Article

Novos achados de mamíferos carnívoros do Pleistoceno final-Holoceno em grutas calcárias do estado da Bahia

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Abstract

Previously unreported fossil remains of mammalian carnivores from limestone caves of the State of Bahia were analyzed. Twelve species were identified: five felids, two canids, three mustelids, one ursid and a procyonid. Three of them are Pleistocenic and extinct, while the remaining probably dwelled in Late Pleistocene - Holocene.

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... Toca dos Ossos is a limestone cave located in Ouro Branco district, Jacobina, State of Bahia, northeast Brazil. The locality is situated in the limestones of the Caatinga Formation, on the right margin of the Salitre River (Lessa et al., 1998). According to Lessa et al. (1998), this cave is one of the most fossiliferous in Brazil. ...
... The locality is situated in the limestones of the Caatinga Formation, on the right margin of the Salitre River (Lessa et al., 1998). According to Lessa et al. (1998), this cave is one of the most fossiliferous in Brazil. The taxa recovered from this cave include mammals of small to large size (see Cartelle and Lessa, 1989;Cartelle, 1992;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998). ...
... According to Lessa et al. (1998), this cave is one of the most fossiliferous in Brazil. The taxa recovered from this cave include mammals of small to large size (see Cartelle and Lessa, 1989;Cartelle, 1992;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998). According to Cartelle and Lessa (1989), the remains of M. coypus were found in association with extinct megamammals such as Eremotherium laurillardi Lund, 1842, Pampatherium humboldti (Lund, 1839) and Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888). ...
Article
Myocastor Kerr, 1792 is a semi-aquatic caviomorph rodent that lives in southern South America. Pleistocene fossils of Myocastor are known from Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Brazil. This contribution is intended to clarify the taxonomic situation of the specimens of this taxon from the Brazilian Quaternary. The material was collected in late Quaternary localities from the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Rio Grande do Sul. We assign these specimens to Myocastor coypus (Molina, 1782). Although some variation was seen, we do not consider it significant enough to include the fossil specimens in other extinct previously described taxa or in a new taxon. The modern original range of Myocastor encompasses only southern South America, but in the late Pleistocene/early Holocene, its distribution was displaced, at least to Bahia (∼10°S), northeast Brazil. This fact could be related to the presence of more humid environments in the the late Pleistocene/early Holocene of this region in comparison with the modern days, where the Caatinga is predominant.
... Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil, has remarkable limestone caves, including Toca da Boa Vista, the longest of the Southern Hemisphere, with over 100 km of interfingering passages (SBE, 2014). Paleontological research in these caves revealed rich vertebrate assemblages, and some fossils indicate more humid conditions during the Pleistocene than the semi-arid that prevails nowadays in most of the region (Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998;Auler et al., 2004;Cartelle et al., 2008;Salles et al., 2014). This proposition is also supported by palynological, paleoclimatological, and geomorphological data (see Auler and Smart, 2001 for a revision), showing that the low arboreal scrubs were then mixed with semi-deciduous forests . ...
... At present, E. barbara (tayra) occurs in tropical and subtropical forests from Mexico to southern Brazil, but not in the Caatinga area of northeast Brazil, where Gruta do Ioiô is located (see map in Presley, 2000), and is the most common medium-sized predator throughout much of its range (Emmons and Freer, 1990). In Brazil, fossils of Eira were previously recovered in Bahia (a skull and a mandible; Lessa et al., 1998), Minas Gerais (Lund, 1843), and Cear a (Gomide, 1989). With partially webbed feet, tayras have been reported swimming across ponds and rivers (see Presley, 2000;Bezerra et al., 2009). ...
... The record of the catfish Rhamdia is also relevant, as only fragmentary remains of this taxon were previously reported. On the other hand, all mammal taxa but for T. cirrhosus were already recorded in Quaternary localities of northeastern Brazil, including the caves of Bahia (Cartelle and Lessa, 1989;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998;Parisi Dutra, 2012). Except for N. macrourus and T. cirrhosus (Cramer et al., 2001;Sbragia and Cardoso, 2008), these are absent in the present local fauna. ...
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a b s t r a c t The present study reports the Quaternary vertebrate fauna of Gruta do Ioiô, a partially submerged limestone cave located in central Bahia, northeastern Brazil. A semi-arid weather prevails nowadays in the area, which is mostly covered by a xeric low arboreal scrubland known as Caatinga. The identified taxa include: Rhamdia (Osteichtyes, Siluriformes), Caiman (Crocodyliformes, Caimaninae), Myocastor cf. Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Myocastoridae), Holochilus sciureus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae), Natalus cf. Natalus macrourus (Chiroptera, Natalidae), Tonatia bidens, Trachops cirrhosus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomi-dae), and Eira cf. Eira barbara (Carnivora, Mustelidae). Whereas Rhamdia and Caiman have scarce fossil records, the recovered mammals have already been reported from Quaternary localities of northeastern Brazil, although only two of them are present in the current local fauna. Taphonomic signatures and the nature of the fossiliferous site indicate that the vertebrates lived inside or nearby the cave, including the swamp by its main entrance. Radiocarbon dating of dental bioapatite yielded calibrated ages between 19,980 and 22,040 BP. This indicates that the accumulation started at least during the late Pleistocene, within the Last Glacial Maximum. In agreement with the mode of life of most taxa recognized here, previous studies indicated that this was a wetter period in the region.
... However, the fragmentary fossil record of L. pardalis is limited to the Late Pleistocene-Holocene, and includes two localities with Ranchalobrean remains from Florida, U.S.A. (Werdelin, 1985), Rancholabrean caves in Yucatan, Mexico (Hatt et al., 1953;Arroyo-Cabrales and Álvarez, 2003;Ferrusquía-Villafranca et al., 2010), "Lujanian" sites of Bahia, Piauí, and Minas Gerais, Brazil (Guerín et al., 1996;Lessa et al., 1998;Seymour, 1999;Eltink et al., 2020), and is mentioned in faunal lists of archeological sites of Ecuador and Venezuela (Linares, 1998;Stahl, 2003; but see Prevosti and Forasiepi, 2018; Fig. 1). Additionally, a fossil from the Sopas Formation of Uruguay (27-58 ka BP) was tentatively assigned to this species (Ubilla et al., 2009;Perea et al., 2015) (Fig. 1). ...
... Fossil localities are numbered as follow. 1, Arroyo Toropí (this study); 2, Reddick 1 (Ray et al., 1963); 3, Gruta do Ioiô (Eltink et al., 2020); 4, Lagoa Santa (Winge, 1895); 5, Toca da Boa Vista (Lessa et al., 1998); 6, Toca dos Ossos (Lessa et al., 1998); 7, Gruta dos Bejoes (Lessa et al., 1998); 8, Isla Margarita (Linares, 1998); 9, Capaperro (Stahl, 2003); 10, Haile 1A (Kurtén, 1965); 11, Sopas Formation at Arroyo Negro (Ubilla et al., 2009); 12, Yucatan (Hatt et al., 1953); 13, Toca do Garrincho (Guerín et al., 1996); 14, Toca da Janela da Barra do Antoniâo (Guerín et al., 1996). chronostratigraphic framework, the two members of the formation were first assigned to the Ensenadan (ca. ...
... Fossil localities are numbered as follow. 1, Arroyo Toropí (this study); 2, Reddick 1 (Ray et al., 1963); 3, Gruta do Ioiô (Eltink et al., 2020); 4, Lagoa Santa (Winge, 1895); 5, Toca da Boa Vista (Lessa et al., 1998); 6, Toca dos Ossos (Lessa et al., 1998); 7, Gruta dos Bejoes (Lessa et al., 1998); 8, Isla Margarita (Linares, 1998); 9, Capaperro (Stahl, 2003); 10, Haile 1A (Kurtén, 1965); 11, Sopas Formation at Arroyo Negro (Ubilla et al., 2009); 12, Yucatan (Hatt et al., 1953); 13, Toca do Garrincho (Guerín et al., 1996); 14, Toca da Janela da Barra do Antoniâo (Guerín et al., 1996). chronostratigraphic framework, the two members of the formation were first assigned to the Ensenadan (ca. ...
Article
Leopardus is a genus that, despite currently being widely distributed in South America, shows until now a fragmentary fossil record. Among Leopardus, L. pardalis is the largest species, having an historical range that includes tropical and subtropical habitats from southern U.S.A. to southern South America but, as usual in the ocelot lineage, fossil remains that can be interpreted with certainty are restricted to the Late Pleistocene of southern U.S.A. and Brazil. Here we present a new record (a fragment of right maxillary plus zygomatic with P4–M1; incomplete left mandible with the coronoid process, part of c1 alveolus and p3–m1; isolated right c1) from the Late Pleistocene of Arroyo Toropí, Corrientes province, Argentina. The bearing level was dated with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to 98.4 ka (Marine Isotopic Stage, MIS 5c). Present environmental requirements of L. pardalis and climatic reconstructions carried out here suggest a compatible scenario with MIS 5 for this fossil, which is concordant with the associated dating (ca. 98.4 ka). Leopardus pardalis appears to be part of a subtropical fauna, with Tayassu pecari and Euphractus sexcinctus, which inhabited the region during warm and wet climatic events of MIS 5c. Phytoliths and other vertebrates are congruent with its presence, since the inferred conditions are similar to the present one. The new record is relevant not only because it is the first fossil record of the species for the Pleistocene of Argentina, but also because it is placed 1800 km south of the closest accurately identified published fossil.
... The extant ones are only related species, such as G. cuja (Molina, 1782), G. vittata (Schreber, 1776) and L. patagonicus (de Blainville, 1842). 2 Lutrinae Bonaparte, 1838 with two species, Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818), whose oldest record dates from the early Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina (Rusconi, 1932;Berman, 1994) and Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788) from the Late Pleistocene in Entre Ríos province, Argentina, and the Late Pleistocene in Bahía, Brazil (Cartelle, 1999;Prevosti and Ferrero, 2008). 3 Guloninae Gray, 1825, represented by the tayra Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758), which has records in the Late Pleistocene in Bahía (Lund, 1843;Cartelle, 1999;Lessa et al., 1998;Castro et al., 2014), Minas Gerais (Lund, 1843;Cartelle, 1999), Cear a (Gomide, 1989, but see below) and western Amazon region (Rancy, 1991(Rancy, , 1999. Other fossil records of Eira from "Ensenadan" in Bolivia have been assigned to Galera barbara (¼Eira barbara, Hoffstetter, 1963), and two others from North America have also been erroneously assigned to this taxa (see Presley, 2000;Ruiz-García et al., 2013). ...
... Climate suitability values are 100-76 (black, high prediction), 75-51 (dark gray, high-medium prediction), 50-26 (gray, medium prediction), 25-10 (light gray, low prediction) and 9-0 (white, very low-null prediction).1. Late Pleistocene records for Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais (Lund, 1843); 2: Late Pleistocene records for Bahía state (Lessa et al., 1998;Castro et al., 2014). Scale (black bar) equals 1000 km. ...
... Kasper, pers. comm.) as Lessa et al. (1998) previously mentioned. The material analyzed in Rancy (1991Rancy ( , 1999 is a broken mandible with only a p3 that has some morphological differences with E. barbara (i.e., lower and different ventral border of horizontal ramus, different extension of masseteric fossa, different position and development of p3), that suggest to belong to other genera. ...
Article
The record of Guloninae presents mainly a Holarctic distribution, with only Eira barbara occurring in South America (SA). This lineage immigrated from Central America at least in the Pleistocene. The fossil record of Guloninae for SA is limited to a few known specimens of Eira from Late Pleistocene of Brazil. We report a new specimen of E. barbara (an upper carnassial) from Late Pleistocene of Entre Ríos, Argentina. We also discuss the taxonomic assignation of this new fossil and its paleoenvironmental relevance using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM). The new material comes from Ensenada Creek, Salto Ander Egg Formation, from the Late Pleistocene between 120 and 60 ky BP. The locality is farther south than its recent distribution, and SDM shows low suitability values for such area, which also indicates that the species is absent from this area in present time. The P4 is bigger and the protocone has a more anterior position relative to the paracone than that of recent specimens of E. barbara. This new fossil indicates that E. barbara had a wider distribution over the Late Pleistocene and, if our interpretation is correct, it has been present in SA at least since 120-60 ky BP. The presence of E. barbara in such a southern locality, together with other taxa recorded in this site and the associated geological and paleoenvironmental evidences, indicates warmer and more humid conditions, compared with the current conditions, which might have allowed a southern displacement of taxa more related to forested and tropical environments.
... The specimens were collected during the 1980s in two caves from the State of Bahia (Toca dos Ossos and Gruta de Brejões) and one located in the State of Minas Gerais (Lapa Vermelha cave, Lagoa Santa Karst) (Fig. 3 limestones of the Caatinga Formation, right margin of the Salitre River (Lessa et al., 1998). This cave is one of the best fossil-sampled in Brazil (Lessa et al., 1998). ...
... The specimens were collected during the 1980s in two caves from the State of Bahia (Toca dos Ossos and Gruta de Brejões) and one located in the State of Minas Gerais (Lapa Vermelha cave, Lagoa Santa Karst) (Fig. 3 limestones of the Caatinga Formation, right margin of the Salitre River (Lessa et al., 1998). This cave is one of the best fossil-sampled in Brazil (Lessa et al., 1998). The fossils recovered from this cave include mammals of small to large size (see Cartelle and Lessa, 1989;Cartelle, 1992;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998;Lobo et al., 2017). ...
... This cave is one of the best fossil-sampled in Brazil (Lessa et al., 1998). The fossils recovered from this cave include mammals of small to large size (see Cartelle and Lessa, 1989;Cartelle, 1992;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998;Lobo et al., 2017). According to Cartelle and Lessa (1989), the remains of Myocastor coypus (Molina, 1782) were found in association with extinct mega mammals such as Eremotherium laurillardi Lund, 1842, Pampatherium humboldti (Lund, 1839), and Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888). ...
Article
In this work, new fossils of Hydrochoerinae rodents (Caviomorpha: Caviidae: Hydrochoerinae) from the Quaternary of the intertropical region of Brazil are described, almost 180 years after the first fossils of these animals were found in Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais. The fossils studied herein were collected in caves of States of Bahia (Toca dos Ossos and Lapa dos Brejões) and Minas Gerais (Lapa Vermelha cave, Lagoa Santa karst). The analyzed material is assigned to the extinct large rodent Neochoerus sulcidens and is composed of skull portion, upper and lower cheek teeth, mandible, humerus, innominate, femur, tibia, and calcaneus. The specimens were assigned to this taxon based on the presence of an M3 with 14 prisms; incisor alveolus reaching the pr. II do m2; anteriormost level of the palatine at the level of the Pr. II of the M2; and larger size than the living species. The p4 is mesiodistally longer than the m1 and m2, distinct from previous interpretations in which the mesiodistal length of the p4 of N. sulcidens would be smaller than the m2, indicating the presence of a variable character. Except for the differences in size, the postcranial bones of N. sulcidens are quite similar to H. hydrochaeris.
... In northeastern Brazil, remarkable limestone caves, such as the colossal Toca do Boa Vista, are the subject of plentiful geo-speleological, paleoclimatology and paleontological studies (Lessa et al., 1998;Auler and Smart, 2003;Auler et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2004;Stríkis et al., 2018). The Quaternary fossils recorded in the caves of Bahia State are part of the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR sensu Cartelle, 1999), which is characterized by the taxonomic diversity of endemic giant mammals that lived during the end of the Pleistocene and beginning of the Holocene (e.g. ...
... Paleontological studies in caves pointed out more humid conditions during the Pleistocene compared with the semi-arid that is seen nowadays in northeastern Brazil (Hartwig and Cartelle, 1996;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998;Auler et al., 2004;Cartelle et al., 2008;Salles et al., 2014). Studies using the isotopic geochemical approach for paleoecology in South America are still scarce. ...
... Fossil records of the species in South America are restricted to Argentina, Uruguay, Peru, Ecuador, and Brazil (see Chimento and Dondas, 2017). In Brazil, the species is recorded in caves of Minas Gerais, Bahia, and Tocantins states (Lessa et al., 1998;Rodrigues et al., 2014). One specimen of P. concolor from Bahiahas minimum age of 128,000 ± 2800 yr BP (Auler et al., 2006). ...
Article
Gruta do Ioiô is a cave part of Iraquara carstic system (Salitre Formation, Una Group). Located in the region of the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil, this partially submerged cave has yielded abundant fossil remains that until now included Siluriformes, an alligatorid crocodilian and a set of mammals, such as representatives of Mustelidae, Rodentia and Chiroptera. Besides the record of Palaeolama major (Camelidae), Pecari tajacu (Tayassuidae), both yielded from subaquatic site, Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis (Felidae), Chrysocyon brachyurus (Canidae), and a Didelphidae indet. were yielded from newly described subaerial site. Taphonomic features, such as weathering, transport, breakage, bones and taxonomic representation, demonstrate that bioestrationomic and fossildiagenetic conditions varies between fossiliferous accumulations in the cave, and differences are still observed in the same fossil-bearing site (subaerial). The radiocarbon ages indicate the occurrence of Leopardus pardalis at 30,351–30,862 yr cal BP, Palaeolama major at 24,854–25,379 yr cal BP and Pecari tajacu at 8170–8336 yr cal BP. It extends the time range of Gruta do Ioiô fossils from the Late Pleistocene to the Early-Middle Holocene, encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoecological inferences provided by stable isotopes (δ13C) suggest great proportion of diets based on C3 plants along the trophic levels, suggesting a denser forest environment and more humid conditions in the region of Gruta do Ioiô cave during the Quaternary. The record of taxa, such as Myocastor coypus (a semiaquatic rodent currently distributed in subtropical and temperate South America) and Chrysocyon brachyurus (a typical dweller of open grasslands) shows that past landscape, composed by forests and/or savannic vegetations, contrasts with xeric arboreal scrubland that currently covers the area.
... Region (PR) in Argentina, Southern Chile (Prieto et al., 2010), Peru (Shockey et al., 2009), Uruguay, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia and Venezuela (Rincón, 2006). In Brazil, fossils of this feline have been found in the states of Minas Gerais (Piló & Neves, 2003), Paraíba (Correa et al., 2012), Ceará (Gomide et al., 1987;Bergqvist et al., 1997), Goiás (Gomide et al., 1987), Bahia (Lessa et al., 1998), Rio Grande do Sul (Lessa et al., 1998), Rio Grande do Norte (Lessa et al., 1998;Porpino et al., 2004), Piauí (Guérin et al., 1996;, Pernambuco (Silva et al., 2003), Sergipe (Dantas, 2012), São Paulo (Castro & Langer, 2008;Ghilardi et al., 2011) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Salles et al., 2006;Perini et al., 2009). The classification of the genus Smilodon is controversial. ...
... Region (PR) in Argentina, Southern Chile (Prieto et al., 2010), Peru (Shockey et al., 2009), Uruguay, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia and Venezuela (Rincón, 2006). In Brazil, fossils of this feline have been found in the states of Minas Gerais (Piló & Neves, 2003), Paraíba (Correa et al., 2012), Ceará (Gomide et al., 1987;Bergqvist et al., 1997), Goiás (Gomide et al., 1987), Bahia (Lessa et al., 1998), Rio Grande do Sul (Lessa et al., 1998), Rio Grande do Norte (Lessa et al., 1998;Porpino et al., 2004), Piauí (Guérin et al., 1996;, Pernambuco (Silva et al., 2003), Sergipe (Dantas, 2012), São Paulo (Castro & Langer, 2008;Ghilardi et al., 2011) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Salles et al., 2006;Perini et al., 2009). The classification of the genus Smilodon is controversial. ...
... Region (PR) in Argentina, Southern Chile (Prieto et al., 2010), Peru (Shockey et al., 2009), Uruguay, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia and Venezuela (Rincón, 2006). In Brazil, fossils of this feline have been found in the states of Minas Gerais (Piló & Neves, 2003), Paraíba (Correa et al., 2012), Ceará (Gomide et al., 1987;Bergqvist et al., 1997), Goiás (Gomide et al., 1987), Bahia (Lessa et al., 1998), Rio Grande do Sul (Lessa et al., 1998), Rio Grande do Norte (Lessa et al., 1998;Porpino et al., 2004), Piauí (Guérin et al., 1996;, Pernambuco (Silva et al., 2003), Sergipe (Dantas, 2012), São Paulo (Castro & Langer, 2008;Ghilardi et al., 2011) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Salles et al., 2006;Perini et al., 2009). The classification of the genus Smilodon is controversial. ...
Article
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Studies regarding Quaternary mammals from the Serra da Bodoquena (South-western Brazil, state of Mato Grosso do Sul) are scarce. In the region, the Fadas Cave has been an important paleontological site. Remnants of Pleistocene fauna were collected along a river channel inside the cave. It is the first record of Arctotherium, Scelidotheriinae and Nothrotheriinae in the Serra da Bodoquena. Smilodon populator, Eremotherium laurillardi, Gomphotheriidae and Glyptodontinae, already known for the region, were also identified. These new occurrences allow us to redefine the paleozoogeographical distribution of some of the aforementioned taxa. Herein we propose the expansion of the range of the Brazilian Intertropical Region, which should include Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo. The state of Rio Grande do Sul keeps a greater paleozoogeographical affinity to others temperate zones from Argentina and Uruguay. Taxa associated to open environments indicate the existence of large areas of savannas during the late Pleistocene in the Serra da Bodoquena.
... First reports arose in the mid-19th century, with descriptions of the Pleistocene fauna from the limestone caves of Lagoa Santa (Minas Gerais, Southeastern region) by Peter Lund (PAULA COUTO, 1953). Since then, new discoveries have been made in the Southern (RODRIGUES et al., 2004;, Southeastern (CARTELLE, 1994(CARTELLE, , 1999, and Northeastern (LESSA et al., 1998;CARTELLE, 1999;DANTAS et al., 2005) regions of the country. Apart from occasional reports from Goiás (MOREIRA & MELO, 1971), Mato Grosso (CARTELLE & HIROOKA, 2005), and Acre (RANZI, 2000), the carnivore paleofauna from the North and Central regions of Brazil remains largely unknown. ...
... Other candidates, like Smilodon populator, possess a much larger, robust femur, and the similar-sized femur of Puma concolor has more gracile proportions. Panthera onca fossils have been occasionally reported from the Pleistocene of Minas Gerais and Bahia (LESSA et al., 1998;CARTELLE, 1999). The jaguar is typically found in both forests and savannahs, usually near fresh water (NOWAK, 1999). ...
Article
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A report on fossil remains of carnivores from the Quaternary of Serra da Bodoquena (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), recovered from two limestone flooded caves, is presented. A total of six species could be identified belonging to three carnivore families, namely Felidae (Smilodon populator, Panthera onca, Leopardus braccatus), Canidae (Protocyon troglodytes, Chrysocyon brachyurus) and Mustelidae (Pteronura brasiliensis), a mosaic of extinct and extant species presumably related to the Holo-Pleistocene fauna of the region. These findings support in part previous suggestions of a paleoecological scenario of open savannas rich in wetlands for the Quaternary environment of Serra da Bodoquena.
... Age and depositional environment: Late Pleistocene to early Holocene (Lessa et al. 1998); cave (Lessa et al. 1998). Taxon and material: 256 bone fragments were referred to Anura indet. ...
... Age and depositional environment: Late Pleistocene to early Holocene (Lessa et al. 1998); cave (Lessa et al. 1998). Taxon and material: 256 bone fragments were referred to Anura indet. ...
Article
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Anurans, along with urodeles and caecilians are the extant representatives of the clade Lissamphibia. Nowadays, lissamphibians are widely distributed in all continents, except Antarctica, but are particularly diversified in South America, where almost 3,000 species are found. This huge biodiversity is directly related to the complex geologic history of South America, which includes key events like the Gondwanan breakup, its isolation during parts of Mesozoic and Cenozoic, the Andean uplift, and the formation of the Panamá isthmus. Here, we present the most comprehensive bibliographic review of fossil lissamphibians from South America to date, covering unpublished (e.g. theses and dissertations) and published data (i.e. peer-reviewed scientific papers, book chapters, monographs, and conferences abstracts). We used a mixed approach, both qualitative (with brief comments on each material) and quantitative (including scientometric parameters). Compared to the latest published reviews with similar scope, our results indicate that approximately 85.4% of the records correspond to specimens new to science or older ones that have been revisited. These materials come from 164 different fossil-bearing localities, spread over eight of the twelve South American countries, and range from the Early Jurassic to the Quaternary. In total, we compiled 273 records, mostly anurans (~97.6%), followed by indeterminate caecilians (~1.4%) and urodeles (~1%). Additionally, we discussed issues directly related to those fossil occurrences, such as their temporal and geographic range, as well as the presence of putative biological and taphonomic biases. Finally, we also provided calibration constraints for several anuran taxa.
... Diversos espécimes que compõe a megafauna do pleistoceno foram coletados na Toca das Onças no final da década de 70. Dentre os fósseis coletados estão exemplares de Pampatherium paulacoitoi [1], Smilodon populator [2], e uma grande quantidade de restos fósseis de Eremotherium laurillardi com adultos, jovens e filhotes [3]. Além disso, restos de dois esqueletos humanos, também foram resgatados na mesma caverna com datação aproximada de 9 mil anos, portando traços 'africano-australomelanésios', demonstrando a relevância dessa caverna que contribui para o entendimento do processo de povoamento do continente Americano [4,5]. ...
... A área total da entrada é de aproximadamente 16m 2. As características da abertura da caverna permitiram o acesso ou queda de animais de vários portes incluindo megamamíferos. Como pode ser observado na planta baixa do mapa topográfico (Figura 3) a caverna possui um único salão com desenvolvimento linear de 23m e volume aproximado de 60m 3 . O salão é parcialmente iluminado devido às dimensões da abertura de entrada e à presença de uma claraboia de pequena dimensão adjacente a abertura da entrada. ...
Article
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A Toca das Onças tem se destacado na literatura científica por suas notáveis contribuições paleontológicas e arqueológicas, todavia poucas informações são conhecidas sobre o contexto socioeconômico e ambiental onde a mesma esta inserida. Diante disso, foram levantadas informações espeleológicas, culturais e turísticas, utilizando critérios de inventariação do patrimônio geológico, objetivando caracterizar a cavidade como geossítio a partir da quantificação e valoração dos elementos da geodiversidade. Os resultados da inventariação permitiu caracterizar o sítio como de alto valor científico e com baixo valor turístico, devido principalmente, à falta de infraestrutura e de acessibilidade. A partir destes resultados espera-se em trabalhos futuros a elaboração de propostas que estimulem o setor turístico no local e consequentemente programas com ações voltadas para a geoconservação do geossítio.
... For that reason the specimen UNIRIO-PM 1048 is identified only by genus level. (Faure et al. 1999, Lessa et al. 1998, Cartelle 1999, Mayer 2011, Ghilardi et al. 2011, Salles et al. 2006, Perini et al. 2009, Hoffstetter 1952, Román-Carrión 2012, Seymour 2010, Tonni et al. 2009, Hoffstetter 1968, Coltorti et al. 2012, Ubilla et al. 2004, Ferrero 2008, Cruz et al. 2012, Labarca and López 2006, Martín et al. 2004, Massone and Prieto 2004, Martín 2008, Canto et al. 2010, Rincón 2006, Oschenius 1980; B -A. wingei (Paula-Couto 1960, Guérin 1991, Cartelle 1994, 1998, Trajano and Ferrarezzi 1994, Lessa et al.1998, Soibelzon 2002, 2004, Soibelzon et al. 2005, Ribeiro et al. 2003 (Guérin 1991); Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (Cartelle 1994(Cartelle , 1998; Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Paula-Couto 1960); Lapa da Escrivaninha, Prudente de Morais, Minas Gerais, Brazil, (Soibelzon 2002); Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Ribeiro et al. 2003). ...
... Previous studies in Brazilian caves gathered fossil diversity data from a number of caves or merged information from several localities (e.g. Cartelle 1999, Lessa et al. 1998) treating this collection of taxa of different spatial origins as a single ancient ecological community. Moreover, most fossils were found laying over the sediment (out of stratigraphic context), or no stratigraphic control was made during the excavation. ...
Article
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The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.
... In Brazil, the first record of the species was cited by Lund (1843), who named Galictis barbara (= Eira barbara), from the "Lapa da Escrivânia", Municipality of Lagoa Santa, in the Minas Gerais State ( Figure 1A). Posteriorly, Rancy (1991) reported a specimen from the Upper Juruá River, in the Acre State ( Figures 1B, 2), and Lessa et al. (1998) reported a fossil from "Gruta dos Brejões", Municipality of Morro do Chapéu, Bahia State ( Figure 1C). Further reports include Castro et al. (2014), from the cave Gruta do Ioiô, Municipality of Palmeiras, Bahia State ( Figure 1D), and Vasconcelos (2015), who describes a specimen found in the "Maciço Escrivânia", Municipality of Prudente de Morais, Minas Gerais State ( Figure 1E). ...
... The fossil corresponds to a right hemimandible with p4 preserved and assigned to Eira barbara. The revision of previous records indicate that fossils of the species are restricted to the Quaternary of Brazil, in the states of Bahia (Lessa et al., 1998;Castro et al., 2014.), Minas Gerais (Lund, 1843;Vasconcelos, 2015) and Acre (Rancy, 1991), and in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina (Schiaffini et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Most species of mustelids currently found in South America descend from North American immigrants that arrived during the Great American Biotic Interchange, following the rise of the Isthmus of Panama. However, previous works indicate that the genus Eira arrived in South America before this event, through an island bridge in Central America. The tayra Eira barbara (Mustelidae, Carnivora), the only species of the genus, currently has a wide geographic distribution, from Mexico to northern Argentina. Here, we redescribe a fossil of E. barbara collected close to the Municipality of Marechal Thaumaturgo, Acre State, Brazil. The southwestern Brazilian Amazonia is mostly characterized by the older sediments of Solimões Formation (Neogene deposits), although on the riverbanks of the Upper Juruá River a typical Quaternary vertebrate fauna is also found, mainly represented by fossil mammals. The specimen UFAC PV-36 is a right hemimandible with the p4 preserved in situ, and it was compared to fossil and extant specimens of E. barbara, as well as with other carnivorans. The review of the fossil record shows that this taxon is restricted to the Quaternary of Brazil, in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Acre, and of Argentina, in the Entre Ríos Province. In this way, our study contributes to a better understanding of the origin and distribution of the genus in the Quaternary of South America.
... In the Andean region, fossil pumas are mostly associated to the Tar Pits deposits of Peru (Talara) and Ecuador (Lindsey and Lopez, 2015;Lindsey and Seymour, 2015;Seymour, 2015). The few records known from Brazil have been found in cave deposits from the states of Minas Gerais (Winge, 1895-96) and Bahia (Lessa et al., 1998). Accordingly, dating of this material is scarse, with the few data available referring to a puma specimen dated from ca. 128 ka from Toca da Boa Vista, Bahia (Auler et al., 2006). ...
... Therefore, the goal of this article is to use this Middle-Late Holocene carnivore, linked to the top of the trophic chain, as a proxy to provide new insights into the recent-past landscapes of the Brazilian Northeast, known to have suffered substantial changes during the Holocene (Maksic et al., 2018) and presently showing strong tendencies towards more severe climatic conditions through a process of desertification (Tomasella et al., 2018;Torres et al., 2017). This new material from Impossível Cave represents, together with the Late Pleistocene/ Holocene material from Toca da Boa Vista (10809 0 36.72 00 S, 40851 0 38.88 00 W) and Toca dos Ossos (10855 0 49.44 00 S, 41803 0 27.36 00 W) (Lessa et al., 1998), the only known fossil records of pumas from the Brazilian Northeast. These three paleo-sites are in a mid-northern region of Bahia, just east of the São Francisco River, considered to be a main core area of the Caatinga domain as it stands out today. ...
Article
Puma concolor is currently widespread in South America, but its fossil record is still poorly known in the Continent, particularly in Brazil. Here we report the find of a nearly complete skeleton of P. concolor recovered from underwater Quaternary deposits at the Impossível-Ioiô Cave System, Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, Brazil). The P. concolor remains were found disarticulated but piled together; they are in general quite well preserved. Radiocarbon dating from a tooth sample (upper carnassial) indicates a Middle-Late Holocene age of ca. 4 ka BP. A series of comparative morphometric analyses suggest that the specimen is a male and shares similar size proportions to extant specimens in the region. Isotopic analyses made with a tooth sample indicate a diet largely based on C3 feeding herbivores, potentially associated to landscapes predominantly covered by Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest, similar to the Present-day Caatinga vegetation. The δ¹⁸O outcome value of -3.4‰ and the modeled puma’s negative trend in adaptability towards the present (after 6 ka) seem to be consistent with the hypothesized Middle-Holocene (∼4 ka) shift in climatic tendencies in the Brazilian Northeast from a more relatively humid environment to a drier climate with longer drought periods, presenting severe semiarid conditions somewhat similar to the precolonial conditions. Cave surroundings fit well with the description of the present progressive trend of changes in physiognomy related to land-use and associated with processes of fragmentation and desertification in the Caatinga.
... Apesar do extenso número de depósitos quaternários brasileiros, o conhecimento acerca da diversidade de vertebrados terrestres do Quaternário se restringe principalmente à fauna de mamíferos (por exemplo, Cartelle, 1999;Cartelle & Abuhid, 1989;Cartelle & Bohórquez, 1982, 1985Cartelle & de Iuliis, 1995;Couto, 1942Couto, , 1973Couto, , 1978Couto, , 1979Cunha, 1959;Czaplewski & Cartelle, 1998;de Iuliis & Cartelle, 1993;Lessa et al., 1998;Price & Campos, 1970;Salles et al., 1999;Trajano & Ferrarezzi, 1994). Contrastando com a situação dos estudos de mamíferos, a pesquisa sobre a fauna de répteis quaternários do Brasil ainda é incipiente, com apenas três trabalhos tratando especificamente da fauna de Squamata brasileira (Gans & Montero, 1998;Camolez & Zaher, 2004;Camolez et al., 2005). ...
... Praticamente, todas as galerias contêm depósitos sedimentares, variando desde espeleotemas, passando por depósitos clásticos (como abatimentos, silte e argila) até os depósitos de guano e ossadas fósseis (Auler & Smart, 1999). Especificamente para a Paleontologia, a exploração da caverna mostrou o seu enorme potencial fossilífero, com importantíssimos achados de representantes da megafauna pleistocênica (Cartelle, 1999;Lessa et al., 1998). ...
Article
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The present work represents the first extensive survey of the squamate fauna from caves and archaeological sites in Brazil. More than 1530 cranial and post-cranial pieces of Squamata are analyzed from 14 cave localities in Brazil. Twenty-three taxa are identified at the generic and specific levels, Leposternon sp. We provide detailed morphological descriptions of both cranial and post-cranial elements, and establish a range of diagnostic osteological features from the anatomical pieces analyzed, which, despite the subtleties of many of these features, will aid in identifying genera and species of living Squamata. Furthermore, some elements belonging to the archaeological sites exhibit burn traces and cut marks that human predation on squamates during the Late Quaternary in Central Brazil.
... As peças, inclusive aquelas pertencentes a animais com representação na fauna atual, apresentam coloração marrom em decorrência do mineral opaco predominante na área, e algumas formam pequenas concreções ferruginosas. (Lessa et al., 1999) e posteriormente por Cartelle & Hartiwig (1996). Guérin et al. (1993) registram o táxon no sítio arqueológico de São Raimundo Nonato/Piauí, sob as mesmas condições de associação. ...
... Guérin et al. (1993) registram o táxon no sítio arqueológico de São Raimundo Nonato/Piauí, sob as mesmas condições de associação. Lessa et al. (1999) (Nowak, 1991), vivendo em matas, proximidades de matas ou em áreas abertas (Berta, 1982 ...
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RESUMO ‐ Sao registradas novas ocorrencias de mamiferos pleistocenicos coletados no Lajedo de Soledade, em Apodi (RN). O material consiste em ossos pos-cranianos, dentes isolados, osteodermos de carapaca e fragmentos de dentario encontrados em associacao. Foram identificados: Hippidion sp., Glyptodon sp., Panochthus greslebini, Eremotherium laurillardi, Holmesina paulacoutoi, Palaeolama major, Xenorhinotherium bahiense, Equus (Amerhippus) cf. neogaeus, Smilodon populator e Toxodontidae. Registrase, pela primeira vez, Arctotherium sp., Cerdocyon thous, Protocyon troglodites, Leopardus cf. L. tigrinus e Tolypeutes tricinctus em associacao com restos da megafauna no Estado. As caracteristicas ecologicas dos taxa sugerem a vigencia de condicoes ambientais distintas da atual para o Pleistoceno final-Holoceno na regiao, incluindo areas abertas de savana em associacao com fisionomias mais fechadas. Palavras-chave: Mamiferos, Pleistoceno superior-Holoceno, Rio Grande do Norte, Apodi.
... Referring to the Carnivora, Smilodon populator (Felidae) has been recorded in Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Paraíba (Gomide et al., 1987;Bergqvist et al., 1997;Lessa et al., 1998;Piló and Neves, 2003;Porpino et al., 2004;Castro and Langer, 2008;Ribeiro and Scherer, 2009). While fossils of Panthera onca are known for the Pleistocene of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Sergipe and Piauí (Dantas and Zucon, 2007;Kerber and Oliveira, 2008;Oliveira and Kerber, 2009), there are gaps in the knowledge about the ancient distribution of this animal. ...
Chapter
The karst region of the Upper Ribeira Valley has a rich fossil record of the Quaternary Period. At least 15 species of megamammals, typical from the Pleistocene age, have been found in its deposits. From this ancestral diversity, little remains. What would have been responsible for the local extinctions? This work discusses what the fossil record of the Ribeira Valley can inform about the region’s past. Paleoautoecological factors are considered in search to unveil the ecological history of the area. Climate changes appear to have been primarily responsible for shaping the local ecosystem, being also the best explanation for the extinction of local megafauna.
... There are records dated as Pleistocene of large extinct taxa that illustrate a diversification of wolf-like and dhole-like forms (Berta, 1981), such as Canis Linnaeus, Protocyon Giebel, Theriodictis Mercerat, Chrysocyon Hamilton Smith, and Speothos Lund. In Brazil, the record includes several remains of Protocyon troglodytes (Lund) and Cerdocyon thous (Wied) from Lagoa Santa (State of Minas Gerais) and limestone caves of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Norte (Lessa et al., 1998;Cartelle & Langguth, 1999;Porpino et al. 2004). Protocyon troglodytes has been reported in other late Pleistocene deposits of the states of Piaui, Ceará, Paraíba and Paraná (Born & Sedor, 2001; see Prevosti et al., 2005). ...
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Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8(3):215-220, Setembro/Dezembro 2005 © 2005 by the Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia 215 ABSTRACT – An incomplete maxilla with P4 and M1, from the late Pleistocene lacustrine sands of the System Barrier III (Santa Vitória Formation), is the first record of Protocyon troglodytes (Lund) for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This material differs from Theriodictis, a closely related genus, in characters of the P4 (protocone more reduced) and M1 (hypocone more reduced, and the inner half mesiodistally narrower and straighter). Differently of southern Brazil living canids such as Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous and Dusicyon gymnocercus, P. troglodytes developed dental adaptations associated to hypercarnivory in having large paracone on M1, strong reduction of protocone on P4 and reduction and simplification of talonids. In the latest Pleistocene, the climate was colder and grassland landscapes were predominant in southern Brazil, where several potential large and medium-sized ungulate preys were present. Protocyon troglodytes probably preyed on medium-sized grazers or browsers but not on the megafauna, or only on young individuals of this size class. RESUMO – Um maxilar incompleto com P4 e M1, coletado em sedimentitos lacustres do Pleistoceno Tardio do Sistema-Barreira III (Formação Santa Vitória), constitui o primeiro registro de Protocyon troglodytes (Lund) para o Rio Grande do Sul. Este material difere de Theriodictis, gênero intimamente relacionado a Protocyon, em caracteres do P4 (protocone reduzido) e do M1 (hipocone mais reduzido e apresentando sua porção lingual comprimida e retilínea). Diferentemente de canídeos sul-brasileiros atuais como Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous e Dusicyon gymnocercus, P. troglodytes desenvolveu adaptações dentárias relacionadas à hipercarnivoria, em tendo um grande paracone no M1, forte redução do protocone no P4 e redução e simplificação de talonidos. No final do Pleistoceno o clima foi mais frio e mais seco no sul do Brasil, prevalecendo áreas abertas, onde várias presas potenciais compostas de ungulados de tamanho grande e médio estiveram presentes. Protocyon troglodytes, provavelmente, não predava megamíferos e sim herbívoros de tamanho médio ou apenas indivíduos jovens da megafauna.
... Nos depósitos quaternários brasileiros, Cerdocyon thous Smith, 1839, Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842), Dusicyon cf. D. avus (Burmeister, 1866), Protocyon troglodytes (Lund, 1842), Crysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) e Theriodictis Mercerat, 1891, têm sido os táxons de canídeos registrados (Berta, 1984; Gomide, 1989; Guérin et al., 1993; Bergqvist, 1993; Cartelle, 1999; Cartelle & Langguth, 1999; Lessa et al., 1999; Porpino et al., 2004; Rodrigues et al., 2004; Sedor et al., 2004; Soibelzon & Prevosti, 2007; Ribeiro & Scherer, 2009). Além de se restringirem ao sul do país, os registros de Theriodictis sp. e D. avus para o Brasil são duvidosos (Soibelzon & Prevosti, 2007) e, portanto, não serão discutidos neste trabalho. ...
... The oldest lutrine record is L. longicaudis from the Ensenadan of Buenos Aires province in Argentina (Rusconi, 1932;Berta and Marshall, 1978;Berman, 1994), found in levels that could be dated between 1.8 and 0.98 Ma (Soibelzon et al., 2005). Other Pleistocene records of this species come from the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene) of Buenos Aires province and northern Uruguay, and from the late Pleistocene of Minas Gerais and Bahia in Brazil (Ameghino, 1889;Lessa et al., 1998;Cartelle, 1999;Ubilla et al., 2004;Cartelle and Hirooka, 2005). The Argentinean fossil has been found in Lujanian beds potentially between 130 and 8.5 Ka Tonni 1999, 2005), whereas the Uruguayan record comes from beds dated between 58 and 43 Ka (Ubilla et al., 2004). ...
Article
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The fossil record of Neotropical Lutrinae is very incomplete, with a few specimens of Lontra and three records of Pteronura. The published records of Pteronura correspond to remains of Pteronura sp. from Lujanian beds inEntre Ríos province (Argentina) and P. brasiliensis found in the “Late Pleistocene” of Brazil, but they lack stratigraphic context and their age could range from at least 380–0.9 Ka. P. brasiliensis, the giant river otter, inhabits rivers and lakes of northern central South America, and has been related to the North American fossil otter Satherium. In this work we describe and compare a very complete specimen of Pteronura found in Entre Ríos province using classical morphological descriptive and multivariate analyses, discuss the importance of this specimen for the fossil record of the taxon, and perform a preliminary phylogenetic analysis. The specimen agrees in morphometric and qualitative characters with the recent species P. brasiliensis, but is slightly larger and presents some minor differences in skull and dental morphology. These differences are interpreted as intraspecific variation, thus the fossil is interpreted as P. brasiliensis. In the phylogenetic analysis, the studied specimen clusters with P. brasiliensis, corroborating the taxonomic determination and supporting a relationship between Satherium and Pteronura. The specimen is the first fossil record of the genus for Argentina, and the oldest corroborated record, with a 130–125 Ka tentative age.
... Since the mid-19th century, the exploration of cave deposits yielded most of the available information on Brazilian Quaternary mammals (Lund, 1840;Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Lessa et al., 1998;Salles et al., 1999;Santos et al., 2002;Castro and Langer, 2011;Ghilardi et al., 2011;Avilla et al., 2013). These deposits commonly protect the organic remains from normal processes of disintegration, at the same time acting as a natural trap for living animals or a burial site for their remains (Behrensmeyer and Hook, 1992). ...
Article
This paper describes new remains of Propraopus sulcatus from a late Quaternary cave deposit located in Aurora do Tocantins, northern Brazil. Propraopus was recorded in numerous late Pleistocene–early Holocene sites in South America, and its inclusiveness has been long debated. In order to address some of the controversial taxonomic questions, the osteoderms of P. sulcatus were qualitatively and quantitatively compared to those of related nominal species (Propraopus grandis, Propraopus magnus, Dasypus bellus, and Dasypus punctatus); special attention was given to the former due to the debated synonymy between both taxa. Analyses reveal that there is no morphologic, spatial, or temporal discontinuity between P. sulcatus and P. grandis. Adopting morphologic, associational, and distributional criteria to define morphospecies, we believe it is impossible to clearly separate both nominal entities. As a consequence, in agreement with previous studies, we favor their synonymization. P. sulcatus has nomenclatural priority over P. grandis and should be the valid name for the species. The scarce analyzed remains referred to P. magnus show concordant size and morphology with P. sulcatus, but the analysis of more complete material is essential to determine its synonymization. Finally, we revised and updated the geochronologic distribution of Propraopus.
... Para tanto, foram levantadas as distribuições geográficas dos carnívoros (canídeos, felídeos e ursídeos) encontrados em depósitos dessa idade no Brasil, as informações sobre o porte desses animais e seus hábitos alimentares. Essas informações foram coletadas nos trabalhos de Berta (1984), Gomide et al., (1987), Gomide (1989), Bergqvist (1993), Guérin et al. (1993), Trajano & Ferrarezzi (1994), Cartelle (1998, Cartelle & Langguth (1999), Lessa et al. (1998) ...
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In this work, a detailed taphonomic analysis of the fossil accumulation of Pleistocene vertebrates from the Tank of the Jirau, Itapipoca, Ceará State, Brazil, was undertaken. Macroscopic taphonomic features were observed and interpreted based on analysis of 1405 skeletal elements, associated to fossildiagenetic study of specimens and to interpretation of geologic data collected in the field. Moreover, comparative taphonomic and taxonomic studies were developed to recognize taphonomic patterns for natural tank deposits from Northeastern Brazil. Jirau thanatocoenosis was exposed for a long time before burial, suffering, additionally, action of scavengers and trampling. Short transport carried skeletal elements to the tank. Possibly, the deposit suffered several cycles of reworking and the material already buried was mixed with bioclasts just incorporated in the taphonomic cycle. Permineralization by opaque minerals and calcium and iron carbonates was the predominant fossilization process in the Jirau fossil accumulation, although substitution by calcite also occurred. Analysis of sedimentological, bioestratinomic, fossildiagenetic and paleoecological features suggests arid or semiarid climate during life time of the biocoenosis that generated the fossil concentration here studied and more humid climate after final burial. Comparative study with other Northeastern natural tanks indicates homogeneous taphonomic processes for tank deposits, which can reflect homogeneous environmental conditions for this region during Late Pleistocene.
... Além disso, marcas geradas por instrumentos de corte humanos possuem concavidade com formato em "V" (Bunn, 1981;Potts & Shipman, 1981;Shipman & Rose, 1983;Bunn & Kroll, 1986). As marcas aqui observadas apresentam concavidade com formato em "U", o que segundo Haynes (1980bHaynes ( , 1982 (Berta, 1984;Gomide, 1989;Guérin et al., 1993;Bergqvist, 1993;Cartelle, 1999;Cartelle & Langguth, 1999;Lessa et al., 1999;Porpino et al., 2004;Rodrigues et al., 2004;Sedor et al., 2004;Soibelzon & Prevosti, 2007;Ribeiro & Scherer, 2009). Além de se restringirem ao sul do país, os registros de Theriodictis sp. e D. avus para o Brasil são duvidosos (Soibelzon & Prevosti, 2007) e, portanto, não serão discutidos neste trabalho. ...
Article
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CARNIVORE/SCAVENGER TEETH MARKS ON PLEISTOCENE MAMMALS FROM THE NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL. In this work, the first occurrence of carnivore/scavenger teeth marks on Pleistocene fossil mammals collected in the Northeastern Brazil is reported. The fossils are from the "Tank of the Jirau", Itapipoca municipality, Ceara State, and are housed in the Museu de Pre-historia de Itapipoca. The observed features, which are assigned to a large- sized canid, correspond to scratches marks mostly perpendicular to the long axis of the bone, occurring mainly in ribs, vertebrae, tibiae and ulnae. Based on the size of the scratches, the geographical distribution and dietary habits of canids from the Late Pleistocene of Brazil, Protocyon troglodytes (Lund) is the most likely producer of the observed features, although this taxon is not represented in the Jirau fossil accumulation.
... Referring to the Carnivora, Smilodon populator (Felidae) has been recorded in Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Paraíba (Gomide et al., 1987;Bergqvist et al., 1997;Lessa et al., 1998;Piló and Neves, 2003;Porpino et al., 2004;Castro and Langer, 2008;Ribeiro and Scherer, 2009). While fossils of Panthera onca are known for the Pleistocene of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Sergipe and Piauí (Dantas and Zucon, 2007;Kerber and Oliveira, 2008;Oliveira and Kerber, 2009), there are gaps in the knowledge about the ancient distribution of this animal. ...
Article
The carbonate caves of the Upper Ribeira Valley, southeastern São Paulo State, Brazil, preserve an abundant fossil record of Pleistocene-Holocene South American megafauna. Nevertheless, in comparison with other localities of the country, its paleontological knowledge still can be considered sparse and in need of further research. This work presents an update taxonomic survey of the megafauna material collected since the beginning of the explorations in the area. Based on this, it discusses paleobiogeographic and paleoecological questions. The fossil megafauna of the Upper Ribeira karst region include: Eremotherium laurillardi, Nothrotherium maquinense, Lestodon armatus, Catonyx cuvieri, ‘Ocnopus gracilis’, Ahytherium aff. aureum, Glyptodon clavipes, G. reticulatus, Hoplophorus cf., Toxodon spp., Stegomastodon waringi, Equidae (Hippidion cf.), Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca and Smilodon populator. Only P. onca and T. terrestris still remain in the region. Despite the occurrence of some typical taxa of the pampean paleobiogeographical province, the fossil assemblage recorded shows greater affinity to the mega-mammal community of the intertropical region. The ecology of species found suggests the previous occurrence of fairly different environmental settings than the existing one in the area. There were more temperate climates – both dry and wet – until the current mesophytic forest was finally established. The studied material does not show any kind of chrono-correlation, given the type of genesis of the cave accumulations. These fossils depict different faunistic moments related to climate changes during the Quaternary. To better understand the information provided by these deposits, efforts on dating and detailed taphonomic investigations should be conducted. The studies of the Quaternary fauna in the state of São Paulo fill an important gap in the intricate biogeographical history of the South American megafauna.
... from the Ensenadan (late Pliocene to early middle Pleistocene, sensu Cione and ), and " H. yagouaroundi " from the " Ensenadan " of Bolivia (Hoffstetter 1963Hoffstetter , 1986 Berta, 1983; Deschamps and Borromei, 1992; Berman, 1994; but see below). On. tigrina, H. yagouaroundi, Le. pardalis, Le. wiedii, have been found at paleontological sites in Brazil (late Pleistocene–Holocene; (Winge, 1895; Lund, 1950; Guérin et al., 1996; Lessa et al., 1998; Seymour, 1999). Seymour (1999) described several bones of Le. cf. ...
Article
In this paper the systematic position and age of several Pleistocene cat remains found in southern South American are studied, in an attempt to more fully document the scarce record of the group and clear up their obscure Quaternary history. The fossils are compared with a large sample of recent specimens by means of qualitative and quantitative characters, as well as multivariate methods (discriminant analysis). The age of previous records is restricted using recent chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic studies. Ly. colocolo is recorded in the late Ensenadan (0.78–0.5 Ma BP) and Bonaerian/Lujanian (0.5 Ma–8.5 Ka BP) ages of the Pampean Region (Argentina) and in the late Pleistocene or Holocene of Tierra del Fuego (Chile). An incomplete hemimandible found in the Bonaerian of the Pampean Region is referred to cf. Herpailurus and could be the earliest record of this lineage. Two other remains could belong to On. geoffroyi, but their incompleteness and some differences prevent their assignation to this recent species. The age of “Felis” vorohuensis is restricted to the late Ensenadan. The fossil record of the Ocelot Lineage is very fragmentary, but it is at least as old as late Ensenadan. Taphonomic biases are responsible for this poor fossil record and this fact could partially explain the hiatus with respect to the timing estimated by molecular divergence. The combination of data suggests that Ly. colocolo, On. guigna, On. geoffroyi and Oreailurus jacobita speciated in South America, supporting previous opinions. If the molecular divergence dates are right the recent diversity of this group could be explained by a minimum of five to six immigrations.
... Moreover, these were the only canids large enough to produce the tooth marks which we recognized on gomphothere bones from Águas de Araxá. The hypercarnivore Protocyon troglodytes was recorded throughout Brazilian states such as Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Paraná, while Theriodictis sp. was recorded in Brazil only in its southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul (Lessa et al., 1999;Prevosti et al., 2004;Porpino et al., 2004;Rodrigues et al., 2004). Thus, P. troglodytes is the most probable candidate to have caused damage on gomphothere bones from Águas de Araxá. ...
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This study reports implications of different tooth marks left by carnivorous mammals on long bones of Haplomastodon waringi from the Quaternary of Águas de Araxá, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Analyses of gnawing damage by ursids, felids, and canids have shown that these groups produce pits on bone surfaces when the gnawing is superficial, and punctures more often when the prey is intensely consumed. Scratches or scoring marks are most often associated with gnawing by canids, which may spend a long time gnawing the bones, leading to differential tooth marking. The gomphothere bones at Águas de Araxá did not result from predation, but are a consequence of a local mass mortality in a period of low environmental humidity, with little water and a scarcity of food. Canids frequently act as opportunistic scavengers during periods when herbivores face food shortages. Previous studies of necrophagous dermestid larvae indicate that the gomphothere carcasses of Águas de Araxá were exposed for a long period of time after death. These insects are the last consumers of a carcass because they act only when the body fat is completely lost. Thus, the gomphothere carcasses at Águas de Araxá suffered canid necrophagy in the early stages of decomposition, possibly during a drought period. Thereafter, the gomphothere carcasses would have been exposed for a period about 230 days until the final burial event.
... Finalmente, as 35 predições alternativas (combinação de 7 Ubilla et al., 2007 St. Vit. do Palmar -RS, Brasil -52.5 -32.5 Lujaniano 1 Rodrigues et al., 2004 Provincia do Chaco, Argentina -59.5 -27.5 Lujaniano 1 Zurita et al., 2004 Abismo Iguatemi -SP, Brasil -48.5 -25.5 14.580 1 Castro & Langer, 2008 Lagoa Santa -MG, Brasil -43.5 -19.5 Pleistoceno 1 Paula Couto, 1979, 1980, Guerin et al., 1996 Toca da Raposa -SE, Brasil -37.5 -10.5 Pleistoceno final 1 Dantas, 2009 Curimatas -PB, Brasil -36.5 -7.5 Pleistoceno 1 Paula Couto, 1979, 1980, Guerin et al., 1996 Laj. de Soledade -RN, Brasil -37.5 -5.5 Pleistoceno final 1 Porpino et al., 2004 Itapipoca -CE, Brasil -39.5 -3.5 Pleistoceno 1 Paula Couto, 1979, 1980, Guerin et al., 1996 Inciarte & Hartwig, 1996; Lessa et al., 1998 Serra da Capivara -PI, Brasil -42.5 -8.5 48.000 -10.000 1,2 Guérin, 1991; Guérin et al., 1996 La Brea -Talara, Perú -80.5 -5.5 14.418+-535; 13.616+-600 1,2 Pujos & Salas, 2004 Lagoa Santa -MG, Brasil -43.5 -19.5 9.260+/-150 (ZMUC-sn); 9.130+-150 (Beta-174722) 2 Neves & Piló, 2003; Piló & Neves, 2003; Auler et al., 2006 Pampa de los fossiles, Perú -78.5 -8.5 12.000 -9.000 2 Borrero, 2009 Cueva del Mylodon e Cueva Sofia, Chile -72.5 -51.5 11.265+-45 (Oxa-13717); 11.420+-50 (Oxa-14457) 2 Martin, 2008; Borrero, 2009 *As coordenadas geográficas indicam o centróide das parcelas de 1º x 1º onde cada registro foi encontrado. ...
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PAST SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELING: A PROMISING APPROACH IN PALEOECOLOGY. Paleoecological studies are based on fossil records, which often have spatial and temporal gaps, making the analysis of past biotas more difficult, or even impossible. Thus, Species Distribution Models (SDMs) may be useful tools to complement the available information on the geographical distribution of species over time, and have been applied to many different paleoecological questions involving fossil data and paleoclimatic simulations. This paper presents a review of SDMs applied to paleoecological questions, showing how to build and evaluate these models using fossil data, as well as discussing important issues about their assumptions, uncertainties, and challenges. Moreover, it is illustrate the applicability of SDMs to paleoecological studies by discussing the extinction dynamics of Smilodon populator Lund based on the modeling of their geographic distribution over the last 126 ky BP.
... In the Quaternary deposits of Brazil, Cerdocyon thous Smith, 1839, Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842), Dusicyon cf. D. avus (Burmeister, 1866), Protocyon troglodytes (Lund, 1842), Crysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) and Theriodictis sp., however, only C. thous and P. troglodytes have been reported in the northeastern Brazil (Bergqvist et al., 1997;Cartelle and Langguth, 1999;Lessa et al., 1999;Porpino et al., 2004). Considering their size, only P. troglodytes is compatible with the tooth traces observed in MCC 242-V, MCC 482-V and MCC 491-V. ...
... Northeastern Brazil is relatively rich in the presence of Pleistocene-Holocene vertebrate remains in caves (e.g. Cartelle, 1992Cartelle, , 1994Cartelle, , 1995Cartelle, , 1999Cartelle and Abuhid, 1994;Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996;Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Lessa et al., 1998). However, investigations concerning invertebrate remains in these caves are missing. ...
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O Parque Nacional de Ubajara apresenta o mais significativo relevo cárstico do Es-tado do Ceará, composto por nove morros calcários onde se encontram 14 grutas. Entre estas grutas destaca-se a do Urso Fóssil, no Morro do Pendurado, na qual crânio e man-díbula de um urso Arctotherium brasiliense (Lund, 1840), foram encontrados em 1978. Nesta gruta recentemente foi coletado o primeiro registro de moluscos de idade eoholo-cênica do Estado do Ceará, que está reportado neste trabalho. Os espécimes são conchas de gastrópodes completas e fragmentadas, que foram retiradas durante escavação em uma das salas, denominada Sala da Entrada. O material estudado está depositado na coleção científica do Museu Dom José, Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú, e através de ana-tomia comparada e observação dos caracteres e feições de ornamentação, foi identificado como pertencente às famílias: Bulimulidae, Subulinidae e Odontostomidae. Os táxons de gastrópodes encontrados sugerem que a região da Ibiapaba não passou por mudanças drásticas pelo menos nos últimos 8.000 anos já que a fauna é semelhante à atualmente encontrada na área.
... Referring to the Carnivora, Smilodon populator (Felidae) has been recorded in Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Paraíba (Gomide et al., 1987;Bergqvist et al., 1997;Lessa et al., 1998;Piló and Neves, 2003;Porpino et al., 2004;Castro and Langer, 2008;Ribeiro and Scherer, 2009). While fossils of Panthera onca are known for the Pleistocene of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Sergipe and Piauí (Dantas and Zucon, 2007;Kerber and Oliveira, 2008;Oliveira and Kerber, 2009), there are gaps in the knowledge about the ancient distribution of this animal. ...
... (Ubilla et al. 2004;Soibelzon and Prevosti 2007;Seymour 2010). In Brazil, the records of this species are dated from the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene in the states of Piauí (Faure et al. 1999), Bahia (Lessa et al. 1998), Minas Gerais (Paula Couto 1979Cartelle 1999), São Paulo (Paula Couto 1979;Ghilardi et al. 2011), and Mato Grosso do Sul (Perini et al. 2009). ...
Article
The region of Lagoa Santa, State of Minas Gerais (Brazil) presents an important karst complex that includes several caves with a large amount of osteological material. Among the places of great palaeontological importance is the Cuvieri Cave, known for the diversity of extinct and extant animal species, including large cats. The Felidae emerged in South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange, and in a short period, they became the main predators of the region, with considerable osteological record. Currently, Panthera onca is the main carnivore in Neotropical America, even so Pleistocene specimens are little known or studied. An adult specimen, represented by teeth, small appendicular bones (calcaneus, astragalus, phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals) and fragmented larger bones (ulna, femur and tibia), of Pleistocene age found in the Cuvieri Cave is presented here, providing anatomical and preservation data, adding information about this species in the Brazilian Quaternary.
... The samples analyzed here from Bahia come from the Toca dos Ossos Cave, a limestone cave located near the municipality of Ourolândia. The cave consists of a main stream passage associated with ramifications, exhibiting a maze pattern (Cartelle, 1992;Lessa et al., 1998;Auler et al., 2006). A diverse and abundant mammal paleofauna was found in the upper and lower levels of the cave. ...
Article
In the present study, the paleoecology (diet and niche width) of Late Quaternary megamammals that inhabited the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR) was assessed at two sites in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso do Sul. The δ13C analyses suggest a generalist diet for Notiomastodon platensis, Palaeolama major, Holmesina paulacoutoi and Glyptotherium sp., while Equus neogeus was a grazer with a diet consisting exclusively of C4 grasses, and Eremotherium laurillard, a predominant browser with a diet consisting predominantly of C3 plants. A distinct diet pattern was inferred for one species: Toxodon platensis with a mixed-diet preferring C4 grasses in Mato Grosso do Sul but predominantly the C3 feeder in Bahia. These results show a high ecological plasticity of this species and may suggest distinct ecological pressures or different vegetation configurations in the two regions. Diet reconstitutions based on δ13C analyses suggest that an open savanna-like landscape predominated in both areas. The δ18O values reveal that Mato Grosso do Sul could have experienced wetter climatic conditions than Bahia during the Late Quaternary, suggesting a humid corridor in midwestern Brazil, or that there were different contents of δ18O of water sources between these areas. Hence, we assume that the same faunistic composition in different geographical areas is not enough to delimit the ecosystems of the BIR, and we recommend that the definitions of BIR should be revised to include more refined paleoclimate data. Other studies around the world should consider the same for delimitations of zoogeographic regions.
... O Estado da Bahia abriga, em seus ambientes deposicionais como tanques e cavernas, diversos fósseis, sobretudo de mamíferos do Quaternário, tornando-se um estado com um alto potencial fossilífero [4]. Lessa et al. (1998) [5] [12]. Comparando o comprimento da fileira superior de dentes (CDS) com as medidas apresentadas por Gregorin (2006) [13] e Araújo et al. (2016) [6] (Tabela 1), nota-se que as medidas assemelham-se com diversas espécies do gênero e são menores que as encontradas para machos, sugerimos assim que a maxila pertencia a uma fêmea, já que esse gênero apresenta uma dimorfismo sexual evidente [13]. ...
Article
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O presente trabalho realizou a identificação taxonômica de mamíferos fósseis de cinco taxa pertencentes aos gêneros: Alouatta, Myocastor, Tamandua, Pecari e Tapirus, encontrados na gruta Lapa do Bode localizada no município de Ituaçu-BA. Os fósseis foram transportados e triados no Laboratório de Ecologia e Geociências localizado na Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Anísio Teixeira, Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Vitória da Conquista. Os táxons foram identificados em sua maioria por uso da fórmula dentária, características morfometrias e morfológicas descritas na literatura e/ou comparação com espécimes da coleção do Laboratório. Os materiais variaram em estado de preservação, logo o conjunto faunístico pode não representar uma única comunidade. Estudos futuros poderão corroborar a hipótese apresentada.
... They were last recorded at the early middle Pleistocene (Cyonasua meranii; Soibelzon, Zurita, Gasparini, & Soibelzon, 2008;Tarquini, Vilchez-Barral, & Soibelzon, 2016). The second immigration event probably took place during the late Pleistocene-Holocene, and includes the extant South American taxa (see Lessa, Cartelle, Faria, & Gonçalves, 1998;Rodriguez et al., 2013;Soibelzon et al., 2010;Webb, 1985; and articles cited therein). However, Ruiz-Ramoni, Rincón, and Montellano-Ballesteros (2018) suggest that a record of Nasua and Procyon from El Breal of Orocual, Venezuela, is the oldest for these taxa (Marplatan, late Pliocene). ...
... Some studies state that the land bridge connecting South and Central America could already be present by 13-15 Ma (Montes et al., 2015;Bacon et al., 2016; but see Marko et al., 2015;O'Dea et al., 2016), but even accepting the Chapadmalalan age of C. altiramus (something we cannot corroborate) there is a large gap between these ages (13-15 Ma vs. 3.3-4 Ma). However, confirmed Conepatus fossil records do not agree with this interpretation and are more congruent with at least a lower Pleistocene immigration of Conepatus to South America (Prevosti and Forasiepi, 2018) and a later establishment of a Panamian bridge (Marko et al., 2015;O'Dea et al., 2016) The other fossil species of Conepatus from South America indicate that for the Late Pleistocene, the genus was widespread across South America: C. semistriatus from the Late Pleistocene of Brazil and Venezuela (Lund, 1843;Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996;Lessa et al., 1998;Ruiz-Ramoni et al., 2015), C. talarae for the Late Pleistocene of Perú (Churcher and van Zyll de Jong, 1965), and C. mercedensis and C. primaevus for the Late Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province (Burmeister, 1864;Ameghino, 1875;Gervais and Ameghino, 1880). Conepatus mercedensis has been treated as a valid species by Berman (1994), including the species described by Rusconi (1932), as C. mercedensis praecursor, coming from "Toscas del Río de La Plata" from early to Middle Pleistocene (see Soibelzon et al., 2008). ...
Article
There are three extant species of hog-nosed skunks widely distributed from North to South America, with a dubious number of fossil species. The oldest record comes from the early Pliocene of Mexico, while several Pleistocene species were registered from Argentina (Conepatus cordubensis, C. mercedensis and C. primaevus, plus C. altiramus with a dubious provenance). Conepatus talarae and C. semistriatus were recovered in Late Pleistocene levels of other countries of South America. Unfortunately, there is no recent review of South American fossil Conepatus’, thus the status of several species is not clear. We review the systematics of fossil Conepatus species from Argentina, using morphological descriptions, geometric morphometric analyses and taking into account recent intraspecific variation. We also performed a cladistic analysis to explore the phylogenetic position of the valid fossil species. Morphological variation and morphometric analyses allowed us to recognize three extinct valid species for Argentina: C. altiramus, C. mercedensis and C. primaevus, with varying degrees of overlap between fossil and extant species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Mydaus is the sister extant group of the other three genera, Mephitis is the sister group of Conepatus, and within this genus there is a “northern” clade that departs from a “southern” clade, as previously reported; the southern clade does not have internal resolution. Fossil records with confident stratigraphic provenance indicate that Conepatus is present in South America after 1.8 Ma jointly with several clades that migrated during the Great American Biotic Interchange, and has first confirmed records in the Ensenadan (early-Middle Pleistocene).
... Temporal and geographic distribution: Eira barbara currently occurs from Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Argentina and southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina to northern Uruguay across tropical and subtropical forests (Wilson and Mittermeier 2009). The fossil record of Eira is limited to the "Lujanian" of Brazil, and a dubious mention for Tarija, Bolivia (Lessa et al. 1998;Cartelle 1999;Soibelzon and Prevosti 2007;. A record of Eira cf. ...
Chapter
The Earth experienced dramatic transformations during the Cenozoic, with changing sea levels, climate, and tectonic events having major influences on the global biota. In South America, loss of the connection between Patagonia and Antarctica, Andean orogeny, and formation of the Isthmus of Panama defined the continent, as we know it today. These events had enormous effects on local faunas, with major consequences for their evolution and extinction. The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), a major natural experiment in biotic reorganization, was either enabled or at least greatly enhanced by land connections between North and South America during the late Neogene. The outcome of the meeting of previously separated biotas was a drastic change, both for the composition of South American faunas and the terrestrial ecosystems they inhabited.
... Temporal and geographic distribution: Eira barbara currently occurs from Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Argentina and southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina to northern Uruguay across tropical and subtropical forests (Wilson and Mittermeier 2009). The fossil record of Eira is limited to the "Lujanian" of Brazil, and a dubious mention for Tarija, Bolivia (Lessa et al. 1998;Cartelle 1999;Soibelzon and Prevosti 2007;. A record of Eira cf. ...
Chapter
South America has a rich fossil record that allows the reconstruction of the continental communities during the Cenozoic. Florentino Ameghino was one of the earliest advocates of a temporal sequence of faunas and biogeographic events, later refined by several authors (e.g., George G. Simpson, Rosendo Pascual, Bryan Patterson). This scheme is continually revised and improved by new faunal, systematic, and chronological studies. The fossil record is always incomplete, and many biases are recognized, some of them—the megabiases affect the interpretation of the global fossil record. For example, in South America, a megabias exists with respect to tropical areas, particularly before the Late Pleistocene. The SA fossil record contains large hiatuses between ages, with some ages being unconstrained by geochronological dates, while others are poorly sampled in terms of fossil recovery, faunal diversity, and identified localities. This form of bias which together with the differential duration of the South American Ages affects interpretation of the evolution of the continental fauna. In this chapter, we examine the spatial distribution of South American fossil localities, their frequency per age in the Cenozoic, and discuss the effect biases in the fossil record by means of a statistical approach.
... Temporal and geographic distribution: Eira barbara currently occurs from Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Argentina and southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina to northern Uruguay across tropical and subtropical forests (Wilson and Mittermeier 2009). The fossil record of Eira is limited to the "Lujanian" of Brazil, and a dubious mention for Tarija, Bolivia (Lessa et al. 1998;Cartelle 1999;Soibelzon and Prevosti 2007;. A record of Eira cf. ...
Chapter
Carnivora is a clade of mammalian predators that evolved in northern continents during the Paleocene, and since the Miocene have invaded the southern continents (i.e., Africa and South America). They evolved a large diversity and disparity of body forms and size, which allowed the occupation of many ecological niches. Carnivorans arrived in South America in the late Miocene, when Central America provided a land bridge, or an island chain that facilitated migration of initial mammalian groups including carnivorans. The first carnivorans in South America were procyonids, followed by mustelids and canids in the late Pliocene, and felids, mephitids, and ursids in the Pleistocene. Their high diversity and morphological disparity can be explained through a combination of repeated immigrations and radiations into empty ecological zones. Here we present a synthesis of the systematics, distribution, and paleocology of fossil terrestrial carnivorans of South America.
... Temporal and geographic distribution: Eira barbara currently occurs from Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Argentina and southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina to northern Uruguay across tropical and subtropical forests (Wilson and Mittermeier 2009). The fossil record of Eira is limited to the "Lujanian" of Brazil, and a dubious mention for Tarija, Bolivia (Lessa et al. 1998;Cartelle 1999;Soibelzon and Prevosti 2007;. A record of Eira cf. ...
Chapter
The process by which successive groups using the same resources occupy the same geographic area through time is frequently attributed to competition. Several authors have argued that competitive displacement was the cause of the decline and extinction of Sparassodonta, due to the introduction of carnivorans into South America about 8–7 Ma, although this view has been recently criticized. The diversity of Sparassodonta was low relative to that of Carnivora throughout the Cenozoic. The greatest peak in sparassodontan diversity was during the early Miocene (Santacrucian), with 11 species. After the late Miocene (Huayquerian), sparassodont diversity decreased and the group became extinct in the mid-Pliocene (~3 Ma, Chapadmalalan). In the late Miocene–mid Pliocene (Huayquerian–Chapadmalalan), the fossil record shows that sparassodonts and carnivorans overlapped. During this time, carnivoran diversity consisted of four or fewer species; thereafter, it expanded to more than 20 species in the early–Middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan). Initially, Carnivora was represented by middle-sized, omnivorous species, with large omnivores first represented in the mid-Pliocene (Chapadmalalan). By contrast, over this period, Sparassodonta was represented by both large and small hypercarnivores and a single large omnivorous species. We review hypotheses of replacement using the available information and perform new analyses to test the effect of sampling bias, ecological overlap between clades, and the relevance of environmental and faunistic changes for the evolution of sparassodonts. From this review of the fossil record, it is suggested that stochastic mechanisms other than competitive displacement may have caused the decline and extinction of Sparassodonta, possibly as part of a larger faunistic turnover related to multicausal biological and physical factors. Similarly, at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, an extinction event affected large mammals in South America, including large carnivorans, in the context of a multicausal event that involved human presence as well as collateral factors.
... Temporal and geographic distribution: Eira barbara currently occurs from Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Argentina and southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina to northern Uruguay across tropical and subtropical forests (Wilson and Mittermeier 2009). The fossil record of Eira is limited to the "Lujanian" of Brazil, and a dubious mention for Tarija, Bolivia (Lessa et al. 1998;Cartelle 1999;Soibelzon and Prevosti 2007;. A record of Eira cf. ...
Chapter
The Sparassodonta was a clade of mammalian predators that evolved in South America from the early Paleocene (?Tiupampan–Peligran) or early Eocene (Itaboraian) to the early Pliocene (Chapadmalalan). They were a monophyletic group of metatherians closely related to living marsupials (e.g., opossums and kangaroos). Diverse ecological niches presented many opportunities for occupation by different morphotypes (principally defined by body mass and locomotion). The probable diet was hypercarnivorous for about 90% of the nearly 60 currently identified species. Here, we present a synthesis of the systematics, distribution, and paleoecology of the extinct Sparassodonta.
... The Lagoa Santa region is also distinguished by the vast diversity of paleontological sites with co-occurring megafaunal and human remains (Hubbe et al., 2013). Despite an immense diversity of megafaunal fossils in such a small area, the majority of data are descriptive (Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996;Lessa et al., 1998;Dantas et al., 2005;Cartelle et al., 2008;Marinho Silva et al., 2010). Few quantitative studies assess the landscape (Ghilardi et al., 2011;Pires et al., 2014) or climatic conditions within which these animals lived. ...
Article
Whether humans or climate change caused the extinction of megafaunal populations is actively debated. Caves in the Lagoa Santa provide mixed assemblages of megafauna and human remains; however, it remains uncertain the extent to which humans and megafauna interacted or overlapped temporally. Here we present the first paleoecological record from lowland South America that tracks the decline of megafauna and its ecological implications. We provide a data set for pollen, charcoal, and Sporormiella, from two lakes in southeastern Brazil that span the last 23,000 yr. The data showed reduced abundances of Sporormiella and an inferred megafaunal population decline that began 18,000 yr ago, with the functional extinction occurring between 12,000 and 11,500 yr ago. Population declines coincided with wet events. The age of the final megafaunal decline is within the range of the first human occupation of the region. Our data are consistent with climate causing the population collapse, with humans preventing population recovery and inducing extinction. We did not observe some of the ecological repercussions documented at other sites and attributed to the megafaunal extinction. Habitat-specific ecological consequences of the extinction add to the heterogeneity of late Pleistocene and early Holocene landscapes.
... In Brazil, fossils of this species are found in caves (Lessa et al., 1998;Cartelle, 1999;Perini et al., 2009;Ghilardi et al., 2011) and some datings put these taxa together with the extinct meso-megaherbivores and the faunivores for the Pleistocene megafauna (Rodrigues et al., 2014;Chahud and Okumura, 2020). ...
Article
This study presents isotopic analyses of Panthera onca from the late Pleistocene of the Brazilian Intertropical Region. This paper focuses on the paleoecology of this large cat and is of major importance to understand ecological niches in evolutionary time. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions were determined from the structural carbonate of enamel for two fossils of Panthera onca found in caves in Bahia, Brazil. Isotopic data available of large faunivores and other extinct and extant herbivorous taxa from the late Pleistocene of the Brazilian Intertropical Region were used for paleoecological interpretations. Carbon and oxygen isotopic values from P. onca allow us to suggest that these individuals lived in arboreal savanna habitat between 26 and 33 kyr BP and could feed mainly on Nothrotherium maquinense, Tapirus terrestris and Alouatta sp., being a specialist. The isotopic niche overlap with Smilodon populator and Arctotherium wingei was high, while with Protocyon troglodytes was low.
... These deposits typically include both large and small fossil vertebrates and are especially important for the latter, which are less commonly preserved in other depositional contexts (Andrews and Evans, 1983; Andrews, 1990, p. 1; Ferná ndez-Jalvo and Andrews, 1992). In Brazil, following the pioneer work of Peter Wilhelm Lund (Lund, 1840), cave deposits provided a great deal of well-preserved fossil remains (Paula-Couto, 1953, p. 26– 33), and they have been continuously explored (Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996; Lessa et al., 1998; Salles et al., 1999; Santos et al., 2002). Although the Quaternary fossil record shows high abundance and diversity of small mammals, these have been mostly disregarded in paleontological works in Brazil (Salles et al., 1999). ...
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The Quaternary vertebrate fauna record of South America is characterized by the predominance of mammals, and the study of cave deposits can provide important information on their diversity and distribution. In Brazil, cave deposits have preserved remarkable fossil remains, including both large and small vertebrates, although the former have been the focus of most paleontological works. The fossils studied here came from Abismo Iguatemi, a karstic fissure located in the municipality of Apiaí, upper Ribeira River valley, Sã o Paulo, Brazil. Blocks of sediment collected from its floor yielded a large sample of micro-remains, mainly composed of fragmentary small vertebrate specimens. Taphonomic parameters suggest that the fossil elements entered the cave either by entrapment or transported by rain runoff, as partially decayed carcasses or isolated elements. A total of 35 taxa were recorded in Abismo Iguatemi, four of which are extinct. The number of identified specimens per taxon (NISP index) is the best estimator of number of individuals at the burial site. The comparison of this fauna to that of other Quaternary deposits and to the present biodiversity of different areas reveals low similarity. The identification of fossil organisms with different ecological requirements (extinct savannah organisms and extant dense-forest organisms) suggests the existence of time averaging and may reflect environmental changes in the vicinity of the cave during the late Pleistocene and Holocene.
Article
Entre os sítios fósseis da região do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (Piauí), em dois foram evidenciados grandes carnívoros do Pleistoceno, a Toca de Cima dos Pilão e a Toca das Moendas. São duas cavernas que serviram de covil a estes predadores, nas quais foram encontrados inúmeros restos de presas. Na Toca das Moendas, um crânio e uma meia mandíbula do Canidae Protocyon troglodytes foram descobertos, o crânio é o segundo espécime completo conhecido para esta espécie. Nesta caverna descobriu-se ainda, duas meias mandíbulas, uma de um jovem e outra de um adulto, ambas do Machairodontinae Smilodon populator, que foram estudadas junto a outros restos notáveis de S. populator, notadamente uma meia mandíbula adulta, proveniente da Toca dos Pilão. Descrevemos a dentição decídua, que é ainda, muito pouco conhecida nesta espécie.
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Among fossiliferous quaternary deposits, caves are foremost in interest, in relation to richness as well as diversity of fossils preserved therein. The goals of this study are: (i) to review taphonomic research involving paleovertebrates collected in Brazilian caves, and (ii) to propose a controlled collection method for fossils in carbonate soils. The studies about Brazilian paleovertebrate taphonomy in caves began in the XIX century. Until the 1990s, they were conducted in low priority, restricted to taxonomic and paleoenvironmental aspects. After the 1990s, taphonomic studies became more relevant. They were then applied in quaternary deposits in many Brazilian states and used innovative techniques, e.g., chemical analysis and absolute dating methods. Fossil collecting demonstrated satisfactory results in carbonate soils. This technique safely removes bones without causing damage, and spatially reconstructs their location in the substrate, allowing detailed taphonomic interpretations.
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