower van der walls interactions [41]. Hence, it is hypothesized
that bioeld treatment might produce the energy. is energy probably
causes deformation of hydroxyl bond in treated resorcinol, and it
needs less energy in the form of ΔH to undergo the process of melting.
Previously, our group reported that bioeld treatment has altered ΔH
in lead and tin powder [42]. Moreover, the melting temperature of
treated (112.56°C) sample showed very slight change with respect to
control (111.18°C) resorcinol sample.
TGA/DTG analysis: TGA/DTG of control and bioeld treated
samples are summarized in Table 2. TGA thermogram (Figure 4)
showed that control resorcinol sample started losing weight around
200°C (onset) and stopped around 246°C (end set) which could
be due to volatilization of resorcinol [43]. However, the treated
resorcinol started losing weight around 168°C (onset) and terminated
around 215°C (end set). It indicated that onset temperature of treated
resorcinol was decreased by 16% as compared to control. Besides, DTG
Control T1 T2
Figure 3: UV-Vis spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) samples of resorcinol.
Parameter Control Treated
Latent heat of fusion ΔH (J/g) 179.77 103.47
Melting point (°C) 111.18 112.56
Onset temperature (°C) 200 168
Tmax (°C) 217.11 189.2
Table 2: Thermal analysis of control and treated samples of resorcinol. Tmax: Temperature at which maximum weight loss occur.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015) Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld
treated Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
Page 5 of 7
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000146
Organic Chem Curr Res
ISSN:2161-0401 OCCR an open access journal
Figure 4: TGA/DTG thermogram of control and treated samples of resorcinol.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015) Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld
treated Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
Page 6 of 7
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000146
Organic Chem Curr Res
ISSN:2161-0401 OCCR an open access journal
thermogram data showed that Tmax in control sample was 217.11°C
and in treated sample, it was found at 189.2°C. It showed that Tmax
was decreased by 12.86% in treated sample as compared to control.
Furthermore, the reduction in onset temperature and Tmax in treated
resorcinol with respect to control sample may be correlated with the
increase in volatilization of treated resorcinol aer bioeld treatment.
A possible reason for this reduction is that bioeld energy might cause
some alteration in internal energy which probably resulted into earlier
volatilization of treated resorcinol sample as compared to control.
Also, decrease in volatilization temperature indicated that resorcinol
molecules change their phase from liquid to gas at low temperature,
which may results in fasten the rate of those reactions where resorcinol
can be used as an intermediate in synthesis [44]. Hence, overall
observations suggest that bioeld treated resorcinol can be used to
enhance the reaction kinetics and yield of the end product.
Conclusion
e XRD results showed the decrease in crystallite size (25%)
in treated sample as compared to the control that may occur due to
bioeld treatment that probably produces the energy which leads
to fracturing of grains into subgrains. e reduced crystallite size of
treated resorcinol sample may be used to improve its bioavailability
in topical preparations. e DSC analysis of treated sample showed
42.45% decrease in ΔH value as compared to control, which probably
occurred due to deformation of hydroxyl bond in treated sample. e
bioeld treatment might aect the structure rigidity of resorcinol and
hence reduced the latent heat of fusion. TGA/DTG analysis revealed
that onset temperature of volatilization and Tmax were decreased by 16%
and 12.86%, respectively. is reduction in volatilization temperature
of treated sample might be helpful for resorcinol to be used as a
chemical intermediate in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals.
Hence, above study concluded that bioeld treatment might alter the
physical and thermal properties of resorcinol that could make it more
useful in pharmaceutical industries by increasing the bioavailability
and reaction kinetics.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the whole team of Sophisticated Analytical
Instrument Facility (SAIF), Nagpur and MGV Pharmacy College, Nashik for providing
the instrumental facility. We are very grateful to Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master
Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials for their support in this research work.
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of bioeld treatment on growth and anatomical characteristics of Pogostemon
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015) Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld
treated Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
Page 7 of 7
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000146
Organic Chem Curr Res
ISSN:2161-0401 OCCR an open access journal
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physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Material
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, et al. (2015)
Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Bioeld treated
Resorcinol. Organic Chem Curr Res 4:146. doi:10.4172/2161-0401.1000146
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... Some extra peaks were shown in the FT-IR spectrum of the resorcinoladded gelatin films. The peak observed at 1149 and 771 cm −1 were attributed to the C]O stretching of the phenol group of resorcinol and CeH out-of-plane bending vibration, respectively (Trivedi et al., 2015). However, no additional peaks were observed in the gelatin/Res/AgNP composite films, suggesting that no chemical bond was formed between gelatin and AgNP. ...
Article
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized in situ by reducing AgNO3 using resorcinol and gelatin to prepare functional gelatin/resorcinol/AgNP nanocomposite films (Gel/Res/AgNP). The nanocomposite film exhibited a characteristic light absorption peak of AgNP at 420 nm and improved UV-light barrier property. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results also showed a characteristic reflection peak of crystalline AgNP around 2θ = 38° corresponding to the (111) diffraction plane of AgNP. The water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (WCA), surface morphology and thermal stability of the composite films were not affected, but the tensile strength (TS) of the composite film decreased and the elongation at break (E) increased by the formation of AgNP. The Gel/Res/AgNP nanocomposite film showed a strong antioxidant property with high DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity. Also, the Gel/Res/AgNP nanocomposite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. The developed Gel/Res/AgNP composite films with potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activities have a high potential to be used in food packaging to increase the shelf life of packaged food.
... positive outcomes in different disease profiles [19]. This subtle form of energy can be harnessed and transmitted by individuals into living and inanimate object via the process of unique Energy Transmission process (The Trivedi Effect ® ) and the data has been published in numerous peer-reviewed science journals with significant outcomes in cancer research, microbiology, genetics, pharmaceutical science, agricultural science, and materials science [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. In this regards, authors intend to evaluate the impact of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on the herbomineralbased formulation for immunomodulatory action in two different cell-lines (splenocytes co-incubated with Yac-1 and macrophage) with the estimation of NK cells activity and phagocytosis responses. ...
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Although the immunomodulatory effects of vitamins, minerals, and many herbs per se have been extensively studied, while research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of a combined formulation is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of the combination of eight components viz. zinc chloride, ferrous sulfate, sodium selenate, nanocurcumin, copper chloride, magnesium gluconate, vitamin C, and vitamin D3 were investigated. These components are widely used in therapeutic, cosmetics and dietary supplements. The current study investigated the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treated nanocurcumin-based test formulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced natural killer (NK) cells activity in splenocytes cell-line co-incubated with mouse lymphoma cell line (Yac-1). The formulation was divided into two parts, in which one part of the formulation was received the Biofield Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi and was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, while the other part was denoted as the untreated test sample. Cell viability using MTT assay in mouse splenocytes showed more than 98% cells were viable upto 10.4 µg/mL of the tested concentrations, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The NK cells activity was measured in cell supernatants using ELISA. The NK cells activity was significantly altered by 26.73%, 11.82%, 7.64%, 0.36% and 36.36% in the untreated formulation group at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5.2, and 10.4 µg/mL, respectively compared to the vehicle control (VC) group. Further, Biofield Energy Treated test formulation exhibited 39.64%, 8.18%, 17.27%, 51.93% and 42.55% alteration of the NK cells activity at the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5.2, and 10.4 µg/mL, respectively compared to the VC group. Moreover, the cell viability of the test formulation was assessed in RAW 264.7 (Mouse Macrophage Cell Line) for phagocytosis activity was safe upto 13.3 µg/mL with >90% on cell viability. The phagocytosis assay data showed that at two concentrations (1.3 and 7.6 µg/mL) the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation improved extent of phagocytosis by 6.31% and 5.91%, respectively compared to the untreated test formulation group. In summary, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation may have indeed immunomodulatory effect by enhanced NK cells activity and extent of phagocytosis responses. These observations indicated that the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation has the potential effects through modulating the expression of NK cells function and phagocytosis and might be developed as a useful anti-inflammatory product for various inflammatory disorders.
... The energy can be harnessed from the universe and then, it can be applied to the living and non-living objects to achieve the alterations in the characteristic properties by the healing practitioner. The applications of The Trivedi Effect ® have gained scientific attention in the field of chemical science [17][18][19][20]24], materials science [25][26][27], agricultural science [28][29][30] genetics [31][32][33][34], biotechnology [35][36], nutraceuticals [37] pharmaceuticals [38][39][40], and medical sciences [41,42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) in indole using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample of organic compound indole was divided into two parts - one part was designated as a control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated indole sample was analyzed at different time intervals and were symbolized as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to understand the effect of the biofield energy on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectra, the presence of the molecular ion peak C8H7N+ (m/z 117) along with major fragmented peaks C7H6+ (m/z 90), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H2+ (m/z 50), C3H3+ (m/z 39), and C2H4 (m/z 28) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated indole was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of indole using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated indole at T1 and T2 was significantly decreased by 44.28 and 28.18% as compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T3 and T4, was significantly increased by 41.22 and 180.88%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) was significantly altered in the biofield energy treated indole as compared to the control with respect to the time. The biofield treated indole with the altered isotopic abundance ratio might have altered the physicochemical properties and rate of reaction. This biofield energy treated indole might be more useful as a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, plastics, dyes, and perfumes.
... The impact of biofield energy treatment was also analysed in some other similar structured compounds viz. thymol, menthol, and resorcinol and it was reported that biofield energy has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of those compounds [37,38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
p-Chloro-m-cresol(PCMC) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries as biocide and preservative. However, it faces the problems of solubility in water and photo degradation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of PCMC. For this study, PCMC sample was divided into two groups i.e., one served as treated and other as control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and both control and treated samples of PCMC were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The XRD result showed a 12.7% increase in crystallite size in treated samples along with increase in peak intensity as compared to control. Moreover, surface area analysis showed a 49.36% increase in surface area of treated PCMC sample as compared to control. The thermal analysis showed significant decrease (25.94%) in the latent heat of fusion in treated sample as compared to control. However, no change was found in other parameters like melting temperature, onset temperature of degradation, and Tmax (temperature at which maximum weight loss occur). The FT-IR spectroscopy did not show any significant change in treated PCMC sample as compared to control. Although, the UV-Vis spectra of treated samples showed characteristic absorption peaks at 206 and 280 nm, the peak at 280 nm was not found in control sample. The control sample showed another absorbance peak at 247 nm. GC-MS data revealed that carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) was changed up to 204% while δ18O and δ37Cl isotopic ratio were significantly changed up to 142% in treated samples as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties, which can affect the solubility and stability of p-chloro-m-cresol and make it more useful as a pharmaceutical ingredient.
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The ultra-low voltage anode, Na2Ti3O7 (NTO) of high specific capacity (177 mAh/g) suffers from low intrinsic electronic conductivity, leading to poor electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the synthesis of carbon-coated Na2Ti3O7 (NTO/C) from indigenously prepared TiO2; where a low-cost organic precursor, resorcinol is used as a carbon source for the first time. Resorcinol derived carbon is beneficial in two ways: (1) increase in electronic conductivity; and (2) promote sodium ion intercalation being electrochemically active. The structural and morphological characterizations are conducted by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques, which confirm the formation of phase pure NTO/C with cuboid-shaped morphology. The carbon coating along with cuboid type morphology together show improved electrochemical performance due to the increase in electronic conductivity and sodium ion diffusivity. The NTO/C shows higher reversible charge capacity of 213 (± 5) mAh/g with 48% capacity retention against 178 (± 5) mAh/g with 24% capacity retention for pristine NTO after 40 cycles. Excellent rate capability is seen for NTO/C; where it shows a stable capacity of 70 (± 5) mAh/g at 2.0 C-rate. The novelty of this present work involves large scale synthesis of carbon-coated Na2Ti3O7 from indigenously prepared TiO2 and low-cost resorcinol as a source of carbon with improved electrochemical performance, which can be used as promising intercalation based anode material for sodium-ion batteries.
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Full-text available
Supercooling is an undesired property of phase change materials due to the poorly predictable occurrence of crystallization during cooling. For such situations, the stored latent heat cannot be recovered which can be an issue for temperature-controlled applications. This review illustrates the techniques used for triggering crystallization in phase change materials having a supercooling property. The development of triggering devices should constitute a breakthrough for heat on demand applications, as heat can be released even when the temperature drops far below the liquidus temperature. Several techniques appear to be promising for nucleation triggering. They have been classified into two categories: passive (reduction of supercooling) or active (triggering of crystallization on demand) devices. They were accurately investigated for water freezing for: meteorological comprehension, food preservation or the pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, several nucleating agents (passive) have been explored, and most of them, added by 1 wt%, can decrease the supercooling degree by more than 90%. In addition, the heat would be immediately released on demand from a supercooled material by the use of seeding or electrofreezing (active methods). Solidification can also be externally triggered by the application of high pressure or ultrasonic waves (active). In addition to the analysis of the efficiency of the different techniques in terms of supercooling reduction, this review also discusses the solidification process at a microscopic scale.
Book
The fourth volume in the six-volume Handbook of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Formulations, this book covers semi-solid drugs. It includes ointments, lotions, gels, and suppositories, from publicly available but widely dispersed information from FDA New Drug Applications (NDA), patent applications, and the BASF book of generic formulations. Each entry begins with a fully validated scaleable manufacturing formula that includes compendial specification requirement for each ingredient, in-process controls for manufacturing and release of product, a summary of manufacturing process, and details of packaging.
Book
The sixth volume in the six-volume Handbook of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Formulations, this book covers the sterile products, which include formulations of injections, ophthalmic products and other products labeled as sterile, from publicly available but widely dispersed information from FDA New Drug Applications (NDA), patent applications, and other sources of generic and proprietary formulations. Each entry begins with a fully validated scaleable manufacturing formula and a summary of manufacturing process. The book provides a detailed discussion on the difficulties encountered in formulating and manufacturing sterile products, the common elements of formulation. The section on regulatory and manufacturing guidance deals with the topics inspection of sterile products manufacturing facilities, new drug application for sterilized products, in addition to providing quick tips on resolving the common problems in formulating sterile products as well as the scope of details included in the series for all dosage forms.
Book
Resorcinol chemistry has been providing valuable properties and products in the development of advanced technologies in the areas of pharmaceuticals, rubber compounds, wood composites and plastics. Notable technologies include steel belted radial tires, resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex adhesives (RFL), a weather proof polycarbonate (Sollx), a super heat resistant polymer (PEN-RTM), the world's strongest fiber (Zylon), sun screens (UV absorbers), Intal (an asthma drug), Ostivone (an osteoporosis drug), Throat Plus (lozenges), Centron and Saheli (oral contraceptive pills), and many more. This new resorcinol book contains information on the chemistry and technologies developed for the usefulness of human needs. Scientists and researchers around the world working in the areas of pharmaceuticals, rubber compounds (tires, hoses, belts), polymers, polymer additives (UV absorbers, flame retardants), composites (polymers and wood), photoresists, or just simply organic chemistry will benefit from this key resorcinol reference.
Article
Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histopathologic response of photoaged skin to a series of combined Jessner solution and 53% resorcinol paste chemical peels. Materials and Methods Five women aged 40–53 years were treated with 5 peels at weekly intervals. The peels consisted of applying Jessner solution followed by the application of 53% resorcinol paste for 1 minute initially. This was increased according to the patient's tolerance. Pre-, intra-, and posttreatment clinical signs were tabulated. Skin biopsies were taken before treatment and again 3 days after the fifth peel. Results Both the clinical and histopathologic signs of photoaging were improved by the peels. Side effects and negative sequelae were minimal, consisting of pruritus and desquamation. Discussion The peels were well tolerated and resulted in improvement of aged skin. The clinical and histopathologic evaluations indicate that the peel process, performed as presented, results in biological changes in the deep papillary to upper reticular dermis.
Article
Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., biofield treatment to alter the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which served as control and treated group. The treated group was given biofield treatment and both groups i.e., control and treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UVVis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a significant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FTIR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The significant decrease in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations. Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate. Hence, biofield treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use in pharmaceutical industry.
Article
Aluminium powders are used in a wide range from propelling rockets to improving personal hygiene. More popular industrial applications include manufacture of silver metallic pigments, paints, inks, plastics, packaging, textiles and aerospace industry. As thick film pastes used in the manufacture of silicon solar cells, and as reducing agent and sources of heat, used in alumina thermic and exothermic applications. In the present investigation, Aluminium powders were exposed to non-contact Biofield treatment. Both the exposed and unexposed powders were later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after a slight initial decrease was found to increase after 80 days of treatment substantially, which suggested the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering (micro welding). The BET surface area monotonically decreased which was consistent with increase in particle size. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to Biofield after 38 days showed growth in particle size and particles joined at inter and intra particle boundaries. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume, change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and atomic weight of samples exposed to Biofield even after 106 days. These results indicated that properties of Aluminium powders could be changed even up to atomic level by exposure to Biofield.