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Places for People, Places for Plants: Evolving thoughts on Continuous Productive Urban Landscape

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  • Edible Urban
... In Europe, the population is already urbanised to 70-80%, and urban sprawl is decreasing the available land for agriculture. However, availability of space is not necessarily a limiting factor for urban farming, especially if reuse of space for multifunctional purposes becomes integral to city planning guidelines (Viljoen et al, 2010;Custot et al, 2012). The growth of urban farming has varied across the world (Opitz et al, 2016), in part due to the difference between the established urban development in the "Global North" and the faster growing cities in the "Global South". ...
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The environment and energy consumption of indoor urban farms within the city’s infrastructure cannot at present be adequately simulated using typical building simulation models as they do not include the ability to simulate the potentially significant heat and mass transfer between plants and the internal air. On the other hand, tools developed for the simulation of climate-controlled greenhouses do not allow complex interactions with existing buildings and infrastructure. In this chapter, we present the development of an urban-integrated greenhouse model, with the ability to simulate the response of the indoor climate to crop growth. We validate the model against data from an urban farm 50 m underground. Applying an analysis of resource needs and availability through a numerical simulation model allows us to investigate mechanisms to optimise the environment and energy benefits of growing food within the city space.
... The increasingly important urban gardens which are no longer connected to larger agroecosystems contribute to improving air quality, reducing CO 2 emissions and temperatures and providing citizens with livelihood opportunities as well as social and recreational activities (Van Veenhuizen 2006; Viljoen et al. 2009). Home gardens help ensure food security for rural people, in particular for poor farmers. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Homegardening is an ancient and widespread practice of deliberate mixing of field crops, herbs and shrubs with trees and livestock within the compound of a house, popular in regions with either high or low human population densities in developing and developed countries. They reflect the wisdom of traditional culture and ecological knowledge that have evolved over the years. The gardens resemble the structure of natural ecosystems, i.e. they create a forest-like multi-storey canopy structure on a land marginal to field production and labour marginal to major household economic activities. Multiple environmental and ecological benefits are realized from homegardens in terms of ecologically friendly approaches for food production improving food security and enhancing economic growth along with biodiversity and natural resources conservation. As homegardens are time-tested local strategies that are widely adopted and practiced in various circumstances by local communities with limited resources and institutional support, they can be a part of agriculture and food production systems in many developing countries and are widely used as a remedy to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in the face of a food crisis particularly in a climate change world.
... The increasingly important urban gardens which are no longer connected to larger agroecosystems contribute to improving air quality, reducing CO 2 emissions and temperatures and providing citizens with livelihood opportunities as well as social and recreational activities (Van Veenhuizen 2006;Viljoen et al. 2009). Home gardens help ensure food security for rural people, in particular for poor farmers. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Homegardening is an ancient and widespread practice of deliberate mixing of field crops, herbs and shrubs with trees and livestock within the compound of a house, popular in regions with either high or low human population densities in developing and developed countries. They reflect the wisdom of traditional culture and ecological knowledge that have evolved over the years. The gardens resemble the structure of natural ecosystems, i.e. they create a forest-like multi-storey canopy structure on a land marginal to field production and labour marginal to major household economic activities. Multiple environmental and ecological benefits are realized from homegardens in terms of ecologically friendly approaches for food production improving food security and enhancing economic growth along with biodiversity and natural resources conservation. As homegardens are time-tested local strategies that are widely adopted and practiced in various circumstances by local communities with limited resources and institutional support, they can be a part of agriculture and food production systems in many developing countries and are widely used as a remedy to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in the face of a food crisis particularly in a climate change world.
... Countryside home gardens contribute to the functioning and sustainability of the larger agricultural ecosystem (Engels 2001), providing services such as pollination, refuge for micro-and macro-fauna and allowing for gene-flow between plant populations inside and out of the garden. The increasingly important urban gardens, which are no longer connected to larger agro-ecosystems, contribute to improving air quality, reducing CO 2 emissions and temperatures, providing citizens with livelihood opportunities as well as social and recreational activities (Van Veenhuizen 2006;Viljoen et al. 2009). ...
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Over the last two decades, the importance of conserving genetic resources has received increasing attention. In this context the role of home gardens as repositories of biological diversity has been acknowledged but still a comprehensive, interdisciplinary investigation of their agro-biodiversity is lacking. Home gardens, whether found in rural or urban areas, are characterized by a structural complexity and multifunctionality which enables the provision of different benefits to ecosystems and people. Studies carried out in various countries demonstrate that high levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity, especially in terms of traditional crop varieties and landraces, are preserved in home gardens. Families engage in food production for subsistence or small-scale marketing and the variety of crops and wild plants provides nutritional benefits. At the same time, home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practices is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihoods. The present article summarizes available literature on the biological and cultural significance of agro-biodiversity in home gardens. It discusses future constraints and opportunities in home garden research, in the prospect of defining and promoting their role in conservation of agricultural biodiversity and cultural heritage. KeywordsHome gardens-Agro-ecosystems-In situ conservation-Agro-biodiversity-Landraces
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