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... Consider the model "Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD)" [19]. The general method of FSSD development allows for the development of rational framework models (frameworks) for the formation of competencies of sustainable strategic development. ...
... In this case, the model from the top of the pyramid forms decisions based on «ratio», and at the holistic level, decisions are mainly formed based on «emotion». The driver of the model is intuition built on creativity [19]. At the same time, the authors [19] built a process model that connects personal competencies, intelligence and creativity. ...
... The driver of the model is intuition built on creativity [19]. At the same time, the authors [19] built a process model that connects personal competencies, intelligence and creativity. There are four groups of competencies in the model -social, analytical, intellectual and variable (Fig. 2). ...
Article
The role and place of inspiring intuition and creativity in the management of IT projects and development programs of organizations are considered. A conceptual model of the interaction of inspiring intuition and creativity in the processes of IT project management is presented. The influence of inspiring intuition and creativity on the life cycle of innovative projects for the development of knowledge and management technologies is determined. With the help of intuition, IT project managers can anticipate new products, management processes, business areas and development. Such promising actions usually cannot be planned purely rationally, but require an “intuitive feeling.” Vision and imagination open up opportunities for action beyond the paths. This is “inspiring intuition”. This inspiring dimension of intuition has a long-lasting, holistic and gradual effect. The key competencies and strategic priorities of the organization for the implementation of the strategy of sustainable development are considered. In the process of research, two models of sustainable development based on the use of innovative projects and programs were selected. The first model, the Strategic Sustainable Development Framework (FSSD), defines three levels of creative competencies - linear, literal, and holistic. Within the framework of this model, the qualitative influences of individual competencies on the formation of inspiring intuition are determined by example. The second model is related to the application of the system of knowledge and competencies for the management of IT projects and P2M programs. Within this model, priority competencies have been identified that shape the inspiring intuition of project managers. Within the framework of the evaluations, a matrix of qualitative influences on inspiring competence in the processes of implementation of innovative projects and programs was built.
... We used expert knowledge to build consensus around a complex topic to outline possible future strategic directions [5] in international sport organisations. The findings were aligned with the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), a theoretical grounding used to explore organisational strategic management from a holistic perspective [6]. The theoretical lens allows us to put high-and low-priority perceptions of managers into context and identify the potential need for action. ...
... The Brundtland definition provided an ethical view of sustainable development through simultaneous attention given to three pillars: the economic, social and environmental [12,13]. Described as a necessary step at a normative level, the definition has been criticised for not enabling the clear operationalisation element needed for guiding the implementation [6,14]. In response to that shortcoming, the United Nations (UN) issued a global plan that aims to guide actions until 2030 using the SDGs [15]. ...
... Even though the SDGs provide a point of reference for organisational engagement with sustainable development, organisations need to develop their ways of implementation. To date, the most prominent scholarly model outlining how to do this is the FSSD [6,30]. The FFSD has been developed as a guiding framework for strategic sustainable development and comprises four main features: (1) a funnel metaphor that aims to facilitate an understanding of sustainability; (2) a five-level model for differentiating and defining various levels of entities that have a role in sustainability; (3) a sustainability definition expressed via principles; and (4) a procedure aimed at guiding sustainability transitions [6]. ...
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The study aims to explore the consensus-level strategic priorities for sustainable development from the perspective of decision makers in organisations responsible for governing international sport and how they cluster within the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. We employed the three-round Delphi study with decision makers from international sport organisations. Based on the 29 semi-structured interviews in the first round, we inductively generated items for questionnaires for the subsequent two rounds. The process yielded 20 items representing strategic priorities determined by 20 experts in the last round. The highest ranked item was normative change, in which sustainability is prioritised throughout all organisational strategies and actions. Moreover, planned efforts that are part of a long-term strategy and embedding sustainability requirements at the bidding phase of sport events were considered with high priority. The 20 items clustered into four out of five levels of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, namely system, success, strategic guidelines and actions. No items could be assigned to the framework’s tool level, potentially indicating gaps of strategic consideration. The findings from the Delphi study add a forecasting element to the research and practice of strategic sustainability in the management of sport by revealing consensus-level strategic priorities for the future.
... It is thus appropriate to consider the imperfect overlap between SBMs and CBMs (See Figure 3), and include explicit conditions for sustainability in any integral CBM related framework that aspires to increase the sustainability of the system. This could be done, for example by integrating the eight principles of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) (Broman and Robèrt, 2017) or the eight criteria for SBMI by Breuer et al. (2018). Alternatively, in the works of Evans et al. (2017), de Pieroni et al. (2018) or Suárez-Eiroa et al. (2019), comparable and complementary principles to guide BMI towards sustainability can be found. ...
... First, offered a DT framework for CBMI, proposing to modify the user-centric DT focus to a systemic perspective, expanding the focal point from users and cross-organizational collaboration to systems and value chain collaboration, in line with Kagan et al. (2020) criticism to DT. Guldmann also proposes to add an introduction space in the DT process, to present CE principles and inspire action, similar to Bocken et al. (2013), in the context of their Value Mapping Tool for SBMI. Secondly, Shapira et al. (2017) offered the Integrated sustainable DT process, which considers 20 add-ins to a conventional DT process, guided by the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) (Broman and Robèrt, 2017). However, both studies are described as explorative, encouraging future refinements. ...
... Short backcasting exercise to create a future-oriented change toward a desired sustainable vision (Vergragt and Quist, 2011;Broman and Robèrt, 2017). ...
Thesis
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In recent years, the circular economy has gained traction as a promising contributor to sustainable development. However, the implementation of sustainable and circular business models remains relatively low. Although the related literature is rapidly evolving, there is still a lack of understanding of the complex process of circular business model innovation, a need for concrete guidelines for firms and calls for more empirical studies. This thesis explores three related questions: what is known about circular business model innovation? how does it happen? and how to facilitate it? To this end, first, a systematic literature review on the emergent field of circular business model innovation is combined with a multiple-case study on ten firms. A summary framework of present and future research is offered, framing and assessing current literature and identifying major research gaps. Secondly, building on the theory of dynamic capabilities, the multiple-case study data is abductively analyzed to identify 26 best practices for circular business model innovation. These are grouped in twelve microfoundations of dynamic capabilities, and highlighting practices such as the adoption of a lifecycle perspective and ecosystem collaboration. Thirdly, 21 innovation cases are analyzed to identify 10 drivers and 25 barriers that affect the different types of circular business innovations. And finally, following an action design research approach, a design thinking-based process framework for guiding the design and implementation of circular business models is developed, including twelve specific tools. This thesis provides an improved understanding of business model innovation for the circular economy, offering concrete guidance for practitioners and a set of context-adaptable tools to support firms in their sustainability transformations.
... The framework for sustainable development strategy (FSSD), as mentioned by Broman and Robè rt [8], advocated sustainability for 25 years, highlighting the importance for scientists and practitioners to reduce risks and move positively towards sustainability in societies. Among the reasons discussed were the low quality of ecosystems, increasing population growth, and biosphere hazards. ...
... Among the challenges that were explained in the previous section 2.3.5, some countries are facing random urbanization and increasing pressure on previously dilapidated cities that suffer from outdated infrastructure, lack of service resources, and environmental degradation [13,14,18]. Natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes are considered one of the most important challenges that require thoughtful crisis management, because of their threats to the environment and society as a whole [8,[19][20][21]. Developing countries often suffer from challenges within the environmental framework [17,22]. ...
... Moving from a practical and theoretical point of view to the economic aspect. Literary discussed many argument points such: the implementation of projects that achieve the sustainable building codes by enhancing the criteria of UR requires sufficient financial support [8,23,24]. Countries or cities often face a lack of financial support to meet the need for sustainable investment projects at all levels, residential, recreational, commercial and others [23,25]. The difference in the project budget in the case of pricing from the reality of implementation constitutes a challenge that prevents the completion of the project. ...
Article
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The eco-system approach is key to achieving a sustainable built environment. This approach Focuses on Making Cities Resilient with adapting (UR). Urban Resilience approach can play a role to achieve a sustainable built environment. The purpose of this article is examining barriers to implementing the UR concept towards sustainable development at the local level in Jordan. The focus group were studied; the Jordanian planners, architectural offices and stakeholders through a methodology based on semi-structured interviews and online questioner developed based on literature reviews data. The data analysis following a combined quantitative and qualitative approach. This research proposes that a viable sustainable ecosystem regulated with the resilience concept should be the framework adopted by environmentalists, decision-makers, and planners to facilitate and improve their sustainable future directions. From the results obtained were two types of challenges facing urban resilience, theoretically and practically with 12 challenge categories and 29 main barriers facing UR in Jordan were extracted. In addition to clarifying 7 principles that increase the effectiveness of UR.
... The idea of sustainability has been promoted for more than 30 years (Brundtland report) by the UN, although the idea itself has been criticized for its vagueness and lack of clarity. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN, 2015) has confirmed global commitment to the general sustainability concept, which has been upgraded with the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) (Broman and Robèrt, 2017) to create a unified structure for strategic sustainability actions. The main idea behind this is to develop a vision framed by principles for social and ecological sustainability, focusing mainly on a broad, systematic perspective of sustainability challenges. ...
... A closer look at the 23 (out of 27) municipalities implementing PB in 2021 and 2022 shows that there were 518 projects chosen for implementation. 4 The amount eligible for a single PB project varied from a few hundred (small projects such as seminar organization) to twenty thousand euros (usually PB projects related to infrastructure, e.g., new children's playground, putting, overlaying, or resurfacing a street with asphalt). There were even some PB projects valued at no cost such as putting up a new speed limit sign. ...
... They also risk causing unintended consequences by only focusing on one scale of the problem, which is to build segregation away. [27] systems thinking sustainability principles, telling us what we cannot do in a sustainable society. Learning from the systems thinking sustainability principles could be another key in developing knowledge on a decision-making level within the collaborations to move toward a truly sustainable business model. ...
... This implies that the results of change will not be evident for years to come and could lead to false or incorrect assumptions about what strategies and business models to follow to achieve sustainable urban development. Applying systems thinking [27] might be one key for the collaborations to move beyond the issue of slow feedback, toward truly resilient and sustainable business models. However, more research is needed on the topic of how developers can be innovative yet deliver affordable housing in a sector with slow feedback loops. ...
Article
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Moving toward social and ecological sustainable business models requires collaborations in housing development. However, collaborations today between public and private housing developers are often the subject of criticism in terms of their sustainability efforts. One way of moving forward for these collaborations is to consider resilience as a desired property for sustainable business models. Thus, guided by a resilience perspective, semi-structured interviews have been conducted and secondary data has been collected to depict the barriers and enablers for public-private collaborations to move toward resilience and truly sustainable business models. The results reveal that barriers are development costs, knowledge, stepwise processes, and different perspectives, meanwhile enablers are knowledge transfer, trust, clear roles and agendas, win-win, instruments/incentives, and sustainability leadership. To overcome the barriers and leverage the enablers identified, resilience attributes such as knowledge transfer, social capital, space for disturbance, diverse forms of governance, and knowledge about sustainability need to be understood and applied to achieve sustainable business models in public-private collaborations.
... When studying complex systems, science must draw precise and appropriate system boundaries. Debates about where to draw system boundaries are common in discussions about sustainability (Broman & Robèrt, 2017). Social systems lead to higher complexity and quality and contribute to the overall complexity of a system by further channelling and controlling energy flows. ...
... Generic FSSD for Planning and decision-making for complex systems. Adapted fromBroman and Robèrt (2017).J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f Throughout the research, we felt the lack of and need for a typology capable of categorising and organising the 'principles' according to their traits. This need led to our proposal of a new typology capable of methodically ordering the principles based on their synergies and affinities and classifying them according to their position on important social, technological, political, and ecological issues. ...
Article
The interconnectedness of value chains, the different motivations of actors, and the complexity of urban ecosystems (UE) have given rise to calls for more comprehensive approaches to diagnosis urban sustainability. In this regard, the circular bioeconomy (CBE) is attractive for, in theory, it ensures regenerative capacity and offers the possibility of improving the resilience of ecosystem services. However, there is a risk that the delineation of the narrative will be limited to issues narrowly defined by key actors, without considering value creation beyond financial. This paper explores how the alignment of CBE principles can support the services provided by UE, considering their socio-ecological needs. To this end, we propose an adaptive theoretical framework supported by a qualitative and comparative analysis of the current scientific literature. The main contributions of the paper are: (i) propose an original structure using the nature-based solutions (NbS) concept as background and (ii) provide a new typology built from the biophysical boundaries, drivers, barriers, strategies, and indicators identified. The framework presents itself as an instrument capable of guiding further research in the thematic area, facilitating the identification of trade-offs, benefits, and co-benefits, and represents a step forward in the search toward generalisation, reducing uncertainties and utopian notions that mould the CBE.
... Business activities cause many of the critical societal and environmental problems influencing climate change (Zollo et al., 2013). Corporations have historically, and currently, a large influence on society and the environment through their activities and processes (Broman & Robèrt, 2017). Zollo et al. (2013) argue that 'business', as an institution, holds many of the key resources required to tackle (most) sustainable challenges, i.e., technological innovation, political and relational influence, and organisational capabilities. ...
... While the impetus for managers to consider sustainability varies among contexts, and is connected to varying external and market pressures (Laukkanen & Patala, 2014), all firms affect and are affected by environmental and societal trends (Stead & Stead, 2013;Abdelkafi & Täuscher, 2016;). Firms are encouraged to approach more proactive and sustainable strategies for their own future prosperity and viability (Porter & Kramer, 2011;Lüdeke-Freund et al., 2016;Upward & Jones, 2016;Broman & Robèrt, 2017). ...
... In this respect, sustainability connects with CSR through the management of Operations and Sustainable Supply Chain Management (Sroufe & Dole, 2022;Wiengarten & Durach, 2022). A framework for strategic sustainability (Broman & Robert, 2017) enables us to consider what is and is not sustainable. The framework consists of five levels: Systems-level understanding, defining Success, Strategic guidelines, Actions, and the application of decision-making Tools. ...
... The framework consists of five levels: Systems-level understanding, defining Success, Strategic guidelines, Actions, and the application of decision-making Tools. Broman and Robert (2017) note that societal change leading to sustainability can be achieved if leaders deeply understand not only the nature, enormity, and urgency of sustainability, but also the advantages and opportunities that proactivity toward sustainability could bring. ...
Article
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In “The management for global sustainability opportunity: Integrating responsibility, sustainability, and spirituality”, Robert Sroufe of Duquesne University and Josep F. Mària, SJ, of ESADE, Ramon Llull University, explore how we can incorporate spirituality into business management practices and education while building on a foundation of responsibility and sustainability. They describe how integrating these three practices, Spirituality, Responsibility, and Sustainability, is necessary to respond to the three fundamental wounds our world is experiencing. The frst wound is between people and society; the second between people and nature; and the third is among people and the best version of themselves. They show how we can address these complex problems through collaboration and action. This conceptual research explores how responsibility, sustainability, and spirituality can be understood and interconnected to address, from a management perspective, the complex wounds the world is currently experiencing. In doing so, they utilize a Jesuit Faith-Justice process and spirituality to continue to evolve the feld of management.
... The concept of "sustainable development" is relatively complex, due to its breadth and lack of consensus among researchers on both the form and substance of what should or should not be considered sustainable. The roots of this more contemporary concept date back to the 1950s [30] with the awareness of socio-environmental problems, in relation to the increasingly abrupt changes caused in the environment, which are manifested in different ecosystems damaged by human intervention and even by nature itself or the combination of both [31][32][33][34][35]. Later, Carson [36] and Meadows et al. [37] emphasized the footprint of human intervention on the biosphere and its various impacts on people's quality of life and the accelerated deterioration of nature in general, pointing out the limits imposed by natural resources as finite in regards to socio-ecological intervention. ...
... In this regard, and in order to enrich the discussion based on interviews with 44 stakeholders from sectors directly or indirectly involved in the management, coexistence, and exploitation of the native forest in Cameroon, at least three distinct groups or clusters were identified with different commitments to the sustainability of forest territories. On the one hand, there are the forestry and related companies, together with their certifiers, which make up what we call cluster 1, which have an evidently more economic vision and whose organizational culture seeks to maximize profits and minimize losses, without considering aspects unrelated to this [79,161,162], on the other hand, a second cluster (cluster 2) was formed by local communities, NGOs, and mixed (public/private) partner institutions, which have a greater sensitivity and awareness of the dangers of forest overexploitation and the degradation of biodiversity and soils [14,32,67,[163][164][165]. Finally, a third group (cluster 3) is identified, although it is not as decisive due to its intermediate characteristics, made up of banks and the government itself, with views and positions that are both divergent and convergent in relation to the two preceding clusters [87,88]. ...
Article
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Located in Central Africa, Cameroon is a country with strong social inequalities and fragile governance and institutions. This has a direct impact on the sustainable development of its territory, communities, and native forest, which are subject to constant socio-environmental and economic pressures due to overexploitation. This research has three purposes: (1) to conduct a comparative theoretical/empirical diagnosis on the quality of Cameroon’s institutional framework, governance, and public policies related to territorial sustainability; (2) to assess the impact of the three clusters identified among the 44 stakeholders interviewed (forestry companies/certifiers; NGOs/communities; and banks/public institutions) on each other; and (3) to analyze the contribution of the use of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as an agro alternative to Cameroon’s socio-ecological resilience, sustainable development, and conservation of native forests. The research found: (1) the need for mixed governance with joint accountability to find equitable and lasting sustainable solutions for the parties involved, making communities/ethnic groups visible in the decision-making process; and (2) the agro use of cassava has a positive impact on socio-ecological resilience by contributing to employment, the protection of devastated soils, and the provision of quality food, and by reducing pollution from the cement industry through using cassava waste as an input.
... However, the lack of understanding of SD is still a problem that people need to face whether in academia, government agencies, or private enterprises [11][12][13]. Currently, most of the definitions and interpretations of SD do not come from the comprehensive concepts of SD. ...
Article
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Sustainable development (SD) has become a fundamental strategy to guide the world’s social and economic transformation. However, in the process of practice, there are still misinterpretations in regards to the theory of SD. Such misinterpretations are highlighted in the struggle between strong and weak sustainable development paths, and the confusion of the concept of intra-generational and inter-generational justice. In this paper, the literature survey method, induction method, and normative analysis were adopted to clarify the gradual evolution and improvement process of the concept and objective of SD, to strengthen the comprehensive understanding of the SD theory. Moreover, we also tried to bring in the situation and concepts of China. The results show that the theory of SD has gone through three periods: the embryonic period (before 1972), the molding period (1972–1987), and the developing period (1987–present). SD is gradually implemented into a global action from the initial fuzzy concept, including increasing practical wisdom. The goal of SD evolves from pursuing the single goal of sustainable use of natural resources to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper argues that the theory of strong sustainability should be the accepted concept of SD. Culture, good governance, and life support systems are important factors in promoting SD.
... Countries such as the Middle East and Australia face soil problems because of land changes, deforestation, and climatic conditions that have more detrimental effects in arid and semiarid conditions (Nosrati and Collins, 2019;Zeraatpisheh et al., 2020). Future strategies may focus on developing land for the agriculture sector within the populations of different communities without depleting natural resources (Broman and Robèrt, 2017). Sustainable agriculture is a fundamental part of making long-term plans for land development, as these strategies have low environmental hazards and better crop production (Busby et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Climate change poses a significant risk to food security. Recent floods in Pakistan could serve as an example. In the current climate change scenario, there is a dire need to develop methods that increase crop productivity and reduce the threat of food insecurity in areas with low crop production. A detailed field experiment was conducted to check the effects of intercropping and straw mulching under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) systems on soil health indicators and cotton productivity at the experimental area of Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology (KFUEIT), Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. The main plot treatments comprised CT and NT. The subplot treatments were sole cotton (C1), cotton + mung-bean intercropping (C2), cotton + mung-bean + straw mulching (C3) and cotton + straw mulching (C4) under CT, while sole cotton (N1), cotton + mung-bean intercropping (N2), cotton + mung-bean + straw mulching (N3) and cotton + straw mulching (N4) were the NT subplot treatments. Overall, NT increased plant height by 18.4 %, chlorophyll a and b contents by 28.2 and 21.1%, respectively, mean boll weight by 17.9%, and seed yield by 20.9% compared to CT (P < 0.05). The interaction of tillage and mulching increased plant height by 7.0% under CT and 21.8% under NT in comparison with no mulching. Similarly, straw mulching under NT increased chlorophyll a and b contents by 41.9 and 28.5%, respectively, mean boll weight by 26.9%, and cotton seed yield by 23.0% in comparison with no mulching under NT. Intercropping decreased crop yield without straw mulching but increased it under straw mulching. Further, straw mulching increased soil physicochemical properties under NT, which contributed to increasing crop productivity. We concluded that straw mulching under NT might be a promising practice for enhancing cotton yield, productivity, and soil health in low-productivity areas.
... Among current planning techniques, the participatory backcasting methodology presents a very useful approach to achieve this goal. This methodology, which has been developed since the 1970s, focuses on the elaboration of ideal future visions and allows the definition of the steps, decisions and measures needed to achieve them (Banister, Hickman, & Stead, 2007;Broman & Robèrt, 2017;Phdungsilp, 2011;Robinson, Burch, Talwar, O'Shea, & Walsh, 2011;Vergragt & Quist, 2011). Recent developments in this method allow participation to be incorporated into different stages of the process and involve different consultation groups. ...
Article
Despite the expected future introduction of autonomous vehicles in cities, very few studies have analysed the needs and challenges facing urban planning. This paper employs a combination of backcasting and Q-methodology to carry out participatory visioning for a future driverless city. This novel approach was used to elaborate shared visions of the desirable city among a group of 20 citizens and 10 practitioners. Views on 41 statements were analysed relating to urban design, society, environment, transport and mobility needs. Three main visions were identified. The first focuses on high-quality urban spaces and active mobility. The second vision is more futuristic and pro-social, consistent with the more imaginative and innovative stance of young people. The third vision is more conventional and closer to business-as-usual. The results suggest that there is some agreement on the future conditions and policies, especially on the need for environmentally friendly urban development and safe urban design. The article is premised on the belief that engaging stakeholders from different backgrounds, including citizens of various ages, can be enriching for urban planning since there is a wide variety of heterogeneous preferences across society. This requires a search for common ground when designing policy measures that satisfy multiple interests.
... Therefore, employees' engagement in environmental practices is vital and described in the organisational rules and policies (Boiral, 2009). Furthermore, environmental benefits are essential for social sustainability (Broman & Robèrt, 2017). This includes the positive outcome of social benefits from increasing human and social capital (Delai & Takahashi, 2013). ...
Article
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Malaysia is among 192 countries that adopted the 2030 agenda for sustainable development to move towards more sustainable, resilient and inclusive growth through strengthening the social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainable development. However, among the three pillars, social sustainability is often disregarded than economic and environmental. Social sustainability is an aspect of sustainability or sustainable development that encompasses human rights, labour rights, and corporate governance. It brings a better environmental and positive influence on the employees working in the industry. This study aims to investigate the relationship between diversity practices, environmental practices, product responsibility and, safety and health practices on social sustainability performance in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia. A total of 384 questionnaires were distributed amongst manufacturers with multinational corporation status based on the purposive sampling method. Eighty-two usable questionnaires had been received and analysed. The findings of this study revealed that only diversity practices and safety and health practices significantly influenced the social sustainability performance. Future research is suggested to verify the significance of these factors as well as other potential factors in different industries for better understanding and knowledge of the social sustainability issues in Malaysia.
... Sustainable business is designed to support sustainable development that accommodates economic aspects and takes responsibility for social and environmental aspects. A sustainable business must firmly formulate its strategic management plan, starting with establishing a vision, mission, goals, performance targets, performance measurement, and action plans-all of which should be based on sustainable values (Baumgartner & Rauter, 2017;Broman & Robert, 2017). Thus, it is crucial to integrate economic, social, and environmental values within the concept of strategic business management (Agrawala et al., 2016;Ahmed & Sundaram, 2012;Chang & Cheng, 2019;Choi et al., 2018;Elkington, 1998;Faulkner & Badurdeen, 2014;Journeault, 2016;Kalender & Vayvay, 2016;Slaper, 2011;Wilburn & Wilburn, 2014). ...
Article
Sustainability balanced scorecard (SBSC) is a management system that can translate strategy into the company's operations. However, based on previous research, a gap states that using SBSC gives birth to many performance indicators. Therefore, we need a framework that can formulate performance indicators to be more proportional to using company resources. For this reason, this research proposes a value framework adopted from six business process values. These six values are efficiency, quality, agility, integration, compliance, and networking. This study aims to prove that these six values can be used as SBSC values. So that will be obtained A Conceptual Framework for a Value‐Based Sustainability Balanced Scorecard. The methodology explored three state‐owned plantation enterprise in Indonesia and analyzed data using qualitative research coding. The result shows that there are 11 criteria for efficiency, 11 for quality, seven for agility, 12 for compliance, eight for integration, and nine for networking. These criteria have a 100% validation level where the value criteria are found in each company. The performance indicator criteria have been assessed based on the level of relevance test from managers who say that it is almost 100% important and very important. The criteria that have been grouped against these values have proven that the six values can be used to direct managers in formulating company performance indicators so that the established performance indicators are expected to allocate resources proportionally.
... Thompson [23] proposed the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), which is a five-layer system, namely system layer, success layer, strategy guidelines layer, action layer, and tool layer. Broman and Robèrt [24] claimed that the FSSD can help us reduce the negative impacts on ecological and social systems while capturing innovation opportunities, including new business models and exploration of new markets. Our previous study [25] applied the FSSD into a developing community's idle resource-sharing services, and designed an APP for residents to share idle resources in the community. ...
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Promoting the sharing of idle resources to community residents is a potential means to building a low-carbon community. This study examined three communities with different attributes (college/university, middle and high income, and the elderly). An extended hypothesis model was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior. The influencing factors of community residents facing idle resource-sharing services were explored. Based on the equal sampling method, 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed in each community to verify the validity of the hypothesis model. The results show that residents’ attitudes, subjective behavioral norms, perceived behavioral control, service expectations, and environmental motivations positively influence residents’ behavioral intention to share their idle resources. The residents’ service expectations for idle resource-sharing are the most critical. Moreover, in terms of community attributes, its attitudes, subjective behavioral norms, and perceived behavioral control significantly influence residents’ behavioral intention to share idle resources. Specifically, the attitudes in the middle- and high-income community have opposite effects on residents from the attitudes in the college/university community and the elderly community. The hypothesis model proposed in this study provides a reference for building a low-carbon community from the perspective of residents’ restriction of resource-sharing.
... Does that stress the environment beyond what it can sustain? There is no way to assess a tiger's prospects without considering the external environment in which it is embedded, and arguably the same can be said for any system of production (Broman & Robert, 2017). ...
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Building on ecological economics and the firm growth literature, I propose a model of real growth through entrepreneurial resourcefulness to determine whether an isolated firm can grow if it can capture only the value it creates. I then use Andy Weir’s bestseller The Martian to illustrate my arguments. The model contributes to the entrepreneurial resourcefulness literature by explaining how and under which conditions resourceful behavior can lead to real firm growth, positing that entrepreneurs can create ecosystems that enhance the marginal productivity of resources by leveraging the productive capacity and entropy-mitigating properties of human capital and natural capital. The model also contributes to the sustainable and innovative entrepreneurship literatures by recognizing limitations on the substitutability of resources, noting that even highly efficient allocation of resources cannot immunize actors from scarcity if production consumes critical capital or exceeds the rate of resource renewal. Finally, the model contributes to the entrepreneurial action literature by shedding light on our understanding of profit opportunities, noting that entrepreneurs are neither exclusively “world makers” nor “world takers”, but akin to chefs using new production recipes to maximize the ingredients available. Such experimentation emphasizes that entrepreneurship is a process of resource transformation, not just customer discovery.
... Thus, the current study indicates that knowledge, social standards and management factors strongly influence the implementation of sustainability. As noted in previous studies [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60], these serve as barriers. Regarding barriers, management factors strongly impacted sustainable implementation with an impact factor of 0.328. ...
Article
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Sustainable construction practices should be integrated at every stage of the development process for optimum benefit, without compromising the structure's intended use. Incorporating green building principles into home construction projects requires substantial investments, which may represent a barrier to overcome. When trying to fix a problem in a developing country such as Ghana (where resources are limited), it is important to first focus on eliminating the impediments. Thus, this article will attempt to identify and assess sustainability implementation barriers of residential building projects in Ghana. Consequently, the barriers to sustainability implementation were identified in previous studies. After that, a questionnaire survey was conducted among construction firms in Ghana. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results showed that the barriers to implementing sustainability could be categorized under four main groups (management, standards, society and knowledge). Additionally, partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to assess the linkages between each categorization barrier and sustainability implementation. The results from PLS-SEM showed that management-related barriers are the most significant barriers affecting substantiality implementation. The findings of this study will serve as a roadmap for policymakers in Ghana's construction sector as they work to implement sustainability parameters to save costs and improve the environmental ecosystem and social cohesion in residential buildings.
... We believe that with this work, we help to develop the analysis and importance that is given to the strategy associated with the nation in search of sustainable development and the need to consider the impact that its stakeholders have on the state of the nation. Broman and Robert (2017) argued that more systematic and unified research on the topic was needed. Accordingly, we consider our work to be a major contribution in this regard. ...
... In order to achieve the goals, the cooperation of all actors is necessary. Transitioning to a sustainable society is obviously a complex endeavor, requiring, e.g., extensive, coordinated collaboration across disciplines and sectors (Broman, Robert, 2017). ...
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Since economic policy has changed its direction and course of action, from the functioning of market mechanisms and rules to the introduction of regulatory policy, discretion and the state as the main carrier of economic policy, various economic and development schools have been developed and changed. The turning point in the functioning of economic policy as well as the replacement of economic schools was mainly related to the appearance of various economic crises that have affected economic development. Thus, the appearance of the recent economic crisis again revived the important role of the state and regulatory policy in the implementation of economic policy. The basis of economic policy is becoming a fiscal policy and its instruments that affect economic development. Special attention is dedicated to changes in fiscal indicators, public debt and budget deficit. No less important are monetary indicators that are also taken into account, with regard to price stability and exchange rate fluctuations. Also, relations with foreign countries, i.e. payments and trade balances must be taken into account when discussing about economic policy. On the other side, a responsible economic policy needs to achieve certain goals and economic development. For indicators of economic development were used indicators of economic growth, changes in GDP and GDP per capita, unemployment rate and the Human Development Index as a wider measure of sustainable development. Using the multivariate linear regression, the effect of economic policy on the indicators of economic development is determined. In this way, the relationship between the indicators of economic policy and economic development in the Republic of Serbia in the period 2008-2016 is examined, with special emphasis on the economic crisis and the economic policy after it. The paper also presents the importance of conducting a responsible economic policy in order to bring the observed indicators to acceptable reference values. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the effect of economic policy on overcoming the negative impact of the global economic crisis in Serbia and creating economic development, where key elements of fiscal and monetary policy measures taken as well as foreign operations and their direct linkage and activity to indicators of economic development. Unlike the indicators in which a positive change is observed from year to year in the observed period, such as a fall in inflation and an increase in the trade and balance of payments, public debt has recorded growth, which rightfully this period is also characterized as a crisis of public debt. Bearing in mind that unemployment and inflation in the observed period were not related and that inflation recorded a positive trend, it was necessary to reduce unemployment to the natural one, but also to achieve appropriate GDP growth rates so that unemployment would not increase. In addition to all indicators that do not lag behind much on benchmarks or show improvement from year to year, the effects of economic policy are omitted on economic activity and employment, which is why the choice between rules and discretion is the current one.
... Does that stress the environment beyond what it can sustain? There is no way to assess a tiger's prospects without considering the external environment in which it is embedded, and arguably the same can be said for any system of production (Broman & Robert, 2017). ...
... Although this definition gives a broad idea of sustainability in general, it is quite vague and does not provide a specific definition of social sustainability [12]. To tackle the vagueness, several scientists have developed a new framework with three ecological sustainability principles and one social sustainability principle: the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) [12,13]. The definition of social sustainability in this framework is as follows [12] (p. ...
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A relatively large number of studies has shown that consumers are willing to pay more for products that are certified as being environmentally or socially responsible, but most of these studies focus on the willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental benefits, while insights into the WTP for social benefits are limited. More research in this area will shed light on consumer choices and help policymakers to better direct the food industry toward social sustainability. In this paper, we carry out a Discrete Choice Experiment among Dutch consumers to measure consumer WTP for five social sustainability benefits; (1) no child labor; (2) liveable wage and safe working environment; (3) project for the education of workers; (4) equal wages for men and women; and (5) freedom to join a trade union. The novelty of our research in comparison with previous studies is that we aim to differentiate the WTP for various social standards instead of estimating an overall WTP for fair-trade labels. In addition to average price premiums per social standard, our latent class models also give insight into heterogeneity in WTP, or more specifically, stated price premiums by different groups (or market segments) in society. The results suggest that substantial price premiums for social sustainability benefits may exist, which currently are not reflected in food prices. Including price premiums for market products that fully incorporate societal costs of those products, so-called true prices or shadow prices, will decrease consumer demand for less-sustainable products and will lead to a fairer and more sustainable economic system. Our results also show that the price premiums may vary substantially between the various categories of social sustainability benefits and across products and market segments. Further research on assessing the motivations behind consumer choices for more-sustainable products is crucial here, especially for campaigns aimed at enhancing their market shares.
... However, the sensitivity of the coastal zone makes its ecological environment vulnerable to human activities, excessive consumption of natural resources, and environmental damage, exacerbating the contradiction between development and sustainable development (Cui et al., 2021). In recent years, various countries and global international organizations have paid more attention to the ecologically sustainable development of coastal zones (Duxbury and Dickinson, 2007;Göran and Karl-Henrik, 2017;Pradhan et al., 2017), with more emphasis on ecological development in coastal-zone planning (Zhang et al., 2021b). The optimization of the landscape ecological pattern of the coastal-developed zone also deserves attention . ...
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The increasingly intensified development of coastal cities causes excessive consumption of natural resources, leading to environmental damage and increasing conflict between development and ecological protection. In addition to emphasizing ecological development, planners should pay more attention to the practical optimization and regulation of the developed landscape pattern. Taking Dafeng as an example, this study constructs a landscape-pattern optimization method suitable for the spatial distribution heterogeneity of ecological risk-level units in the coastal zone. The study is based on (a) an analysis of the composition and evolution characteristics of Dafeng’s coastal landscape elements, (b) the landscape pattern index of the ecosystem’s overall risk assessment, and (c) the minimal cumulative resistance (MCR) model. The study uses an ecosystem service value to build a resistance model by analyzing the medium and high-risk composition and distribution characteristics of space unit elements. Finally, 23 ecological sources, 14 ecological nodes, and 17 ecological corridors (total length 169.63 km) were built. The optimized coastal zone landscape pattern jointly protects the landscape area of high ecological value by 462.02 km2. The total ecological value is 105,01.71 million yuan. Landscape connectivity has been optimized, as well as the ecosystem’s stability and total service value. The optimization method proposed in this paper can reduce the protection area and cost. The spatial optimization unit is highly targeted, providing new ideas for the coastal cities to implement their ecological development and protection strategies.
... The continuing deterioration of ecological and social systems and attempts to reverse the trend to achieve sustainable development is redefining the overall conditions for business in the 21st century [25]. Successful businesses have realized this by designing and building functional business models in this context [23,56]. ...
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Green retrofitting of existing buildings (GREB) represents one of the best opportunities to reduce global energy consumption and carbon emissions, as well as improve people’s health, well-being, and quality of life. It has thus received significant attention from researchers and practitioners over the years, with the proliferation of research works and publications. However, no study has attempted to comprehensively investigate the cumulative theoretical and practical value of this body of knowledge. This study aims to analyze the existing global research on GREB through the lens of a scientometric review technique and to provide pathways for future research. The scientometric mapping technique was utilized to systematically and quantitatively analyze 5,288 related bibliographic records retrieved from Scopus. Results showed that “energy efficiency” retrofitting has become the utmost research priority, while “occupant behaviour” and “indoor environmental quality” (comfort, satisfaction, air quality, etc.) are declining in importance in the current framework of GREB. Moreover, other concepts such as intelligent buildings, circular economy, and nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) are infusing into GREB. Based on the status-quo of practice, a holistic GREB framework involving two potential pathways – technology/approach-centred and human/physical-centred pathways – was proposed. The findings of this study not only contribute to the knowledge domain, but also act as a catalyst to spur the practice by revealing the research needs in this field.
... Society is facing a number of grand sustainability challenges. From climate change to depleting natural resources to social inequity, there is wide front of immediate and interlocking threats to lives and livelihoods (Sachs et al., 2019;Broman & Robèrt, 2017;UN, 2016). The urgent need for collective action in response to these challenges is reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). ...
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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for rapid transformation towards a more sustainable society, particularly for cities and urban areas. There is a wide spectrum of research which could inform the initiation and management of this urban transformation, but these contributions are found in disparate disciplines and academic fields. This study aims to synthesise the different elements of the ‘Urban Transformation’ (UT) literature into a format which can inform the implementation of the SDGs. Using a systematic qualitative review methodology, the study identified 5150 potentially relevant papers. An extensive screening process was conducted to form a review corpus of 323 studies, upon which an interpretative, iterative content analysis was applied. The analysis resulted in 15 ‘factors of urban transformation’ identified across the literature. These factors are a mix of mechanisms and enablers which are all identified in the literature as critical for urban transformation to occur or continue. By providing a link between the rich urban transformation literature and SDG implementation, the results of this review could be used to explore the transformative potential of current approaches to SDG implementation, or as an initial tool to design new and more transformative pathways to achieve the SDGs in cities.
... The study of (Garza, 2013;Batista & Francisco, 2018;Ivory & MacKay, 2020) also indicated that achieving the organizational strategic sustainability requires organizations to make more efforts and launch targeted initiatives towards the environment in which they operate (Amui et al., 2018;Sroufe, 2017). Moreover, the study of (Lopes, 2017;Inigo & Albareda, 2019) confirmed that sustainability has a prominent role in developing organizations and granted them a firm position in societies at all levels and fields (Broman & Robèrt, 2017;Dzhengiz, 2020). ...
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This study aimed to identify the impact of digital transformation of human resources on achieving the organizational strategic sustainability through the conscious leadership as a mediating variable. This study adopted the descriptive analytical method to achieve its objective. The necessary data were collected by using a list that included several paragraphs related to the study’s variables. The annual reports of the study’s sample of three Jordanian Islamic banks were reviewed. The data of the study covered for the period 2017-2020. Results of the study showed a presence of a statistical significant impact of the digital transformation of human resources on achieving the organizational strategic sustainability in the Jordanian Islamic banks. It also indicated a statistical significant impact of the digital transformation of the human resources on the organizational strategic sustainability through mediating the conscious leadership in the Jordanian Islamic banks. The study recommends paying more attention to the digital transformation of human resources in the Islamic banks and enhancing the values of the conscious leadership and including them within the strategic plans of the banks.
... Khalili-Damghani and Tavana (2014) presented a comprehensive framework for selecting a strategic and sustainable project portfolio (Khalili-Damghani & Tavana, 2014), and Ansari et al. proposed a framework to align project management with organizational strategies (Ansari et al. 2015). Some studies like (Broman & Robèrt, 2015) and (Sanchez, 2015) state that using sustainability in project selection processes can increase the competitiveness and value of brands as well. In 2018, an integrated optimization approach is proposed in which it creates a win-win situation that prevents environmental damage and maximizes the income of investors with the proper allocation of resources (Kudratova, et al., 2018). ...
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The most critical and complex task in project-oriented organizations is selecting a project portfolio with maximum efficiency. Accordingly, conducting a comprehensive analysis of the main parameters affecting this issue using appropriate tools and techniques to optimally select projects in uncertain situations is of great significance. Moreover, these approaches should be aligned with sustainability concepts as a necessity in modern society and include interactions among society, including social interactions, development, and the environment to meet today's needs. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide a comprehensive two-objective sustainable model. This model collected the maximum efficiency of the selected portfolio by making changes in the data envelopment analysis in terms of network interdependency between projects and the potential impact of projects on each other. The direct and indirect connections concluded by interdependency between projects were also determined by a Bayesian network modeling to analyze the criticality and possible impact of a project's failure on each other and on the entire portfolio. Moreover, the proposed comprehensive model provided that the maximum use of organizational resources whit the minimums of organizational goals. The proposed model was first examined on the datasets of 37 previous papers, and its applicability was analyzed. Finally, a real case with 21 projects was employed for implementation. The results showed that the portfolio selected in the case study results was always better than the selected portfolio using the traditional two-stage integrated model method. Therefore, selecting a project portfolio using this model demonstrated maximum profit and minimum risk for project-oriented organizations.
... Logistics. Minimizing waste can achieve sustainable development [8]. Waste management is generally aimed at reducing residues in industrial production, and there are two ways to reduce waste generation. ...
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With the depletion of global resources and the deterioration of the ecological environment, the implementation of green reverse logistics management has become a necessary means. Green reverse logistics is a new type of reverse logistics that aims to improve resource utilization and protect the ecological environment. While promoting sustainable development, “green reverse logistics” also has certain social and economic significance. This paper compared the green reverse logistics system based on blockchain with the current green reverse logistics system. Taking drug recycling as an example, this paper mainly analyzed the waste rate, utilization rate, and enterprise income. The comparison results showed that the efficiency of drug recycling based on blockchain has increased by 20.1% compared with the current stage, and the waste rate has decreased by 16%. The utilization rate has increased by 14%, and corporate income has also increased by 19.5%. It is greatly indicated that green reverse logistics based on blockchain is of great significance to enterprise income and environmental protection, which also produces great social benefits.
... Nature, as the base for knowledge, is central, and the relationships and interdependencies of elements such as species and local demography with resources of all kinds define the foundations of eco-literacy and sustainability. What hinders these relations from existing in a resilient, regenerative state is defined as sustainability principles [9] [10]. Error! ...
... SSD defines organizational strategies that assist in overcoming global sustainability challenges and strategically assisting management in reducing their negative influence on social and ecological systems through green innovation, new business models, and increased sustainable investment (Carreño et al., 2011;Broman and Robèrt, 2017). SSD is complementary and can be used in parallel with sustainability; it also serves as the foundation for business administration (Kurucz et al., 2017;MacDonald, 2005). ...
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Sustainable development is an essential purpose behind formulation of government policies because of its contribution to socio-economic and environmental well-being. The research conducted over the last few decades have emphasized that green and sustainable enterprises support this. As a result, it is imperative to ascertain the link between green and sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainable development. Thus, this study aims to examine how green entrepreneurship relates to the sustainable development and growth of a sustainable enterprise. It further studies the relationship between independent variables (economic (ECD), social (SD), strategic sustainability (SSD), and environment development (ED) with dependent variables (green (GE), sustainable entrepreneurship (SE), and sustainable development (SDG). Cause and effect relationship used to develop a conceptual model, and random-effect meta-analytic structural equation modeling (meta-SEM) used to evaluate latent relationships between this relationship. The work also analyses how ventures properties (venture age, venture size, and venture types) have moderating effects on this relationship. Secondary data used and data obtained from prior research publications. This study contains a comprehensive analysis of the sustainability literature, including one additional dimension with the current three dimensions of sustainability in a unified framework, and expanding its relationship with green and sustainable business. The study also provides significant theoretical contributions and implications for entrepreneurship and sustainability literature.
... Thirty years of applying and refining the FSSD within many and varying organizations, sectors and countries, including municipalities and regions (for references see Broman and Robèrt, 2017), have distinguished a number of municipalities to be relatively more systematic in aligning theory with practice. Based on these experiences, a preliminary and ideal model for long-term cross-sectoral implementation of the FSSD was designed . ...
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In a previous study we tested a model for implementation of methodological support for cross-sectoral collaboration for strategic transition toward sustainability. To make the model viable long-term, practitioners emphasized the importance to recruit and engage leaders into the process upfront, however, this was also the key missing element according to the ten municipalities and regions in the action research project. Nevertheless, if addressed sufficiently, active leadership could favor other needed support, such as capacity building and merging with ongoing work. Therefore, this study aimed to design, test and evaluate an approach to better involve leaders into strategic decision-making for sustainability early on in the collaboration processes. The approach evolved as an in-depth study in one of the municipalities. A pre-assessment based on semi-structured interviews and desktop review was compiled and presented back to municipal top management during a session that included a focus group discussion to capture the leaders' feedback on the assessment as well as advice on how to make the implementation model viable long-term. Results gave that the leaders reached a good understanding of the implementation model and how current practice in the municipality related or could be related to it. As an indicator of spurred engagement and hence, a successful result, one outcome from the session was a strategic decision to carry out a thorough sustainability analysis according to the methodology that the model is supposed to implement. This work is ongoing. In addition, support for alignment with existing management systems was asked for. An evaluation of the approach itself was positive, however, pointed at the extensive work needed for the assessment. Alternative ways, such as self-assessment or peer-assessment was discussed. Forthcoming research will test and further refine the applied approach of this study to enhance strategic decision-making for sustainability while also considering the role of academia in municipal practices for sustainability.
... We adapted the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) around the food system and leverage points to guide the study research questions and consensus building process [30,31]. The FSSD comprises the following five dimensions of strategic sustainable development: 1) system (i.e., the food environment and consumer perspective of the food system); 2) success (i.e., definition of healthy and sustainable diets); 3) strategic guidelines (i.e., guidelines for prioritising actions toward success); 4) actions (i.e., concrete actions); and 5) tools (i.e., concepts, methods, and other forms of support for the decision-making and forging with the preceding levels such as monitoring and divulgence of the actions). ...
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Background Healthy and sustainable diets need to be adopted to reduce the negative impact of food consumption on human and planetary health. Food systems account for a third of greenhouse gas emissions. “Dietary Patterns for Health and Sustainability” is a World Health Organization (WHO) project that aims to build consensus among international food, health, and sustainability experts and policymakers on how to conceptualise healthy and sustainable diets and on the actions and policies that could be implemented in the WHO European Region to promote these diets. Methods A qualitative study among European food, health, and sustainability experts and policymakers to elicit their views on multiple dimensions of food sustainability and health was carried out using a three-phase process, including semi-structured interviews, a Nominal Group Technique, and focus groups during a participatory WHO workshop held in Copenhagen. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the three data sources. Results The workshop resulted in a shared understanding of the interconnected components of sustainable healthy eating habits. As a result of this understanding, a variety of potential solutions were identified, including actions across different policy domains, tools, strategic guidelines, needs, and pathways for sustainable healthy diets. The pathways included the need for a multi-stakeholder approach, as well as the simultaneous execution of an aligned and coherent mix of policies at the local and national levels. Conclusions The prioritised actions should be aimed at helping government policymakers promote sustainable healthy diets and make decisions on improving dietary patterns for citizens’ health and wellbeing in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in the European Region.
... On the other hand, the tool developed by Broman and Robèrt (2017) and entitled ...
... And it is because of their lack of a real and objective understanding of the problem, so they will underestimate the true magnitude of the challenges and dealt with later or even accepted as a 'cost' that is overweighed by the 'benefit' gained from the ongoing practices. If it is not realized that the observed problems are in fact symptoms of an inherently unsustainable basic design and mode of operation of society, and are thus indicators of a systematically decreasing potential for the wellbeing of humanity, the challenge is underestimated and possibilities for 'root solutions' are missed [102]. ...
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Electric vehicle sharing (EVS) and bike sharing have been recognized as promising solutions to growingly serious problems of traffic congestion, air pollution, and insufficient parking spaces. This paper, based on the current research status, analyzes and evaluates the effect of shared transportation on alleviating or solving the traffic and environmental issues of mega-cities from five perspectives-resource, environment, convenience, economy and governance. Then, taking Beijing as a case, one of the representative giant cities, this paper investigates and analyzes the development situation, feasibility, and adaptation of shared transportation. Compared with 2015, the share of cars decreased by more than 3.2%, and the trip frequency decreased by more than 55% for private car owners in 2016. Shared transportation reduced energy consumption, nitrogen emissions and PM 2.5 by 45 million liters of gasoline, 540,000 tons and 4.5 billion mg just in one year in Beijing in 2016. The results indicate that shared transportation has an important role and potential in alleviating traffic and environmental issues of mega-cities. A series of development suggestions and some practical considerations are provided at the end, which might supply good decision-making guidance for policy makers.
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El uso de tecnologías altamente contaminantes por los países industrializados y la ineficiencia en el uso de los recursos brindados por la naturaleza, ha traído como consecuencia su agotamiento, que se refleja en la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero causantes del calentamiento global, la deforestación de los bosques, la sobreexplotación de suelos, la contaminación del agua, la acelerada extinción de los combustibles fósiles, imponiendo mayores retos para la formulación e implementación de las estrategias empresariales. Cuba que no queda ajena a estos problemas ambientales, se posiciona en la urgencia de la transformación de su matriz energética, para disminuir el consumo de combustibles importados para la generación y aumentar la eficiencia en su utilización. La presente investigación propone un procedimiento para la definición de indicadores de sostenibilidad ambiental en la cadena de valor de paneles fotovoltaicos. En el cual se sistematiza el marco teórico - conceptual relacionado con la cadena de valor en las organizaciones y sus particularidades en la sostenibilidad ambiental, después se procede a diagnosticar la situación existente en la empresa de Componentes Electrónicos, respecto a la sostenibilidad ambiental de la cadena de valor en la fabricación de paneles fotovoltaicos, para finalmente diseñar el procedimiento en la empresa.
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Environmental Development Volume 45, March 2023, 100795 Sensitivity analysis of trends in environmental education in schools and its implications in the built environment Author links open overlay panelCarmenDíaz-LópezabÁngelaBarrios-Padurabe https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2022.100795 Get rights and content Highlights • An integrated and structured analysis of trends in environmental education in schools. • Highlight insights and fix guidelines from environmental experiences at schools. • Provide an assessment methodology based on environmental education indicators. • An action protocol for environmental education under circular economy patterns. • Novel approach on existing schools considering the sustainable development goals. Abstract Environmental education research is diverse, complex and multidisciplinary, with interrelated approaches and contexts. This paper aims to analyse the existing previous initiatives, their organisation in different areas, and the current action strategies for improving management and implementing sustainable criteria and circular economy guidelines. The analysis methodology follows sequential phases: (i) analysis of the bibliographic records of the research field; (ii) performance analysis and mapping of scientific production; and (iii) comparison between the different policy frameworks on Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development. This paper analyses the research trends in this field for the period 1968 to 2021. Morever, documents from 21 countries are analysed under various socio-economic contexts to obtain a comprehensive discussion to be replicated through proposals for action in environmental education in the coming years. The analysis shows that Environmental Education started to be included in educational programmes in the early years, taking as a reference green building practices. Over the years, it has evolved through education in consumption habits, promoting the local economy, the reduction of the environmental footprint, and the need to develop inclusive frameworks that address the use of technologies.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address the need to rethink the traditional approach to education in the university engineering curriculum. The paper examines two engineering projects led by university students in Sweden: the design and construction of a solar-powered car taking part in the Bridgestone World Solar Challenge and the creation of a business model for the ownership phase of an electric car together with Polestar. Design/methodology/approach An extensive literature review was conducted. Students were interviewed and surveyed on their impressions of their learning experience in the two projects and student logbooks reviewed. Problem-based learning (PBL), the Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating approach and the ABCD procedure are used. Results are compared to theories from the literature. Findings PBL in real-world settings can increase engineering students’ technical knowledge and improve their technical skills as they solve complex problems or propose solutions to such problems. Such projects also strengthen students’ commitment, self-confidence and self-esteem as well as promote co-operation and creativity. These are soft skills largely absent from traditional engineering education. Practical implications Innovative, student-led learning in the applied engineering curriculum can foster students’ soft skills in ways that teacher-led, lecture-style learning does not. Originality/value This research offers a timely perspective on an issue of current interest in engineering education: student-led learning versus teacher-led learning. The paper also provides two illustrative student-led projects that focus on sustainability and mobility.
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The vast and growing array of concepts, methods and tools in the sustainability field imply a need for a structuring and coordinating framework, including a unifying and operational definition of sustainability. One attempt at such framework began over 25 years ago and is now widely known as the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. However, as with the larger sustainability field, the social dimension of this framework has been found to not be sufficiently science-based and operational and thus in need of further development. In this two-part series an attempt at a science-based, operational definition of social sustainability is presented. In part 1 a systems-based approach to the social system was presented, based on extensive literature studies as well as conceptual modelling sessions using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development as the guiding structure. The focus of that study was on the essential aspects of the social system that need to be sustained, namely trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. The aim of this second paper is to identify and present overriding mechanisms by which these aspects of the social system can be degraded, thereby finding exclusion criteria for re-design for sustainability. Further literature studies, conceptual modelling sessions and initial testing of this prototype with partners in academia, business and NGOs were performed. Based on the understanding of the essential aspects of the social system and the identified overriding mechanisms of degradation of these, a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability by basic principles is presented. The proposed principles are that in a socially sustainable society, people are not subject to structural obstacles to: (1) health, (2) influence, (3) competence, (4) impartiality and (5) meaning-making. Overall, the two papers aim to provide a hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability, which is general enough to be applied irrespective of spatial and temporal constraints, but concrete enough to guide decision-making and monitoring. It is also a further development of the social dimension of the FSSD, which practitioners and researchers have requested for some time and can act as a support towards better integration of social sustainability in many other fields, e.g., sustainable product innovation, sustainable supply chain management, sustainable transport system development, and others.
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The vast and growing array of concepts, methods and tools in the sustainability field imply a need for a structuring and coordinating framework, including a unifying and operational definition of sustainability. One attempt at such framework began over 25 years ago and is now widely known as the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. However, as with the larger sustainability field, the social dimension of this framework has been found to not be sufficiently science-based and operational and thus in need of further development. In this two-part series an attempt at a science-based, operational definition of social sustainability is presented. In this paper (part one), a systems-based approach to the social system is presented, as a basis for presenting a zero-hypothesis of principles for social sustainability in part two. Extensive literature studies as well as conceptual modelling sessions were performed and the social system was examined from various angles - complex adaptive system studies, human needs theory and other social sciences, and insights from these fields were woven together. The whole work was structured and guided by the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development. The focus of the study was on the essential aspects of the social system that need to be sustained (that cannot be systematically degraded) for it to be possible for people to meet their needs. These essential aspects were found to be trust, common meaning, diversity, capacity for learning and capacity for self-organization. Trust seems to be generally acknowledged to be the overriding aspect of a vital social system. A sense of common meaning is also stated by several authors as an important part of social capital and something that helps to keep a group or society together. Diversity is acknowledged as essential for resilience; in the human social system this can be interpreted as, e.g., diversity of personalities, ages, gender, skills. Capacity for learning and self-organization are also motivated from a resilience point of view by several authors. These results form a basis for the hypothesis for a definition of social sustainability presented in paper 2, which in turn is a step towards creating an enhanced support for strategic planning and innovation for sustainability.
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The key role of engineers for the transformation of society towards sustainability is a strong motivation for increasing the environmental knowledge within engineering education. Doing this by the concept of integration is presently considered more appropriate than to develop more new education programmes for environmental specialists. This paper describes the integration of environmental aspects into a mechanical engineering education programme. The Natural Step Framework has been used as a basis for this integration. It has been possible to include environmental knowledge without compromising the engineering quality of the programme.
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The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundary framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries. Two core boundaries—climate change and biosphere integrity—have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth system into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.
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Many specific methods and tools have been developed to deal with sustainability problems. However, without a unifying theory it is unclear how these relate to each other and how they can be used strategically. A Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) is being developed to cover this need for clarity and structure. The aim of the papers of this review is to study how this framework can guide the use and improvement of detailed methods and tools, in particular to support Sustainable Product Innovation (SPI). First, a new strategic life-cycle management approach is presented, in which the selection of aspects to be considered are not based on typical downstream impact categories, but on identified major violations of sustainability principles. Then it is shown, in theory and practice, how this approach can inform other methods and tools like systems modelling and simulation, as a basis for an integrated 'toolbox' for SPI.
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The aim of this paper is to advance research on sustainable innovation by adopting a business model perspective. Through a confrontation of the literature on both topics we find that research on sustainable innovation has tended to neglect the way in which firms need to combine a value proposition, the organization of the upstream and downstream value chain, and a financial model, in order to bring sustainability innovations to the market. Therefore, we review the current literature on business models in the contexts of technological, organizational, and social sustainability innovations. As the current literature does not offer a general conceptual definition of sustainable business models, we propose examples of normative 'boundary conditions' that business models should meet in order to support sustainable innovations. Finally, we sketch the outline of a research agenda by formulating a number of guiding questions.
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The natural-step framework is used by over 100 organizations, including many global corporations in Europe and the United States, to provide strategic direction for their sustainability initiatives. The framework is built on the concept of simplicity without reduction. Out of respect for complexity, we designed it to provide a compass, a guide for strategic direction. The framework consists of a backcasting planning process for sustainable development based on four principles (system conditions) for sustainability. The framework does not prescribe detailed actions. Once an organization understands the framework, it identifies and specifies the detailed means by which to achieve the strategy, because it knows its business best. The steps in the planning process are understanding and discussing the system conditions for sustainability, describing and discussing how the company relates to the system conditions in today's situation, creating a vision of how the company will fulfill its customers' needs in the future while complying with the system conditions, and specifying a program of actions that will take the company from today's situation to the future vision.
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According to one perspective, organizations will only be sustainable if the dominant neoclassical model of the firm is transformed, rather than supplemented, by social and environmental priorities. This article seeks to develop a "sustainability business model" (SBM)-a model where sustainability concepts shape the driving force of the firm and its decision making. The SBM is drawn from two case studies of organizations considered to be leaders in operationalizing sustainability and is informed by the ecological modernization perspective of sustainability. The analysis reveals that organizations adopting a SBM must develop internal structural and cultural capabilities to achieve firm-level sustainability and collaborate with key stakeholders to achieve sustainability for the system that an organization is part of.
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Backcasting is a planning methodology that is particularly helpful when problems at hand are complex and when present trends are part of the problems. When applied in planning towards sustainability, backcasting can increase the likelihood of handling the ecologically complex issues in a systematic and coordinated way, and also to foresee certain changes, even from a self-beneficial point of view, of the market and increase the chances of a relatively strong economic performance. To that end, backcasting should be performed from a set of non-overlapping principles that are general enough to be helpful in the coordination of different sectors of society and in business, as well as to cover relevant aspects of sustainability. Such principles are helpful when developing reliable non-overlapping indicators for monitoring of the development when coordinating various measures from different sectors of the society or within individual firms with each other, and when handling trade-offs in a relevant way. Furthermore, the transition can benefit from being undertaken in a strategic step-by-step manner, by which such investments search for those that combine two qualities: (i) technical flexibility to serve as platforms for future investments in line with non-overlapping principles of sustainability, and (ii) good possibilities of giving relatively fast return on investment. This framework for planning is developed together with the Natural Step, a non-government organization, and in collaboration with a network of scientists and business. Examples are given from firms applying the framework.
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The Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) Karlskrona, Sweden, will begin a new Master's programme focusing on sustainable development in September 2004. The programme is intended to contribute to a growing international network of sustainability practitioners, including early and mid-career professionals, resource managers, executives and political decision-makers. As with many programmes of this type, this one will require coverage of numerous complex economic, social and ecological issues. In so doing, it will cover a number of interrelated disciplines concepts and tools (e.g. environmental science, system dynamics, public policy, business strategies, corporate social responsibility, dematerialization and 'green technologies'). Various sectors of the sustainability arena will also be studied including agriculture, transportation, health, energy and product development. To deal with the high complexity inherent in sustainable development, we intend to test the enhanced learning capabilities of three unique and interrelated aspects of this Master's programme including: (1) a structured comprehension of sustainable development, using "Backcasting from Basic Socio-Ecological Principles of Sustainability"; (2) free creativity within basic constraints established by the structured comprehension and (3) a learning process that 'walks the talk' with respect to free creativity within basic constraints. Recognizing that "society within the biosphere" is inherently a complex system, the programme will revolve around a generic, structured model for planning and decision- making in any complex system. The model is adaptable to any system at any scale - e.g. an organization, a football game, and in this case, "society in the biosphere". The programme distinguishes five essential system levels including: (i) the system; (ii) success; (iii) strategy; (iv) actions and (v) tools. Second, a structured comprehension, anchored to basic principles at the success level - the 'trunk and branches of sustainability' - allows for and promotes free creativity on actions in a particular context - the 'leaves'. Third, the students will be exposed to a learning process of creative use of actions and tools that the model allows for in any organization - sharing the basic trunk and branches and practicing free creativity amongst the leaves. The programme's learning process will facilitate a systematic approach to analysis of all kinds of current sectors and problem areas through envisioning of solutions and finding strategic paths of actions and tools towards sustainable outcomes within those sectors. It will culminate in a thesis, following the same general structure, during the last-half of the programme.
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The number of tools and approaches to develop sustainability is growing rapidly. Sometimes they are presented as if they are contradictory or in competition. However, a systems approach consistent with basic principles and the requirements of sustainability shows that these tools are complementary and can be used in parallel for strategic sustainable development. In fact, it is only when using these approaches outside of the systemic context of sustainability that they become contradictory. This paper is a collective effort of scientists who have pioneered some of these tools and approaches.The paper maps essential elements for developing sustainability and documents how these elements relate to the application of the respective tools. The objective is to show how these tools and approaches relate to each other and build on each other when used for planning for sustainability.
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We present a general framework to plan for sustainability and then relate it to some well-known tools for sustainable development. This framework follows from principles for how a system is constituted (ecological and social principles), and contains principles for a favorable outcome for the system (sustainability), as well as principles for the process to reach this outcome (sustainable development). The principles for sustainability define the favorable outcome and direct problem-solving upstream towards problemsources. A program of activities is then constructed by backcasting from defined outcomes to the current problems. This is followed by “metrics”, i.e. various concepts for measuring and monitoring the activities. Most concepts and tools for sustainable development function as metrics, for instance life cycle assessment (LCA), ecological footprinting (EF), and Factor X. An environmental management system (EMS), like ISO 14001 or EMAS, is an administrative vehicle that should systematically align a firm's specific outcomes, activities and metrics with a general framework for sustainability. From a strategic point of view, metrics should measure alignment of activities with the principles contained in a framework for sustainability. A framework is not an alternative to concepts and tools for metrics. We need them all, because they represent different interrelated levels of strategic planning.
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The backcasting methodology is proposed for scenario analysis of changes over 20–100 years into the future. Backcasting can be applied to areas of human activity; here it is assumed that the method will be used to analyse environment and development problems at the national level as part of studies undertaken within the Human Dimensions of Global Change Program. Some indications are given as to how to integrate natural system considerations into the human system scenarios.
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Conceptual modelling has gained a lot of interest in recent years and simulation modellers are particularly interested in understanding the processes involved in arriving at a conceptual model. This paper contributes to this under- standing by discussing the artifacts of conceptual model- ling and two specific conceptual modelling processes: knowledge acquisition and model abstraction. Knowledge acquisition is the process of finding out about the problem situation and arriving at a system description. Model ab- straction refers to the simplifications made in moving from a system description to a conceptual model. Soft Systems Methodology has tools that can help a modeller with knowledge acquisition and model abstraction. These tools are drawing rich pictures, undertaking analyses 'one', 'two', 'three', and constructing a root definition and the corresponding purposeful activity model. The use of these tools is discussed with respect to a case study in health care.
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Meeting fundamental human needs while preserving Earth's life support systems will require an accelerated transition toward sustainability. A new field of sustainability science is emerging that seeks to understand the fundamental character of interactions between nature and society and to encourage those interactions along more sustainable trajectories. Such an integrated, place-based science will require new research strategies and institutional innovations to enable them especially in developing countries still separated by deepening divides from mainstream science. Sustainability science needs to be widely discussed in the scientific community, reconnected to the political agenda for sustainable development, and become a major focus for research.
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The prisoners' dilemma is a game-theoretical construct about trust. It can be seen as a simple version of the ‘tragedy of the commons’, which is often used in the sustainability context as a metaphor for the tension between responsibility for common resources and the perceived self-benefit to individual organizations, regions or nations who neglect such responsibility in the short term. However, other game theory and developments in sustainability science imply that the prisoners' dilemma mind-set is delusive and misleading for both business and policy making. It helps obscure an even more important aspect of proactive leadership for sustainability: the potential self-benefit of understanding the dynamics of major system change better than one's ‘competitors’. The UN 1972, 1992, and 2012 summits on sustainability, as well as the many summits on climate change, have been valuable milestones for influencing societal leadership at all levels. However, due to the prisoners' dilemma mind-set, they have also indirectly helped reinforce the idea that sustainability only pays off if the costs of achieving it are shared by all. That, in turn, has encouraged decision makers to believe that ’our organization's, region's or nation's sustainability activity must rely on policy making changing the rules of the game for everybody’. This focus on policy making as the only or main facilitator of sustainability efforts delays the needed transition of global society. By considering game theory such as tit-for-tat and modern systems science for sustainability, this paper illuminates major shortcomings of the prisoners' dilemma in the context of sustainability, and attempts to provide a more fruitful mind-set that can be motivated both theoretically and empirically. It is argued that a large part of the self-benefit of proactivity for sustainability is direct, i.e. independent of other actors' actions for the common good. In addition, it is argued that the self-benefit to businesses can be further increased through voluntary collaboration with other businesses to promote the common good, as well as through collaboration between proactive businesses and policy makers. Currently, none of this is intelligently and operationally part of mainstream leadership and public discourse on sustainability. The clarifications provided in this paper can lead to a much needed shift in mind-set among many leaders, not least political leaders, many of which seem to be trapped in simplistic prisoners' dilemma thinking and who act accordingly.
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In the first part of this series of two articles, an approach was presented that takes the entropy production associated with any process as a measure of the resource consumption of that process. Entropy production is thereby used to approximate the intuitive notion of consumption, which can best be described by the term "loss of potential utility." This article presents an application example from the metallurgical sector. The related concept of exergy analysis is discussed and compared against the entropy approach. It was found that the production of 1 ton of refined copper generates 90.2 megajoules per Kelvin of entropy. A comparison with exergy analyses of copper production processes from the literature shows agreement at least on the order of magnitude. While results in one case deviate from the entropy analysis by about 40%, in another case the deviation is about 160%. One can only speculate on the reasons for this discrepancy, without knowing the exact process specifications of the processes analyzed. For entropy production as a measure for resource consumption, a baseline for comparison and interpretation of the results based on natural entropy disposal and reduction mechanisms is suggested.
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In the emerging field of industrial ecology one of the unsettled questions is the degree to which design for the environment, closing energy and materials loops, and other industrial ecology concepts apply at the firm level. In this article we examine this issue with a particular focus on whether industrial ecology can guide company strategy and efforts to enhance competitiveness. We conclude that industrial ecology thinking will often be useful for firms seeking to improve their resource productivity and thus their competitiveness. The systems perspective that industrial ecology promotes can help companies find ways to add value or reduce costs both within their own production processes and up and down the supply chain. But industrial ecology cannot always be counted upon to yield competitive advantage at the firm level. In some cases, the cost of closing loops will exceed the benefits. In other cases, regulatory requirements do not fully internalize environmental costs, and thus polluting firms may gain temporary or permanent cost advantages relative to companies that attempt to eliminate all emissions. Finally, because industrial ecology focuses attention on materials and energy flows, it may not optimize other variables that contribute to competitiveness within the corporate setting.
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Various sets of skills for dealing with sustainability and the complexity of the modern world have been put forward by different actors in the field of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). In connection with these skills, pedagogical methods such as lifelong learning, social learning, problem-based learning, dialogue education, and empowerment for ESD have been discussed. This paper looks at how these theories and methods can be put into practice by examining a real-world example of a sustainability master's program at Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) in Sweden. In 2004, BTH launched the international transdisciplinary master's program Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability, which aims to develop leaders who will be able to address the ever-increasing sustainability challenge. The program combines a robust scientific framework for planning and decision making toward sustainability, with the leadership skills needed to energize large-scale societal change. In 2009, the Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD) observatory awarded BTH the ranking of No. 1 in Sweden and third in Europe for demonstrating success in EESD. This paper describes the specific pedagogical approaches and design elements that were implemented to train and develop the skills and expertise surrounding leadership for sustainable development. It further presents and analyzes survey data taken from program alumni reflecting on the success of the program. The results of the survey clearly show that while there is room for improvement, overall the program design is extremely successful in equipping its graduates with the skills necessary to address the sustainability challenge. Finally, the authors offer reflections on the lessons learned after six years of continual improvements.
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Increasing awareness in business and society regarding socio-ecological impacts related to society's use of materials is a driver of new materials management practices. The aim of this study is to gain insight into what considerations come into focus and what types of solutions are revealed when companies apply a strategic sustainability perspective to materials management. Through literature reviews and semi-structured interviews we found that the companies studied have assessed material choices and related management actions, not only regarding their potential to reduce a selection of current socio-ecological impacts, but also regarding their potential to link to future actions to move towards the full scope of socio-ecological sustainability. Through this approach, these companies have found several ways through which materials with characteristics that are commonly considered problematic can be managed sustainably by making strategic use of some of these “problematic” characteristics and other characteristics of the materials. For example, a material associated with problems at end of life, could be managed in closed loops facilitated by the persistence of the material. Based on the findings, we conclude that by not applying a strategic sustainability perspective to materials management, organizations risk phasing out materials perceived to be unsustainable which, managed differently, could be helpful for sustainable development.
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The enlargement of complexity and effects of environmental problems has increased the need for a ‘compass’ to point us in the direction of sustainability. The four principles—System Conditions—which we have earlier described, along with a step-by-step approach to meet them, is such a compass. The System Conditions are first order principles for Sustainability:• they do not cover the whole area of Sustainability;• they are complementary, i.e. they do not overlap;• they are all necessary;• they are applicable at different scales and activities.The compass provides a model that does not only imply restrictions to business and policy-making, but also opportunities from a self-interest point of view. The model makes it possible to foresee changes regarding demands and costs on the future market. A number of business corporations and municipalities apply the compass as a guiding tool to the future market, asking the following strategic questions for each of the System Conditions:1. Does this measure decrease our dependence on lithospheric metals, fuels and other minerals—primarily when waste from such materials are already accumulating in the ecosphere?2. Does this measure decrease our dependence on persistent unnatural substances, primarily when such substances are already accumulating in the ecosphere?3. Does this measure decrease our dependence on activities which encroach on productive parts of Nature, e.g. long distance transport or other deleterious exploitation of green surfaces, over-fishing, etc?4. Does this measure decrease our dependence on using an unnecessary large amount of resources in relation to added human value?
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The ISO 14001 Environmental Management System Standard has become a wide-spread administrative tool in the field of corporate responses to sustainability. As a framework for the administering of sustainable development in firms, ISO 14001 in itself does not speak of strategic planning for sustainability, nor of upstream solutions of problems at their source. Furthermore, confusion exists with respect to where ISO 14001 fits in relation to a complex array of tools for sustainable development. This research proposes the integration of a “backcasting” method that embodies a five-level approach to planning in complex systems, with the ISO 14001 planning process requirements. The result is a strategic planning framework that focuses on the minimum requirements for a sustainable society and embeds them in a process to assist firms in their sustainability initiatives.
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Underlying every significant issue that organizations and societies face is the question: How can we create desired results in an increasingly interdependent world? That question has been the focus of Peter Senge's work for more than 20 years. It also is at the heart of the Society for Organizational Learning's research in innovation, large-systems change, sustainability, the future of education, and leadership development. In June 2003, 335 researchers, consultants and executives from business, government, and civil society gathered at SoL's first Global Forum, in Helsinki, Finland. This article was adapted from Peter's remarks at that forum.
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We have previously developed a method for sustainable product development (MSPD) based on backcasting from basic sustainability principles. The MSPD informs investigations of product-related social and ecological sustainability aspects throughout a concurrent engineering product development process. We here introduce “templates” for sustainable product development (TSPDs) as a complement. The idea is to help product development teams to arrive faster and more easily at an overview of the major sustainability challenges and opportunities of a product category in the early development phases. The idea is also to inform creative communication between top management, stakeholders, and product developers. We present this approach through an evaluation case study, in which the TSPDs were used for a sustainability assessment of televisions (TVs) at the Matsushita Electric Group. We study whether the TSPD approach has the ability to (1) help shift focus from gradual improvements of a selection of aspects in relation to past environmental performance of a product category to a focus on the remaining gap to a sustainable situation, (2) facilitate consensus among organizational levels about major sustainability challenges and potential solutions for a product category, and (3) facilitate continued dialogue with external sustainability experts, identifying improvements that are relevant for strategic sustainable development. Our findings indicate that the TSPD approach captures overall sustainability aspects of the life cycle of product categories and that it has the above abilities.
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Companies committed to integrating sustainability concerns into product decisions are confronted with the daunting task of assessing hundreds, or thousands, of materials and goods. Further complicating efforts have been the rapid growth of environmental and social assessment principles, strategies, actions, and tools. The lack of clarity on how existing approaches are complementary or distinct has resulted in ambiguities about pathways forward for companies. This current state of the field highlights the need to draw out interconnections between the wide range of current work on integrating environmental and social issues into material, product, and other business decisions. This articleddeveloped through collaboration among several environmental, social, and sustainability-oriented researchers and practitionersdaddresses this need through building upon pre-existing work [J. Cleaner Prod. 10(3) (2002) 197; J. Cleaner Prod. 8(3) (2000) 243]. It proposes adaptations on a framework for organizing the assessment field, including development of exemplary sustainable product characteristics and their inclusion in a ''strategic sustainable development'' decision-making model and process [J. Cleaner Prod. 10(3) (2002) 197]. The article also argues for an expansion of analytical approaches within this previously developed framework in order to highlight social aspects of sustainability and landscape-level issues. Finally, the article puts these elements together to describe a pathway forward for companies. In the conclusion, areas for future research are highlighted.
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The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a method for estimating the biologically productive area necessary to support current consumption patterns, given prevailing technical and economic processes. By comparing human impact with the planet's limited bioproductive area. this method tests a basic ecological condition for sustainability. The ecological footprint has gained popularity for its pedagogical strength as it expresses the results of its analysis in spatial units that can easily be communicated. Many EF estimates have been performed on a global, national and sulrnationallevel. In this paper. we review the method and critically assess it from a sustainability perspective based on first order principles. We examine: •Which aspects of sustainability are already covered by existing EF assessments;•Which further aspects ofsustainability could be made accountable through the EF (such as areas needed to assimilate waste streams that are not yet accounted for in present assessments); and•Those aspects ofsustainability that cannot be accountable through the EF. Thereby needing complimentary auditing tools.Since the EF is a measure of renewable biocapacity, we argue that some dimensions of ecological sustainability should not be included in the EF. These include human activities that should be phased out to obtain sustainability, such as emissions of persistent compounds foreign to nature and qualitative aspects that represent secondary uses of ecological areas and do not, therefore, occupy a clearly identifiable additional ecological space. We also conclude that the EF is useful for documenting the overall human use or abuse of the potentially renewable functions and services of nature. Particularly, by aggregating in a consistentway a varity of human impacts, it can effectively identify the scale of the human economy by companson with the size of the biosphere.
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This article seeks to extend understanding of how sustainability is operationalized in firms by considering the example of Interface Inc. In particular, we assess the sustainability policy and strategies of Interface Inc. within the frame recourse of an ecological modernization (EM) perspective of sustainability. One question of particular interest is whether organizations are able to implement an EM-aligned worldview through their own internal capabilities or whether changes to the wider socio-economic system are required. The analysis of Interface's experiences suggests that, at this stage, an organization cannot fully adhere to an EM perspective of sustainability; its success is also dependent on changes to the wider socio-economic system in which the firm operates. The critical factors in implementing sustainability that emerged from the Interface case study are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Article
In the emerging field of industrial ecology one of the unsettled questions is the degree to which design for the environment, closing energy and materials loops, and other industrial ecology concepts apply at the firm level. In this article we examine this issue with a particular focus on whether industrial ecology can guide company strategy and efforts to enhance competitiveness.We conclude that industrial ecology thinking will often be useful for firms seeking to improve their resource productivity and thus their competitiveness. The systems perspective that industrial ecology promotes can help companies find ways to add value or reduce costs both within their own production processes and up and down the supply chain. But industrial ecology cannot always be counted upon to yield competitive advantage at the firm level. In some cases, the cost of closing loops will exceed the benefits. In other cases, regulatory requirements do not fully internalize environmental costs, and thus polluting firms may gain temporary or permanent cost advantages relative to companies that attempt to eliminate all emissions. Finally, because industrial ecology focuses attention on materials and energy flows, it may not optimize other variables that contribute to competitiveness within the corporate setting.
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Sustainable management of materials and products requires continuous evaluation of numerous complex social, ecological, and economic factors. A number of tools and methods are emerging to support this. One of the most rigorous is life-cycle assessment (LCA). But LCAs often lack a sustainability perspective and bring about difficult trade-offs between specificity and depth, on the one hand, and comprehension and applicability, on the other. This article applies a framework for strategic sustainable development (often referred to as The Natural Step (TNS) framework) based on backcasting from basic principles for sustainability. The aim is to foster a new general approach to the management of materials and products, here termed “strategic life-cycle management”. This includes informing the overall analysis with aspects that are relevant to a basic perspective on (1) sustainability, and (2) strategy to arrive at sustainability. The resulting overview is expected to help avoid costly assessments of flows and practices that are not critical from a sustainability and/or strategic perspective and to help identify strategic gaps in knowledge or potential problems that need further assessment. Early experience indicates that the approach can complement some existing tools and concepts by informing them from a sustainability perspective-for example, current product development and LCA tools.
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Ecological economics occasionally makes universal claims about how to understand and measure change in systems of human–environmental interaction. In terms of environmental policy, one of the most influential universal concepts that has come out of the ecological economics literature recently is ecological efficiency (or eco-efficiency). This article uses eco-efficiency as a vehicle to illustrate that universal indicators of human–environmental interaction are theoretically unfounded and practically problematic. Population ecology and neo-classical economics are identified as two theoretical approaches that have contributed to the emergence of universal concepts such as eco-efficiency. The limited applicability of the approaches is highlighted by putting them in comparative context with approaches that make less universal claims, namely, systems ecology and institutional economics. Investigating indicators of human–environmental interaction from disciplinary perspectives that are rarely found in indicator literature offers novel insights on what indicators are for and how they should be applied. The article concludes with a call for scale sensitive generalization in the development of future indicators.
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This article aims to explore a new approach to assess company decision systems regarding sustainability-related communication and decision support between senior management and product development levels. The assessment approach was developed in theory and its applicability was directly tested in action research in two small and medium-sized companies and two large companies. The results were validated against experiences made by two management consultancies. Our study indicates that successful companies should: (i) integrate sustainability into business goals and plans, backed up by suitable (ii) internal incentives and disincentives and (iii) decision support tools. Our study also indicates that the new assessment approach can be used as a template to assess the current state of sustainability integration in company decision systems.