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Sensory study of the effect of fluorescent light on a sparkling wine and its base wine



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... When white wines bottled in transparent bottles are exposed to light, several harmful changes to the wine quality can occur, namely the production of off-flavors (Dozon & Noble, 1989), color changes (Benítez, Castro, Natera, & García Barroso, 2006;Dias, Smith, Ghiggino, & Scollary, 2012), and the depletion of sulfur dioxide (Blake, Kotseridis, Brindle, Inglis, & Pickering, 2010), and therefore light exposure can lower the quality and reduce the shelf life of bottled white wine. One of the most frequent white wine quality changes, when exposed to light, is the development of an off-flavor named light-struck, which produces unpleasantly tasting and smelling compounds. ...
... Methional, the product of the reaction, is in turn photodegraded through retro-Michael reactions to form dimethylsulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methanethiol, and hydrogen sulfide (Maujean & Seguin, 1983a;Pripis-Nicolau, de Revel, Bertrand, & Maujean, 2000) (Fig. 16.1). The presence of these compounds in wine, with negative sensory notes described as cooked cabbage, corn nuts, wet dog/wet wool, and soy/marmite aromas (Table 16.1), reduces the wine fruit and varietal sensory notes (Dozon & Noble, 1989). ...
... The exposure of white wine to light (sunlight or fluorescent light) in clear bottles is also an important factor that stimulates the light-struck taste formation (Dozon & Noble, 1989). According to Maujean (1984), possible reasons for the increase in the light-struck taste defect is the decrease in the bottle glass quality, resulting in lower ...
The light-struck taste is a white wine sensory defect formed when white wines are bottled in clear transparent bottles that are exposed to light. Its appearance is related to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide with a negative sensory cabbage-like aroma and a reductive and negative wine taste, formed by riboflavin-sensitized oxidation of methionine. The appearance of this wine sensory defect is directly related to the riboflavin and methionine levels in wines that are dependent on the grape composition as well as the winemaking conditions. To decrease the risk of wine spoilage, a low concentration of riboflavin should be obtained in wine either by preventing riboflavin release from yeast during winemaking or by removing riboflavin from wine by using fining agents. This chapter discusses the mechanism and causes of light-struck taste development in white wines and the levels of methionine and riboflavin present in white wines from different origins. Also, the available preventive and curative treatments to avoid this important white wine sensory defect are reviewed.
... Photo-degradation is responsible for a wine defect called 'light-strike', which is recognisable as a distinctive, unpleasant sulfide-like aroma resembling onion and cooked cabbage. Still and white sparkling wines are most susceptible, with Chardonnay and Pinot gris being two cultivars that often present the phenomenon (Cáceres-Mella, Flores-Valdivia, Laurie, López-Solís, & Peña-Neira, 2014;Dias et al., 2012;Dozon & Noble, 1989;Grant-Preece et al., 2017;Mattivi, Monetti, Vrhovšek, Tonon, & Andrés-Lacueva, 2000;Maujean, Haye, Feuillat, Thomas, & Petit, 1978). Milk and beer bottled in flint glass and exposed to natural or artificial light can develop very similar off-flavours (Jung et al., 1998;Obata et al., 2014;Patton, 1954;Schönberger & Kostelecky, 2011). ...
... Solutions proposed to winemakers include the use of low production riboflavin yeast for the alcoholic fermentation or use of material able to deplete riboflavin from wine (Fracassetti et al., 2017;Grant-Preece et al., 2017). However, the most effective way to prevent light-strike is the use of dark glass bottles (Cáceres-Mella et al., 2014;Dozon & Noble, 1989;Grant-Preece et al., 2017;Hartley, 2008). If winemakers could choose packaging, flint glass bottles would not be among the options. ...
White wines from two vintages were bottled in green and flint glass bottles and stored under typical supermarket shelf conditions. Light-strike fault, colour changes, light and temperature exposure were monitored up to 50 days. In general, green glass bottles secured wine quality for the tested period. Only a few flint glass bottled wines developed a fault due to light-strike after 1–2 days of supermarket shelf life, but all developed the fault after 20–40 days; so we considered the possibility of two mechanisms causing the problem. Flint-glass bottled wines stored on the bottom shelf developed the defect only slightly later compared with the wines on the top shelf. Moreover, storing the wines in dark and cold after a period of exposure to light did not eliminate the fault, indicating that the defect is probably additive. Monitoring the amount of light to which wines are exposed could prevent the fault.
... In 1977, Haye et al. (7) reported a wine fault called gout de lumiere (lightstrike) caused to Champagne wines by the light that passes through bottle glass and tried to explain it. Today, we know that flint glass bottles do not filter the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) radiation enough, and it results in white wines with lightstrike, with descriptors like boiled cabbage, corn nuts, wet dog, and soy/marmite; whereas amber or dark-colored glass bottles are able to protect wines from this phenomenon (3,4,(8)(9)(10)(11). However, there are still debates about the mechanisms that promote the appearance of lightstrike because no clear correlation between the off-odor and volatile compounds has been demonstrated in wine. ...
Due to marketing recommendations, white wines are often bottled in flint glass to improve aesthetics and showcase wine color. Although this practice is known to cause a wine fault, the influence of light on the fruity and flowery aromatic profile of wine is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes to the white wine volatilome under typical supermarket shelf conditions, using 1,052 bottles of 24 white wines. After only 7 d of shelf life in flint glass bottles, a dramatic loss in terpenes (10 to 30%) and norisoprenoids (30 to 70%) was recorded, whereas colored glass bottles did not evidence such behavior even after 50 d, and darkness preserved the wine's fruity and flowery aromatic integrity. We also proposed an alternative mechanism for the insurgence of the lightstrike off-odor, which takes the varietal aroma loss into account. In light of this understanding of the flint glass negative impact on white wine aroma identity and sensorial character, this packaging should be strongly discouraged. The same findings should be valid for a wide range of several daily consumed foodstuff where transparent packaging is used.
... Champagnes, this leads to an irreversible degradation commonly known as the light-or sun-32 struck fault that is characterized by changes in coloration and the smell of rotten eggs and 33 cooked cabbage (Dozon & Noble, 1989). Although the light-struck fault is a complex process 34 whose chemical origins can differ between samples due to variations in grape composition Understanding the mechanism responsible for the light-struck fault sensitized by Rf is 65 essential in developing strategies for mitigating its effects and also in elucidating the 66 formation of undesirable side-products. ...
The mechanism responsible for the appearance of the light-struck fault upon exposure of white wines and Champagnes to natural or artificial light is examined in light of new experiments involving methionine analogues. The latter show that the formation of volatile sulfur species upon irradiation of riboflavin in the presence of methionine in model wine solutions at pH 3 is not dependent on the existence of neighboring group stabilization of the sulfur-centered cation radical through a 5- or 6-membered cyclic intermediate. Instead, the formation of a dimer radical cation is proposed in agreement with the formation of oxidation products such as dimethyl disulfide at early reaction times and the observed steric effect upon product distribution. The limiting quantum yield for the release of sulfur atoms from a solution of methionine in model wine solutions at pH 3 containing riboflavin was found to be 0.26 (435 nm irradiation). No dependence of the quantum yield or product distribution on the irradiation wavelength was found over the range 365– 90 nm.
Wine fermentation is a representation of complex higher-order microbial interactions. Despite the beneficial properties that these communities bring to wine, their complexity poses challenges in predicting the nature and outcome of fermentation. Technological developments in synthetic biology enable the potential to engineer synthetic microbial communities for new purposes. Here we present the challenges and applications of engineered yeast communities in the context of a wine fermentation vessel, how this represents a model system to enable novel solutions for winemaking and introduce the concept of a ‘synthetic’ terroir. Furthermore, we introduce our vision for the application of control engineering. Technologies from synthetic biology can be applied to traditional practices in winemaking. Possibilities beyond natural microbial communities exist to improve predictive capabilities for the winemaker vintage to vintage, and introduce new characteristics to wine.
This chapter is divided into two parts: the aroma changes of wines due to storage (the normal aging) and the so-called untypical aging (UTA) note, an off-flavor that can appear rapidly after bottling. In the first case (concerning aging), there are a lot of compounds involved such as aldehydes, esters and terpenes; however, the untypical aging note is mainly due to the character impact compound o-aminoacetophenone. Nevertheless, additional compounds that are involved in untypical aging are also discussed. The chemical formation processes for the aroma compounds and the factors influencing the formation are described.
The main characteristic of sparkling wines is that they contain supersaturated CO2 gas (minimum 3 bars) and form bubbles and foam when they are poured into the flute. The bubbles arise from induced homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation, which gives rise to a liquid film that surrounds the CO2 gas. This film is formed by wine compounds and confers bubbles their individuality, keeping them stable for some time on the wine surface. The variety of the base wine used and the aging time the wine has been in contact with yeast give sparkling wines their characteristic color and aroma. To avoid browning, some technological practices require special care. Yeast autolysis also plays an important role in the development of the yeasty, sweet, and toasty aroma notes.
Sulfur is a natural component of grapes and is contained in fungicides applied in the vineyard. Sulfur dioxide is generated by yeasts during fermentation and is usually added during winemaking processes. Excessive levels of sulfur dioxide in wine can give the unpleasant odours of s struck match and may render the wine illegal. Undesirable volatile sulfur compounds are now amongst the most common wine faults, resulting in malodorous ‘reduced’ aromas. Hydrogen sulfide has the odour of bad eggs and drains, and some mercaptans can reek of skunk or burnt rubber. Often the ‘stinky’ sulfur compounds only appear after the wines have been bottled for some time (post‐bottling reduction) or when bottles are exposed to light (lightstrike). The addition of copper salts is often applied in an attempt to reduce the levels of hydrogen sulfide and other volatile sulfur compounds. However, problems may recur after prolonged bottle storage.
Background The light-dependent reactions involving riboflavin (RF) and methionine (Met) as substrates are responsible for the light-struck taste (LST). This fault is associated to cabbage-like odours due to the formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide impacting negatively on the sensory properties of white wine. The reaction can occur for a relatively short period of white wine bottled in clear glass under both natural and artificial lights. Scope and approach This review aimed to point out the aspects related to the mechanisms of light-dependent reactions and the oenological strategies applicable to counteract the appearance of this detrimental fault. Key findings and conclusions LST can be prevented through the proper choice of the fermenting yeast, the addition of certain adjuvants being able to remove RF, and additives with a protective effect, such as hydrolysable tannins. As the use of these oenological tools plays an important role in limiting the detrimental change, they represent the strategies applicable in productive approaches. In this context, the more recent findings are summarized also to update the knowledge about the complex reaction mechanisms allowing to overcome the formation of this fault and supporting the wine industry.
It has been confirmed that sunstruck flavour is due to the formation of 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol formed by photolysis of iso-α-acids in the presence of sulphur-containing amino acids.
Abstract—The mechanism of the photooxidation of ascorbic acid by flavin mononucleotide has been studied by steady state and flash photolysis techniques. The primary reaction consists of an electron abstraction from ascorbic acid by the flavin singlet and triplet states by a diffusional process and in the latter case also by the formation of a triplet flavin-ascorbic acid complex. Under anaerobic conditions, the secondary reactions consist primarily of a radical recombination and a ‘dark’chemical back reaction, leading to the reformation of unchanged flavin and ascorbic acid. In the presence of oxygen, the ‘back reactions’are prevented, resulting in the efficient photooxidation of ascorbic acid.
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