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The right to the city-social justice and the fight for public space

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... However, it has also become obvious that not every member of a society has the same access to places, including meeting places, due to both structural factors and individual circumstances, such as restricted mobility or finances, language barriers or physical impairment as a result of the built environment (Thompson & Kent, 2014). In the tradition of Henri Lefebvre`s concept of the "right to the city" (1968), issues of the unequal access of different social groups to resources, public parks and public debates have often been linked to questions of distributive and procedural justice in human geography (Fainstein, 2013;Marcuse et al., 2009;Mitchell, 2003). ...
... From an actorcentred perspective, the development of networks, or in other words social capital, at places where people live plays a decisive role in getting access to places of encounter. Because different social groups begin from different places, and in order to achieve social cohesion and social participation, key local actors and authorities need to take special account of the concerns of socially disadvantaged groups (Mitchell, 2003). In that realm, questions arise about having access to key associations in local society and individual's perceptions towards them. ...
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Physical places of encounter are nodes of social interaction in which moments of social inclusion and exclusion crystallize. On a methodological level, meeting places have in the past usually been associated either with firmly established spatial arrangements or with situational opportunities of encounter. Acknowledging the complexity of places of encounter and developing further a spatio-visual mapping tool conducted in various research projects on local inclusion of newcomers, we propose an integrative research approach to capturing, mapping and analyzing places of encounter via four dimensions: level of institutionalization, level of intentionality, level of inclusion and horizontal and vertical scale. The proposed place-based approach holds the chance to explicitly take into account a spatial perspective in the analysis of social interactions. Thus, it goes beyond mere network analysis, but is able to capture the socio-spatial conditions of encounters as pre-configurations of further social dynamics. In doing so, we address not only the methodological gap in research but also the practical relevance for identifying and evaluating locally important meeting places. More specifically, as part of a qualitative interview, the mapping tool can enable the participation of people whose voices are seldom heard, while the inclusion of multiple perspectives on places of encounter may facilitate local governance processes in the social realm.
... Hostile designs are architectural and regulatory strategies that exclude groups and activities from public space (Rosenberger 2020b). They produce sociospatial injustices that necessitate design interventions to create more inclusive places (Mitchell 2003). Underexplored in skateboarding are the impacts of hostile designs on college campuses. ...
... Proponents suggest they maintain aesthetic and social order to reduce crime and limit nuisances (Newman 1996, de Fine Licht 2020. However, when hostile designs displace groups that require public space for shelter (unhoused people), sustenance (vendors), or play (skateboarders), advocates argue for their well-being to be prioritised over those with access to private space (Flusty 1994, Mitchell 2003, Petty 2016. ...
Article
Skateboarding is a popular form of active transportation and recreation that reinterprets the use of public obstacles like stairs, rails, and planters for play. Through active leisure, skateboarding provides physiological, social, and emotional benefits. However, cities regulate and design out the activity through legal and architectural interventions, citing injury liability, property damage, and nuisance as justifications. In this paper, we focus on the impacts of hostile architecture and urban design in restricting skateboarding, and thus reducing opportunities to engage in cardiovascular exercise. While hostile designs target populations like unhoused people from using public space, there is little evidence of their effects on skateboarding in universities. Therefore, this paper comparatively analyses the extent of hostile designs and their impacts on skateboarding as a novel form of physical activity in three public universities in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Comparing photographs and autoethnographic accounts, we argue campuses disproportionately target skateboarding for exclusion. We find that exclusion is legitimized through temporary events and safety and damage concerns. Given the health benefits of skateboarding, we recommend skate-friendly interventions that address these concerns, create shared campus space, and reimagine universities as inclusive places for all modes of active transportation and recreation. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Through the lens of the spectrum we propose that public space, a nexus of urban relationships, can facilitate genuine collaboration that responds to societies' broader issues in a way that produces elements of social cohesion. However, such arguments require greater nuance which acknowledges the complex potential for contestation and its impact on desired cohesion, partly because urban public space remains a critical arena of participation and appropriation in response to spatial injustice on both broad and localized scales (Mitchell, 2003). We begin with an overview of the normative framing of public space and problematise the strengths and weaknesses of such approaches. ...
... But, as Mabin (2001, p. 246) argues, "it would be foolish to exaggerate the integrative ability of public space to compete with powerful forces of division". Along this vein, several scholars carve out a critical framing of public space instead, which builds on the utopian dream for cohesion by acknowledging the existence and potential necessity of contestation and conflict (Landman, 2016;Milbourne, 2021;Mitchell, 2003;Mowen & Rung, 2016). A key manifestation of space as contentious and conflictual is the use of public space to voice dissent and dissatisfaction with the status quo. ...
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The urban policy assumption of public space’s generative capacity for cohesion stands out as limited in the face of the reality of South African urban public space. Drawing on observations and experiences in a range of Johannesburg public spaces, we critique the assumption contained in international, national, and local South African urban policies about cohesive public space. We argue that assuming the agency of people as tending towards cohesion and that the agency of space is enough to ensure this because it is necessarily similarly cohesive, is incorrect. Likewise, assuming the primacy of the agency of space is misleading. This dichotomy of relationships focussing on space as cohesive, and people as influenced by space, requires a third element. That third element is understanding space as an amplifier of the norms people chose or appear forced to practice which exist beyond public space. This imparts the necessity of acknowledging the existence of contestation and conflict alongside cohesion and collaboration in public space, and allows for a more accurate and subsequently more effective understanding of public space, particularly in the post-segregation context. Along this vein we propose approaching public spaces through an appreciation for their complex multiple simultaneous realities, including cohesion, collaboration, tension, contestation, and even conflict as a few examples. Without seeking to imply a dichotomous categorisation, we call this approach the cohesion-contestation spectrum.
... Similarly, this article examines intergroup encounters from a spatial perspective, focusing on urban public spaces as key areas of physical encounters between newcomers and HCMs and analyzing the immediate outcomes of these encounters (Valentine 2008). Since each individual or group will experience urban public spaces differently (Purcell 2002;Mitchell 2003;Brenner et al. 2012;Schmid 2012;Mehta 2014), such experiences entail negotiation, contestation, or conflict over the use of public spaces (Purcell 2002;Mitchell 2003;Brenner et al. 2012;Mehta 2014;Alanya et al. 2015). The use value of urban public spaces corresponds to the appropriation of space by individuals' or groups' actions (Carr et al. 1992), which mostly leads to the territorialization of urban public spaces by particular groups (Amin 2002, 965). ...
... Similarly, this article examines intergroup encounters from a spatial perspective, focusing on urban public spaces as key areas of physical encounters between newcomers and HCMs and analyzing the immediate outcomes of these encounters (Valentine 2008). Since each individual or group will experience urban public spaces differently (Purcell 2002;Mitchell 2003;Brenner et al. 2012;Schmid 2012;Mehta 2014), such experiences entail negotiation, contestation, or conflict over the use of public spaces (Purcell 2002;Mitchell 2003;Brenner et al. 2012;Mehta 2014;Alanya et al. 2015). The use value of urban public spaces corresponds to the appropriation of space by individuals' or groups' actions (Carr et al. 1992), which mostly leads to the territorialization of urban public spaces by particular groups (Amin 2002, 965). ...
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Some host community members (HCMs) develop positive attitudes toward refugees , while others do not. The current literature on perceptions of refugees offers different explanations for these varied responses to intergroup encounters (positive contact, negative contact, and exposure). Nevertheless, few scholars have examined the outcomes of intergroup relations at the microlevel to better understand the various impacts of intergroup encounters between HCMs and refugees. Even fewer scholars have focused on the everyday implications of HCMs' attitudes toward refugees in response to changing local demographics. In this article, I argue that in addition to the type of intergroup encounters, the locations where these encounters occur at the neighborhood level serve as a critical factor in understanding HCMs' sociospatial attitudes or their attitudes toward refugees at the microlevel of everyday life. In doing so, I introduce the concept of everyday strategies to describe the sociospatial attitudes that HCMs adopt in different types of urban public spaces
... In addition, without losing sight of collective action, the most vulnerable social groups have been defined as the guarantors of the right to the city, which has been linked it to the degree of integration/participation in society as a whole, as Marcuse pointed out (Marcuse, 2009;Mitchell, 2003). The collective action that claims the right to the city has been complemented by the importance of individual actions in the urban space in everyday life. ...
... Reequilibrando los espacios urbanos. Derecho a la ciudad y participación ciudadana en los barrios vulnerables Por otro lado, y sin eliminar la relación con la acción colectiva, se definen los grupos sociales más vulnerables como los garantes del derecho a la ciudad vinculándolo, como señala Marcuse, con el grado de integración/participación en el conjunto de la sociedad (Marcuse, 2009;Mitchell, 2003). Esta acción colectiva para llevar a cabo el reclamo del derecho a la ciudad ha sido complementada con la importancia que tienen las acciones particulares en la vida cotidiana en el espacio urbano que, sin negar la importancia de los movimientos sociales, inciden en la mejora de las condiciones de vida de la ciudadanía y favorecen la eficacia de la actuación (Purcell, 2003(Purcell, , 2009). ...
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The aim of this article is to analyse the concept of the right to the city in the vulnerable areas of Madrid, starting by proposing a way of operationalising and applying it to the city. This is justified by the fact that Madrid is one of the most segregated capitals in Europe. Qualitative methodology is used to measure the inclusion-exclusion of this type of areas in relation to the rest of the urban areas. Four discursive axes have been identified as a foundation for the qualitative analysis, which serve to outline the weaknesses and strengths of this type of neighbourhood. The final idea is the articulation of an identity discourse that enables the appropriation of the urban to exercise the right to the city.
... Reequilibrando los espacios urbanos. Derecho a la ciudad y participación ciudadana en los barrios vulnerables Por otro lado, y sin eliminar la relación con la acción colectiva, se definen los grupos sociales más vulnerables como los garantes del derecho a la ciudad vinculándolo, como señala Marcuse, con el grado de integración/participación en el conjunto de la sociedad (Marcuse, 2009;Mitchell, 2003). Esta acción colectiva para llevar a cabo el reclamo del derecho a la ciudad ha sido complementada con la importancia que tienen las acciones particulares en la vida cotidiana en el espacio urbano que, sin negar la importancia de los movimientos sociales, inciden en la mejora de las condiciones de vida de la ciudadanía y favorecen la eficacia de la actuación (Purcell, 2003(Purcell, , 2009). ...
... In addition, without losing sight of collective action, the most vulnerable social groups have been defined as the guarantors of the right to the city, which has been linked it to the degree of integration/participation in society as a whole, as Marcuse pointed out (Marcuse, 2009;Mitchell, 2003). The collective action that claims the right to the city has been complemented by the importance of individual actions in the urban space in everyday life. ...
Article
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El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis del concepto del derecho a la ciudad en las áreas vulnerables de la ciudad de Madrid, comenzando por una propuesta de operacionalización del mismo y su aplicación a esta ciudad, justificado por ser una de las capitales más segregadas de Europa. A través de metodología cualitativa, se mide la inclusión-exclusión de este tipo de áreas en relación al resto de áreas urbanas. Como principales ejes del análisis cualitativo se han establecido cuatro ejes discursivos que determinan los puntos débiles y las fortalezas que se dan en este tipo de barrios. La idea final viene a destacar la articulación de un discurso identitario que permite configurar la apropiación de lo urbano como ejercicio del derecho a la ciudad.
... They can be small, like informal parking lots, or large, like the vast agricultural areas bordered by the suburban sprawl; linear, like unused infrastructural facilities, or point-like, such as single vacant plots; temporary, like abandoned places waiting for a new purpose, or permanent, like unbuildable buffer areas; and they have been referred to in different ways, such as "terrain vagues" (de Solà-Morales, 1995), "dead zones" (Doron, 2000), "parafunctional spaces" (Papastergiadis, 2002), or simply "voids". In any case, however, their main characteristic is that of being urban enclosures resulting as a leftover of one or more planning processes from which they have been indirectly excluded and, by consequence, of being surrounded, and thus defined only by difference, by spaces with an identity they are totally deprived of: urban "wastes", in other words, involuntarily generated by the logic of abandonment (Loukaitou-Sideris, 1996) or residue (Brighenti, 2013), which often end up becoming exclusionary places for minorities and migrants (Mitchell, 2003;Marcuse, 2009). ...
... Thus, the intervention to be developed was never intended to be a permanent architecture or a facility to consolidate the settlement, but rather a temporary device that could improve the current quality of life in the neighbourhood. On the other hand, inhabitants were willing to fight for their "right to the place" to remain in Terras da Costa: the fact that they had built their own houses had created a strong boundary with the village itself, which represented the legitimation of this marginalized group as a community (Mitchell, 2003;Roy, 2005). ...
... -поведінка в публічному просторі міста та її контроль. Н. Сміт (Neil Smith), С. Лоу (Setha Low), Д. Харві (David Harvey), Д. Мітчелл (Don Mitchell), М. Девіс (Mike Davis) описують процеси комерціалізації, приватизації, занепаду публічних просторів та виключення різних соціальних груп із використання публічних просторів у неоліберальному суспільстві [8,11,13,16]. ...
... Responsibility also stems from the claims of "the right to the city" made in both the academic and activist spheres. They demand that citizens reclaim the city, seen primarily as a commodity, and participate in rebuilding a collective urban life (Lefebvre, 1968;Mitchell, 2003). Such tendencies trigger public debates, social actions, and movements in contemporary Croatia. ...
Article
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The article addresses the transformations of urban public space in contemporary Croatia. It tackles the issue of responsibility related to city-making processes. It raises the question of what and who makes a public space public. The analysis is based on ethnographic case studies conducted in the European Square in Zagreb and Sea Organs in Zadar. Despite their previous marginality, both places function as places of gathering but also as spaces whose publicness i renegotiated between diverse agents.
... Os demais autores da base intelectual (ATTOH, 2011;MARCUSE, 2009;MITCHELL, 2003;PURCEL, 2002PURCEL, , 2003, conforme destacado anteriormente na discussão de frente de pesquisa, são interlocutores de Lefebvre, que buscam a atualização e aplicação do conceito de direito à cidade em realidades diversas. ...
Article
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ResumoDireito à cidade é uma demanda por uma vida urbana renovada e transformada, conforme proposto por Henri Lefebvre, filósofo francês, e posteriormente discutido por vários outros autores como David Harvey, Elden e Purcell. O objetivo do artigo é identificar e descrever o uso da expressão direito à cidade na literatura. Especificamente, almeja-se compreender as tendências de publicação e o uso da expressão pelas obras mais citadas do campo, na frente de pesquisa e base intelectual encontradas na pesquisa. Para tanto, utilizou-se de análises bibliométricas e sociométricas em 809 artigos que versam sobre o tema, encontrados na Web of Science e de análise de categorias analíticas (formação sócioespacial, escalaridade, abstração e diferença) nos textos considerados frente de pesquisa e base intelectual da produção científica em direito à cidade. Os resultados indicam crescimento acentuado no número de artigos na última década, reflexo de movimentos sociais de visibilidade mundial, como a Primavera Árabe, Occupy, Indignados e Jornadas de 2013 e da apropriação do conceito por ativistas da justiça urbana como meio de analisar e contestar o urbanismo neoliberal, assim como a institucionalização do direito à cidade. Indicam também o destaque da produção científica brasileira em periódicos da geografia, direito e políticas públicas. Quanto às categorias analíticas, o estudo evidencia que as proposições posteriores de Lefebvre, que complementam a discussão de Direito à Cidade, são pouco utilizadas no campo, assim como autores que tratam de formação socioespacial.Palavras-chave: Formação Socioespacial. Direitos Coletivos. Vida Urbana. Bibliometria. Cientometria. CiteSpace. AbstractRight to the city is a request for a renewed and transformed urban life according to Henri Lefebvre, French philosopher, and was later discussed by several other authors, like David Harvey, Elden and Purcell. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe the use of the expression, ‘right to the city’. Specifically, we aim to understand the publication trends and the use of the expression as cited by most researchers on the research front and on an intellectual basis as were found in our research. For this purpose, used bibliometric and sociometric analysis found in 809 articles on the web of science and analysis of analytical categories, thus, ‘socio-spatial formation’, ‘scalarity’, ‘abstraction’ and ‘difference’ in texts considered on the research front and intellectual basis which threw more light on this topic. The results indicate a marked increase in the number of articles in the last decade, reflecting social movements with worldwide visibility, such as the Arab Spring, Occupy, Indignados and Jornadas de 2013 and the appropriation of the concept by urban justice activists as a means of analyzing and neoliberal urbanism, as well as the institutionalization of the right to the city. They also indicate the prominence of Brazilian scientific production in periodicals of geography, law and public policies. For the analytical categories, the study shows that Lefebvre's later propositions, which complement the discussion of Right to the City, are less used in the field, as well as authors dealing with socio-spatial formation.Keywords: Socio-spatial Formation. Collective Rights. Urban Life. Bibliometrics. Scientometrics. Citespace.
... Thus, I can understand a city's past and present through its odonyms because they bear traces of successive evolutions, extensions, and urban development (Badariotti 2002). Seeing the panel with Allende's name on it in a residential (and relatively wealthy) neighbourhood in the suburbs of Laval, it seems strange to me to think that the odonyms could express the aspirations of their communities in providing what Don Mitchell (2003) has referred to as "the right to the city." Nevertheless, the odonym proves to be a good starting point for the project. ...
Article
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Urban odonyms and public art that refer to the Chilean dictatorship (1973–1990) are artifacts within the cultural landscapes of Toronto, Laval, and Montreal. As commemorative material devices, I suggest odonyms and public art offer a symbolic way to cope with the experience of exile. Furthermore, these artifacts create social relations between Chilean exiles and Canadian urban spaces that contribute to forming a foreign community and define their present and future. Using a series of photographs, I chronicle the memorialization in Canada of a traumatic period in recent Chilean history.
... El segundo concepto relevante para este análisis se relaciona con la idea de espacio público, el que también trae aparejadas ideas contradictorias. Por un lado, Mitchell indica que: "El espacio público engendra temor, el cual se deriva de la sensación del espacio público como espacio sin control, como un espacio en el que la civilización es excepcionalmente frágil" (Mitchell, 2003). En América del Sur y Chile, el miedo al espacio público a menudo se relaciona con experiencias de criminalidad y violencia social (Mazza, 2009). ...
Article
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Las barricadas son acciones que los movimientos sociales realizan para lograr visibilizar sus demandas y expresar su malestar. Cuando las barricadas tienen una duración mayor de días o semanas se transforman en sitios donde se genera interacción social y debate. A partir de un estudio de fuentes secundarias y un análisis de discurso de 56 entrevistas semiestructuradas, este artículo examina a través de un enfoque cualitativo el significado que las barricadas tuvieron para quienes participaron en los movimientos sociales de Aysén (2012) y Chiloé (2016), ubicados en el sur de Chile. En ambos casos, las barricadas estuvieron compuestas por personas de diversas clases sociales, que permanecieron durante semanas en dichos espacios, estableciendo una vida comunitaria con sus propios ritmos y temporalidades. Se formaron así lugares que se vinculaban con significativos elementos culturales de esos territorios (la fogata, la comida, el mate), que permitieron el encuentro y la socialización entre personas de diferentes orígenes y clases sociales. Allí también se realizaron debates y aprendizajes clave para los movimientos sociales y sus acciones. En estos sitios las barricadas fueron sitios integración social, afectando positivamente la vida de sus participantes y las comunidades, constituyéndose como verdaderos lugares efímeros.
... Molti studiosi hanno dimostrato come i processi di riqualificazione degli spazi pubblici possano essere usati dalle istituzioni come pretesto per il rafforzamento di politiche volte al mantenimento dell'ordine (Duneier 2000;Zukin 1995;Mitchell 2003). L'aumento della sorveglianza sull'utilizzo dei luoghi, la definizione dei graffiti come crimini contro il decoro urbano e l'implementazione di politiche di tolleranza zero contro queste azioni, sono conseguenze che trovano una spiegazione nella teoria delle finestre rotte (Wilson e Kelling 1982). ...
Research Proposal
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A partire dagli anni Novanta, molte sono state le iniziative promosse dal Comune di Torino con l'obbiettivo di delimitare il fenomeno deviante del graffitismo. Se, da una parte, i progetti di normalizzazione della pratica sono stati inquadrati dalle istituzioni in una linea di lotta al degrado urbano, promozione della produzione culturale e della creatività giovanile; dall'altra, queste iniziative possono promuovere logiche di sorveglianza, inasprimento delle norme e privatizzazione degli spazi pubblici. Come hanno vissuto i writer l’intervento delle istituzioni nel mondo del writing? Quali sono i vantaggi e gli svantaggi di questo intervento? L’introduzione della figura dell’artista, all’interno della subcultura dei writer, quali processi di risignificazione della pratica ha prodotto? Date queste valutazioni, vedremo cosa ne pensano gli artisti delle vernici fotocatalitiche.
... Is the phrase used so often that it risks dilution (Plyushteva 2009)? Should rights even be the focus, over other ethically resonate terms, such as 'needs' (Mitchell 2003)? Does the phrase signal too much about the process, and not enough about the values that should drive the process (Purcell 2002)? ...
... Henri Lefebvre popularized the concept of the right to the city, a superior form of right, manifesting itself as "a cry and a demand" (1967,158). As a superior right, it carries within it a sense of the right to the commons, to participation and appropriation (Lefebvre 1996, 174;Mitchell 2003). It is the contention of this chapter that, particularly in Africa, the right to the city is an ideal. ...
Chapter
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We are witnessing a worldwide resurgence of reactionary ideologies and movements, combined with an escalating assault on democratic institutions and structures. Nevertheless, most studies of these phenomena remain anchored in a methodological nationalism, while comparative research is almost entirely limited to the Global North. Yet, authoritarian transformations in the South — and the struggles against them — have not only been just as dramatic as those in the North but also preceded them, and consequently have been studied by Southern scholars for many years. This volume brings together the work of more than 15 scholar-activists from across the Global South, combining in-depth studies of regional processes of authoritarian transformation with a global perspective on authoritarian capitalism. With a foreword by Verónica Gago.
... Expanding the public realm using privately owned public space (POPS) has become one alternative in many metropolitan cities around the world. Some studies believe that POPS can never be fully realized because the public and the private are two different, even contradicting, sectors [4]. Although there have been many attempts to maximize the multifaceted services of POPS, challenges remain. ...
Article
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This paper proposes that balancing public and private satisfaction in the creation of privately owned public space (POPS) might be the key to producing more efficient and effective POPSs. Seven qualitative techniques categorized into on-site observations, space syntax, survey, and regulatory review were used to gather data, and triangulation methods were used to derive conclusions. We then discussed methods for improving POPS planning and designs that prioritize both public and private sectors by assessing the indirect and direct benefits of POPS. Indirect benefits are delivered when POPS can elevate the pleasantness of the surrounding environment. In this study, users and tenants of the host buildings were found to obtain the most benefits with their easy access to POPS, while the public saw the existence of POPS as insignificant compared to local parks. Furthermore, the lack of good designs resulted in low public interest and awareness. Although developers gain direct benefits from bonus FAR, a less rigid but more comprehensive system is needed to increase developer motivation to create better POPS. Proposals that combine two or more POPS and regulations that require connection to existing public open space networks should be considered in future.
... As with the effect of urban environmental factors on mental health, Duncan (Duncan et al., 2013) briefly explains the spatial distribution of the built environment's indicators related to depression among young people. Nevertheless, the small number of studies have limited statistical capability to measure the most significant effects (Araya et al., 2006;Mitchell, 2003;Surtees et al., 2003;Weich et al., 2002Weich et al., , 2003. A wide range of people, and not only with a clinical diagnosis, may experience unpleasant feelings and anxiety when passing through the public spaces of their neighborhoods; therefore, the designers are responsible for how the design could aggravate or alleviate these feelings (Dillon, 2005). ...
Article
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So far, the planning and design of public urban spaces have not been specifically researched from the perspective of mental health. Only a few studies in the field of urban mental health have investigated the effect of different dimensions of public space design on mental health. Focusing on the street as a major type of public space in all cities around the world, the present study seeks to examine the effect of the dimensions and qualities of street design on mental health. This experimental study evaluates the psychological results related to two types of urban streets with and without motor traffic. Using a mixed design and a cross-sectional study of the users of public spaces (n = 547), we have measured their level of mental health as well as environmental perception after facing one of the two types of environment. The data were experimentally analyzed via partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and SmartPLS 3.0 software package. The results show that mental health in pedestrian streets is greatly affected by micro-level physical features of the environment and more specifically by natural elements. Whereas, in car-dominated streets, the macro-level physical features of the environment have a stronger effect on mental health. From these features, pollution had the strongest effect on mental health in car-dominated streets. Three further factors are important to mental health in pedestrian streets which include social relationships, safety, and social surveillance. In both streets, factors such as mixed land use, public transportation, attractiveness, active edge, quality of the pedestrian path, soundscape, and air pollution have the closest association with mental health. Additionally, the dominance of cars not only affects mental health through air and noise pollution but also threatens it by limiting the social experience of space. Although experimental and longitudinal evidence is needed to verify findings, The study illustrates those spaces with better public qualities (i.e., pedestrian streets) tend to have stronger effects on citizens’ mental health.
... This situation in the design is the exact opposite of what existed before: the future functions of the building had always proceeded form, respectively determining the construction's shape and appearance. Originally, skyscrapers had no inherent function associated with their future life (Mitchell, 2012). This, in turn, generated a new trend -the renunciation of private property and the transition to leasing. ...
Article
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This paper develops a more diverse and multi-dimensional agenda for understanding and researching urban verticality. Particularly, it argues for the emergence of skyscrapers, the technological inventions that made this possible, the impact of high-rise buildings on the urban context and their interaction with it. It also draws attention to sociological aspects in the perception of skyscrapers and both role/status in advertising. The external and internal essence of skyscrapers, their interconnection and confrontation are considered. At the end, the question of the fullness of vertical urbanism is assessed and studied, its existence is called into question and the necessary conditions for its emergence are considered.
... In the policing of public space more broadly, urban geographers have revealed how marginalized individuals and groups are targeted by police utilizing punitive measures, resulting in charges and acts of reprimandation extending beyond what is necessary for the perceived threats to safety [58,59]. These practices of socio-spatial control call back notions found in moral geography, where moral meaning is a guiding principle for the management of public spaces such as greenspace through policing the behaviours of occupants by criminalization or fear of being reprimanded; or banishing them entirely [58,60]. ...
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There is growing recognition that greenspace provides invaluable benefits to health and wellbeing, and is essential infrastructure for promoting both social and environmental sustainability in urban settings. This paper contributes towards efforts to build ‘just’ and equitable urban sustainability, and more specifically greenspace management, by drawing attention to hostility and exclusion experienced by two-spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, genderqueer, pansexual, transsexual, intersex and gender-variant (2SLGBTQ+) park occupants. There is evidence that access to greenspace is inequitable—despite ongoing media accounts of targeted violence and discriminatory police patrolling of 2SLGBTQ+ communities in urban parks, this population has not received adequate research attention. This paper examines systemic barriers that impede urban greenspace access among 2SLGBTQ+ communities, including how the threat of violence in greenspace limits opportunities for accessing benefits associated with naturalized settings. These themes are explored within the context of the City of Toronto, Canada. Our mixed-method approach draws upon key informant interviews, key document content analysis, and ground-truthing. Our findings reveal how queer corporeality, kinship and love subvert deeply entrenched heteronormative social values and understandings of sexuality, partnership, gender, and use of public space, challenging institutional understandings of morality and daily life. The paper concludes by reflecting on the state of 2SLGBTQ+ communities’ relationships to greenspace, and potential ways forward in building greater inclusivity into the social fabric of park design and management.
... environmental, etc., public spaces represent and shape our public life, civic culture, and daily dialogue (Walzer, 1986). Furthermore, public spaces provide "a shelter, a place to sleep, to rest, and a place of fellowship and togetherness for homeless people" (Mitchell, 2003). Public spaces have been an essential part of cities, from the agora of the acropolis and marketplaces of mediaeval cities to current modern shopping centers, commercial arenas, and open sites for festivals. ...
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Bazaars have always been a center of social, economic, and cultural exchange. Bazaars as public spaces were responsible for creating an ideal public setting to enhance social interactions for everyone. However, over a period of time, the concept of Bazaars has changed. Modern shopping centers seem to be an appropriate alternative to bazaars in terms of accessibility, quality of space, maintenance, sense of safety and security, and leisure activities. Karachi, being the commercial hub of Pakistan, hosts a load of business centers and marketplaces around the city. However, parts of the old bazaars in Karachi have been slowly destroyed to make room for wider streets and roads in Karachi, and new forms of shopping centers have been emerging across the city. This research will investigate the preference of people for traditional bazaars vs. shopping centers and the attribute of shopping centers that aided in their preference. This aim will be achieved by 1) understanding the evolving concepts of public spaces in Karachi and 2) investigating people’s preference for shopping centers vs. Bazaars and the impact of services offered by shopping centers on user satisfaction. A comparative case study technique is used. Data is collected through an online survey in relation to a traditional bazaar and a newly built shopping center in Karachi, Pakistan. The finding results show that the success of shopping centers is generally influenced by indicators like atmosphere, safety, accessibility, and leisure activities while people visit traditional open street bazaars in Karachi for the economical prices and accessibility to public transportation. On the other hand, the avoiding behavior of users towards traditional bazaars is reported due to narrow pathways, unmaintained environment, no parking and toilet facilities, and a large influx of people. Although these results are not the first ones in the literature, they are new in relying on findings from a cosmopolitan city in Pakistan. Finally, this study provides some recommendations that can serve urban planners and other practitioners to integrate these indicators at the earliest conceptual design phases when planning and managing open street bazaars in developing countries.
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