La Période spéciale en temps de paix

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This paper offers an analysis of the different forms of informality that were born or that reappeared with the Special period in times of peace. Indeed, this period consecutive to the collapse of the soviet partner, characterized by drastic economic measures aiming at the preservation of the Cuban politico-social system, has led to disruptions in different areas. In this way, economical informality and the development of an unofficial economics black market must be observed through the prism of two others kinds of informality. Politically speaking first, we can only note the discontentment of a certain part of the population, supported by the new technologies that offer an international resonance. Humanly speaking then, it should be made clear that the Special period has caused mutations in social relations, while growing on as an inspiration for artists. As a consequence, our work offers an overview of the different aspects of the actual Cuban “informality”, and emphasizes its negative and positive points.

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The Saharawi-Moroccan War (1975-1991) was defined by the regional struggle between Morocco and Algeria for leadership in the Maghreb as well as by international Cold War tensions. This context influenced both the Western Sahara conflict as well as the social and political emancipatory project of the Saharawi national liberation movement, whose aim was to establish an independent state through decolonization. This project had a strong impact on the Saharawi people, particularly those born just before the start of the war, who sought to carry on the legacy of their parents’ struggle. Part of their emancipatory project began in the second half of the 1970s, with thousands leaving the refugee camps they found themselves in to study in countries of the Maghreb, Latin America and Eastern Europe. Among these countries with which Saharawi authorities had signed agreements on education, Cuba played a key role. Given its internationalist role in Africa, Cuba was a principal training ground for several thousands of young Saharawi. This generation then returned to the refugee camps shortly before the 1991 peace plan was signed, which nevertheless blocked a political solution to the conflict. As such, these Saharawi were pushed to migrate once more, becoming the vanguard of an emerging economic migration, mainly to Spain, that broke with the central role they were destined to play in the future Saharawi state.
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