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The use of Konjac glucomannan hydrolysates (GMH) to improve the health of the skin and reduce acne vulgaris

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... The prebiotic activity of DKGM has been mentioned briefly in some reviews which focused mainly on native KGM (Bateni et al., 2013;Behera and Ray, 2016;Tester and Al-Ghazzewi, 2017). In general, recent studies (Table 2) revealed that DKGM is valuable as a prebiotic via a number of mechanisms: ...
... (3) During the fermentation of DKGM, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (mainly acetic, propionic, and butyric acid) are generated, leading to a lowering of the gut pH. These SCFAs are a source of nutrition for gut microbes, and show positive effects for the treatment of inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gut and other organs Bateni et al., 2013;Wan et al., 2015;Sivaprakasam et al., 2016;Tao et al., 2016;Unger et al., 2016;Primec et al., 2017). ...
... Mechanism studies revealed that oral administration of DKGM not only promotes the proliferation of probiotics (mainly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium), which is consistent with the in vitro results, but also influences the intes-tinal environment (increasing intestinal villi height and SCFAs) and reduces the levels of inflammatory factors (malondialdehyde, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)). Furthermore, the physiological effects of DKGM in the gut were verified to be effective in the skin and vagina of humans Bateni et al., 2013), implying that the use of DKGM can be expanded to other ecological systems beyond the gut. ...
Article
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a water-soluble polysaccharide obtained from the roots and tubers of konjac plants. Recently, a degraded product of KGM, depolymerized KGM (DKGM), has attracted attention because of its low viscosity, improved hydrophily, and favorable physiological functions. In this review, we describe the preparation of DKGM and its prebiotic effects. Other health benefits of DKGM, covering antioxidant and immune activity, are also discussed, as well as its safety. DKGM could be a candidate for use as a tool for the treatment of various diseases, including intestinal flora imbalance, and oxidative- and immune-related disorders.
... In general, the mannans exhibit significant therapeutic properties on skin (17, 32, 55, 105,106). However, very little literature evidence is available regarding the use of glucomannans for burn therapy. ...
... Al-Ghazzewi and Tester (143) discussed the synbiotic ability of probiotic bacteria and hydrolysed konjac glucomannan towards inhibiting acne-inducing bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes) proliferation. Bateni et al. (105) studied the effect of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates on skin health, specifically towards reducing acne vulgaris presence in female volunteers. The authors reported that they found significant improvement of skin health for all patients. ...
... Glucomannans in general and especially depolymerised konjac glucomannans are able to exert a positive impact on skin health by reducing infections (105). They also promote accumulation of fibroblasts and stimulate the production of collagen in skin wounds (19,59,61). ...
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Glucomannans play a much broader role in human health then providing dietary fibre. They are biologically active molecules and can when added to the body imitate innate molecules found in different organs including surface carbohydrates on cells. This review considers the immunological role of exogenous glucomannans within animals and man. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see “For Readers”) may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue’s contents page.
... Some carbohydrates, e.g. konjac glucomannan, fructooligosaccharides, are capable of promoting skin health in unique ways, especially the glucomannans (Ghazzewi and Tester, 2010; Bateni et al., 2013). ...
... It is important to control the overgrowth of some resident bacteria, such as P. acnes on skin, and prebiotics could be a candidate for this. In a recent study by Bateni et al. (2013), it was found that topical formulations of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates were able to exert a positive and direct impact on skin health, reducing acne vulgaris in vivo and inducing a glow to skin. The authors suggested that there is a possible link between the glucomannan hydrolysates and sebum gland physiology. ...
Article
This review discusses the role of pre- and probiotics with respect to improving skin health by modulating the cutaneous microbiota. The skin ecosystem is a complex environment covered with a diverse microbiota community. These are classified as either transient or resident, where some are considered as beneficial, some essentially neutral and others pathogenic or at least have the capacity to be pathogenic. Colonisation varies between different parts of the body due to different environmental factors. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically (by ingestion). The pre- and probiotics have the capacity to optimise, maintain and restore the microbiota of the skin in different ways. Topical applications of probiotic bacteria have a direct effect at the site of application by enhancing the skin natural defence barriers. Probiotics as well as resident bacteria can produce antimicrobial peptides that benefit cutaneous immune responses and eliminate pathogens. In cosmetic formulations, prebiotics can be applied to the skin microbiota directly and increase selectively the activity and growth of beneficial 'normal' skin microbiota. Little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics. Nutritional products containing prebiotics and/or probiotics have a positive effect on skin by modulating the immune system and by providing therapeutic benefits for atopic diseases. This review underlines the potential use of pre- and probiotics for skin health.
... Traditionally, probiotics have been used to promote the health of the gastrointestinal tract (Connolly et al., 2010;Roberfroid et al., 2010;Willem et al., 2010;Hemarajata and Versalovic, 2013). However, in recent years interest in the use of probiotics for non-gut applications such as skin health (Bateni et al., 2013) and protection against dental caries (Maitra et al., 2013) have also emerged. Probiotics are primarily used in oral health applications to control cariogenic streptococci which colonize the mouth (Acharya, 2016) and manage diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, halitosis, and candidiasis (Flichy-Fernández et al., 2010;Pradeep et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Introduction Probiotics can be used to treat oral diseases such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and halitosis. Methods This study screened for strains capable of inhibiting Streptococcus mutans ,one of the primary pathogenic bacteria responsible for dental caries by agar diffusion in different samples. Strain identification was performed by 16S rDNA sequencing and the API 50CH system. The potential functions of the strains in terms of oral health properties were also tested by agglutination assays, growth inhibition assays, adhesion assays, biofilm removal assays and inhibition of adhesion in human primary gingival epithelial (HPGE) cells assays. Results This study identified a probiotic strain from fermented cabbages that has a strong inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans . The API 50CH system and 16S rDNA sequencing verified that this was a new strain and it was given the name, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum VHProbi ® V38. Agglutination, growth inhibition and adhesion, and biofilm removal tests indicated that L. plantarum VHProbi ® V38 inhibited and reduced S. mutans . This probiotic was shown to have a broad antibacterial spectrum, simultaneously inhibiting the growth of periodontal pathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , and Fusobacterium nucleatum . After 2 hours of co-cultivation with these pathogens, L. plantarum VHProbi ® V38 was able to significantly reduce pathogens adhesion on human primary gingival epithelial (HPGE) cells. Discussion These findings suggest that L. plantarum VHProbi ® V38 could potentially prevent and treat periodontal diseases caused by these pathogenic bacteria. L. plantarum VHProbi ® V38 also adheres strongly to HPGE cells and thus has potential as an oral probiotic. This study describes new methods that can be used to aid the screening and identification of oral probiotics.
... Prebiotics and probiotics also have the potential for modulating acne in cosmetic applications. Prebiotics composed of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates in spray formulation at 5% (w/v) reduce acne [211] via the inhibition of C. acnes growth [212,213]. Topical probiotics using commensal S. epidermidis can be suitable in acne disease thanks to its ability to change in vivo the host microbiome and in vitro inhibit C. acnes growth [53,214]. ...
Article
Full-text available
ermatological and cosmetics fields have recently started to focus on the human skin microbiome and microbiota, since the skin microbiota is involved in the health and dysbiosis of the skin ecosystem. Amongst the skin microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cutibacterium acnes, both commensal bacteria, appear as skin microbiota sentinels. These sentinels have a key role in the skin ecosystem since they protect and prevent microbiota disequilibrium by fighting pathogens and participate in skin homeostasis through the production of beneficial bacterial metabolites. These bacteria adapt to changing skin microenvironments and can shift to being opportunistic pathogens, forming biofilms, and thus are involved in common skin dysbiosis, such as acne or atopic dermatitis.
... Twenty-nine acne female patients treated with an oil-in-water formulation containing L. plantarum twice daily for 2 months reduced erythema and acne lesion size [77]. In addition, the application of the glucomannan hydrolysates as prebiotics twice daily for about 6 weeks improved disease severity in 26 female patients with acne [78]. Similarly, the application of the cream containing the UCO-SMC3 strain in 13 volunteers with acne significantly enhanced the scores that quantified disease improvement. ...
Article
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Previously, we isolated lactic acid bacteria from the slime of the garden snail Helix aspersa Müller and selected Weissella viridescens UCO-SMC3 because of its ability to inhibit in vitro the growth of the skin-associated pathogen Cutibacterium acnes. The present study aimed to characterize the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of W. viridescens UCO-SMC3 and to demonstrate its beneficial effect in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Our in vitro studies showed that the UCO-SMC3 strain resists adverse gastrointestinal conditions, inhibits the growth of clinical isolates of C. acnes, and reduces the adhesion of the pathogen to keratinocytes. Furthermore, in vivo studies in a mice model of C. acnes infection demonstrated that W. viridescens UCO-SMC3 beneficially modulates the immune response against the skin pathogen. Both the oral and topical administration of the UCO-SCM3 strain was capable of reducing the replication of C. acnes in skin lesions and beneficially modulating the inflammatory response. Of note, orally administered W. viridescens UCO-SMC3 induced more remarkable changes in the immune response to C. acnes than the topical treatment. However, the topical administration of W. viridescens UCO-SMC3 was more efficient than the oral treatment to reduce pathogen bacterial loads in the skin, and effects probably related to its ability to inhibit and antagonize the adhesion of C. acnes. Furthermore, a pilot study in acne volunteers demonstrated the capacity of a facial cream containing the UCO-SMC3 strain to reduce acne lesions. The results presented here encourage further mechanistic and clinical investigations to characterize W. viridescens UCO-SMC3 as a probiotic for acne vulgaris treatment.
... In adult acne, a phase 2 clinical trial reported a significant reduction of acne severity and inflammatory lesions with the use of a topical probiotic spray, although this study seems yet to be published in full [96]. Individuals treated with a bacterial strain in an oil-inwater formulation displayed reductions in erythema and acne lesion size, along with reparation of the skin barrier [97]; another study reported improvement in skin health associated with a topical probiotic spray used in acne patients [98]. In addition, one RCT demonstrated that a single strain probiotic cream significantly reduced skin sensitivity and increased resistance to chemical and physical injury in females with reactive skin [99]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence and severity of dermatological conditions such as atopic dermatitis have increased dramatically during recent decades. Many of the factors associated with an altered risk of developing inflammatory skin disorders have also been shown to alter the composition and diversity of non-pathogenic microbial communities that inhabit the human host. While the most densely microbial populated organ is the gut, culture and non-culture-based technologies have revealed a dynamic community of bacteria, fungi, viruses and mites that exist on healthy human skin, which change during disease. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the mechanisms through which microbes interact with each other on the skin and the signalling systems that mediate communication between the immune system and skin-associated microbes. In addition, we summarize the ongoing clinical studies that are targeting the microbiome in patients with skin disorders. While significant efforts are still required to decipher the mechanisms underpinning host-microbe communication relevant to skin health, it is likely that disease-related microbial communities, or Dermatypes, will help identify personalized treatments and appropriate microbial reconstitution strategies.
... Prebiotics and probiotics also have the potential for modulating acne in cosmetic applications. Prebiotics composed of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates in spray formulation at 5% (w/v) reduce acne [211] via the inhibition of C. acnes growth [212,213]. Topical probiotics using commensal S. epidermidis can be suitable in acne disease thanks to its ability to change in vivo the host microbiome and in vitro inhibit C. acnes growth [53,214]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dermatological and cosmetics fields have recently started to focus on the human skin microbiome and microbiota, since the skin microbiota is involved in the health and dysbiosis of the skin ecosystem. Amongst the skin microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cutibacterium acnes, both commensal bacteria, appear as skin microbiota sentinels. These sentinels have a key role in the skin ecosystem since they protect and prevent microbiota disequilibrium by fighting pathogens and participate in skin homeostasis through the production of beneficial bacterial metabolites. These bacteria adapt to changing skin microenvironments and can shift to being opportunistic pathogens, forming biofilms, and thus are involved in common skin dysbiosis, such as acne or atopic dermatitis. The current evaluation methods for cosmetic active ingredient development are discussed targeting these two sentinels with their assets and limits. After identification of these objectives, research of the active cosmetic ingredients and products that maintain and promote these commensal metabolisms, or reduce their pathogenic forms, are now the new challenges of the skincare industry in correlation with the constant development of adapted evaluation methods.
... Glucomannan content in taro has been intensively studied (Njintang et al. 2011;Ekowati et al. 2015). The glucomannan is explored in concern to health and beauty (Bateni et al. 2013;Tester and Al-ghazzewi 2016). Glucomannan is a neutral, fermentable and viscous dietary fiber that has been proven to reduce obese (Zalewski et al. 2015), to relieve physiological disorders especially diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (Shah et al. 2015), to reduce blood lipid and cholesterol (Behera and Ray 2016), and to extend storage in the frozen form of processed meat and fish products (Yang et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Maretta D, Sobir Helianti I, Purwono, Santosa E. 2020. Genetic diversity in Eddoe Taro (Colocasia esculenta var antiquorum) from Indonesia based on morphological and nutritional characteristics. Biodiversitas 21: 3525-3533. Low yield uniformity and quality due to genetic performance become negative incentives to farmers in Eddoe Taro production. However, genetic evaluation is rarely been reported in this taro type in Indonesia. In this study, 14 eddoe genotypes collected from different regions in Indonesia were evaluated to develop a diversity map for crop improvement and future breeding activities. The genotypes were planted in the open field from September 2018 to March 2019 at the experimental station belonging to LAPTIAB-BPPT, PUSPITEK at South Tangerang District, Indonesia. Morphological and nutritional characters were accessed on the shoot and underground parts. The genotypes exhibited variation in 38 out of 48 characters in which 12 quantitative characters were distinct including oxalate level. The study revealed three findings: (i) Characters related to growth and yield had high genotypic variance coefficients, i.e., sheath length, total petiole length, plant height, number of suckers, corm and cormels weight, (ii) Genotypes clustered into two separate groups as introduced and landraces, and (iii) Landraces had high genetic variation leading to speculation of high clonal variation. Considering the findings, accession S6, S7, S18, S30, and S36 are recommended for further studies in crop improvement purposes.
... Prebiotics are indigestible oligosaccharides that promote beneficial bacteria to colonise the gut (Ashwini et al. 2019). Bateni et al. 2013 demonstrated how Konjac Glucomannan Hydrolysates (GMH), a prebiotic, could be used as a novel topical therapy. A total of 26 females with acne lesions between the ages of 18-39 were treated with either the generic antibiotic or a topical prebiotic spray of GMH; both treatments significantly ameliorated skin health. ...
Article
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Interest surrounding the role that skin microbes play in various aspects of human health has recently experienced a timely surge, particularly among researchers, clinicians, and consumer-focused industries. The world is now approaching a post-antibiotic era where conventional antibacterial therapeutics have shown a loss in effectiveness due to overuse, leading to the looming antibiotic resistance crisis. The increasing threat posed by antibiotic resistance is compounded by an inadequate discovery rate of new antibiotics and has, in turn, resulted in global interest for alternative solutions. Recent studies have demonstrated that imbalances in skin microbiota are associated with assorted skin diseases and infections. Specifically, restoration of this ecosystem imbalance results in an alleviation of symptoms, achieved simply by applying bacteria normally found in abundance on healthy skin to the skin of those deficient in beneficial bacteria. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available literature on biological tools that have the potential to manipulate the skin microbiota, with particular focus on bacteriocins, phage therapy, antibiotics, probiotics, and targets of the gut-skin axis. This review will also address how the skin microbiota protects humans from invading pathogens in the external environment while discussing novel strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota to avoid and/or treat various disease states.
... lactis) inhibited P. acnes NCTC 737 growth in vitro. Bateni et al. (2013) determined that a spray formulation containing konjac glucomannan hydrolysate (5%, w/v) significantly improved the skin's health with acne vulgaris of young women after twenty and forty days treatment. ...
Article
The prebiotics and probiotics market is constantly growing due to the positive effects of its consumption on human health, which extends beyond the digestive system. In addition, the synbiotic products market is also expanding due to the synergistic effects between pre- and probiotics that provide additional benefits to consumers. Pre- and probiotics are being evaluated for their effectiveness to treat and prevent infectious diseases in other parts of the human body where microbial communities exist. This review examines the scientific data related to the effects of pre- and probiotics on the treatment of diseases occurring in the skin, female urogenital tract, and respiratory tract. The evidence suggests that probiotics consumption can decrease the presence of eczema in children when their mothers have consumed probiotics during pregnancy and lactation. In women, probiotics consumption can effectively prevent recurrent urinary tract infections. The consumption of synbiotic products can reduce respiratory tract infections and their duration and severity. However, the outcomes of the meta-analyses are still limited and not sufficiently conclusive to support the use of probiotics to treat infectious diseases. This is largely a result of the limited number of studies, lack of standardization of the studies, and inconsistencies between the reported results. Therefore, it is advisable that future studies consider these shortcomings and include the evaluation of the combined use of pre- and probiotics.
... Finally, despite the lack of literature on the effect of prebiotics to skin disease, konjac glucomannan hydrolysates (GMH) have also been shown to inhibit A. Vulgaris and P. acnes by stimulating the growth of probiotic microorganisms including lactobacilli. To this end, it is noteworthy that lactic acid bacteria show selectivity towards a mannose, a glucose substrate (found in GMH), because of the nature and accessibility of these sugars as carbon sources [118,119] (Table 2 and Figure 2). ...
Article
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Scientific and commercial interest of probiotics, prebiotics and their effect on human health and disease has increased in the last decade. The aim of this review article is to evaluate the role of pro- and prebiotics on the normal function of healthy skin as well as their role in the prevention and therapy of skin disease. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics and thought to mediate skin inflammation, treat atopic dermatitis (AD) and prevent allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Probiotics are shown to decolonise skin pathogens (e.g., P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, A. Vulgaris, etc.) while kefir is also shown to support the immunity of the skin and treat skin pathogens through the production of antimicrobial substances and prebiotics. Finally, prebiotics (e.g., Fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and konjac glucomannan hydrolysates) can contribute to the treatment of diseases including ACD, acne and photo aging primarily by enhancing the growth of probiotics.
... There are also preliminary studies indicating that emollients supplemented with nonpathogenic bacteria (Vitreoscilla filiformis) can regulate the skin microbiome, restore the barrier function and reduce eczema flares [153,154]. Moreover, prebiotic fiber such as glucomannan has been the subject of recent experimental and clinical work; in vitro research suggest prebiotics might selectively inhibit pathogenic bacteria [155], while a small clinical trial showed that topical application of glucomannan at 5% improved acne lesions [156]. ...
Article
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Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.
... Os hidrolisados de Glucomannan não apresentam efeitos adversos como os medicamentos convencionais e, além disso, podem ser utilizados diariamente, até mesmo como um produto profilático. Tem sido relatados que os gluco-oligossacarideos da Glucomannan modulam a proliferação bacteriana na pele e normalizam a função de barreira (BATENI et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Nowadays there is a progressive increase of skin disorders, such as allergic diseases, acne, among others. Therefore, new preventive alternatives and treatment have been searched. In this context, we can observe the growth in the number of researches that investigate if supplementation with probiotics would be capable of reduce the incidence and gravity of atopic diseases, as well as their possible effects like treatment strategy. The term probiotic has a greek origin and it means pro- life. The probiotics has been considered by the World Health Organization a therapeutic alternative more important than antibiotics as the probiotics doesn’t cause resistance. They are defined as living microorganisms whom, when managed in the proper quantity, can bring benefits to the health of the host. Currently, the probiotics are commercialized in the form of nutraceutics, nutricosmetics and functional food. Thus, this study aims to elucidate the concept of probiotics and to present clinical studies that prove the effectiveness in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and acne.
... Glucomannans hydrolyzate (GMH) acts as a prebiotic by stimulating selectively the growth of gut-friendly bacteria and serving as valuable functional food. Like other polysaccharides, the polymers can be depolymerized with acids and enzymes (Al-Ghazzewi et al., 2014;Bateni et al., 2013;Elamir et al., 2008). ...
... Glucomannans hydrolyzate (GMH) acts as a prebiotic by stimulating selectively the growth of gut-friendly bacteria and serving as valuable functional food. Like other polysaccharides, the polymers can be depolymerized with acids and enzymes (Al-Ghazzewi et al., 2014;Bateni et al., 2013;Elamir et al., 2008). ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on nutritional and anti-nutritional factors, traditional processes for the removal of anti-nutrients, processing for flour, starch and discusses resistant starch from Elephant Foot Yams (EFY). Also, industrial utilization of Amorphophallus konjac into konjac flour and gum, glucomannan (KGM) and its applications as a food and pharmaceutical supplements are reviewed. The procedure for starch extraction from EFY is described by Amani et al. The EFY has many medicinal properties. In India, it is used in Ayurvedic drugs in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, hemorrhoids, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders. This flour produces a high viscosity and forms a gel by alkaline coagulant such as calcium hydroxide or by combining with secondary gum or co-gelated gum such as K-carrageenan and xanthan gum. In recent decades, methods for the extraction and purification of konjac glucomannan (KGM) have been studied and developed.
... Bateni et al. [125] investigated the prebiotic property and effect of KGMH with respect to improving skin health especially the reduction of infection due to acne vulgaris. Twenty six female volunteers (aged between 18-39 years) with active lesions of acne vulgaris were included for the study. ...
Chapter
Cellulose, present in renewable lignocellulosic material, is considered to be the most abundant organic substrate on earth for production of hexose and pentose sugars, feedstock for fuel, and for other chemicals. Research on cellulase has progressed very rapidly in the past few decades with an emphasis on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to hexose sugars. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose requires the use of cellulase [1,4-(1,3:1,4)-β-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4], a multiple enzyme system consisting of endo-1,4,-β-D-glucanases [1,4-β-D-glucanases (CMCase, EC 3.2.1.4)], exo-1,4,-β-D-glucanases [1,4-β-D glucan cellobiohydrolase, FPA, EC 3.2.1.91], and β-glucosidase (cellobiase) (β-D-glucoside glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21). Major impediments to exploit the commercial potential of cellulases are the economic yield, stability, specificity, and above all, the cost of production. In the last few years, emphasis has been devoted mainly to submerged fermentation and less attention has been given to solid state fermentation (SSF). SSF refers to the process whereby microbial growth and product fermentation occur on the surface of solid materials. This process occurs in the absence of "free" water, where the moisture is absorbed to the solid matrix. The direct applicability of the product, the high product concentration, lower production cost, easy product recovery, and reduced energy requirement make SSF a promising technology for cellulase production. This chapter covers the production of cellulase in SSF using various lignocellulosic substrates, the microorganisms involved, cultural conditions, process parameters (ie, moisture content and water activity, mass transfer processes: aeration and nutrients diffusion, substrate particle size, temperature, pH, surfactants, etc.), bioreactor designs, and the strategies to improve enzyme yield.
... Bateni et al. [125] investigated the prebiotic property and effect of KGMH with respect to improving skin health especially the reduction of infection due to acne vulgaris. Twenty six female volunteers (aged between 18-39 years) with active lesions of acne vulgaris were included for the study. ...
Article
In recent year, konjac glucomannan (KGM) has attracted more attention due to its non-harmful and non-toxic properties, good biocompatibility, biodegradability and hydrophilic ability. Moreover, KGM and their derivatives have several importances in the multidirectional research areas such as nutritional, biotechnological and fine chemical fields. In the previous article, we have reviewed the nutritional aspects of KGM covering the various aspects of functional foods, food additives and their derivatives. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biomedical research conducted on KGM in the past ten years, covering therapies for anti-obesity, regulation in lipid metabolism, laxative effect, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, prebiotic to wound dressing applications. Moreover, this review deals with global health aspects of KGM and the disparate health related factors associated with diseases and their control measures.
... Bateni et al. [125] investigated the prebiotic property and effect of KGMH with respect to improving skin health especially the reduction of infection due to acne vulgaris. Twenty six female volunteers (aged between 18-39 years) with active lesions of acne vulgaris were included for the study. ...
Article
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Amorphophallus konjac (konjac) is one among the major vegetable (tuber) crops grown in Asian countries. In China and Japan, it has been used as food and food additives for more than 1000 years. Over the last few decades, the purified konjac flour, commonly known as konjac glucomannan (KGM), a dietary fiber hydrocolloidal polysaccharide, has been introduced as a food additives as well as dietary supplement in many Asian and European countries. The present article reviews the literature (up to January 2015) covering the development of various functional foods, food additives from KGMs and their derivatives, Also, this review deals with global nutritional aspects and value added products of konjac corm.The bioprocessing techniques such as preparation, purification, extraction of KGM from konjac flour and methods to improve quality of KGM are discussed.
... Glucomannan is typically used as a dietary fiber, food additive, emulsifier, thickener and weight loss supplement. It is sold as nutritional supplements for constipation (Passaretti et al., 1991), obesity, acne vulgaris (Bateni et al., 2013) and type 2 diabetes (Chen et al., 2003). Unlike cellulose, hemicellulose is a heterogeneous polysaccharide and it is difficult to separate a single monomeric sugar in its pure form. ...
Chapter
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Biodiesel can be a potential alternative to petroleum diesel, but its high production cost has impeded its commercialization in most parts of the world. One of the main drivers for the generation and use of biodiesel is energy security, because this fuel can be produced from locally available resources, thereby reducing the dependence on imported oil. Many countries are now trying to produce biodiesel from plant or vegetable oils. However, the consumption of large amounts of vegetable oils for biodiesel production could result in a shortage in edible oils and cause food prices to soar. Alternatively, the use of animal fat, used frying oils, and waste oils from restaurants as feedstock could be a good strategy to reduce the cost. However, these limited resources might not meet the increasing demand for clean, renewable fuels. Therefore, recent research has been focused the use of residual materials as renewable feedstock in order to lower the cost of producing biodiesel. Microbial oils or single cell oils (SCOs), produced by oleaginous microorganisms have been studied as promising alternatives to vegetable or seed oils. Various types of agro-industrial residues have been suggested as prospective nutritional sources for microbial cultures. Since the most abundant residue from agricultural crops is lignocellulosic biomass (LCB), this byproduct has been given top-priority consideration as a source of biomass for producing biodiesel. Despite the numerous advantages, the microbial conversion of the materials is a major challenge and economical bottleneck to industrial implementation. The biological transformation of lignocellulosic materials is complicated due to their crystalline structure. Therefore, it is not easy to convert LCB to biodiesel. It requires pretreatment process before it can be converted into fermentable sugar. A number of fermentation processes have been studied, but yet not optimized for commercial practice. This chapter describes the state-of the-art of pretreatment process, fermentation process, microbial lipid accumulation pathway and methanolysis of the microbial lipids to increase the yields of biodiesel. In addition, the obstacles associated with the use of LCB are described, along with a potentially viable approach for overcoming the obstacles that currently preclude the commercial production of biodiesel from lignocellulosic biomass.
... Bateni et al. [125] investigated the prebiotic property and effect of KGMH with respect to improving skin health especially the reduction of infection due to acne vulgaris. Twenty six female volunteers (aged between 18-39 years) with active lesions of acne vulgaris were included for the study. ...
Article
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Lignocellulose is the most plentiful non-food biomass and one of the most inexhaustible renewable resources on the planet, which is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second generation biofuels. Lignocelluloses are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, in which the sugar polymers account for a large portion of the biomass. Cellulases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family and catalyze the hydrolysis of glyosidic linkages depolymerizing cellulose to fermentable sugars. They are multi-enzymatic complex proteins and require the synergistic action of three key enzymes: endoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.4), exoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.176) (E.C. 3.2.1.91) and β-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.21) for the depolymerization of cellulose to glucose. Solid state fermentation, which holds growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free flowing water, has gained considerable attention of late due its several advantages over submerged fermentation. The review summarizes the critical analysis of recent literature covering production of cellulase in solid state fermentation using advance technologies such as consolidated bioprocessing, metabolic engineering and strain improvement, and circumscribes the strategies to improve the enzyme yield.
... Interactions between a host and a microbial community represents a symbiotic relationship which have been shown to be favourable with respect to 'prebiotic' carbohydrates in the: mouth to protect against dental caries (Maitra, Rollins, Tran, Al-Ghazzewi, & Tester, 2013); gut (Chen, Cheng, Wu, Liu, & Liu, 2008;Connolly, Lovegrove, & Tuohy, 2010;Van Zyl, Rose, Trollope, & Görgens, 2010); vagina (Tester et al., 2012) and; skin (Bateni et al., 2013). According to the most recent definition of a prebiotic (Roberfroid et al., 2010), it is 'a selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes, in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health'. ...
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Carbohydrates may provide an alternative therapeutic approach for a number of digestive health disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this work was to characterise the tolerance and efficacy of low and high molecular weight konjac glucomannan hydrolysates within healthy volunteers and patients suffering from IBD and associated gut conditions. These conditions included constipation, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. For general tolerance, fourteen patients participated whilst for the digestive disorder trial, there were twenty. Scores of taste/texture of the product, bowel movement, stool consistency, diarrhoea, existence/absence of blood in the faeces, abdominal pains, flatulence, vomiting, fever, improvement of life style after use, willingness to use in the future and clinician's statements about each patient's conditions before and after use were recorded. The results showed that the hydrolysates were tolerated well for patients with diarrhoea and had a significant improvement on bowel movement, stool consistency, abdominal pain and flatulence after ten days. With respect to effects on IBD, there was a significant health benefit after fourteen days of consumption for bowel movement, stool consistency, diarrhoea, existence/absence of blood in the faeces, abdominal pain, flatulence and vomiting. Most patients declared an improvement of their life style after consuming the hydrolysates. The use of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates as a therapeutic agent or adjunct to standard treatments could prove a successful tool for the treatment of a range of disorders; although large scale studies are required to characterise further the role of the carbohydrates.
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Although antibiotics have proven beneficial against various diseases and improve human beings’ overall health, excessive use of antibiotics may lead to an imbalance between the beneficial and harmful microorganisms, making our body more susceptible to infections. Antibiotic resistance is the second major concern. Prebiotic supplementation has gained interest in recent years to improve gastrointestinal health and immune function. Probiotic, prebiotics, and a combination of the two have evolved as good alternatives to antibiotics in case of gut health. Many potential prebiotics has been assessed, but only a few, including inulin, GOS, and FOS, have been validated utilizing human studies, while some are under trials for their beneficial effects on human health. So, the review aims to briefly explore the concept of prebiotics, their interaction with probiotics, and their effects on human health.
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Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, ‎confer a health benefit on the host”. In recent years, the cosmetic industries have tried to develop a ‎number of products classified as probiotics. They can exert their benefits at the skin level ‎because of their favorite properties, and they could prevent and treat skin diseases and represent an emerging area for skin health. The antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties make them promising candidates to target skin disorders including acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis and aid wound healing. The scientific reports show that specific probiotic strains ‎can modulate cutaneous microflora, skin immune system, lipid barrier, and finally, skin health ‎preservation. This review summarizes the most relevant evidence from scientific literature concerning potential topical applications of probiotics in dermatology. Altogether, ‎the evidence reported here affords the possibility of designing new strategies based on a topical ‎approach to prevent and treat cutaneous disorders.
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Objective The human axilla is colonized by a wide array of microorganisms that contribute to the generation of body odor. Traditional antiperspirant/deodorant products are used to reduce perspiration in the axillary region and to treat or prevent the growth of bacteria in this region, thereby reducing or eliminating body odor. However, they may also compromise the axillary microbiome balance. The personal care industry has been seeking new ingredients, such as prebiotics or probiotics, to maintain a healthy balance of the skin microbiome by inhibiting odor-causing bacteria while maintaining and promoting the growth of good bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the prebiotic effect of a skin care ingredient, 2-butyloctanol, on the human axillary microbiome. Methods An in vitro growth inhibition/promotion assay was performed to test whether 2-butyloctanol inhibited or promoted skin bacterial growth. The impact of 2-butyloctanol on the axillary microbiome was also investigated in a human clinical study using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results In vitro testing showed that 2-butyloctanol significantly inhibited the growth of corynebacteria at concentrations of 0.64%, 2.56%, and 5.12%, while the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis was maintained at the same concentrations. The impact of 2-butyloctanol on the axillary microbiome was also validated in a human clinical study. A deodorant roll-on product containing 3% 2-butyloctanol significantly reduced the relative abundance of corynebacteria while increasing the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and the ratio of Staphylococcus to corynebacteria after four weeks of application, while the placebo showed no significant change. Conclusion For the first time, it was demonstrated that 2-butyloctanol had a potential prebiotic effect on the human underarm microbiome in inhibiting odor-causing Corynebacterium while maintaining and promoting skin-friendly Staphylococcus in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, 2-butyloctanol could be used as a potential prebiotic ingredient in personal care products for underarm microbiome protection.
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It is demanded to supply foods with good quality for all the humans. With the advent of aging society, palatable and healthy foods are required to improve the quality of life and reduce the burden of finance for medical expenditure. Food hydrocolloids can contribute to this demand by versatile functions such as thickening, gelling, stabilising, and emulsifying, controlling texture and flavour release in food processing. Molar mass effects on viscosity and diffusion in liquid foods, and on mechanical and other physical properties of solid and semi-solid foods and films are overviewed. In these functions, the molar mass is one of the key factors, and therefore, the effects of molar mass on various health problems related to noncommunicable diseases or symptoms such as cancer, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, constipation, high blood pressure, knee pain, osteoporosis, cystic fibrosis and dysphagia are described. Understanding these problems only from the viewpoint of molar mass is limited since other structural characteristics, conformation, branching, blockiness in copolymers such as pectin and alginate, degree of substitution as well as the position of the substituents are sometimes the determining factor rather than the molar mass. Nevertheless, comparison of different behaviours and functions in different polymers from the viewpoint of molar mass is expected to be useful to find a common characteristics, which may be helpful to understand the mechanism in other problems.
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Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a dietary fiber hydrocolloidal polysaccharide isolated from the tubers of Amorphophallus konjac. Over the last few decades, the purified KGM has been offered as a food additive as well as a dietary supplement in many countries. Also, a diet containing konjac flour or KGM is considered as healthier, and these foods are popular in many Asian and European markets. Further, due to the adhesive property of KGM, it can form a defensive covering on the surface of the intestine. Additionally, KGM can reduce the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure and can enable weight loss. Its wide-ranging effects prevent many chronic diseases through the regulation of metabolism. In this review, the recent studies on the health benefits such as anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, laxative, prebiotic, and anti-inflammatory activities of KGM were discussed. Also, this review deals with the applications of KGM and its derivatives in bio-technical, pharmaceutical, tissue engineering, fine chemical fields, etc.
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We have developed a novel hydrogel composed of konjac glucomannan (KGM), human hair proteins (KER), and an ethanolic extract of Avena sativa (OAT) and evaluated its potential as a dressing material for diabetic wounds. KGM is an excellent biocompatible gelling agent that stimulates fibroblast proliferation and immunomodulation. Human hair proteins (KER) are biocompatible, biodegradable, and possess abundant cell adhesion sites. KER also promotes fibroblast attachment and proliferation, keratinocyte migration, and collagen expression, which can accelerate wound healing. OAT consists of oat β-glucans and several anti-inflammatory and antioxidant moieties that can reduce prolonged inflammation in chronic wounds. SEM images confirm the highly porous architecture of the scaffolds. When immersed in PBS, KGM + KER + OAT hydrogels absorb 7.5 times their dry weight. These hydrogels display a measured rate of degradation in lysozyme. KGM + KER + OAT hydrogels showed no significant cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. DAPI and SEM images obtained after 48 h of cell culture illustrate the attachment and infiltration of fibroblasts. In vivo studies performed using a diabetic rat excision wound model showed that KGM + KER + OAT hydrogels significantly accelerated wound healing compared to the control and the KGM + KER hydrogels.
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Glucomannans (GM) are polymers which can be found in natural resources, such as tubers, bulbs, roots, and in both hard- and softwoods. In fact, mannan-based polysaccharides represent the largest hemicellulose fraction in softwoods. In addition to their structural functions and their role as energy reserve, they have been assessed for their healthy applications, including their role as new source of prebiotics. This article summarizes the scientific literature regarding the manufacture and the functional properties of GM and their hydrolysis products with a special focus on their prebiotic activity.
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The impact of ingesting glucomannans on health are not only limited to colonic focussed fermentation into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which might have some local health benefits, but also towards helping to treat disease states and enhance the body's immune system, both within the gut and in/on other parts of the body. The local and systemic role of hydrolysed glucomannans, especially konjac glucomannans in the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin and vagina are highlighted. Therapeutic applications are discussed.
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The objective of this work was to determine the effects of ingested depolymerised glucomannans on wound healing. Mice were divided into four groups of twenty each: control - drinking water; control - drinking water containing 5% (w/v) glucomannan hydrolysate (GMH); test - drinking water with punched ear and; test - drinking water containing 5% (w/v) GMH with punched ear. Healing scores were recorded over eight days while body weight was taken four times over the trial period. There was faster healing for the group drinking water containing GMH. The consumption of hydrolysed glucomannan may encourage wound healing due to a number of immunosupportive effects.
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Konjac glucomannan hydrolysate was derived enzymatically from konjac flour under optimal conditions. A number of culture strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were grown on De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) media supplemented with the hydrolysate. This hydrolysate stimulated the growth of all strains examined. Colony sizes of those strains grown on konjac hydrolysate were significantly (P = 0.001) bigger than those grown on pectin or xylan hydrolysates. Bacterial growth profiles were also conducted on nutrient agar (MRS or modified MRS agar containing konjac hydrolysate) using single strains of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium adolescentis), single pathogen cultures (Escherichia coli or Listeria monocytogenes) or mixed bacterial cultures (from chicken breast extract). Although the growth of lactobacilli inhibited the growth of pathogens (single or mixed culture) the pathogens could not grow on the konjac hydrolysate as a sole carbon source. Microbial growth profiles using konjac hydrolysate or inulin in UHT milk were also investigated. The results showed that the numbers of colony forming units (cfu) obtained from milk containing the konjac hydrolysate were significantly (P = 0.01) higher than those containing inulin. It is suggested that the unique properties of konjac hydrolysate make it universally valuable as a prebiotic which can be applied to a wide range of foods, feeds and healthcare/pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
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Although neuromuscular adverse effects represent significant clinical manifestations of hypervitaminosis A syndrome, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the potential neuromuscular toxicity of vitamin A derivatives (retinoids). Since isotretinoin and acitretin are currently the two most commonly used oral retinoids in systemic dermatotherapy, this review focuses exclusively on their neuromuscular adverse effects and proposes a neuromuscular algorithm for appropriate monitoring of patients treated with these two compounds. The most frequent CNS adverse effect associated with oral isotretinoin is headache, either as an independent adverse effect or as part of benign intracranial hypertension, which is additionally characterized by nausea and visual changes. Isolated cases of stiff-person-like syndrome, epileptic seizures and generalized muscle stiffness syndrome, possibly or probably related to oral treatment with isotretinoin, have also been reported. In addition, oral isotretinoin has reportedly been associated with muscular adverse effects that most frequently manifest as myalgia and stiffness and, in rare cases, as true myopathy or rhabdomyolysis. Creatine phosphokinase, a specific marker of muscle destruction, has been found to be elevated, occasionally by up to 100 times the normal value (with or without muscular symptoms and signs), in a variable percentage of patients receiving isotretinoin treatment and particularly in those undergoing vigorous physical exercise. Oral acitretin has been found to cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, particularly of sensory fibres, which in rare cases leads to clinically evident sensory disturbances. Less clear is the causal relationship between acitretin and benign intracranial hypertension or myopathy, whereas an isolated case of cranial nerve IV (oculomotor) palsy and a further case of thrombotic stroke during treatment with oral acitretin have been reported. Systemic diseases with involvement of nervous and/or muscle tissue and neuromuscular disorders should be regarded as exclusion criteria for initiation of oral retinoid therapy. Additionally, intense physical exercise and concurrent treatment with neurotoxic or myotoxic drugs should be avoided during treatment with oral retinoids. In order to minimize the potential risk of neuromuscular adverse effects, a neuromuscular algorithm is suggested that may be useful for monitoring patients taking oral retinoids.
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Rosacea is a common chronic, and sometimes progressive, dermatosis. It is characterized, alone or in combination, by central facial erythema,symmetric flushing, stinging sensation, inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules), telangiectasias, and phymatous changes (tissue hyperplasia and nodules). Rosacea can occur in adults of any ethnicity,and adversely affects patients' quality of life. The condition can be effectively controlled with therapy tailored to the specific subtype of rosacea that is affecting the patient. Topical metronidazole, sulfacetamide/sulfur, and azelaic acid are generally effective for patients with mild rosacea. For moderate papulopustular rosacea, combination therapy with oral tetracyclines and topical agents is the first-line choice. Treatment with a topical agent, such as metronidazole, may help maintain remission. Patients with ocular involvement may benefit from long-term oral antibiotics and metronidazole gel. Referral to a subspecialist is necessary for patients who have ocular rosacea with ophthalmic complications, severe or recalcitrant rosacea, or phymatous changes.
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Antibiotic therapy directed against Propionibacterium acnes has been a mainstay of treatment for more than 40 years. Despite years of widespread use of systemic tetracyclines and erythromycin, change in P. acnes sensitivity to antibiotics was not seen until the early 1980s. The first clinically relevant changes in P. acnes antibiotic sensitivity were found in the USA shortly after the introduction of topical formulations of erythromycin and clindamycin. By the late 1980s, P. acnes strains with very high MIC levels for erythromycin and elevated MICs for tetracycline were increasingly found in the UK and the USA. Mutations in the genes encoding the 23S and 16S subunits of ribosomal RNA were first identified in the UK and also seen in a recent survey from clinics in Europe, Japan, Australia and the USA. In addition, strains were found in which these known mutations could not be identified, indicating that as yet unidentified resistance mechanisms have evolved. These findings indicate the need to develop strategies to minimize the use of antibiotics in acne therapy.
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Acute gut disorder is a cause for significant medicinal and economic concern. Certain individual pathogens of the gut, often transmitted in food or water, have the ability to cause severe discomfort. There is a need to manage such conditions more effectively. The route of reducing the risk of intestinal infections through diet remains largely unexplored. Antibiotics are effective at inhibiting pathogens; however, these should not be prescribed in the absence of disease and therefore cannot be used prophylactically. Moreover, their indiscriminate use has reduced effectiveness. Evidence has accumulated to suggest that some of the health-promoting bacteria in the gut (probiotics) can elicit a multiplicity of inhibitory effects against pathogens. Hence, an increase in their numbers should prove effective at repressing pathogen colonisation if/when infectious agents enter the gut. As such, fortification of indigenous bifidobacteria/lactobacilli by using prebiotics should improve protection. There are a number of potential mechanisms for lactic acid bacteria to reduce intestinal infections. Firstly, metabolic endproducts such as acids excreted by these micro-organisms may lower the gut pH to levels below those at which pathogens are able to effectively compete. Also, many lactobacilli and bifidobacteria species are able to excrete natural antibiotics, which can have a broad spectrum of activity. Other mechanisms include an improved immune stimulation, competition for nutrients and blocking of pathogen adhesion sites in the gut. Many intestinal pathogens like type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli, salmonellae and campylobacters utilise oligosaccharide receptor sites in the gut. Once established, they can then cause gastroenteritis through invasive and/or toxin forming properties. One extrapolation of the prebiotic concept is to simulate such receptor sites in the gut lumen. Hence, the pathogen is 'decoyed' into not binding at the host mucosal interface. The combined effects of prebiotics upon the lactic acid flora and anti-adhesive strategies may lead towards new dietary interventions against food safety agents.
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Purpose – The aim of this study is to determine the effects of depolymerised mannans and specifically konjac glucomannan hydrolysates (GMH) on the colonic microflora of mice. Blood glucose and cholesterol were also measured. Design/methodology/approach – Two groups (n = 20) of 12‐week old Wister mice were used for a period of 14 weeks. One group (treatment group) were fed diets containing 5 per cent konjac GMH dissolved in drinking water in addition to the control (group) standard diet. Faecal microflora, feed consumption, body weight, blood glucose and cholesterol were determined. Findings – The GMH promoted the growth of anaerobes and lactobacilli in the treatment group where this was statistically, highly significant (P < 0.001). Also, the hydrolysate was able to reduce highly significantly (P < 0.001) faecal Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli counts. A significant increase in average daily feed consumption (P < 0.05) and weekly body weight (P < 0.001) was found for the treatment group. The mean ± SD (mmol/l) of blood glucose and cholesterol was lower in the treatment group. Originality/value – In addition to modulating the gut microflora, GMH seems to lower the blood glucose and cholesterol in mice. Although this needs to be verified by further studies, GMH could also be a candidate for possible treatment of subjects with high cholesterol and for diabetics.
Article
Konjac glucomannan hydrolysate was derived enzymatically from konjac flour under optimal conditions. A number of culture strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were grown on De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) media supplemented with the hydrolysate. This hydrolysate stimulated the growth of all strains examined. Colony sizes of those strains grown on konjac hydrolysate were significantly (P = 0.001) bigger than those grown on pectin or xylan hydrolysates. Bacterial growth profiles were also conducted on nutrient agar (MRS or modified MRS agar containing konjac hydrolysate) using single strains of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium adolescentis), single pathogen cultures (Escherichia coli or Listeria monocytogenes) or mixed bacterial cultures (from chicken breast extract). Although the growth of lactobacilli inhibited the growth of pathogens (single or mixed culture) the pathogens could not grow on the konjac hydrolysate as a sole carbon source. Microbial growth profiles using konjac hydrolysate or inulin in UHT milk were also investigated. The results showed that the numbers of colony forming units (cfu) obtained from milk containing the konjac hydrolysate were significantly (P = 0.01) higher than those containing inulin. It is suggested that the unique properties of konjac hydrolysate make it universally valuable as a prebiotic which can be applied to a wide range of foods, feeds and healthcare/pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
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One hundred and five patients with active lesions of acne vulgaris were included in the open clinical trial. All the patients were administered tablets containing multiple herbal drugs (purim), at a dose of 2 tablets twice daily for four weeks. Simultaneously, they were instructed to apply A herbal cream (Clarina) twice daily on the affected area of acne lesion twice daily for four weeks. The response to treatment was excellent in mild to moderate acne (Grade I & II) after 4 weeks of treatment. In severe acne with large papules and pustules, the response was also significantly good, in healing the papules and pustules. There were no local or systemic side effects seen in all these patients. Thus, this polyherbal cream (Clarina) along with a polyherbal tablet (Purim) tablets was useful in treating patients with various degrees of acne.
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Oral administration of pulverized Konjac glucomannan (KGM) reduces increased plasma IgE and the amount of epsilon-germline transcript (epsilonGT) in the spleen, as well as preventing the development of dermatitis in mice. To elucidate the mechanism of action of pulverized KGM, we solubilized KGM and studied its effect on IgE in vitro and in vivo. Solubilized KGM was prepared by acid hydrolysis, and we analyzed the effective molecular size for the suppression of IgE production and epsilonGT in vitro and the level of plasma IgE induced by immunization with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice. The production of IgE and epsilonGT in splenic cells, but not purified B cells, was inhibited by hydrolyzed KGM (KGM hydrolyzed with 0.25 N HCl; H-KGM) at the optimal size of between 10 and 500 kDa. However, no effect was observed when H-KGM was substituted with unhydrolyzed KGM in vitro. IgE production from purified B cells cocultured with purified monocytes, but not with purified T cells, was inhibited by H-KGM. The release of IFNgamma in cultures of monocytes but in purified B cells with or without T cells was enhanced in the presence of H-KGM. Injection of mice with H-KGM also suppressed the production of plasma IgE and IgG1 but not IgG2a in vivo. KGM at an optimal size prevents germline class-switching and IgE production both in vitro and in vivo. H-KGM may be useful as a tool to study the mechanism of action of KGM and as a dietary supplement to prevent atopic diseases.
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The synbiotic ability of probiotic bacteria and konjac glucomannan hydrolysates (GMH) to inhibit acne-inducing bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes growth was studied in vitro. All probiotic bacteria strains tested were able to inhibit the growth of this species of skin bacterium where the inhibition was significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced by the presence of the GMH prebiotic. As the current treatment of acne is based on topical or systemic drugs, it is worth examining further the biotherapeutic activities of the GMH and selected probiotics with a view to future use as prophylactic or therapeutic synbiotics for treating acne infections.
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Early acne can be defined as the occurrence of acne at its onset, primarily in preteens, or as acne at its earliest severity (ie, mild to moderate). Although the majority of patients with acne are treated by dermatologists, most, particularly mild to moderate cases, could be successfully managed by primary care physicians. Therefore, it is important for physicians to understand the benefits of treating all types of acne, not just the most severe. Awareness of the emotional impact of acne, particularly in adolescence, as well as recognition of possible scarring are important considerations. To achieve optimal results, physicians should be familiar with classification and severity grading of acne. Also, in-depth knowledge of available acne medications will streamline and optimize treatment regimens. Recognizing, treating, and monitoring the progress of early acne may lead to quicker, better clinical outcomes and improved quality of life.
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Sensitive skin is a dermatological problem of increasing incidence in western countries and is sometimes associated with atopic condition and bacterial sovrainfection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial the efficacy of gluco-oligosaccharide and collagen tripeptide F in controlling the signs and symptoms of sensitive atopic skin. Forty female subjects (age, 30-59 years) affected by non-lesional atopic sensitive skin entered the study. Skin sensitivity was determined by a dermatologist on the basis of medical history, stinging test, dermatological examination and a questionnaire. A treatment with the test products (active and placebo) was carried out for 4 weeks. Measurements and clinical evaluation were carried out at baseline and at the end of the study. The following objective parameters investigated were bacterial count, skin pH and colour, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, skin roughness and mechanical properties. Clinical assessment included also a scoring system for dryness, desquamation, irritation, erythema and papules. Significant differences were found in the active treated group when compared with the placebo and in particular for instrumental parameters of roughness (P < 0.02), volume (P < 0.01), TEWL (P < 0.02), erythema (P < 0.0006) and clinical parameters of dryness, desquamation and irritation (P < 0.001). Moisturization levels and skin colour improved significantly in both the active and placebo groups. In conclusion, the study shows that the modulation of bacterial proliferation and normalization of skin barrier properties and stratum corneum moisturization can improve the symptoms of sensitive skin.
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Data are lacking on the prevalence of acne, its effects on quality of life (QOL) and the treatment usage among Chinese patients in late adolescence. To derive data about the prevalence and predictive factors of acne, the disability caused by acne and choice of treatment used by Chinese late adolescents in Hong Kong. This was a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 389 entrants in a university in Hong Kong, using the Global Acne Grading System (GAGS) to measure the clinical severity of acne and the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) to measure QOL. The response rate was 99.3%. The prevalence of acne was of 81.5% (95% CI 77.6-85.4%) and coexisted with a high frequency of acne disability at a rate of 81.8% (95% CI 78.1-85.6%). Assessment of the clinical severity of acne did not correlate strongly with the effect on QOL (gamma(s) = 0.445, P < 0.001). Over the previous 6 months, 30.3% of subjects had used topical treatments, 3.9% had taken systemic conventional western drugs and 3.2% of the subjects had used traditional Chinese medicine. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the predictive factors for acne disability. Female gender (P = 0.002), higher GAGS score (P < 0.001), higher perceived stress (P = 0.01) and willingness to pay Hong Kong$15,000 (970 pounds) for a hypothetical permanent cure (P = 0.03) were positive predictors. Acne is prevalent in Hong Kong and has considerable psychological effects. The association between clinical severity and impaired QOL is not strong.
Article
Erythromycin resistant (EmR) propionibacteria were isolated from the skin surface of 51% of patients treated with oral erythromycin and 42% of patients treated with topical clindamycin compared with 3% of untreated control subjects (P less than 0.001). Amongst the topical clindamycin-treated patients, there was a higher incidence of EmR propionibacterial carriage in those patients who had previously been treated with oral erythromycin (64%) than in patients with no known previous exposure to erythromycin (20%; 0.01 greater than P greater than 0.001). Patients responding to oral erythromycin treatment carried EmR propionibacteria less frequently (24%) than patients who were not responding or who had relapsed (70%; P less than 0.001). These observations suggest that the use of oral erythromycin and/or topical clindamycin encourages the development of resistant propionibacteria and that the emergence of resistant strains is associated with therapeutic failure in erythromycin-treated patients. In total 63 resistant isolates were obtained from 52 subjects. There were 42 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, 16 strains of Propionibacterium granulosum and five strains of Propionibacterium avidum. The majority of isolates were inducibly or constitutively resistant to macrolide (e.g. erythromycin), lincosamide (e.g. clindamycin) and streptogramin B type antibiotics. Therefore, the isolates are phenotypically indistinguishable from the majority of EmR bacteria in which resistance is due to methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA.
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Patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were treated for 10 weeks with either topical clindamycin phosphate (1% solution) twice daily, benzoyl peroxide (5% gel) twice daily, or benzoyl peroxide (5% gel) in the morning and clindamycin phosphate (1% solution) in the evening. The effects of each regimen appeared to vary in decreasing specific types of acne lesions, with the combination therapy showing the greatest decrease when all types of lesions were considered. Cutaneous side-effects were greatest with benzoyl peroxide alone during the early weeks of treatment, while the combination therapy displayed no greater incidence of redness, scaling, or itching than clindamycin phosphate alone. All three regimens produced clinical improvements which did not differ significantly from each other.
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We describe two simple, reproducible scoring systems for assessing acne severity, and we emphasize the technical problems which could invalidate either technique. Constant baseline data is desirable for any clinical trial, and our data clearly show that acne patients should ideally be off all treatment for at least 2 months before the start of a therapeutic trial.
Article
Acne vulgaris, or acne, as it is generally called, is the most common skin disease, affecting nearly 80 percent of persons at some time between the ages of 11 and 30 years.1 It can persist for years and result in disfigurement and permanent scarring, and it can have serious adverse effects on psychosocial development, resulting in emotional problems, withdrawal from society, and depression.2 The pathogenesis of acne is multifactorial, and therapy can now be directed at many of these factors. This review summarizes current concepts of the rational treatment of acne vulgaris. Pathophysiology of Acne Acne vulgaris is the result . . .
Article
Effective treatment of acne vulgaris can prevent emotional and physical scarring. Therapy varies according to the severity of the disease. Topical medication is generally adequate in clearing comedonal acne, while inflammatory acne usually requires the addition of oral medication. Systemic antibiotics are used most frequently and can be highly effective. Newer formulations of combined oral contraceptives are also helpful in modulating sebum production in the female patient. Severe nodulocystic acne that does not respond to topical retinoids and systemic antibiotics may be treated with isotretinoin. However, the side effect profile of this medication is extensive, and physicians should be well-versed in its potential adverse effects.
Article
Heavy colonization of atopic dermatitis (AD) with Staphylococcus aureus is well documented. The purpose of the present study is to examine the actions of gluco-oligosaccharide (G-OS) against S. aureus for the control of AD skin lesions infected with S. aureus. The colony counts of S. aureus cells in 0.5% sodium chloride solution supplemented with 5% G-OS (pH 4.8) were about 10-fold lower than those in 0.5% sodium chloride solution (pH 6.6; control) after incubation for 24 hours. The colony counts of S. aureus cells attached on the coverslips (pre-treatment with 1% and 5% G-OS/PBS and following treatment with plasma) were about 10-fold lower than those on the coverslips (pre-treatment with PBS and following treatment with plasma; control) in PBS after incubation for 24 hours. The materials (sugars, probably glycocalyx) that stained positively for fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC) -concanavalin A and were consistent with the presence of S. aureus cells were reduced when S. aureus cells attached to the coverslips treated with 5% GC-OS. In conclusion, C-OS is a promising agent that can be applied topically in a cream to clear adherent S. aureus cells from skin lesions of AD in order to prevent its exacerbation. Further, 5% C-OS can inhibit glycocalyx production by S. aureus cells and consequently have some suppressive effect on the colonization of S. aureus on the horny cells of AD lesions.
Article
This article reviews the treatment of acne in adolescents. The choice of therapy should be principally based on the type of lesion and the severity of the acne, but psychosocial disability relating to the disease and the presence of scarring may also influence the approach to treatment. Mild acne generally requires topical treatment only. Benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, and antibacterials are generally used for inflammatory lesions. Topical retinoids are particularly effective for noninflamed lesions, and combination therapies are useful for mixed lesions. Moderately severe acne generally requires oral antibacterials. Tetracyclines/oxytetracycline and erythromycin are usually the first-line antibacterials. Second-generation tetracyclines, such as lymecycline, doxycycline, and minocycline, show improved absorption. Minocycline has the advantage of being rarely associated with Propionibacterium acnes antibacterial resistance, but can occasionally lead to potentially serious adverse effects. Trimethoprim is a useful third-line antibacterial therapy for patients resistant to other antibacterial therapies. Benzoyl peroxide should generally be used in combination with oral antibacterials as this has been shown to reduce the development of antibacterial resistance. For severe nodular acne, isotretinoin is the treatment of choice. In addition, over recent years dermatologists have increasingly used this drug to treat patients with moderate acne which has not responded to other systemic therapies, particularly when associated with scarring or significant psychological disability. However, this use is outside the current license of the drug. Isotretinoin is associated with a number of serious adverse effects and careful monitoring of patients during therapy is required. Physical therapies for the treatment of acne nodules and macrocomedones are also important adjuncts to drug therapies.
Article
Eight-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on diets containing dietary fiber at the 5% level for 3 weeks to examine the effect on the lipid metabolism and immune function. Among cellulose, guar gum, partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), glucomannan and highly methoxylated pectin, guar gum induced a significant decrease in the food intake and weight gain, as well as a significant increase in the liver weight. In addition, the epidydimal adipose tissue weight of the rats fed on PHGG was significantly higher than that of the rats fed on cellulose. There was no significant effect on the serum lipid levels, but the serum IgG level of the rats fed on guar gum was significantly lower than that of the rats fed on cellulose. The IgA and IgG productivity in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes was significantly higher in the rats fed on guar gum, glucomannan and pectin than in those fed on cellulose, while the effect on Ig productivity in spleen lymphocytes was not as marked. In addition, only guar gum induced a significant increase of IgM productivity in MLN lymphocytes when compared to the cellulose group. These results suggest that enhancement of the immune function by dietary fiber is mainly expressed in the gut immune system.
Article
The basic morphology of acne--comedones, papules, pustules, and nodules--and the extent of involvement do not permit simple evaluation due to the number of variables involved. Because these acne lesions may vary in number during the natural course of the disease, various measurements have been developed, based on clinical examination and photographic documentation. These range from global assessments to lesion counting, with the latter providing more objective data.
Article
The management of acne is a gratifying experience. Available treatments are effective, relatively nontoxic and generally safe. However, there is no quick fix. Antibiotics, hormone therapies and topical therapies are maintenance treatments. Isotretinoin can induce remission, as can some of the newer physical modalities of lights, lasers and radiofrequency devices. Effective management of acne often requires using a combination of treatments that act on different parts of the pathogenic process of acne development.
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two levels of inclusion of mannan oligosaccharides derived from the outer cell wall of a select strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bio-Mos, Alltech Inc, USA) on growth, feed utilization, immune status and disease resistance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Specimens of 35 g at initial density of 3 kg/m3 were fed during 67 days at 0 per thousand, 2 per thousand and 4 per thousand dietary MOS level of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Food conversion rate, specific growth rate, whole body biochemical composition, phagocyctic index of head kidney macrophages, NBT index, lysozyme and alternative complement pathway (ACP) activities as well as gut and liver histological structure were evaluated. Growth significantly increased at both MOS dietary inclusion levels. Histological features of the liver showed lower lipid vacuolization and regular-shaped morphology of hepatocytes around the sinusoidal spaces denoting a better utilization of dietary nutrients. No differences were found on gut histological evaluation. Statistical differences (P<0.05) on the phagocytic index were denoted with the inclusion of 4 per thousand Bio-Mos group. A positive correlation was found between the levels of lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activities in blood and the level of inclusion of MOS in diets. After the feeding trial, a cohabitation challenge test and direct gut inoculation were also performed with the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in a ratio 3:1. Twenty-one days post-challenge the number of cohabitant fish infected in the control group reached 33% comparing with none on the 0.4 per thousand MOS group. Finally, new fish were infected with V. alginolyticus by gut canalisation. After 24h post-infection no significant difference was denoted between groups and 48 h post-infection total infected fish in the control group was twice that of the 2 per thousand and 4 per thousand MOS groups.
Acne -Inflammatory affection of pilo sebaceous follicle: The most frequent cutaneous illness of modern time
  • B Dréno
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Dréno B, Khammar A, Acne -Inflammatory affection of pilo sebaceous follicle: The most frequent cutaneous illness of modern time. Business briefing: European Pharmaco. Therapy (Report) 130-135, 2003
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Law M PM, Chuh AAT, Lee A, M olinari N, Acne prevalence and beyond: acne disability and its predictive factors among Chinese late adolescents in Hong Kong. Clin. Exp. Dermatol.,35:16-21, 2010