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Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) Oils

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Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) belongs to the genus Artemisia and is a well-known aromatic perennial plant with a characteristic scent, and possesses multiple medicinal applications, such as emmenagogue, nervine, digestive, diuretic and diaphoretic, food flavoring, and insect repellent properties. Aerial parts of Mugwort plant yield an essential oil with contents varying between 0.1 and 1.4%. Mugwort essential oil, which is mainly composed of β-pinene, α-pinene, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, has diverse applications including as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, food flavouring, and insect repellent. This chapter describes the botanical aspects, medicinal uses, and applications of the essential oil of Mugwort and explores its potential role in food science.
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From Anwar, F., Ahmad, N., Alkharfy, K.M., Gilani, A.U.H, 2016. Mugwort (Artemisia
vulgaris) Oils. In: Preedy, V.R. (Ed.), Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and
Safety. Academic Press, 573–579.
ISBN: 9780124166417
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Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety, First Edition, 2016, 573-579
Chapter 65
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) Oils
Farooq Anwar1,2, Naveed Ahmad2,3, Khalid M. Alkharfy4,5, Anwar-ul-Hassan Gilani6,7
1Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; 2University of
Sargodha, Department of Chemistry, Sargodha, Pakistan; 3National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan;
4College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam bin
Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia; 6Aga Khan University Medical College, Natural Product Research Division, Department of Biological
and Biomedical Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan; 7College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
INTRODUCTION
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.), belonging to the genus Artemisia, is very much popular due to its characteristic odor
and unique medicinal and food flavoring applications. There are around 500 species of Artemisia distributed across
Asia, Europe, and North America that are frequently employed in folk medicine and food preparations (Willcox, 2009).
Chemical studies on these plants indicate that several classes of bioactive compounds, in particular, terpenoids and
flavonoids are present in this genus. The presence of a significant amount of essential oils and other terpenoids in the plants
of this species can be linked with their potential uses as flavoring agents in foods and as ingredients of pharmaceutical
products (Wright, 2002).
Mugwort, due to its aromatic nature and distinctive scent, has considerable essential oil potential which can be explored
as ingredient of several functional foods, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceutics. Indeed, research on essential oils has been
revived due to their potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against aging, inflammation, and infectious diseases
as well as their applications in food science (Hussain et al., 2008). This chapter focuses on the botanical and functional food
aspects, medicinal uses, and applications of mugwort essential oil in food science.
BOTANICAL ASPECTS
Artemisia vulgaris L., commonly known as mugwort, belongs to family Compositae, and is native to Europe, Asia, and
northern Africa. It is grown wildly in semiarid or arid areas throughout the Mediterranean basin and extending into the
north-west Himalayas (Asta and Juste, 2006). Mugwort has a pleasant tangy taste. The root is sweet and pungent and
the herb is aromatic and bitter in nature. The branched tips are gathered during the flowering season and carefully dried.
Other fresh above and under ground parts of the plant are harvested at the beginning of winter, primarily from the wild
( Gruenwald et al., 2008).
The plant is a long-stemmed, 70–150 cm high shrub with a branched, many headed and creeping rhizome without
runners or rosette, and the medicinal parts are roots and aerial parts, particularly dried branched tips (Gruenwald et al.,
2008). A typical photograph of mugwort plant is shown in Figure 1.
Flower and Fruit: Flower heads are ovoid, 3–4 mm long by 2 mm wide. The numerous flowers are short and stemmed
erect or slightly drooping. They are dense, heavily branched panicles with numerous lanceolate bracts. The flowers are
yellowish or red brown and almost glabrous. The fruit has an indistinct margin (Gruenwald et al., 2008).
Leaves and Stems: The leaves are 5–10 cm long, coriaceous, and the margins are often rolled back. The upper surface
is usually dark green and glabrous, occasionally pubescent, and the lower surface is tomentose. The basal leaves are
short petioled and lobbed with an end section and one to two pairs of small side leaflets. The rest of the leaves are sessile
or almost sessile with a slit base. The shoots are slightly pubescent, often red-tinged, and have week unpleasant smell.
The erect or ascending edged, and coriaceous long stems die off each year. They are in branched panicles and downy
(Gruenwald et al., 2008).
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USES AND APPLICATIONS
The plant is known to possess multiple medicinal uses and application in folk medicine, which include, gastrointestinal
tract such as stomach ulcers, and indigestion and liver disorders (Gilani et al., 2005; Gruenwald et al., 2008). The plant
is also used for worm infestations, epilepsy, vomiting, to promote circulation, as a sedative, and for delayed or irregular
menstruation. The root is used for asthenic states as a tonic and in combination with other remedies also for psychoneuro-
ses, neurasthenia, depression and hypochondria, autonomic neuroses, general irritability and restlessness, insomnia, and
anxiety states. Mugwort is not used in pregnancy (Gruenwald et al., 2008).
Essential oils are known to make a major contribution to the plant’s biological activity and generally have a broad
spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients or secondary metabolites, which work through
various modes of action. The essential oil exhibits many other biological activities useful in food science such as antisep-
tic, antioxidant, larvicidal, nematicide, pesticide, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral, and is also used in the flavor and
perfumery industry (Silva, 2004).
Mugwort essential oil has been employed for the treatment of diabetes and epilepsy, and in combination for psychoneuro-
sis, depression, irritability, insomnia, and anxiety stress (Walter and Memory, 2003). The essential oil has a warming effect on
the body which can be used to counter the effects of cold and moisture in the air; it also acts as a tonic for the nerves.
Mugwort is used to flavor tea and rice dishes in Asia and as a culinary herb for poultry and meat in Western cultures.
It has also been utilized as an analgesic agent and in conjunction with acupuncture therapy (Yoshikawa et al., 1996). The
leaves and buds are used as a bitter flavoring agent to season fat, meat, and fish. In China, it is used mostly for moxibustion
(Tang and Eisenbrand, 2011). A paste or powder of its leaves is applied over skin diseases. It is used as an inferior substitute
for cinchona for treating fever (Silva, 2004; Judzentiene and Buzelyte, 2006; Haider et al., 2003).
USES AND APPLICATIONS IN FOOD SCIENCES
There has been a growing interest in research concerning the possible use of plants in their natural form for pest and
disease control in agriculture, that are less damaging to the human health and environment (Wang et al., 2005; Hussain
FIGURE 1 Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) (Tobyn et al., 2011).
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et al., 2008). The essential oil exhibits many other biological activities useful in food science such as antiseptic, anti-
oxidant, larvicidal, nematicide, pesticide, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral as well as being used in the flavor and
perfumery industry (Silva, 2004). Mugwort plant is valued for its medicinal food value. The essential oil of mugwort
has been reported to slow down or inhibit the growth of different kinds of insects, microbes, and parasites and can be
employed to protect foods from related deteriorations as a part of natural management practise. Repellent and fumigant
activity of mugwort essential oil against Musca domestica L. and the stored-product insect pest Tribolium castaneum
(Herbst) have also been reported (Judzentiene and Buzelyte, 2006). Erel et al. (2012) investigated in vitro antimicrobial
activity of mugwort’s essential oil against different microbial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus
epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Candida
albicans using the disk diffusion method compared with positive control (ceftazidime and ketoconazole). The essential
oil produced inhibition zones greater than or equal to that of the standard antibiotic suggesting its uses as a natural anti-
microbial agent. The strong antimicrobial activity of mugwort essential oil is attributed to the presence of 1,8-cineole,
α-thujone, and camphene (Silva, 2004; Blagojevica et al., 2006). The antitumoral activity has also been linked to artemisic
acid and artemisinin B extracted from mugwort (Sun et al., 1992).
Interestingly, mugwort’s essential oil has 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity similar to that of the
standard antioxidant (butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT) indicating its appreciable potential toward preservation of foods
using natural additives (Erel et al., 2012). In another investigation, the essential oils of A. vulgaris also showed antioxidant
activity in terms of free radical scavenging activity similar to those of the synthetic antioxidant BHT (Erel et al., 2012). It is
well known that there is a relationship between antioxidant activity and the phenolic content of the plant extracts (Albayrak
et al., 2010). Therefore, antioxidant properties of this potential oil can be attributed to the phenolic and flavonoid contents
of the A. vulgaris (Wright, 2002).
The essential oil extracted from mugwort stem is a potential larvicide against Aedes aegypti in low concentrations
of the oil solution and thus could be explored as a natural larvicidal agent against certain vector borne diseases and
pest control in food science (Govindaraj and Kumari, 2013). Sharifian et al. (2013) evaluated insecticidal activity
of mugwort essential oil against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), and Rhyzopertha
dominica (F.). The results revealed that mortality of the insects increased as the doses of essential oil and exposure
time increased thus prompting the need to explore this oil as natural insecticidal agent for insect control in food
crops. The insecticidal and larvicidal properties of mugwort essential oil can be attributed to camphene and its chloro
derivative and α-Thujone (Silva, 2004). Camphor, an active component of mugwort essential oil, has moth repellent
properties and is used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Extracts of A. vulgaris L. appear to possess
blood pressure lowering actions which can be linked with the presence of yomogin (Tigno et al., 2000). The prescribed
health food functions coupled with bioactive profile support the potential uses of mugwort essential oil as a medicinal
food.
ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION
The extraction of essential oils from plant material can be achieved by various methods such as supercritical fluid extrac-
tion, solvent extraction, hydrodistillation, steam distillation, cold or hot pressing, effleurage, and phytonic process ( Surburg
and Panten, 2006). Various reports have shown that the essential oil yield from mugwort may vary from 0.1 to 1.4%
depending on the plant part used and the origin of harvest (Table 1). Mugwort essential oil is clear to pale yellow in color
with characteristic fragrance (slightly licorice-like), and can be blended with several other essential oils (Thao et al., 2004;
Alizadeh et al., 2012).
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MUGWORT ESSENTIAL OIL
The strong and aromatic smell of A. vulgaris is mainly due to high concentrations of volatile terpenes, constituents of
their essential oil (Abad et al., 2012). The active components of A. vulgaris identified include flavonoids, coumarins,
sesquiterpene lactones, volatile oils, inulin, and traces of alkaloids. The chief compounds of volatile oils include camphor,
camphene, α-thujone, germacrene D, 1,8-cineole, and β-caryophyllene (Silva, 2004; Judzentiene and Buzelyte, 2006;
Haider et al., 2003). The contents and composition of Mugwort (A. vulgaris) essential oil appear to be dependent on
biochemical and geographical variability as well as on the method of extraction as shown in Table 2. It has been dem-
onstrated that mugwort grown in different countries possessed different composition of essential oils. The oils from
mugwort plants harvested in Turkey were found to be rich in α-thujone (56.13%), β-thujone (12.02%), caryophyllene oxide
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TABLE 2 Chemical Composition of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) Essential Oil
Origin/Parts Major Components Yield (%) References
Turkey (aerial parts) α-Thujone 56.13 Erel et al. (2012)
β-Thujone 12.02
Caryophyllene oxide 10.19
1,8-Cineole 8.47
North Lithuania (aerial parts) Germacrene D 5.3–15.1 Judzentiene and Buzelyt (2006)
1,8-Cineole 2.6–17.6
β-Pinene 0.1–12.9
cis-Thujone 0–12.9
trans-Thujone 0–20.2
Chrysanthenyl acetate 0–23.6
Caryophyllene 2.5–12.2
Iran (aerial parts) α-Pinene 23.56 Alizadeh et al. (2012)
Menthol 9.71
β-Eudesmol 8.297
Spathulenol 4.582
Trans-Caryophyllene 24.76 Bamoniri et al. (2010)
1, 8-Cineol 18.64
Trans-Salvene 14.87
β-Cubebene 11.82
TABLE 1 Extraction of Essential Oil From Different Parts of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)
Origin/Parts Technique Apparatus Yield (%) References
China/leaves and stems Hydrodistillation Clevenger - Wang et al. (2005)
Serbia/aerial parts Hydrodistillation Clevenger - Blagojevic et al. (2006)
Turkey/aerial parts Hydrodistillation Clevenger 0.40 Erel et al. (2012)
North Lithuania/aerial parts Hydrodistillation using
hexane and diethyl
ether mixture
--------- 0.2–0.4 Judzentiene and
Buzelyte (2006)
Iran/aerial parts Steam distillation Clevenger 1.4 Alizedah et al. (2012)
Vietnam/aerial parts Hydrodistillation Clevenger 0.32–1.14 Thao et al. (2004)
Italy/aerial parts Hydrodistillation Likens-Nickerson
apparatus
-Mucciarelli et al.
(1995)
Cuba/aerial parts Hydrodistillation Clevenger 0.1 Pino et al. (1999)
India/aerial parts Hydrodistillation Clevenger 0.16–0.5 Haider et al. (2003)
Nepal/leaves Steam distillation Clevenger - Bhatt et al. (2007)
Iran/aerial parts Hydrodistillation Clevenger 0.25 Bamoniri et al. (2010)
India/stem Hydrodistillation Clevenger - Govindaraj and kumari
(2013)
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(10.19), and 1,8-cineole (8.47%) (Erel et al., 2012). Furthermore, 1,8-cineole (28.9%), sabinene (13.7%), β-thujone
(13.5%), and caryophyllene oxide (6.5%) were reported as the principal components in leaf essential oils of Egyptian
mugwort plants (Blagojevic et al., 2006), whereas in Croatia, the chief components reported were β-thujone (20.8%),
α-pinene (15.1%), and 1,8-cineole (11.7%) (Jerkovic et al., 2003). The oils isolated from North Lithuanian Mugwort
(A. vulgaris) plants were high in sabinene, β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, cis- and trans-thujone, chrysanthe-
nyl acetate, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene (Judzentiene and Buzelyt, 2006). The oils extracted from the plants
from Iran were mainly composed of trans-caryophyllene (24.76%), 1,8-cineol (18.64%), trans-salvene (14.87%), and
β–cubebene (11.82%) (Bamoniri et al., 2010). Whereas the oils isolated from Indian grown plants were characterized by
large amounts of camphor (38.7%), isoborneol (8.2%), and artemisia alcohol (4.5%) (Haider et al., 2003). The compo-
nents of mugwort essential oil vary depending on where they are cultivated, for example, USA (10 compounds), Serbia
(94 compounds), Pakistan (24 compounds), and Turkey (14 compounds). Table 2 describes the content and chemical
composition of essential oil from different parts of mugwort. The chemical structures of some important constituents of
mugwort essential oil are given in Figure 2.
Origin/Parts Major Components Yield (%) References
Cuba (aerial parts) caryophyllene oxide 31.1 Pino et al. (1999)
Hexadecanoic acid 6.3
Isobornyl 2-methylbutyrate 5.3
2-Heptadecanone 5.1
Vietnam (aerial Part) β-Anole 21.7 Thao et al. (2004)
Camphor 10.9
β-Pinene 10.2
α-Pinene 9.1
India (seeds) Camphor 17.3 Govindaraj and Kumari (2013)
α-Thujone 10.7
γ-Muurolene 9.0
Camphene 6.0
TABLE 2 Chemical Composition of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) Essential Oil—cont’d
Camphor
Camphene
α –Pinene
β-Thujone
β -Pinene
1,8-cineole
FIGURE 2 Chemical structures of important constituents of mugwort essential oil (Barney et al., 2005; Abad et al., 2012).
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SUMMARY POINTS
l Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) is an aromatic plant from the family Compositae.
l Mugwort has a pleasant tangy taste with a characteristic scent.
l Mugwort plant is known to possess multiple medicinal uses and applications, which include stomach ulcers, indiges-
tion, liver disorders, emmenagogue, nervine, digestive, diuretic, and diaphoretic, as well as having food flavoring
properties.
l Mugwort has also antitumoral activity which is mainly linked to artemisic acid and artemisinin B.
l The active components of mugwort include flavonoids, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, volatile oils, inulin, and traces
of alkaloids.
l The essential oil yield from mugwort may vary from 0.1% to 1.4% depending on the plant part used and the origin of
harvest.
l Mugwort essential oil is mainly composed of β-pinene, α-pinene, camphor, and 1,8-cineole.
l The essential oil exhibits many biological activities useful in food science such as antiseptic, antioxidant, larvicidal,
nematicide, pesticide, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, as well as being used in the flavor and perfum-
ery industry.
l Mugwort essential oil has high potential as a natural antiinflammatory agent to impart functional food and physiological
benefits if incorporated into some food or cosmetic products.
l Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) plant essential oil and extract have appreciable antimicrobial potential (Table 3).
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... This is a hardy perennial sub-shrub, native to temperate Eurasia and North Africa and often cultivated in gardens (Tobyn et al., 2011). Its essential oil, which is mainly composed of β-pinene, α-pinene, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, has diverse applications and is known for antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, food flavoring, and insect repellent properties (Anwar et al., 2016). In folk medicine, Artemisia absinthium was used as a disinfectant and preservative against microorganisms (Malik et al., 2019). ...
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In the summer of 2019, members of the Faculty of Medicine of Vilnius University were summoned by the diocese of Telšiai to carry out an investigation of the mortal remains of Juozapas Arnulfas Giedraitis and Simonas Mykolas Giedraitis, two high religious dignitaries entombed in the crypt of the parish of St. Peter and St. Paul, Apostles, at Varniai (Samogitia, Lithuania). The aim of the study was to confirm their identity, to obtain data for compiling an osteo‐biographic profile, and to assess any manipulation of the bodies that resulted in their preservation. The remains concerned underwent anthropological, paleopathological, and archaeobotanical investigations, supplemented by a radiological analysis for the individual who displayed tissue mummification. There was evidence of bodily processing after death, which included internal organ removal, the use of specific plant species known to have antiseptic and disinfectant properties, as well as chemical preservatives. In combination with the available historic sources, this study aimed to provide a detailed bioarchaeological assessment that enriched our understanding of previously undocumented postmortem bodily treatments and preservation practices among these high‐ranked Lithuanian clergymen.
Article
Artemisia argyi L. is a widely distributed medicinal plant in China. The major bioactive substances of essential oils extracted from leaves are terpenoids. Although many researches have studied the pharmacological effects of the essential oils, the tissue-specific accumulation of terpenoid biosynthesis and the regulatory networks in A. argyi are poorly understood. This study conducted an integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of roots, stems, and leaves to investigate the tissue-specific regulatory network of terpenoid biosynthesis in A. argyi. We identified 77 unigenes putatively involved in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. Three rate-determining enzyme genes (DXS, DXR, and HDR) of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway were predominantly expressed in leaves, and strongly co-expressed with eight transcription factors (2 MYBs, 4 WRKYs, and 2 AP2s). An metabolite-transcript correlation analysis revealed 26 putative cytochrome P450s related to terpenoid metabolism in leaves. These results provide a foundation for the future metabolic engineering of useful terpenoids in A. argyi.
Article
Plant extracts are being studied in the development of novel edible food coatings. The antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds that naturally occur in some plants are the key substances that contribute to preserving food quality. Besides the plant material, the method utilized to produce the extract influences its chemical and preservative characteristics. In general, hydrodistillation produce plant products (essential oils) that are well recognized for containing high concentration of antioxidant or antimicrobial volatile compounds. Supercritical fluid technology produces high quality bioactive extracts with higher yield but lower concentration of volatile compounds, in comparison with hydrodistillation. In this work, six different natural extracts of five different plants were produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction, and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were compared. The most active extracts were used to produce chitosan-based edible coatings with the aim of assessing the effect of essential oils versus supercritical extracts on the preservation of strawberries.
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The chemical composition of essential oils of Artemisia vulgaris L. plants collected in Lithuanian has been reported. The oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from air-dried aerial parts. Up to 75 compounds (an average 88.7– 99.3% of the total oil content) were identified by GC−MS and GC (FID). Germacrene D (10.6 ± 2.5 – 30.5 ± 2.0%) was revealed as the first principal constituent in the investigated oils. To the best of our knowledge, mugwort essential oils rich in germacrene D are quite rare. 1,8-Cineole (6.9 ± 1.9 − 9.8 ± 1.1%, in 4 oils), β-pinene (6.7 ± 1.2 and 8.4 ± 2.3%), sabinene (8.5 ± 1.8%), cis-thujone (12.9 ± 2.5%), β-caryophyllene (5.5 ± 1.3 − 16.7 ± 4.2%, in 5 samples), caryophyllene oxide (6.4 ± 1.1 − 9.3 ± 1.3%, in 4 oils), α-humulene (5.5 ± 1.5%) and davanone (6.5 ± 2.5%) were found to be the second or third major compounds. The toxic activity of five mugwort essential oil samples was evaluated using a brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) bioassay. LC50 mean values (10.25–19.11 µg/mL) revealed that the oils containing appreciable amounts of germacrene D were notably toxic.
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Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the “mother of herbs” in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb—Artemisiae vulgaris herba—is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.
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Compositional variability of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) essential oils has been investigated in the study. Plant material (over ground parts at full flowering stage) was collected from forty-four wild populations in Lithuania. The oils from aerial parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC(FID) and GC/MS. In total, up to 111 components were determined in the oils. As the major constituents were found: sabinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, both thujone isomers, camphor, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, davanone and davanone B.
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The compositional variability of the essential oils of aerial parts of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.), collected from fifteen wild populations in Lithuania is detailed. The most predominant components were davanones (13.8-45.5%, six oils), germacrene D (9.1-30.5%, four oils), 1,8-cineole (16.4%, one oil), camphor (18.9%, one oil), trans-thujone (8.9 and 10.9%, two oils) and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (10.4%, one oil). To the best of our knowledge, the davanone chemotype for A. vulgaris oils is described for the first time. The toxicity of the mugwort essential oils was determined using brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) assay. LC50 values (10.3-23.1 μg/mL) obtained for the oils after 24 h of exposure revealed that the oils containing appreciable amounts of germacrene D, 1,8-cineole, camphor and davanone were notably toxic.
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Extracts of Artemisia vulgaris Linn (Damanaka) (Asteraceae) were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity agar diffusion method in comparison with standard antibiotics, Gentamycin, Ampicilline, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxin and Ofloxacin. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, alcoholic, petroleum ether and Benzene extract of leaves of the plant were studied using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as test organisms. All the extracts were effective against all the two micro organisms. The result reveals that the plant extracts have maximum inhibitory activity against Gram negative and Gram positive organism when compared to standard antibiotics. The petroleum ether and benzene extracts of plant have shown significant activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the aqueous and alcohol extract of plant has shown good inhibitory activity of Artemisia vulgaris indicating that the plant can fight these organisms effectively.
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Artemisia L. taxa (A. absinthium L., A. arborescens L., A. campestris L., A. scoparia Waldst. & Kit., A. santonicum L., and A. vulgaris L.) naturally distributed through western and southwestern Turkey were chosen as experimental materials in this study. Essential oils of the aerial parts of these Artemisia species were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were identified as sabinene in A. absinthium (17.56%), camphor in A. arborescens (33.39%), 1,2-dehydro acenaphthylene in A. campestris and A. scoparia (20.71% and 11.80%, respectively), and a-thujone in A. vulgaris and A. santonicum (56.13% and 39.46%, respectively). Essential oils and methanolic extracts of the plants were tested for antimicrobial activity using the disk-diffusion method against 8 bacteria and 1 fungus. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive bacteria to all of the essential oils. A. santonicum and A. scoparia were the most active plants against Candida albicans, with 35-mm and 40-mm diameter zones, respectively. Antioxidant capacities of the plants were also tested. The radical scavenging activity of A. scoparia extract (48.51%) and essential oil (80.08%), the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of A. campestris extract (10.76 +/- 0.47), and the a-tocopherol equivalent of A. absinthium extract (5.87 +/- 0.17) were the highest results.
Book
This 6th edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and now additionally includes all commercially important flavor and fragrance materials that entered the market over the past 10 years. In one handy and up-to-date source, this classic reference surveys those natural and synthetic materials that are commercially available, produced, and used on a relatively large scale, covering their properties, manufacturing methods employed, and areas of application. For this new edition the chapter on essential oils has been completely revised with regard to production volumes, availability, and new product specifications, while new legal issues, such as REACH regulation aspects, are now included. Finally, the CAS registry numbers and physicochemical data of over 350 single substances and 100 essential oils have been updated and revised.
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Get a good start in flavor and fragrance chemistry!. This book presents a survey of those natural and synthetic fragrance and flavor materials which are commercially available, produced and used on a relatively large scale and which are important ingredients for the creation of fragrance and flavor compositions because of their specific sensory characteristics, e.g., smell, taste. It provides information on their properties, methods employed in their manufacture, and their areas of application. This is the 5th edition of the classic "Bauer-Garbe". '...The excellent and concise introduction to this unique industry is followed by extensive information on nearly 500 of the most used fragrance and flavor compounds. Names, molecular formula, physical data, odor and flavor descriptions, uses, and a number of processes for the larger scale production of chemicals are all included. Successive chapters deal with essential oils, animal secretions, quality control, toxicology and literature. The formula, name and CAS registry number index are an invaluable and timely addition.' - Parfumer and Flavorist. '...Data that would normally have to be selected from many different books are available in one source with this book...with over 800 citations throughout the text, this is a nearly inexhaustible source of information.' - Euromaterials.
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Discusses the ways in which a man's health is affected by plants. Categorizes plants into injurious, remedial, and psychoactive. Includes plants from seaweeds to flowering plants in addition to the bacteria and fungi. Covers plants affecting areas from cancer, oral hygiene, respiratory system and panaceas to those acting as stimulants, hallucinogens and depressants.
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The Western Herbal Tradition provides a comprehensive and critical exploration of the use of plant medicines through 2000 years of history from Dioscorides to the present day. It follows each of the 27 herbs through a wide range of key sources from European, Arabic and American traditions including Greek, Roman and Renaissance texts. A rich discussion of the historical texts is balanced with current application and research. The herbs have been selected on the basis of common use by practising herbalists. Each illustrated monograph contains: Species, identification and botanical description A study of the characterisation and medicinal use of the plants consistently drawn from featured herbals which includes the authorsâown translations from the Latin Assessment of past and current texts in the transmission of herbal knowledge Consideration of traditional therapeutics, including humoral and physiomedical approaches Suggestions towards a modern experiential approach through Goethean methodology Current evidence on pharmacological constituents Review of evidence on safety Recommendations for internal and external uses, prescribing and dosage.