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Social media as academic quicksand: A phenomenological study of student experiences in and out of the classroom

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... Such regular misuse of mobile phones causes many college students to guesstimate that they exchange about 20 text messages during typical class periods (Dietz & Henrich, 2014;Pettijohn et al., 2015). Aside from texting, undergraduates also report using their mobile phones to visit social media, check their email, shop online, browse the Internet, and more (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Kornhauser et al., 2016;McCoy, 2020). Clearly, there is no shortage of off-task activities students can access on their mobile phones during class. ...
... In general, undergraduates spend more time using their devices for off-task purposes in courses with smaller enrollment sizes (e.g., Berry & Westfall, 2015;Week, 2016). Undergraduates have indicated an increased sense of anonymity in courses with large enrollments that makes them feel less susceptible to being caught using their devices (Berry & Westfall, 2015;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Tindell & Bohlander, 2012). When surveyed, approximately 70% of undergraduates reported a greater tendency to succumb to digital distraction in courses with large enrollments (Berry & Westfall, 2015). ...
... Fortunately, instructors can reduce student boredom and the temptation to succumb to digital distraction by incorporating active learning techniques into their lessons. Active learning teaching practices such as small-group work, problem-based learning activities, class discussions, and hands-on activities can decrease off-task device use (Baker et al., 2012;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Tindell & Bohlander, 2012) while simultaneously improving learning (Freeman et al., 2014;Meyers & Jones, 1993;Prince, 2004). Instructors who regularly observe student digital distraction might consider adjusting their instructional delivery to reduce the distraction that stems from boredom in their classrooms. ...
Chapter
Student use of digital devices for non-class purposes has become ubiquitous in college classrooms across the globe—a phenomenon commonly referred to as digital distraction. The purpose of the chapter is to provide readers with an overview of the prevalence of student digital distraction in college classrooms, an understanding of the factors that contribute to student digital distraction, and a summary of the outcomes experienced by students who succumb to digital distraction during class. The reviewed research indicates that mobile phones and laptop computers are the devices used most for off-task purposes during class. Environmental and person-centered factors appear especially consequential for the motivational interference potential of mobile devices in college classrooms. Unfortunately, student digital distraction has deleterious effects on student learning and the quality of student-instructor rapport in college classrooms. The chapter concludes with descriptions of five strategies college instructors can use to curb student digital distraction in their classrooms.
... McCoy (2013) found that 55% of students believe the one of the top three advantages to using their devices during class is to combat boredom, and Ugar and Koc (2015) noted that 60% of students in their study report using their devices out of boredom. Flanigan and Babchuk (2015) also found that fighting boredom was a major determinant for students in using social media, specifically, during class. A student in their study reported, "(During) a really boring, un-interactive lecture where time is just going by slow, then I'll try and go on (social media) just to make time go by a little faster" (p. ...
... Not only might this not be engaging, students have no incentive to pay attention when they could be doing other, more interesting, things. This sentiment was echoed in Flanigan and Babchuk's (2015) study with a student sharing, "When I don't need to look at what they're saying because it's all in the book and their reading off the PowerPoints, I think I don't need to pay attention." ...
...  Be mindful about not lecturing right out of the book or from slides that students later have access to, which can reduce the need for them to stay engaged during class (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). Incorporating original and unique content into the course can provide an incentive for engagement and participation. ...
... The rapid development of ICT has had considerable and visible impact on current educational sector (Flanigan and Babchuk, 2015;Goodfellow, 2011;Juhaňák et al., 2019;Mazman and Usluel, 2010;Stošić and Stošić, 2015;Wu and Tsai, 2006). In the last two decades, researchers have largely explored learners' attitudes toward new media. ...
... On the other hand, some studies (e.g. Flanigan and Babchuk, 2015) warn of potential technological distractions and their influence on academic performance. ...
... This research was conducted to explore university students' self-efficacy toward ICT use with a special focus on the use of social networks and mobile devices for learning (cf. Flanigan and Babchuk, 2015;Lau, 2017;Wu and Tsai, 2006). The purpose of this paper was to fill a gap in the literature by using samples of university students from three countries of Central Europe to examine the relationship between the frequency of SNS and mobile use and their participation in learning-related activities and student engagement (Junco, 2012). ...
Article
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This study advances our understanding of the current use of social media and mobile devices by first year university students. This research sought to explore the influence of the use of social networks and new mobile devices by students for learning purposes. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire at four universities in three countries in Central Europe. The research was completed by a sample of 961 full-time first year undergraduate students. The data were analysed using descriptive statistic and confirmatory factor analysis. The findings show that students who intensively use ICT for leisure-related tasks are also experienced in ICT for learning purposes. Furthermore, the results showed differences in the use of ICTs according to four selected areas: ICT for leisure-time activities, social networking, ICT on mobile phones, and ICT for study purposes by students. Five well-differentiated clusters were identified by through cluster analysis, which we term the ‘mobile subgroup’, ‘educational subgroup’, ‘social subgroup’, ‘network subgroup’, and ‘entertaining subgroup’. Educators can benefit from the results through a more complete understanding of how first year university students use social networks and mobile devices and how intensity in these areas influences ICT use for learning purposes.
... Accordingly, scholars have introduced the term 'cyberloafing' (Lim, 2002), also known as 'cyberslacking' (Garrett & Danziger, 2008a;Kim & Byrne, 2011;Taneja et al., 2015;Vitak et al., 2011) as one of the counterproductive behaviors in a work setting, and have primarily investigated the antecedents, consequences, and management of cyberloafing behaviors among employees (Mercado et al., 2017;Metin-Orta & Gu¨ng€ or, 2018;Sampat & Basu, 2017). Broadening this term to the field of education, scholars have also focused on students' misuse of the Internet during class, and conducted a large number of studies on non-academic internet use in academic settings through addressing different terms such as "off-task multitasking" (Wood et al., 2011), "off-task media use" (le Roux & Parry, 2017a;Parry & le Roux, 2018;Parry et al., 20120), "media multitasking" (Aagaard, 2015;van Der Schuur et al., 2015), "laptop multitasking" (Kraushaar & Novak, 2010;Sana et al., 2013), "off-task smartphone use" (Abramova et al., 2017), and "in-class smartphone/social media use" (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013). ...
... Likewise, it is reported that a majority of university students use digital devices including laptops, tablets or smartphones during class time for non-class related purposes and engage in various activities such as texting, emailing, social media use and web surfing (Berry & Westfall, 2015;Junco, 2012;Roberts & Rees, 2014). This leads to higher rates of diminished attention, missing instruction and lecture notes, and lower grades among students (Berry & Westfall, 2015;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Jacobsen & Forste, 2011;McCoy, 2013;van Der Schuur et al., 2015). ...
... Even though there is a large number of published studies extensively investigating non-academic Internet use among students with respect to its determinants (le Roux & Parry, 2017a;Parry & le Roux, 2018) and consequences (Aagaard, 2015;Abramova, et al., 2017;Burak, 2012;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Foster, 2008;Fried, 2008;Kraushaar & Novak, 2010;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;le Roux & Parry, 2017b;Sana et al., 2013;van Der Schuur et al., 2015), little is known about the role students' Internet use plays in moderating coping abilities. To our best knowledge, it has not yet been investigated whether non-academic Internet use buffers or enhances one's ability to cope with stress in influencing psychological functioning. ...
Article
Cyberloafing, the intentional use of the Internet for personal purposes during class hours, has received the scholars' attention due to the increased access to digital devices in educational settings. Considering the possible negative consequences of misuse of the Internet on health and well-being, the current study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship by examining in detail the role of coping strategies. The sample consisted of 272 undergraduate students. The participants were asked to fill out items measuring cyberloafing behaviors, coping strategies (emotion-focused and problem-focused), and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, anger, and somatization). The results revealed that cyberloafing is positively related to psychological symptoms. Furthermore, it is observed that cyberloafing moderates the relationship between emotion-focused coping and psychological symptoms such that at high levels of cyberloafing, emotion-focused coping is associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms. These findings contribute to the existing literature on students’ psychological well-being in terms of highlighting its relation with coping strategies and problematic Internet use.
... .] can lead to ignoring real life, silent behavior, mood adjustments and conflicts" (Thivanka, 2016). In addition "use of social media decreases motivation and hinders academic performance" (Flanigan and Babchuk, 2015). As adolescence is considered as a transitional period between childhood and adulthood a number of psychological, physiological and cognitive alterations are also necessarily occurring in adolescents' lives in addition to the above adjustments. ...
... Yet, as Wijesundara (2014) explains, "users' gender, race and ethnicity and educational background are associated with the use of SNS"and also culture and technological infrastructure (Bolton et al., 2013). Social media has positive and negative impacts; however, the available literature cannot be divided based on the nature of the content (positive or negative) because each piece of work contains both sidesbut it is understandable that the pertinent literature mostly considers the negative aspects of social media rather than positive aspects (Flanigan and Babchuk, 2015;Walsh et al., 2013). Aillerie and McNicol (2018) carried out a web-based study of high school students (15-19 years) living in the UK, France, Thailand and Denmark to investigate how they use social media to find information for different purposes. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of social media on adolescents’ social behavior, personal conduct, interactions, education, communication, attitudes, skills and abilities. In addition, the study seeks to determine the barriers to social media use by adolescents. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 300 adolescents from three educational zones in Sri Lanka. A questionnaire survey method was applied to collect raw data and descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis. Findings Among the given different social media, YouTube was the most preferred social media for adolescents. Although the majority of adolescents used mobile phones to access social media, they were not high social media users. The impact of social media on adolescents’ education and communication was significantly positive although their intellectual involvement with social media communities was rather low. The use of social media had not decreased the time devoted to studies or seriously complicated adolescents’ social life or encouraged them toward violence and conflict. There was no indication that social media had led to them experiencing mental confusion, health problems, disorderly conduct, social imbalance or suicide. Originality/value This study helps to reduce the literature gap of pertinent literature because there is little research information available on social media use in Sri Lanka. Almost all studies based in Sri Lanka in relation to social media have been poorly designed or published in predatory journals. The findings of the present study should be a timely and important resource for policymakers in education, teachers in both government and private schools and many stakeholders not only in Sri Lanka but also in other similar nations.
... The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT) has had considerable and dramatic impact on contemporary educational practice [1][2][3][4][5]. Digital competence has become increasingly important for social environment and individuals since 20 th century [6; 7]. ...
... The importance of digital competence was recognised by the European Parliament and the European Council in 2006. Digital competence was identified as one of the eight key competences for lifelong learning and involves the confident and critical use of Information Society Technology (IST) for work, leisure, learning and communication 1 . ...
Article
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Introduction. Digital literacy refers to the skills required to achieve digital competence, the confident and critical use of information and communication technology for le arning, leisure, communication and future work of young people. Digital competence has a dual nature. First of all, it is the technical ability to operate programs, pages, equipment. Secondly, it is also the ability to use digital media safely. Materials and Methods. The paper presents the attempts to measure digital literacy in the area of threats resutling from using the new media in the group of upper-secondary school students (fourth educational cycle). The study was carried out using a diagnostic test with 18 questions. The research was conducted in the group of 1693 youths aged 15–21. The research was designed based on traditional methods of testing knowledge and skills. Results. The findings showed that the weakest digital literacy component was the copyright-related knowledge and the strongest area was online shopping and financial operations. All digital literacy components are interrelated. The improvement in one area leads to the development of other digital literacy elements. Despite this correlation, digital literacy is a heterogeneous concept. There are also differences regarding certain digital literacy components, determined by gender – girls obtained higher test results in terms of the soft competencies whereas boys were better with the technical aspects of digital literacy. Based on the cluster analysis, we noticed that 41.41% of the students obtained good and very good results from the competence test. More than half of the students require further education in most of the analysed areas. Discussion and Conclusion. For educational decision-makers, the findings highlight the importance of designing training programs aimed at developing students’ digital literacies, with a special focus on new topics as sexting, piracy and cyberbullying.
... Eğitimin, okulların yanında iş yerinde, sokakta, oyun oynarken, ailede kısaca her yerde gerçekleşen bir olgu olduğu (Kıroğlu, 2014) düşünüldüğünde, bireylerin hayatında yer edinen sosyal medyanın da eğitime etki edebileceği düşünülmektedir. Literatür incelendiğinde, farklı yaş gruplarına yönelik sosyal medya ve eğitim ilişkisini ele alan çalışmaların bulunduğu (Al-Menayes, 2015;Apuke, 2016;Asemah, Okpanachi & Edegoh, 2013;Chris, 2015;Çarkçı, 2019;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Giunchiglia, Zeni, Gobbi, Bignotti & Bison., 2018;Habes, Alghizzawi, Khalaf, Salloum & Ghani, 2018;Leyrer-Jackson & Wilson, 2018;Owusu-Acheaw & Larson, 2015) fakat sınıf öğretmenliği öğrencileri özelinde sosyal medya bağımlılık düzeyi ile akademik başarı ve kitap okuma alışkanlığını ele alan herhangi bir çalışmanın olmadığı görülmüştür. Bu sebeple bu çalışmanın, belirtilen alanda ilk olması sebebiyle önem arz ettiği düşünülmektedir. ...
... Ayrıca sosyal medya kullanımının üniversite öğrencilerinin akademik başarılarına etki eden faktörleri negatif yönde etkilediği ve dolayısıyla da akademik başarıyı etkilediği belirtilmektedir (Giunchiglia ve arkadaşları, 2018). Bunlara ek olarak sosyal medya kullanımı ile akademik başarı arasında doğrudan bir ilişki olduğu ve sosyal medya kullanımının akademik başarıyı düşürücü etkiye sahip olduğu yapılan nicel araştırmalarla ortaya konmuş (Asemah vd., 2013;Apuke, 2016;Chris, 2015;Habes vd., 2018;Owusu-Acheaw & Larson, 2015) ve bu durum literatürde yer alan nitel araştırmalarla da desteklenmiştir (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). Bu araştırmada elde edilen bulgular göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, aradaki fark anlamlı olmamasına karşın not ortalaması yüksek öğrencilerin sosyal medya bağımlılık düzeylerinin not ortalaması düşük öğrencilere oranla daha yüksek olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. ...
Article
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Bu araştırmada sınıf öğretmenliği öğrencilerinin sosyal medya bağımlılık düzeylerinin, çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Tarama modelinde yürütülen bu çalışmanın araştırma evrenini 2019-2020 eğitim-öğretim yılında bir devlet üniversitesinin Eğitim Fakültesi’nde bulunan sınıf öğretmenliği öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak “Sosyal Medya Bağımlılık Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde Kruskal Wallis H testi, bağımsız gruplar için t testi ile Mann Whitney U testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada, sınıf öğretmenliği öğrencilerinin sosyal medya bağımlılık düzeylerinin sınıf seviyesine göre farklılaşmadığı; not ortalaması üçün üstünde olan öğrencilerin ölçekten aldıkları puanların aritmetik ortalamasının not ortalaması üçün altında olan öğrencilere oranla daha yüksek olduğu fakat bu farkın anlamlı olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca ayda bir kitaptan fazla okuyan sınıf öğretmenliği öğrencilerinin ayda bir kitap ve daha azını okuyan öğrencilere oranla daha düşük sosyal medya bağımlılığına sahip olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of grade level, grade point average GPA, and the average number of books read in a year on social media addiction among preservice classroom teachers. The study population of the study carried out in the scanning model consisted of all students of the department of classroom education of a public university within the 2019-2020 academic year. Data were collected using the Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS) and analyzed using an independent groups t test, and the Kruskal Wallis H and Mann Whitney U tests. Participants’ SMAS scores did not significantly differ by grade level. Participants with a GPA greater than 3 had a higher arithmetic SMAS score than those with a GPA less than 3, which was however statistically insignificant. On the other hand, participants who read more than one book per month had significantly lower SMAS scores than those who read one book or less per month.
... Although there is an opinion that online instruction due to lack of face-to-face contact with students cannot replace traditional instruction, it still represents an educational shift from traditional to modern approach to learning (Mishra, Gupta, Shree, 2020). The use of information and communication technology in the classroom and at home during learning is widespread among students, as evidenced by numerous studies (eg Rosen, Carrie & Cheever, 2013;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). In addition to numerous advantages, this environment also offers plenty of distractors. ...
... Some studies suggest that students are more prone to digital distractions such as checking social media, sending messages when watching lectures online than live (Lepp et al., 2019) or when using a computer for learning activities (Judd & Kennedy, 2011). The use of social media during lectures happens as a conscious and reflexive decision, where learning activities are intentionally interrupted in order to "check" Facebook or it is seen as a type of reflexive activity (Flanigan, Babchuk, 2015). There are studies that claim that students are attracted to social media mainly through the usual distraction in the form of notifications that tempt them to check what is happening on the networks (Aagaard, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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"During online classes, teachers face the challenges of keeping the students focused and motivated in the online environment. The results of the research showed that students who get bored during online classes are less motivated and achieve poorer academic results. The initial assumption that this paper makes is that in relation to the level of boredom that students experience during online lessons, it is possible to predict which strategies of attention regulation and direction students will use. The research sample consists of 198 students, between 18 and 39 years of age (AM = 21.03; SD = 2.43), 84.9% of which are female. The sample included survey participants who stated that class attendance was mandatory during online classes due to the Coronavirus pandemic. The instruments used were the Online Learning Motivated Attention and Regulation Strategies (OLMARS) questionnaire, dimension of Boredom from the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire - Short version (AEQ-S). The results of simple regression analysis showed that boredom during online lessons is a predictor for four statistically significant strategies of attention regulation and direction: Perceived attention discontinuity (R2=.21; F(1,196)=53,442; p=.000 ??=.463; p=.000), Lingering thought (R2=.16; F(1,196)=39,350; p=.000 ??=.409; p=.000) and Social media notification (R2=.17; F(1,196)=40,975; p=.000 ??=.416; p=.000) Behavioral strategies (R2=.05; F(1,196)=12,574; p=.000 ??=-.246; p=.000). The results indicate that when boredom happens, students reach for various digital distractors to which they direct their attention to. We can see that the highest percentage of variance is explained by strategies aimed at drawing attention to stimuli from the environment. Moreover, it should be kept in mind that the research was conducted under specific circumstances, at the beginning of the Coronavirus pandemic, although the results obtained were in line with the findings of other researchers according to whom attention deficit is caused by the presence of negative emotions during lessons. Given the tendency to continue with online education, these results can be useful for understanding the needs of students who attend classes on online platforms."
... If the lecturers give the students direct education, the students will feel bored and they will start looking for something else to entertain them such as cyberloafing (Varol & Yıldırım, 2017). At the same time, students have reported that the active lectures lead to reduced boredom and cyberloafing desires (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;McCoy, 2016). Teaching by active practices such as making small-group work, debates, class discussions, and problem-based activities decrease lecture cyberloafing (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). ...
... At the same time, students have reported that the active lectures lead to reduced boredom and cyberloafing desires (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;McCoy, 2016). Teaching by active practices such as making small-group work, debates, class discussions, and problem-based activities decrease lecture cyberloafing (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). ...
Article
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As the Internet has brought a lot of benefits to the education environment, the Internet also creates new problems that were not found before such as cyberloafing. Cyberloafing is defined as students' behaviours or tendencies to use the Internet for a personal purpose unrelated to class during class time. In this paper, the researcher will show the demographic areas and the factor that effects on the students to attraction to cyberloafing from the previous studies have been shown consciences of cyberloafing in both of students and universities. Finally, this paper will present some of the strategies and suggestions to control and reduce cyberloafing in the universities. This paper describes cyberloafing among students in a comprehensive way and it will help the researchers, and anyone interested in cyberloafing to get comprehensive descriptions for cyberloafing among students.
... A partir da análise de entrevistas semiestruturadas, vários fatores foram relatados como barreiras ao sucesso acadêmico. O uso de mídias sociais durante as atividades acadêmicas diminui a realização, aumenta a quantidade de tempo que leva para concluir as tarefas e reduz a quantidade de informações que os alunos retiram das sessões de estudo e palestras [Flanigan e Babchuk 2015] Entretanto, cabe destacar que o simples acesso aos dispositivos móveis não é suficiente para introduzir uma melhoria nos resultados do processo de ensinoaprendizagem. É necessário proceder alterações nas práticas pedagógicas ( Lefoe et al., 2009), pois, em geral, tem-se um modelo de ensino centrado didaticamente no professor, em que se perdem a oportunidade de criar pedagogias inovadoras e de utilizar diferentes ferramentas cognitivas em ambientes legítimos de aprendizagem . ...
... . Além disso, os participantes a falta de interesse situacional e tópico aumenta a tentação das mídias sociais [Flanigan eBabchuk 2015].O uso do telefone celular pelos alunos na sala de aula não relacionado ao conteúdo de aprendizagem tem um impacto negativo no aprendizado[Kuznekoff, Munz e Titsworth 2015], aumentando o grau de distração (Tossell et al., 2015) e reduzindo as notas dos alunos [Kuznekoff, Munz e Titsworth 2015; Beland e Murphy 2014]. Assim, os telefones celulares causam distração e têm um impacto negativo no desempenho dos alunos [Beland e Murphy, 2014].A conclusão do referido estudo coaduna com os achados de Berry e Westfall (2015), no qual os alunos também entenderam ser tênue a linha entre o uso do celular em sala de aula como benefício e malefício, ou seja, o uso obsessivo e prejudicial de telefones celulares em sala de aula e o grau de adequação de forma a contribuir no processo de ensino-aprendizado. ...
Chapter
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RESUMO: Este estudo visa identificar a utilização de dispositivos móveis digitais durante as aulas para fins não relacionados ao conteúdo ministrado. Aplicou-se um questionário, adaptado de McCoy (2016), junto a estudantes de Medicina. Os resultados de 299 respondentes apontam que a maioria deles destina no máximo 10% do tempo da aula com o uso de smartphone e o acessam até 10 vezes durante um dia usual de aula. Os estudantes reconhecem que o uso de smartphones para fins não relacionados ao conteúdo ministrado distrai a atenção e reduz o aprendizado, mas entendem se tratar de instrumento que promove melhoria no processo ensino-aprendizagem na medida em que também é utilizado para verificar assuntos relacionados ao conteúdo da aula. ABSTRACT: In this study we evaluated the use of mobile devices in the classroom for non-class-related purposes. To do so, we administered a questionnaire based on McCoy (2016) to a group of medical students. The results of respondents (n=299) indicate that most of them spend up to 10% of their class time using smartphone and access it up to 10 times during a typical school day. Admitting this to be a factor of distraction, potentially compromising learning, the respondents expressed the belief that smartphone technology may be employed as an aid in the teaching-learning process as well. 1 | INTRODUÇÃO As metodologias educacionais compreendem estratégias que contemplam as diversas formas do ensinar e aprender. Atualmente, considerando que a sociedade vive imersa na tecnologia, incluindo-se a população jovem estudantil, as instituições educacionais no Brasil começam a pensar em incluir em seus currículos educacionais as formas de ensino e aprendizagem que utilizem os meios tecnológicos para tornar os alunos capazes de oportunizar a construção de atitudes, habilidades e valores necessários para o uso eficiente da tecnologia no ambiente acadêmico. Assim, busca-se promover a aprendizagem também por meio de dispositivos móveis digitais (smartphones e tablets), e não apenas como entretenimento e/ou motivo de conflitos entre professores e alunos em sala de aula [Kobs 2017; Tavares et al. 2007].
... Offtask use of mobile devices occurs whether students listen to lectures (McCoy 2016; Wammes et al. 2019) or work in small groups (Wood, Mirza, and Shaw 2018) during class. Surveys and interviews with undergraduate students revealed that digital distraction stems from a variety of causes, including boredom (Bolkan and Griffin 2017;McCoy 2016), passive, lecture-based learning experiences (Aagaard 2015;Baker, Lusk, and Neuhauser 2012;Flanigan and Babchuk 2015), and courses with large enrollments (Berry and Westfall 2015;Cheong, Shuter, and Suwinyattichaiporn 2016). Moreover, Week (2016) observed student digital distraction during live class periods in 24 undergraduate courses across eight colleges at a large, public university. ...
... Existing research provides compelling evidence for the high frequency (Kornhauser, Paul, and Siedlecki 2016;Parry and le Roux 2018) and academic pitfalls (Demirbilek and Talan 2018;Waite et al. 2018) of digital distraction. Students have indicated that they struggle to overcome the temptation to use their mobile devices during class even though they are aware of the consequences (Flanigan and Babchuk 2015;Langan et al. 2016). Moreover, one student's use of mobile technology for off-task purposes can distract and hinder the learning of nearby students as well (Sana, Weston, and Cepeda 2013). ...
Article
We examined college instructors’ perceptions of student use of mobile technology for off-task purposes during class. Previous research demonstrated that digital distraction hinders student learning, yet little is known about instructor views and reactions to this behavior. Phenomenological interviews with 11 college instructors revealed that student digital distraction has a profound influence on their pedagogical decision-making, relationships with students, and professional satisfaction. These instructors regularly encounter student digital distraction during class and have well-defined views on the deleterious influence digital distraction has on the integrity of the classroom learning environment. However, instructors were divided in their perceived responsibility to curb this behavior. Most rely on proactive prevention strategies rather than reactive strategies out of concern for negatively impacting student-instructor rapport. Moreover, these instructors experience frustration stemming from student digital distraction. Findings indicate that student digital distraction influences pedagogical decision-making and threatens the quality of student-instructor rapport.
... But why does nonacademic uses of social media have a negative impact on the student's academic outcome? According to [16], during class session social media uses have a direct and adverse effect on the academic achievement of the student. This distracts learners to focus on the class lessons. ...
... No [35] 2018 SNS 180 [16][17] The purpose of this research was to clarify the correlations between family support, academic stress, use of social network site (SNS) and insomnia in adolescents Major variables connected with adolescent insomnia are the reasons for SNS use, duration of SNS use, and academic stress. In order to decrease insomnia, these elements should be integrated into multi-component instructional interventions aimed at both adolescents and parents. ...
Article
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Social networking sites (SNS) have become more prevalent over the previous decade. Interactive design and addictive characteristics have made SNS an almost indispensable part of life, particularly among university learners. Previous studies have shown that excessive use of SNS adversely affects learners' academic success as well as mental health. However, still now, there is a lack of clear evidence of the actual rationalization behind these adverse effects. Concurrently, any significant preventive measures are not yet introduced to counter the excessive use of SNS, particularly for students. To bridge this gap, considering a view of 1862 students (male = 1183, female = 659), the current study investigates how and in which way spending time in SNS negatively influences students' academic performance. Correlation and regression analyses showed that there is a powerful negative correlation between students' spending time in social media (STISM) and their educational outcome. Simultaneously, our investigation indicates that classroom standing social media use and late night social media use result in poor educational outcome of the students. Based on the findings of the investigation, an Android based application framework called SMT (Social Media Tracker) is designed and partially implemented to minimize the engagement between students and SNS.
... In comparison to these social media tools offered in an LMS, SNSs enable users more capacity for communication between individuals in association with content sharing and relationship building (Barczyk & Duncan, 2012). Yet, the use of SNSs can also be problematic in a learning environment if the technological facilities of the platform do not lend themselves well to the task (Osgerby & Rush, 2015;Owens & Nussbaum, 2016), lead to distractions for students (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Selwyn, 2016), or create tensions for educators in maintaining professional identities through the blurring of personal and academic online spaces (Raynes-Goldie & Lloyd, 2014;. Further studies of SNSs as platforms for students to engage in educational interactions have suggested that while some students and teachers may not be comfortable mixing the educational use of these platforms in their personal lives, the affordances of social presence on SNSs increase the likelihood of social learning interactions taking place between students (Cuesta, Eklund, Rydin, & Witt, 2016;Gettman & Cortijo, 2015;Tess, 2013). ...
... Thus, it is this personal potential of using SNSs for making connections with classmates through learning that can then have increased benefits for international students' academic adjustment and outcomes. However, this contrasts with research that has highlighted students and educators' concerns about distraction (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Selwyn, 2016) and the maintenance of privacy when using personal online spaces for educational purposes (Raynes-Goldie & Lloyd, 2014). While the data eventuating from this study does not discount the possibilities of similarly negative attitudes to using personal social media platforms for learning, it does emphasise the benefits that may be lost by dismissing the use of these platforms altogether. ...
Article
With the increased focus on the use of digital platforms to facilitate teaching and learning comes the challenge of creating connections between international students and their new classmates. The use of social media in higher education may be one avenue that can enable not only learning but also social connections between students to improve the international study experience and sense of community. This article reports on the findings of a small survey study at an Australian university, which demonstrate that the majority of international students surveyed had greater prior experience with social network sites for personal and educational use rather than wikis, blogs, and discussion forums, which are often used in institutional settings. Furthermore, the results suggest that the educational use of social network sites led many participants to add new classmates as profile friends. These findings have implications for the choice of digital platforms for pedagogical use of social media and how that may impact on the teaching of international students in higher education for making connections.
... In addition, the potential for social media to interfere with learning is commonly experienced by many educators who struggle to maintain students' attention and motivation in the classroom. In a study on college students' use of social media in and outside the classroom, researchers found that students reported that they were aware of the impact of using social media on achievement, task completion, and understanding of the instructional content (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). If more than 90% of students bring their cell phones to school (Jacobsen & Forste, 2011), how might educators take advantage of students' willingness to view modeling in videos (i.e. ...
Article
This article discusses motivation from the perspective of Bandura’s social cognitive theory. Motivation refers to processes that instigate and sustain goal-directed activities. Motivational processes are personal/internal influences that lead to outcomes such as choice, effort, persistence, achievement, and environmental regulation. Motivation has been a prominent feature of social cognitive theory from the early modeling research to the current conception involving agency. The conceptual framework of reciprocal interactions is discussed, after which research is summarized on behavioral, environmental, and personal influences on motivation. Key internal motivational processes are goals and self-evaluations of progress, self-efficacy, social comparisons, values, outcome expectations, attributions, and self-regulation. Critical issues confronting the theory include diversity and culture, methodology, and long-term effects of interventions. The article concludes with additional recommendations for future research on contexts, conceptual clarity, and technology.
... As the number of participants ultimately numbered twenty-six (26), there was no need to alter the identification procedure at any point. Participants were subsequently referred to by their letter and their actual names were never attached to interview data (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical report concerns details of written defence (actually delivered on 5th May 2020) concerning second doctoral manuscript
... On the other hand, scholars have observed that the use of electronic media in classes or at home is related to the implementation of more than one activity at the same time, or "multitasking", which increases students' distraction and decreases their ability to retain the information they learn (Cabañas & Korzeniowski, 2015;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Matamala-Riquelme, 2016;Rosen et al., 2013). Furthermore, as they present lower capacities to control interference of information, this would negatively impact their academic performance (Bellur et al., 2015;Giunchiglia et al., 2018;Junco & Cotten, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Con la creciente masificación de las tecnologías de información y comunicación entre los jóvenes, es cada vez más común que los estudiantes de secundaria incorporen el uso de múltiples dispositivos y plataformas en sus hábitos de estudio, lo que sería una fuente de apoyo y motivación, pero también de constante distracción. Esta investigación compara el impacto que tiene estudiar con apuntes escritos a mano, WhatsApp, YouTube y navegando por Internet, en el rendimiento académico, a través de un método mixto que combina 31 grupos focales y una encuesta a 7.217 estudiantes de 12 a 18 años en Chile. El análisis de los grupos focales muestra que el buen uso de tecnologías al estudiar dependería de la capacidad de los estudiantes para controlar y hacer un uso eficiente de los recursos digitales disponibles, de sus motivaciones individuales y de la habilidad que tienen para buscar y evaluar la información en Internet. Por su parte, los resultados de la encuesta concluyen que aquellos jóvenes que estudian con mayor frecuencia con sus apuntes presentan un promedio de calificaciones más alto y los que estudian frecuentemente con YouTube y WhatsApp, un promedio de calificaciones más bajo, sin encontrar diferencias significativas en el caso de los navegadores de Internet. Esto reforzaría la necesidad observada por académicos de generar políticas que promuevan la alfabetización digital tanto dentro como fuera del colegio.
... While these popular social networking sites have been hailed for their educational promise Askari 2017, Greenhow et al. 2019a, b;Paskevicius et al. 2018), they have been critiqued for the potential discomfort (Dennen and Burner 2017) and disruption (Flanigan and Babchuk 2015) that they may cause in educational settings. In short, the value of taking these more generally used tools and coopting them for academic purposes is uncertain, although both formal and informal learning clearly have been facilitated through social media use (Greenhow and Lewin 2016). ...
Article
In this introduction to the special issue on systematic reviews on emerging learning environments and technologies, we introduce best practices for conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis and discuss the need for a systematic review on emerging learning environments and technologies. We synthesize research on seven primary areas of emerging learning environments and technologies that include: (1) social media, (2) massive open online courses, (3) special education technology, (4) mobile learning, (5) game-based learning and gamification, (6) adaptive learning, and (7) learning analytics and introduce the thirteen articles that were included in this special issue. This article also provides implications for the readers on using and conducting systematic reviews.
... In contrast, other studies reported no increase in student motivation (Selwyn, 2009;Welch & Bonnan-White, 2012), or even a decrease (Dyson, Vickers, Turtle, Cowan, & Tassone, 2015;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). Welch and Bonnan-White (2012) for instance found that students who did not use Twitter showed more study engagement compared with students who used Twitter. ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of social media for today’s youth often elicits teachers to explore educational use of these media. However, many teachers appear to struggle with the tension between possible pedagogical use and the tempting distraction of this technology. The current literature review aims to present a synthesis of conditions and outcomes relevant for a well-considered, evidence-based use of social media, and teacher professional development. A conceptual model consisting of intended curriculum (school level), implemented curriculum (teacher level) and attained curriculum (student level) guided the research questions. The review included 271 articles, which were analysed with framework synthesis. Ambiguous results and poor quality of studies often hindered clear statements about conditions and outcomes regarding social media in the classroom. Nonetheless, reported factors include school culture, attitude towards social media, support, teacher professional development, learning goals and a clear position in the curriculum. Considerations and advice for educational practice were formulated.
... A fourth potential limitation relates to the use of intermittent text messages as the distraction manipulation. College students have self-reported (Flanigan and Babchuk 2015) and research using tracking software on laptop computers (Ravizza et al. 2017) has revealed that digital distraction in the classroom often manifests itself in the form of spending several minutes at a time scrolling through social media accounts or instant messaging with friends before returning their attention to lectures. Future research into the effects of digital distraction on laptop and longhand note-taking methods might benefit from comparing the effects of multiple distraction manipulations (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Laptop computers allow students to type lecture notes instead of relying on the traditional longhand (i.e. paper–pencil) method. The present research compared laptop and longhand note-taking methods by investigating how the quality (i.e. complete versus incomplete idea units) and quantity (i.e. total words and total idea units) of typed and handwritten notes differed when students did or did not reply to text messages during a simulated lecture. Accounting for the presence of text messaging while participants took notes situated the present study within the reality facing many students in today’s digital age. Findings indicated that a considerable proportion of the idea units captured in participants’ notes were incomplete, regardless of note-taking method or exposure to distraction during the simulated lecture. However, only the total number of complete idea units stored in student notes meaningfully predicted lecture learning. Furthermore, the presence of digital distraction was particularly disruptive to the quality and quantity of laptop users’ lecture notes relative to longhand note takers. Finally, digital distraction emerged as a more meaningful predictor of lecture learning than note-taking method. Recommendations for improving the quality of student lecture notes are discussed and avenues for future research into note-taking completeness and the interplay between digital distraction and note-taking method are proposed.
... These sites can be used as an alternative to the LMS as these may be platforms that students are already comfortable using in their personal lives (Duncan & Barczyk, 2015;Ellefsen, 2016). However, the educational use of these sites also has associated issues, such as possibilities for distraction and concerns around privacy (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Selwyn, 2016). Nevertheless, from the abundance of research available, it seems that regardless of whether educators incorporate digital technologies for learning with an institutional LMS or an open SNS, facilitating productive collaborative online learning requires careful planning. ...
Article
Full-text available
An Australian higher education experience often includes group work as an important social learning opportunity. For international students, taking part in a group assignment can positively influence learning and adjustment to the new cultural and educational context through social interaction. However, students are increasingly choosing to use digital technologies to participate in group assignments, which may impact on opportunities available to make social connections with peers. This study investigated the experiences of 26 international students as they transitioned to study at an Australian university about their use of social media for group assignments and their resulting perceptions of connection to classmates. Analysis of the results suggests that students who engaged in collaborative rather than cooperative interactions via social media were more likely to perceive a connection to their classmates. This has implications for educators to include classroom modelling of digitally-mediated collaborative interactions to benefit students’ participation in group assignments, which can improve the transition experience through social connection.
... Studenti na vysokých školách v letech 2017-2018 již významně integrovali nová mobilní zařízení do své každodenní komunikace a v tom i do svého vzdělávání, což jim umožňovalo více využívat neformální vzdělávací kontexty a podporovalo to i jejich orientaci na téměř okamžitou komunikaci a spolupráci. Jevilo se proto potřebné hlouběji zkoumat, jak vyučující i studující skutečně využívají nové technologie ve 185 vzdělávacím procesu, zda a jak tyto technologie přispívají i k studijnímu úspěchu studentů (viz například Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Lau, 2017). ...
Book
Full-text available
More and more schools, universities, enterprises and other organizations are adopting e-learning and blended learning. Organizational rationales for adopting e-learning and blended learning are related to learning outcomes, learner satisfaction, teacher´s / tutor´s abilities and experiences, organization satisfaction, access and convenience, and sometimes also cost efficiencies. Both, e-learning and blended learning are now a common part of lifelong learning and are often used especially in the professional development of younger adults. The author of the monograph builds on his rich experience with e-learning and blended learning over the last 25 years and brings a structured overview of current theoretical knowledge in this field. In the second part he presents the outputs of research that has carried out himself or with colleagues and also in international cooperation. The first part presents the outputs of desk research focused on e-learning and blended learning, especially with focus on development in the last ten years in this area of adult education. Author defines e-learning in the same way as Horton (2006): “E-learning is the use of information and computer technologies to create learning experience” and shows its implementation at schools and corporate training. Classification of blended learning, as the mix of traditional methods of learning and teaching and e-learning, is based on the level of e-learning resources used by Jones et al. (2009). Very important are sub-chapters focused on e-learning and blended learning development, implementation and evaluation including student, teacher (tutor) and institution points of views. This part also create theoretical background for following second part of this monograph that presents selected surveys aimed on application of e-learning and blended learning in adult education, especially on teaching and learning of generation Y (Millennials). The second part presents results of empirical research. First, the author conducted the research study to examine what do university students in the Czech Republic do on their computers during the class and during their leisure time and to which extent do they use of information and communication technologies for learning activities. Based on the study results, it is claimed that students used both e-learning courses and Facebook in their learning. This study was probably one of the first in the Czech Republic to focus on the use of a social network for study purposes. Second, results of international research (Eger, Klement, Tomczyk, Pisoňová, & Petrová, 2018) only partially confirmed the general assumption that young people (Millennials) in contemporary society are characterized by skilled use of ICT in their everyday life. The application of cluster analysis finds four different user groups according to their use of ICT in their life. The results of this research suggest that the effectiveness of ICT use at university and at home depends on the actual practice that students make of it and on their ability to integrate ICT into their learning process and their everyday lives. Educators should be aware of the above-mentioned four user groups’ differences and take them into account when planning, implementing and evaluating the teaching and learning process. Third, the use of ICT by university students and trust in social media is an important topic in relation to the target group. Social media includes user-friendly technologies that allow students to rapidly update, analyse and share information, as well as ideas. University students frequently and intensely work with computers, mobile devices, and the Internet. Students, who use SM practically all the time, trust their network and news received within their groups. Fourth, using eye tracking author conducted experiment focused on investigation how people acquire knowledge from a web page. Eye tracking was used to gather data about students’ learning activity and questioning to gather students’ learning achievements. The purpose of this study was to examine how people read information presented as learning objects on a web page. The study contributes to our understanding of learning objects as small (reusable) “knowledge packages”. Fifth, two case studies were used to gather data about students’ learning activity and their performance in a selected subject. The findings of the learning process show that, students who paid more attention to the learning process in both face-to-face and e-learning components, achieved the best learning performance. Our case study has shown a positive link between student activity in both blended learning components and the resulting subject assessment. These case studies contribute to our understanding of blended learning application in an education process at university. Finally, an important theme that we need to come to terms with is the prediction of implementation of e-learning and blended learning in lifelong learning and as a part of professional development of young people. Conducted Delphi study explores the expectations that millennial job seekers have regarding their future education and professional development learning.
... Though the potential for involving multiple types of media seems limitless, several studies (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Tombleson et al., 2016) suggest that learners (even though they are considered to be digital natives) might not be as proficient with technology as is often assumed. In these studies learners were often overwhelmed by the sheer number of communication channels and the information contained therein. ...
Thesis
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For digital natives (and perhaps even most digital immigrants) transmedia storytelling has become the standard for communication. Entertainment, marketing and advertising practice revolves around integrating several different media into a cohesive and coherent narrative. This process of media convergence provides brands and entertainment properties with the ability to continuously engage their audience and allow for audience participation, through community building and co-creation. Transmedia storytelling practice has yet to penetrate the domain of education fully. Most educators abide by traditional methods of teaching that are disconnected from the way digital natives access and process information. This might explain why educators struggle to engage learners. Research indicates that Dutch learners are among the least motivated learners in Europe. This is attributed, in part, to a lack of differentiated teaching and challenge, and education increasingly having to compete for attention with digital entertainment and social media platforms, due to high internet penetration. In senior secondary vocational education adopting new methods of teaching seems particularly challenging as a large portion of educators is made up of lateral-entry professionals. The demographic therefore consists of older teachers, that often lack digital literacy, didactic, and pedagogical skills. Transmedia storytelling is proposed as a new approach to curriculum design, that might provide educators with a means to improve the quality of education. Promoting media platform migration, interaction, and socialization through narrative enables educators to engage learners in new and meaningful ways. Studies on smaller scale transmedia educational projects, for different target audiences, have shown an increase in engagement and knowledge retention among learners. Additionally, transmedia storytelling improves learner participation through community building, and accommodates a natural approach to teaching digital literacy skills. A triangulation of methods and perspectives is used to increase rigor in the study and to elucidate divergent perspectives on the application of transmedia storytelling in education. As experts on transmedia storytelling practice in senior secondary vocational education appear to be non-existent, different perspectives need to be combined in order to gain a broad and deep understanding of how transmedia storytelling might be applied in senior secondary vocational education curriculum design. For the purposes of this study several canvasses and models that aid in the construction of transmedia narratives have been compared and contrasted; four educational transmedia projects were reviewed as case-studies in order to identify best practices and strategies for key areas of transmedia educational narrative design; semi-structured interviews were conducted with industry experts in the fields of transmedia storytelling and education; and a card-sorting exercise was conducted with three subject-matter experts from different fields of education within senior secondary vocational education in order to identify approaches for implementing transmedia storytelling in curriculum design. Through this combination of methods, best practices and transmedia curriculum design considerations were identified. The card-sorting exercise illuminated narrative structures already present in several diverse fields of study (laboratory analyst, ICT and media design), that indicate a possible universal narrative structures embedded in senior secondary vocational education. These narrative structures might be exploited in transmedia curriculum or project design. Based on these results, this study provides considerations for using transmedia storytelling in senior secondary vocational education curriculum design. Incorporating transmedia educational narratives is facilitated through the description of narrative, engagement, and interaction design considerations and connecting these to theories of learning. Keywords: Transmedia Storytelling, education, senior secondary vocational education, middelbaar beroepsonderwijs (mbo), narrative strategies, narrative design, interaction design, engagement design, theories of learning, media affordances, Transmedia LearningWorld, constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism, curriculum design.
... Devices in the classroom may also be distracting, particularly when students use them for off-task activities (Aagaard, 2015). This behaviour is known to reduce attention (Risko, Buchanan, Medimorec & Kingstone, 2013), knowledge retention (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015) and academic performance (Junco & Cotten, 2012). While some schools have responded to these challenges by banning the use of digital devices (Selwyn, 2019), such responses avoid the issues rather than resolving them (Elliott-Dorans, 2018). ...
Book
Building Better Schools with Evidence-based Policy: Adaptable Policy for Teachers and School Leaders provides an extensive set of free-to-use policies for building better schools. The policies included in this book cover a broad range of popular topics for schools that are not readily accessible, and each policy is built on theory, driven by research, and created by and experts. Each policy is based on substantial evidence and this is ensured through the inclusion of contributors who are active and highly reputable in their respective field. Most schools are obliged to write and maintain policy and not all school leaders have the required skills, time or expertise to do this effectively. Building Better Schools with Evidence-based Policy: Adaptable Policy for Teachers and School Leaders is a time-saving resource for schools. It aims to address the reported research to practice gap in education by delivering accessible evidence-based practice in a ready-to-use adaptable format. All policies within this book are designed to be adapted and tailored to the unique diversity and needs of each school as reflected by the context and the people that make up the school community. This book is relevant to every person who works in a school - worldwide. Users of this book can rest assured that each policy has been carefully formulated from the current understandings of best practice. This is a practical innovation and an example of how schools can use research-evidence in their day-to-day practices. Download here: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/oa-edit/10.4324/9781003025955/building-better-schools-evidence-based-policy-kelly-ann-allen-andrea-reupert-lindsay-oades?refId=632274ab-eee7-4293-bb4a-6c1366715472
... with conventional distraction (e.g., daydreaming and background conversation), tech-related distraction may represent a different kind of distraction, because of novelty, visual arousal, and seamless invasion of work, play, and social interaction (e.g., "wired for distraction" and "right at my fi ngertips"; Bowman et al., 2010;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Increasingly, postsecondary students enroll in distance learning courses and complete homework online, which extends their learning opportunities regardless of where they are. Online homework requires self-control from students to cope with conventional and tech-related distractors, however research on this topic is scarce. There is a need to develop an instrument to assess online homework distractions in higher education. Method: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Online Homework Distraction Scale (OHDS) based on 612 undergraduates in China. After randomly dividing the sample into two groups, we carried out a principal component analysis (PCA) with one group and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with another group. Results: Both PCA and CFA findings indicated that tech-related distraction and conventional distraction were empirically indistinguishable for college students. Given acceptable measurement invariance, the latent factor mean was examined over gender for all participants and found that men were more distracted while doing online homework. Concerning validity evidence, in line with theoretical predictions, the OHDS was negatively related to online homework expectancy, value, effort, and time management. Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence that the OHDS is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring online homework distraction.
... Individual studies of social media use in education tend to home in on specific educational uses or issues. For example, studies have examined how social media supports classroom learning (Greenhow & Askari, 2017), how it is used for teacher professional development (Gao & Li, 2017;Greenhalgh & Koehler, 2017), and how its use affects academic performance (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;Lau, 2017). These studies and others like them make valuable contributions to the field and further our understanding of social media use in relatively well-defined instances. ...
Article
Social media play an increasing role in our everyday lives and in education. Teachers and administrators may use social media for professional learning, to find materials for use in the classroom, and as a vehicle for engaging students with each other or with the world at large. As this body of scholarship continues to grow, now is the time to reflect on where the field might go from here to conduct the most impactful scholarship on education and social media. Accordingly, this chapter proposes research directions and approaches that promise to advance this expanding field, grounded in insights from the long history of studying technology in education, including over a decade of research on social media. We summarize insights from reviews of the existing research literature on learning and teaching with social media in education. Next, we apply a typology of the kind of studies needed to advance the field of education and educational technology as a useful lens for assessing prior work, identifying gaps in the knowledge base, and envisioning potential research directions. The chapter argues that new scholarly work is needed into three main areas: (1) research focus, or the subjects or topics of research that are needed; (2) methodological work, or new or underutilized approaches to studying education and social media; and (3) conceptual work, or theorization or framing of studies in education and beyond. We provide specifics in each of these areas in the final section.
... In this method, impressions of individuals' "lived experiences" are recorded, and then they are systematically coded into meaningful units in order to find underlying thematic structure and mutual topics [58]. This research method was already successfully used in various studies related to higher education [61,62], in studies related to engineering students [63], in studies related to distance learning [64], as well as in a few recent ones related to higher education in the COVID-19 era [65][66][67], albeit thus far not in the field of engineering education, and not in the context of prolonged ERT. Phenomenological analysis removes any political, historical, or other external influences that may interfere with individuals' experiences [68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce the term “prolonged emergency remote teaching” to accentuate the temporal aspect of the current educational crisis. In-depth lived experiences of students and teaching staff in one engineering education institution were examined, in order to depict what being involved in an exclusively online communication feels like from the personal perspective, thus examining e-learning sustainability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews with samples of students and teaching staff were conducted, and then psychological phenomenology was employed to produce rich descriptions of their personal experiences and impressions. Both the students and the faculty employees observed e-learning during the Fall semester of 2020 as challenging and artificial. Although trying to function as everything is in order, as the semester unfolded, motivation deteriorated, communication turned more and more superficial, and limitations became more prominent. For both sides, although there were some conveniences, the educational process yielded sub-optimal results and was hard to sustain; intellectual and social capital of both sides appeared to be underutilized. We present conclusions and recommendations, suggesting that modern technologies should help both sides to adapt to the new reality, instead of feeling stuck in an online “limbo”.
... Although off-task behaviour "is not a new phenomenon, the nature of how students use mobile technology today has positioned cyberslacking as a more potent distraction source than those faced by previous generations of students. For instance, college students have described how habitual use of social media and mobile devices has created a situation wherein it is difficult to suppress this habituated behaviour while attending classroom lectures or while doing schoolwork outside of class" [21]. Similarly, "college students indicated that habitually checking websites (e.g., Facebook) for leisure purposes outside of the classroom makes it difficult to resist the temptation to check those websites while using a laptop during class" [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of cyberslacking on graduate students' academic performance at a Business School in Ghana. The study was descriptive and was purely quantitative. The target population of this study comprised all graduate students at the School. Out of the entire population, three hundred (300) students were sampled for the study through convenience sampling. Questionnaires were used as the data collection tool. Findings from the analysis indicate that Cyberslacking correlates with students' academic performance. Students who are addicted to cyberslacking have difficulties in paying attention in class in comparison to those who do not cyberslack. The study, therefore, concludes that though cyberslacking has a negative effect on the attention of graduate students in the lecture room, it could not find a significant relationship between cyberslacking and academic performance. It is however recommended that instructors should integrate technology procedures in their curricula, explain their motivations, and enforce them. Also, the management of universities should ensure graduate students are mindful of their multitasking limits and cyberslacking's negative effect on learning. Although cyberslacking negatively influences attention and even student learning, several college students underrate this concern because they overrate their capacity to multitask.
... Devices in the classroom may also be distracting, particularly when students use them for off-task activities (Aagaard, 2015). This behaviour is known to reduce attention (Risko, Buchanan, Medimorec & Kingstone, 2013), knowledge retention (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015) and academic performance (Junco & Cotten, 2012). While some schools have responded to these challenges by banning the use of digital devices (Selwyn, 2019), such responses avoid the issues rather than resolving them (Elliott-Dorans, 2018). ...
... In contrast to LMSs and other academic applications being encouraged by teachers and administrators as valuable links between school and home, social networking sites are heavily restricted and criticized by school districts and many educators, making the implementation of programs that use such sites difficult [3]. These sites are restricted because of privacy laws and safety considerations, as well as their tendency to distract students from their work [41,66]. This means that while social networking sites are extremely popular with youth, educators and designers have difficulty using them freely for learning applications. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Researchers and designers have incorporated social media affordances into learning technologies to engage young people and support personally relevant learning, but youth may reject these attempts because they do not meet user expectations. Through in-depth case studies, we explore the sociotechnical ecosystems of six teens (ages 15-18) working at a science center that had recently introduced a digital badge system to track and recognize their learning. By analyzing interviews, observations, ecological momentary assessments, and system data, we examined tensions in how badges as connected learning technologies operate in teens' sociotechnical ecosystems. We found that, due to issues of unwanted context collapse and incongruent identity representations, youth only used certain affordances of the system and did so sporadically. Additionally, we noted that some features seemed to prioritize values of adult stakeholders over youth. Using badges as a lens, we reveal critical tensions and offer design recommendations for networked learning technologies.
... The use of these technologies can impact students' academic performance, leading to generally lower grades (Cao, Masood, Luqman, & Ali, 2018;Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015) or even addiction (Díaz, Vergara, & Simancas, 2019). Nuñez, Segundo, Jérez, Rivera, and Espinosa (2018) suggest that academic performance depends on the students themselves and the socio-affective factors surrounding them. ...
Article
Full-text available
Estudio cuantitativo correlacional de variables en el informe Pisa 2018 acerca del uso de TIC, redes sociales, videojuegos y rendimiento académico en adolescentes. The study takes a new approach in terms of the variables selected and the analysis of the data through two statistical measures. The results suggest that excessive use of technology and social networks, both during the week and at weekends, impairs performance. This finding is more acute in the case of male students, as the data indicates that they start at an earlier age and are more likely to use social media for the detrimental activity of online gaming. Quality indicators of the Journal NAER: Citation Impact 0.81 (Q1) - SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), 5.2 (Q1) - Scopus CitesCore, 2.50 (Q1) - WOS JCR-JCI. How to cite this article (APA): Navarro-Martinez,O. & Peña-Acuña, B.(2022).Technology Usage and Academic Performance in the Pisa 2018 Report. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research,11(1),130-145.doi:10.7821/naer.2022.1.735
... The ease with which mobile devices enable the gratification of needs for social connection, information, and disengagement, produces a situation in college classrooms wherein students are confronted with competing goals. For example, pay attention to the content being presented or use their devices and gratify these more immediate needs (Flanigan & Babchuk, 2015;. Milyavskaya et al. (2020) note, importantly, that temptations that are problematic in one context-engagement with social media in a lecture for instance-because they interfere with other goals-engaging with the class-might be unproblematic in other circumstances. ...
Chapter
The chapter investigates digital distraction in college classrooms from the perspective of self-regulation theory. To this end, the chapter commences with a brief analysis of the distinction between behavioural and cognitive shifts in attention, the role of intentionality in digital distraction, and the concept of online vigilance. Thereafter the general premises of self-regulation theory are described, and prominent theoretical models that have emerged in this domain are briefly outlined. Two models deemed particularly applicable to digital distraction are selected from these. The first is the value-based choice model which frames self-regulation as a process of deliberative decision-making which foregoes action taking. The second is the process model which emphasises the strategies individuals employ to prevent goal conflict. Both models are described before being applied as interpretive lenses to analyse key findings from empirical studies of digital distraction.
Article
We tested the domain-specificity or domain-generality of academic diligence in middle-school students using the Academic Diligence Task (ADT), a performance task that assesses effort on tedious problems in the face of digital distractions. Students in 8th grade (N = 439) were randomly assigned to individually complete a math, verbal, or spatial ADT or to a combination of all three. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested domain-generality, as did the fact that ADT scores in a given domain did not differentially predict academic achievement in that domain. Results indicated that all three ADTs had adequate external and predictive validity, but convergent validity varied. Whereas both math and verbal ADT scores correlated with teacher-reports of grit and self-control, only math scores consistently correlated with self-reports of the same constructs; these measures did not correlate with spatial ADT scores. Thus, the math ADT is the best performance measure of diligence, followed by the verbal ADT.
Article
Objective: This one-year follow-up study examined the changes of impact of using social media among college students with disabilities from the initial survey. Participants: 193 students completed the follow-up survey of the 341 who agreed to participate. Methods: Paired t-test compared the changes in social media usage between the two surveys. Multiple linear regressions examined the relationship of social media use variables and social media addiction, career networking, disability subtypes between the two surveys. Results: The daily average time spent on social media remained similar over one year. However, the level of social media addiction increased, especially among male students. One positive change was that students spent more time using social media for career networking purposes. Conclusion: Public awareness and education of social media addiction should be raised. Additionally, students could benefit from being guided and encouraged to use social media for positive activities such as career networking.
Article
Background College students frequently identify social media sites (SMSs) as in-class distractions, although students continue to use these sites during class. In a technology-driven world, students’ fear of missing out (FOMO) may drive SMS behaviors, whereby classes and study time serve as obstacles to fulfilling one’s social desires. Objective The current study investigated whether students’ use of SMSs during class and study time was predicted by demographic characteristics and students’ FOMO. Method Participants ( N = 198) completed an online survey assessing their media use during class and study time, FOMO, and their perceived advantages/disadvantages of media use. Results In-class Twitter and Instagram use were predicted by students’ FOMO, whereas Snapchat and Facebook use were only predicted by age. Age also predicted Snapchat use during study time. Most participants indicated that media was a distraction, while also reporting a range of benefits from media multitasking. Conclusion Given that students recognize both benefits and drawbacks of media multitasking, they may trade-off between their desire to engage with learning materials and their desire to stay socially connected with others. Teaching Implications Educators can begin to address the socio-emotional needs of students through modifications made to course design and student-centered learning materials.
Chapter
Digital distractions are an important and prevalent aspect of college students' lives. Using a self-regulated learning perspective, this chapter provides an in-depth understanding of students' digital distractions in academic settings and highlights how college instructors can empower their students to manage digital distractions and self-regulate their own learning. In particular, the chapter discusses both the causes and consequences of engaging in digital distractions with a focus on the impact of multitasking. In addition, the chapter argues that students' engagement in digital distractions is closely connected to their motivation and emotions. This chapter highlights how college students can regulate their digital distractions throughout the learning process during each phase of self-regulated learning. Finally, the chapter reviews the ways college instructors can support students' management of distractions through their instructional approaches.
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This chapter provides readers an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of technology integration in higher education. As technological innovations continue to advance, faculty are provided ample opportunities to enrich their curriculum to further enhance student engagement and learning. Further, the inclusion of technology promotes student retention and provides them access to real-world content. Innovations in technology have resulted in a plethora of tools that can be incorporated into today's classrooms. However, faculty are often hesitant to integrate technological tools given security, accessibility, and access considerations. Further, faculty may perceive technology as disruptive to their classrooms resulting in distracted learners who experience lower academic gains.
Chapter
Students increasingly control their learning as university instructors shift away from lecture formats, courses are offered online, and the internet offers near infinite resources for student-controlled informal learning. Students typically make effective choices about learning, including what to learn, when to learn, and how to learn, but sometimes make less-than-optimal study choices, including trying to study while multi-tasking. Dividing attention among various tasks impairs both learning and learners' control over their learning because secondary tasks divert cognitive resources away from learning and metacognition. This chapter reviews recent studies explaining how dividing attention affects students' metacognition, including their assessments of their own learning and the study choices that they make. This chapter reviews the fundamentals of metacognition, describes the impact of dividing attention on the effectiveness of learners' metacognition, and provides suggestions about how to enhance the efficacy of metacognition when students' attentional resources are limited.
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There is an important need in the literature to explore the effects of social media use on young people’s behaviour. The main purpose of this research is to explore which factors of users’ gratifications are associated with using social media by university students from four Visegrad countries in Central Europe. Online communication on social media may be affected by a variety of factors that affect the development of mutual relationships. Thus, research is also focused on trust building on social media. The research team conducted qualitative research aimed at the deeper understanding of students’ opinions on trust and social media and their view on the phenomenon of “fake news”. Conducted focus groups in four countries showed that university students, who are frequent users of social media, are inclined to trust certain pages they like but generally, they do not trust social media. They use social media primarily for maintaining relationships and they believe people who are connected to their network. It is obvious that students use social media to satisfy their needs, especially in the field of entertainment, partly also for obtaining information. The findings show that expected gratifications of students are built on their practical experience with media.
Article
This paper examines the perspectives of female's students at a new university in Saudi Arabia to use social media as e-learning tools to support their learning. It also aims to investigate their current usage of these tools and the benefits behind using these tools for learning. Another aim of this study is to examine the difficulties that females' students face when they use social media tools in their learning process. The study participants comprised 23 Saudi females' students at a new university and surveyed was used to collect data for this study. The results indicate that female students are using social media tools and their opinions largely coincide regarding the benefits of and barriers to social media usage. The study recommends that future research on the usage of social media tools for learning and teaching be extended to include a wider demographic base at the same or a different university to further explore the extent to which these tools used for learning. The study provides insights that may help decision-makers at the university to recognise the extent to which females use and integrate social media tools to facilitate the educational process.
Chapter
This chapter investigates smartphone-induced digital distractions through the lens of social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. Social cognitive theory's reciprocal triarchic conceptualization is matched with the current role of the smartphone in the learning environment. Self-regulated learning is used to frame the challenges and opportunities presented by the smartphone. A final section suggests two opportunities for generating positive educational outcomes in light of social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. The first is opportunity described as a reclamation of the dominant narrative regarding the educative role of personal technology. The second is the development of the individual learning scientist.
Article
Smartphone and social media use are common leisure activities among college students. These activities are correlated with boredom in survey research, yet causality is undetermined. Using an experimental design, we assessed the effect of smartphone use and other common, free-choice activities on boredom. For this study, 40 college students completed four, 30-min conditions on separate days each in the same room: quiet sitting (Control); treadmill walking (Treadmill); utilizing a smartphone to engage with social-media (Smartphone); and completing self-selected schoolwork (Schoolwork). Participants completed three validated surveys assessing different aspects of state boredom at pre, mid, and post for each condition. A four condition by three time-point repeated-measure ANOVA compared the mean results for each measure of boredom. Both the Smartphone and Control conditions caused statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in all three measures of boredom. The Treadmill condition led to increases in two of the measures of boredom. Conversely, Schoolwork caused a statistically significant decrease in boredom across all three measures. Thus, given a 30-min free-choice period, students should be advised that doing schoolwork or, to a lesser extent, taking a walk might better prevent boredom than social media driven smartphone use.
Article
Objective: This study explores the use of social media and its impact on the college life of students with disabilities. Participants: 341 college students who identified as having disabilities were recruited from two universities in the Northeastern United. Methods: Multivariate multiple regression models examined the relationship between social media use and academic achievement, social connectedness, and work preparedness. Results: The findings indicate that students' GPA was not associated with any social media use variables, but the time spent on using social media was negatively associated with the work hope and social connectedness. Social media learning was positively associated with work preparedness and social connectedness. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that social media used for learning purposes can have a positive impact on career and social development among college students with disabilities. However, the time spent for non-learning purposes did not show positive benefits.
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The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of SNs on the education of the young generation and to present a proper model of interaction between SNs, school and family with a focus on students. The study was applied in terms of purpose and qualitative in terms of approach, conducted using grounded theory method. The population was education experts, 30 of whom were interviewed through open-ended questions. The retest reliability of the interviews was 88%, according to which the interview coding was confirmed. Results: Superficiality of education, the dual identity in cyberspace and real world and endangering students' safety because of the excessive dissemination of personal information in cyberspace are of the major causes of inefficiency of current interaction between school, family and social networks (SNs). The impossibility of managing foreign media, the lack of a proper domestic alternative environment and the lack of clear and codified cyberspace laws at the level of school and family are of the factors affecting strategies to promote media literacy and monitor the use of SNs. The main subject of the study is the suitable model of interaction between school, family and SNs, which can be realized by teaching how to use SNs at the level of parents, students and teachers with the expert advice of media experts. Of the outcomes of this theory is the strengthening of critical thinking against media messages and the safe use of cyberspace. The relationships between SNs, school and family according to education experts 957 Introduction SNs have transformed the life nowadays. Its numerous benefits in providing different communication services are known to everyone. Moreover, the children and adolescents are of the main user groups of SNs, and because of the growing popularity of SNs among them, the parents are concerned about the privacy and security of their children. Nowadays, like in other parts of the world, Iranian students and teachers make extensive use of smartphones and other portable devices. Moreover, they constantly look for cutting-edge technologies. Nevertheless, the use of these devices is often not in the way envisioned by technology fans. All of these smartphones and other portable devices are equipped with or ready to use SNs applications like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, which is part of what is known as Web 2, with the best attributes including the concepts of social interaction, content sharing, and collective intelligence. SNs affect various aspects of our lives, so our argument that they can also be used in teaching and learning is not surprising (King & Sen, 2013: 622). The role of the emerging SNs may provide new opportunities to enhance teaching and learning experiences. Students' motivation and willingness affect their ability to participate in interactive learning, and students spend most of their time on computers, game consoles, camcorders, cell phones, and the web (Jovanovic, Chiong & Weise, 2012: 39). SNs are Internet-based channels that offer users the opportunity to selectively interact and introduce themselves simultaneously or asynchronously to a wide range of audiences (Carr & Hayes, 2015: 50). A review of the existing literature on SNs and education shows that educational use of specific programs and channels like Wiki or Facebook enhances learning. As the population is young in Iran, active users of SNs have a high ratio to the total population of the country and the penetration rate of SNs is increasing. As SNs is based on providing personal information to connect with others, children and adolescents face different risks. The unintended consequences of over-disclosure of personal information make them more vulnerable to hacking, identity theft and the use of personal data or information by third parties such as advertisers, employers and others.
Article
COVID-19 gives an important focal point to the increasingly complex and overwhelming amounts, types, and availability of information undergraduate STEM students are faced with. The world at large is being asked to seek information around serious infectious diseases and find information that can help facilitate decision-making in both personal and academic settings. Much of the available information lacks a fundamental scientific basis but is often masquerading as ‘truth’. This is translated both into how society at large seeks information to make decisions, as well as how STEM undergraduate students are finding information to build their scientific skill set. This paper uses two case study examples of publications in scientific journals to examine the concept of using RADAR to determine validity. STEM librarians should focus on using evaluative frameworks as an initial launch point for critique, but a conversation must begin around how to encourage student realization of broader context and specifically awareness of what is still unknown.
Article
Higher education can use technology in the classroom to meet students where they are and reduce the digital divide. Recent events with the COVID‐19 pandemic forced schools to rely on multiple forms of technology and underlined the priority for its adoption and effective use. Therefore, understanding the options and role that easily‐accessible applications can play in the on‐ground or online classroom is an important research need. This study assessed graduate students’ perceptions of five different types of technology that were incorporated in the classroom across six different semesters. These technologies included classroom response systems, a mobile communication app, and Twitter, blogging and video production assignments. Overall, the majority of students identified positive characteristics of all of the technology used. With respect to learning, almost all students self‐identified increases in their learning from the classroom response systems (88%), Twitter discussion (81%), blogging (93%), and video production (90%). The methods used to incorporate this technology can be applied to multiple disciplines with few or no changes, thereby making these options for many instructors interested in engaging students in digital learning environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
The accelerated ownership and usage of smartphones and social media presents multiple issues for educators. There is a relationship between smartphones and (a) academic achievement, (b) engagement, and (c) mental health. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the impact of smartphones and social media on students and how curriculum can best prepare youth for democratic citizenship. The case studies included in this review span beyond the United States due to the insightful research that has been conducted in various locations across the globe. When reviewing the literature, a few themes emerged. First, students who struggle the most academically are the ones who benefit most from the absence of a smartphone. Second, students of color are spending more time on social media and due to the increased exposure to racial discrimination online, academic motivation is decreasing for many of these students. Third, many researchers encourage schools to develop policies to limit smartphone use in the classroom. Finally, it is evident that the social studies curriculum needs to be expanded to include digital citizenship, media literacy, and the potential negative impact of smartphones and social media on students.
Article
Social media have been extensively incorporated in higher education as an indispensable tool for learning. Nevertheless, research has conflicting findings about its effectiveness due to the highly reported digital distraction and poor peer learning engagement on social media. This study employed an innovative problem-based learning (PBL) pedagogy incorporating Learning Analytics to identify digital distraction, quantify the quality of peer learning engagement, and predict learning performance. Participants were 51 Taiwanese graduate students in blended Statistics courses under the PBL pedagogy. The multimodal Learning Analytics (LA) model contained data from learner discourse on Facebook groups and questionnaires, including learner characteristics, perceived digital distraction, subjective peer learning orientation, and objective peer learning engagement endorsed by machine learning (ML) models. Results showed that students reporting more digital distraction problems obtained lower final course grades, and those reporting stronger peer learning orientation received higher final course grades. Moreover, peer learning engagement objectively recognized by ML models has better predictive validity on academic performance than self-perceived peer learning orientation. The results of the multimodal LA models addressed the scarcity of studies involving learners' process data in PBL and informed instructional practices and strategies to scaffold students’ statistics learning upon detecting those at risk of distracted attention problems and poor peer learning engagement.
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Although research evidence indicates that multitasking results in poorer learning and poorer performance, many students engage with text messaging, Facebook, internet searching, emailing, and instant messaging, while sitting in university classrooms. Research also suggests that multitasking may be related to risk behaviors. This study’s purpose was to describe the multitasking behaviors occurring in university classrooms and to determine relationships between multitasking and risk behaviors. Surveys assessing multitasking, grades, and risk behaviors were completed by 774 students. Results show that the majority of students engage in classroom multitasking, which is significantly related to lower GPA and an increase in risk behaviors.
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In this study, 935 undergraduate college students from a regional four-year university responded to an online time-diary survey asking them to report their perceptions about multitasking while engaged in four main activities: Reading voluntarily for fun, reading for academic purposes, watching television (TV), and using the Internet. Results showed that a majority of the students reported performing two or more tasks simultaneously, switching rapidly back and forth from one task to another. Most also admitted that multitasking interfered with their core activities and influenced their ability to focus on focal activities such as reading for academic purposes. We offer faculty and students practical recommendations for addressing media multitasking as a growing concern among college students.
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The recent increase in the use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use for student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight introductory science courses at one large public university in 2010-2011. Results show a significant negative correlation between in-class cell phone use and overall course grades, corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with recent research[1] suggesting students cannot multi-task nearly as effectively as they think they can. While 75% of students reported regular cell phone use, observation data suggests undergraduates typically under-report the frequency of in-class digital device use. [1] Ophir, E., Nass, C. and A.D. Wagner. 2009. "Cognitive Control in Media Multi-Taskers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 15583-15587.
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Digital devices such as smart phones, tablets, and laptop computers are important college classroom tools. They support student learning by providing access to information outside classroom walls. However, when used for non-class purposes, digital devices may interfere with classroom learning. A survey study asked college students to describe their behavior and perceptions regarding classroom use of digital devices for non-class purposes. The respondents included 777 students at six U.S. universities. The average respondent used a digital device for non-class purposes 10.93 times during a typical school day for activities including texting, social networking, and emailing. Most respondents did so to fight boredom, entertain themselves, and stay connected to the outside world. More than 80% of the respondents indicated such behavior caused them to pay less attention in the classroom and miss instruction. A majority of respondents favor policies governing digital device distractions in the classroom.
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Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning in a simulated classroom. We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not multitask, and participants who were in direct view of a multitasking peer scored lower on a test compared to those who were not. The results demonstrate that multitasking on a laptop poses a significant distraction to both users and fellow students and can be detrimental to comprehension of lecture content.
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This paper examines undergraduate student use of laptop computers during a lecture-style class that includes substantial problem-solving activities and graphic-based content. The study includes both a self-reported use component collected from student surveys as well as a monitored use component collected via activity monitoring "spyware" installed on student laptops. We categorize multitasking activities into "productive" (course-related) versus "distractive" (non course-related) tasks. Quantifiable measures of software multitasking behavior are introduced to measure the "frequency" of student multitasking, the "duration" of student multitasking, and the "extent" to which students engage in distractive versus productive tasks. We find that students engage in substantial multitasking behavior with their laptops and have non course-related software applications open and active about 42% of the time. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between the ratio of distractive versus productive multitasking behavior during lectures and academic performance. We also observe that students understate the frequency of email and instant messaging (IM) use in the classroom when self-reporting on their laptop usage. (Contains 9 tables and 5 endnotes.)
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Traditionally, consumers used the Internet to simply expend content: they read it, they watched it, and they used it to buy products and services. Increasingly, however, consumers are utilizing platforms--such as content sharing sites, blogs, social networking, and wikis--to create, modify, share, and discuss Internet content. This represents the social media phenomenon, which can now significantly impact a firm's reputation, sales, and even survival. Yet, many executives eschew or ignore this form of media because they don't understand what it is, the various forms it can take, and how to engage with it and learn. In response, we present a framework that defines social media by using seven functional building blocks: identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups. As different social media activities are defined by the extent to which they focus on some or all of these blocks, we explain the implications that each block can have for how firms should engage with social media. To conclude, we present a number of recommendations regarding how firms should develop strategies for monitoring, understanding, and responding to different social media activities.
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THE EFFECTS OF MULTITASKING IN THE CLASSROOM were investigated in students in an upper level Communications course. Two groups of students heard the same exact lecture and tested immediately following the lecture. One group of students was allowed to use their laptops to engage in browsing, search, and/or social computing behaviors during the lecture. Students in the second condition were asked to keep their laptops closed for the duration of the lecture. Students in the open laptop condition suffered decrements on traditional measures of memory for lecture content. A second experiment replicated the results of the first. Data were further analyzed by “browsing style.” Results are discussed from Lang’s Limited Process Capacity model in an attempt to better understand the mechanisms involved in the decrement.
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The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term “Social Media” exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.
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Little is known about the influence of electronic media use on the academic and social lives of university students. Using time-diary and survey data, we explore the use of various types of electronic media among first-year students. Time-diary results suggest that the majority of students use electronic media to multitask. Robust regression results indicate a negative relationship between the use of various types of electronic media and first-semester grades. In addition, we find a positive association between social-networking-site use, cellular-phone communication, and face-to-face social interaction.
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Instant messaging (IM) has become one of the most popular forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and is especially prevalent on college campuses. Previous research suggests that IM users often multitask while conversing online. To date, no one has yet examined the cognitive effect of concurrent IM use. Participants in the present study (N = 69) completed a reading comprehension task uninterrupted or while concurrently holding an IM conversation. Participants who IMed while performing the reading task took significantly longer to complete the task, indicating that concurrent IM use negatively affects efficiency. Concurrent IM use did not affect reading comprehension scores. Additional analyses revealed that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their reading comprehension scores. Finally, we found that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their self-reported GPA. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Book
Building off the success of its award-winning first edition, the second edition of Crafting Phenomenological Research continues to be the leading resource for those interested in a concise introduction to phenomenological research in education and social sciences.Joining leading contemporary practitioners, such as van Manen, Giorgi, and Dahlberg, Vagle walks the reader through multiple approaches to designing and implementing phenomenological research, including his post-intentional phenomenology, which incorporates elements of post-structural thinking into traditional methods. Vagle provides readers with methodological tools to build their own phenomenological study, addressing such issues as research design, data gathering and analysis, and writing.Replete with exercises for students, resources for further research, and examples of completed phenomenological studies, this book affords the instructor an easy entrée into introducing phenomenology into courses on qualitative research, social theory, or educational research.New to this edition:An additional first chapter that outlines the historical background of phenomenological philosophy and methodology.A feature called “snapshots” that provides brief commentary and/or examples to illustrate concepts and ideas.Updated “resource digs” providing more examples, with the addition of more international resources.
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This book provides an accessible comprehensive exploration of phenomenological theory and research methods and is geared specifically to the needs of therapists and other health care professionals. An accessible exploration of an increasingly popular qualitative research methodology Explains phenomenological concepts and how they are applied to different stages of the research process and to topics relevant to therapy practice Provides practical examples throughout.
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This study examined mobile phone use in the classroom by using an experimental design to study how message content (related or unrelated to class lecture) and message creation (responding to or creating a message) impact student learning. Participants in eight experimental groups and a control group watched a video lecture, took notes, and completed tests of student learning. The control and relevant message groups earned a 10–17% higher letter grade, scored 70% higher on recalling information, and scored 50% higher on note-taking than students who composed tweets or responded to irrelevant messages. Sending/receiving messages unrelated to class content negatively impacted learning and note-taking, while related messages did not appear to have a significant negative impact.
Article
In the modern world of constant connectivity, it is difficult to detach students from technology. Today, we walk into classrooms that are filled with computers and Ethernet plugs. Students are carrying laptops, smartphones, and other devices into classrooms for their learning needs. Although technology in classroom has its benefits, many students constantly succumb to its use during class for non-class related purposes, thereby impacting their learning. This study draws upon the augmented version of the theory of planned behavior, social learning theory and the pedagogical literature to investigate the factors influencing students' attitudes and intentions to use technology during class for non-class related purposes. The hypothesized model was validated by conducting a survey to collect the data and using partial least squares for analysis. The results demonstrate that students' attitudes are influenced by student consumerism, escapism, lack of attention, cyber-slacking anxiety, and distraction by others' cyber-slacking behavior. Further, lack of attention is shaped by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, class engagement, and apathy towards course material. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
The paper presents findings from 560 interviews with undergraduates on 10 campuses distributed across the US, as part of Project Information Literacy (PIL). Overall, the findings suggest that students use a "less is more" approach to manage and control all of the IT devices and information systems available to them while they are in the library during the final weeks of the term. In the hour before we approached them for an interview, more respondents had checked for messages (e.g., Facebook, email, texts, IMs) more than any other task while they were in the library. A majority of respondents who had checked for messages during the previous hour had also prepared assignments and/or studied for courses. More respondents reported using library equipment, such as computers and printers, more than they had used any other library resource or service. Over half the sample considered their laptop their most essential IT device and most had a Web browser and, to a lesser extent, a word processing application running at the time of the interviews. Most students were using one or two Web sites at the time of the interviews, but there was little overlap among the Web sites they were using. A large majority of the respondents could be classified as "light" technology users, i.e., students who use one or two IT devices to support one or two primary activities (at the time of the interviews). A preliminary theory is introduced that describes how students’ technology usage may be influenced by locale (i.e., the campus library) and circumstance (i.e., crunch time). Recommendations are made for how campus-wide stakeholders — faculty, librarians, higher education administrators, and commercial publishers — can work together to improve pedagogies for 21st century undergraduates.
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The clear and practical writing of Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Researchhas made this book a favorite. In precise step-by-step language the book helps you learn how to conduct, read, and evaluate research studies. Key changes include: expanded coverage of ethics and new research articles.
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In this study, we examined the relationship between perceived technology policies and perceived teacher credibility, as well as the extent to which teachers' use of power bases mediates this association. Participants included 294 undergraduate students from a private university in the Southwest. Results revealed that policies encouraging technology use for educational purposes are related to all three dimensions of teacher credibility (i.e., competence, character, and caring), whereas failing to establish clear technology policies is associated with reduced credibility. Further, teacher power mediates the relationship between perceived teacher technology policies and perceived teacher credibility. Results suggest that instructors should have clear technology policies in place, regardless whether the policies permit or restrict wireless communication technology in the classroom.
Article
While functional differences between today’s cell phones and traditional computers are becoming less clear, one difference remains plain – cell phones are almost always on-hand and allow users to connect with an array of services and networks at almost any time and any place. The Pew Center’s Internet and American Life Project suggests that college students are the most rapid adopters of cell phone technology and research is emerging which suggests high frequency cell phone use may be influencing their health and behavior. Thus, we investigated the relationships between total cell phone use (N = 496) and texting (N = 490) on Satisfaction with Life (SWL) in a large sample of college students. It was hypothesized that the relationship would be mediated by Academic Performance (GPA) and anxiety. Two separate path models indicated that the cell phone use and texting models had good overall fit. Cell phone use/texting was negatively related to GPA and positively related to anxiety; in turn, GPA was positively related to SWL while anxiety was negatively related to SWL. These findings add to the debate about student cell phone use, and how increased use may negatively impact academic performance, mental health, and subjective well-being or happiness.
Article
Students are often faced with the temptation of attractive activities, which may interfere with the learning task and result in detrimental effects on experience and performance. Seventy-seven students (50 girls, 27 boys; M age = 15.9 years; SD = 1.65 years) participated in an experiment that reflected the typical situation of students having to learn for school while other, attractive activities are present (e.g., television). Students who carried out the learning task (learning from text) while they were waiting to watch video clips reported more motivational interference and had worse learning results than did students who watched the videos first. The degree of availability of the video clips during the learning task had no differential effect.
Article
The digital revolution accompaning the new generation is discussed. This revolution is powered by a fundamental preference for interactive media rather than broadcast media. A case study of a class is elaborated which is given the task of preparing a project on salt water fishes. The class make extensive use of Internet to prepare the project and share the project with other students with the help of Internet. The role of the teacher is limited to providing guidelines and the learning process is done by students themselves.
Article
a b s t r a c t Electronic communication is emotionally gratifying, but how do such technological distractions impact academic learning? The current study observed 263 middle school, high school and university students studying for 15 min in their homes. Observers noted technologies present and computer windows open in the learning environment prior to studying plus a minute-by-minute assessment of on-task behavior, off-task technology use and open computer windows during studying. A questionnaire assessed study strategies, task-switching preference, technology attitudes, media usage, monthly texting and phone call-ing, social networking use and grade point average (GPA). Participants averaged less than six minutes on task prior to switching most often due to technological distractions including social media, texting and preference for task-switching. Having a positive attitude toward technology did not affect being on-task during studying. However, those who preferred to task-switch had more distracting technologies avail-able and were more likely to be off-task than others. Also, those who accessed Facebook had lower GPAs than those who avoided it. Finally, students with relatively high use of study strategies were more likely to stay on-task than other students. The educational implications include allowing students short ''tech-nology breaks'' to reduce distractions and teaching students metacognitive strategies regarding when interruptions negatively impact learning.
Article
In this study, we examined the impact of mobile phone usage, during class lecture, on student learning. Participants in three different study groups (control, low-distraction, and high-distraction) watched a video lecture, took notes on that lecture, and took two learning assessments after watching the lecture. Students who were not using their mobile phones wrote down 62% more information in their notes, took more detailed notes, were able to recall more detailed information from the lecture, and scored a full letter grade and a half higher on a multiple choice test than those students who were actively using their mobile phones. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are discussed.
Article
This volume explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, author John W. Creswell compares theoretical frameworks, methodologies in employing standards of quality, strategies for writing introductions to studies, the collection and analysis of data, narrative writing, and result verification. New to the Second Edition: (a) Brings the philosophical and theoretical orientations to the beginning of the book: This change helps ground students in the foundational thinking behind these methods much earlier. (b) Gives broader coverage of narrative research: Creswell expands one of the original five approaches from "Biography" to "Narrative," thus exploring a wider range of narrative opportunities--biography still being one of them. (c) Offers a much deeper discussion of interpretive approaches: This edition places much more emphasis on interpretive and postmodern perspectives such as feminism, ethnicity, and critical theory. (d) Provides more specific steps for doing research within each approach: Creswell discusses the actual procedure for each approach and includes the types of qualitative research within each of the five approaches. (e) Illustrates phenomenology and ethnography: The Second Edition contains two new, recent sample journal articles: one covering a phenomenological study, the other covering ethnographic study. (f) Includes additional examples: The author provides examples from the field of human services to enhance the already robust examples from education, sociology, and psychology. Intended Audience: This is a useful text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in introductory qualitative research methods across the social, behavioral, and health sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This book grew out of a series of symposia held at several annual meetings of the American Educational Research Association. . . . Our goal in organizing the book was to provide a forum in which comprehensive descriptions of self-regulated learning theories could be presented along with supporting evidence. This goal led to several decisions that shaped the book's form. First, we wanted an integrated series of chapters that would survey the field rather than a collection of disparate descriptions of individual programs of research. . . . The use of a common format gave cohesiveness to the book, making it appropriate as a text for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in such fields as education, psychology, public health, and behavioral medicine. Second, we wanted each to focus not only on theory and research in self-regulated learning but also on instructional practice. Authors were asked to give specific examples of how teachers or parents might apply their proposed procedures to youngsters with self-regulation deficiencies. Third, we wanted the text to be of value to a broad spectrum of readers. The contributors represent a diversity of theoretical traditions—operant, phenomenological, social cognitive (learning), volitional, Vygotskian, and constructivist. By presenting such a range of viewpoints, the common features of self-regulated learning approaches emerged clearly and distinctively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Students often “multitask” with electronic media while doing schoolwork. We examined the effects of one form of media often used in such multitasking, instant messaging (IM). We predicted that students who engaged in IMing while reading a typical academic psychology passage online would take longer to read the passage and would perform more poorly on a test of comprehension of the passage. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (IM before reading, IM during reading, or no IM). We found that students took significantly longer to read the passage when they IMed during reading (not including time taken to IM) than in other conditions. However, test performance did not differ by condition. Students who are managing busy lives may think they are accomplishing more by multitasking, but our findings suggest they will actually need more time to achieve the same level of performance on an academic task.
Article
Newer communication technologies are a regular part of students' lives. It is important to understand how and why students are using these technologies in order to best serve them and improve educational outcomes.
Book
Franz Brentano - descriptive psychology and intentionality Edmund Husserl - the founder of phenomenology pre-phenomenological beginnings - Husserl's path to the logical investigations Husserl's logical investigations Husserl's discovery of the reduction and transcendental phenomenology Husserl and the crisis of the European sciences Martin Heidegger - hermeneutical phenomenology Heidegger's later philosophy of language Hans-Georg Gadamer - phenomenology and philosophical hermeneutics Amor Mundi - Hannah Arendt and the phenomenology of the public sphere Emmanuel Levinas - the phenomenology of the other Jean-Paul Sartre - the phenomenology of freedom perception, the body-subject and the flesh of the world - Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology Jacques Derrida - from phenomenology to deconstruction conclusion - the fate of phenomenology.
Article
Activities that require focused attention, such as reading, are declining among American youth, while activities that depend on multitasking, such as instant messaging (IMing), are increasing. We hypothesized that more time spent IMing would relate to greater difficulty in concentrating on less externally stimulating tasks (e.g., academic reading). As hypothesized, the amount of time that young people spent IMing was significantly related to higher ratings of distractibility for academic tasks, while amount of time spent reading books was negatively related to distractibility. The distracting nature and the context of IMing in this population are described.
Introduction to phenomenology Phenomenological research methods
  • D Moran
Moran, D. (2000). Introduction to phenomenology. London New York: Routledge. Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation
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Merriam, S.B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.
Engaging students through social media. Paper presented at Charleston Library Conference
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McGough, B.L., & Salomon, D. (2013). Engaging students through social media. Paper presented at Charleston Library Conference (Retrieved from Purdue e-Pubs).
Internet and American life project
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Pew Research Center (2010r). Internet and American life project. Retrieved from http:// www.pewinternet.org/ PewResearch Center (2011r). College students and technology. Retrieved from http:// www.pewinternet.org/2011/07/19/college-students-and-technology/
Americans and text messaging: 31% of text message users prefer texting to voice calls, and young adults stand out in their use of text messaging
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Smith, A. (2011). Americans and text messaging: 31% of text message users prefer texting to voice calls, and young adults stand out in their use of text messaging Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org
Designing problem-driven instruction with online social media
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Seo, J., Pellegrino, D.A., & Engelhard, C. (2012). Designing problem-driven instruction with online social media. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Phenomenology for therapists
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Finlay, L. (2011). Phenomenology for therapists. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
An introduction to technologies commonly used by college students. New Directions for Student Services
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Junco, R., & Cole-Avent, G.A. (2008). An introduction to technologies commonly used by college students. New Directions for Student Services, 124, 3-17. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1002/ss.292.
Connected yet distracted: Multitasking among college students
  • K Mokharti
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Mokharti, K., Delello, J., & Reichard, C. (2015). Connected yet distracted: Multitasking among college students. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 45(2), 164-180.