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... According to Rustono (1999:51), conversational principle can be divided between cooperative principle and politeness principle. There is only one theory in cooperative principle proposed by Grice (1975). Meanwhile, according to Rustono (1999) in politeness principle, there are some theories used such as Lakoff, Brown and Levinson and Leech. ...
... The way of people to make conversation works is known cooperative principle. Hence, Grice (1975) Therefore, based on the phenomena mention above, this study tries to find out the occurrence of conversational maxim whether interviewees obey or violate them during the interview in Mata Najwa Talk show on Metro TV. ...
... And this study attempts to investigate the conversational maxims in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV which are shown by the interviewees. The aspects to be observed are the occurrences of obediences and violations in conversational maxims proposed by Grice (1975). ...
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Nasution, Jamaluddin. Conversational Maxims in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV. Thesis. English Applied Linguistics Study Program, Post Graduate School, State University of Medan (UNIMED). 2014 This study explains the conversational maxims in Mata Najwa Talk Show Program on Metro TV. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of conversational maxims occurring in the talk show, the difference of conversational maxims among three topics, and the reasons for obediences and violations of conversational maxims in the talk show. This research was conducted by qualitative content analysis method. The data were obtained from the downloaded videos and then were transcribed. The data were three topics of Mata Najwa namely politics, law, and education with different guests’ culture; Javanese, Makassar, Bataknese, and Chinese. The transcriptions were analyzed by applying qualitative method. The findings showed that all kinds of conversational maxims, i.e. quality, quantity, manner, and relevance, occurred in all topics and guests. Conversational maxims occurring in topic of politics is dominantly violated maxim of relevance. Conversational maxims occurring in topic of law is dominantly obeyed maxim of relevance, and conversational maxims occurring in topic of education is dominantly violated maxim quantity. Conversational maxims occurring with the Javanese guests is dominantly violated maxim of relevance. Conversational maxims occurring with the Makassar, Bataknese, and Chinese guests are all dominantly violated maxim of quantity. The conversational maxims occurring with different guests are actually affected by the issues of topic itself. Therefore, there are no relationship between culture and language tradition of the guests and their conversational maxims because the guests of Makassar, Bataknese, and Chinese have the same violation of maxim of quantity and all different guests have the same abstain obedience of maxim of manner. Other factors affecting conversational maxims are (1) The language attitude of the guests as participants in answering, (2) tendency to hide something or not to reveal truly, (3) making a joke or humorous answer, (4) using the metaphorical words in comparing or using language features, and (5) the issues of the topic itself.
... In this article, we analyze the genre of earnings calls from the perspective of cooperation, investigating their characteristic interactional features based on the theoretical framework of Gricean maxims. These maxims outline basic background assumptions of cooperation that underlie talk across different situations (Grice 1975). They can be understood as social norms, whose observance or violation in interaction has effects on the interpretation and the overall formation of the situation (Greenall 2009(Greenall : 2295. ...
... However, if the question is considered too important to disregard, the analyst might be willing to compromise the interpersonal comfort with the manager and use more assertive questioning to get the valuable information (Graaf 2018(Graaf : 1243. As using assertive question strategies represents a potential breach of the cooperative principle (Grice 1975), we address this as an empirical question in our analysis. ...
... Grice's theory of cooperation is based on the assumption that participants of rational interaction are expected to cooperate with each other (Grice 1975). The basic cooperative principle that participants are assumed to follow and expect from each other in a conversation, is as follows (Grice 1975: 45): "Make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. ...
Article
Financial communication refers to the meaning-making practices by which listed companies interact with their publics to exchange information about issues that may have an effect on the share price. An important site for financial communication is the so-called earnings call, where companies present their quarterly or yearly results and engage in dialogue with analysts and other interested parties. In this paper, we analyze earnings calls from the perspective of the cooperative principle presented by Grice. Our aim is to shed light on how the maxims of cooperation are enacted by expert members of the business community in order to construct joint understanding in the potentially conflicting setting of the earnings call. The empirical data consists of the transcripts of four earnings calls held by globally operating stock-listed companies. Our analysis indicates that earnings calls rely on particularized conversational implicatures, whereby participants may strategically breach the cooperative maxims on the formal level while at the same time orienting to each other’s practical goals and performing as a cooperative team of professionals in a strictly regulated context. One recurring way of doing this is by asking questions that cannot be answered directly but prompt responses with incremental or “soft” information. We argue that the specialized practices of cooperation are linked to the nature of the earnings call as a public performance where participants need to orient to self-presentational and relational concerns as well as regulative restrictions.
... The philosophers of language Austin (1962), Grice (1975) and Searle (1969) influenced a notion of pragmatics in contrast with the chomskyan analysis of language as an abstract instrument independent by the context of use. Reflections in this direction are a consistent part of the most common handbooks of pragmatics, such as Levinson (1983), Leech (1983), Mey (1993), Yule (1996), and Verschueren (1999. ...
... He can be considered one of the pioneers of inferential pragmatics (Ariel 2012). Most of all the cooperation principle and the conversational maxims proposed by Grice (1975) and later updated by Sperber and Wilson (1995) are a consistent part of the study of pragmatics today and involved in the implementation of dialogue systems from a methodological point of view: Jacquet et al. (2018;2019b) evaluate the violation of the gricean maxims in textual online conversations; Saygin and Cicekli (2002) propose an empirical study study of human-computer interactions within the context of the Loebner Prize Contest. ...
Article
The increasing interest in various types of conversational interfaces has been supported by a progressive standardization of the technological frameworks used to build them. However, the landscape of available methodological frameworks for designing conversations is much more fragmented. We propose a highly generalizable methodology for designing conversational flows rooted in a functionalist-pragmatics perspective, with an explicit adherence to a conversationalist approach. In parallel, we elaborate a practical-procedural workflow for undertaking chatbots projects in which we situate the theoretical starting point. At last, we elaborate a general case-study on which we transpose the identified approach in Italian language and using one of the most authoritative NLU platforms.
... Grice tied cooperation to speakerehearer's rationality: even if the linguistic system is ubiquitously ambiguous and has a remarkable potential to fail, people tend to use it satisfactorily. This happens, as Grice argues, because we assume that our partner is a cooperative agent (Grice, 1975). By contrast, the view of egocentrism (e.g., Barr and Keysar, 2005;Giora, 2003;Keysar, 2008) challenges the idea that cooperation is automatic and systematic. ...
... In cases when only one of the interlocutors is a human, the automatic and subconscious cooperative behavior described by Grice (1975) may face a challenge. As Mey (2010) highlights, pragmatics will not operate unless the communicative partners work together. ...
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In recent years, the number of human-machine interactions has increased considerably. Additionally, we have evidence of linguistic differences between human-machine interactions and human–human conversations (e.g., Timpe-Laughlin et al., 2022). Therefore, it is reasonable to revisit theoretical frameworks that conceptualize interactional language use and investigate to what extent they still apply to technology-mediated interactions. As a first attempt at exploring whether pragmatics theories apply to human-machine interaction, we examined how well Kecskés's (2013) socio-cognitive approach (SCA) focusing on asymmetric interactions (e.g., between interlocutors of different language backgrounds) applies to the asymmetry of human-machine interactions. Using examples from experimental data, we present the nature of common ground between human and machine (spoken dialogue system) interlocutors, focusing on the construction of and reliance on the emergent side of common ground that is informed by the actual situational experience. Like Kecskés, we argue that both egocentrism and cooperation play a role in human-machine interaction. While the former is manifested in approaching the machine interlocutor as if it was human, the latter appears to play a role in common ground seeking and building as well as in recipient design. We demonstrate that Kecskés's SCA is a fitting framework for analyzing human-machine communication contexts.
... 10 The principle of Frege's principle of contextuality states that the meaning of an expression is always bound to the context in which it is used (Rott 2000: 627). course and bringing in new aspects (Grice 1975(Grice , 1989. 11 The use of proverbs is part of communicative speech that is supposed to follow Grice's cooperative principle and its categories of quantity, quality, relevance and manner. ...
... Proverbs function as Badiou's (2009) event: they make a full stop in communication or are elements possibly changing the direction of the sequence of actions. This is congruent with Grice's (1975Grice's ( , 1989 idea that the use of a proverb is an acting element, marking a pause in the discourse and introducing new aspects. The way we recognize proverbs in speech or text uses the same techniques as when recognizing metaphors (G-H 2011: 49-52). ...
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The article participates on the discussion how reproducible language units, in this case proverbs and proverbial sentences, could be detected in a corpus of speech in written form. The study confirms that proverbs remain a part of contemporary Finnish communication and everyday language, although the context of use has changed over the period which Finnish proverbs have been collected (i.e. over two centuries). Most traditional proverbs still contain agrarian terms and are relatively permanent expressions, but nowadays they are often used in a new context and with a new meaning. The corpus in question consists about 70,000 unedited text-messages sent to be published as short letters to the editor and aimed at the readers of the daily Finnish regional newspaper. These messages include more than 7000 expressions that are connected with proverbs. Although the paper examines Finnish proverbs and uses Finnish examples, many of the processes and challenges are the same, no matter which language or culture is being examined.
... Consequently, a pragma-rhetorical approach has been used that consists of a combination of pragma-linguistic, rhetorical and argumentation-based approaches (Ilie, 2009;2018;2021b). Pragma-rhetoric integrates a pragmatic analysis of context-shaped metadialogic practices from the perspective of speech act theory (Austin, 1962;Searle, 1969) and conversational maxims (Grice, 1975) with the analysis of rhetorical appeals and argumentation theory (Walton, 1989). ...
... The application of the analytical framework of Grice's (1975) Cooperative Principle to the exchange illustrated above makes it possible to realize that the violation, rather than the observance, of the conversational maxims lies at the basis of the PM's answering tactics in PMQs. The PM's responses to both questions and meta-questions prove to be un-cooperative, uninformative and/or irrelevant with regard to the question's elicitation of confirmation, thereby violating the maxims of relation and quantity. ...
Article
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In UK Prime Minister's Questions (PMQs), metadialogic practices can steer the direction and scope of the parliamentary confrontation between the Leader of the Opposition (LO) or opposition Members of Parliament (MPs), and the Prime Minister (PM), which consists of polemical question-answer exchanges. Recurrent metadialogic practices are rationally and/or emotionally instantiated through meta-questions (posed by the LO) and meta-answers (delivered by the PM). This investigation used a pragma-rhetorical approach to the interplay between parliamentary meta-questions and meta-answers, which reveals, through the PM's evasiveness or failure to answer the LO's and opposition MPs' questions, a reluctance to play by the (parliamentary) rules and assume responsibility as head of government, party leader and ‘primus inter pares’ in the UK Parliament. The findings show that meta-questions and meta-answers interact at discursive, interpersonal and institutional levels. At the discursive level, they point to the debaters' appraisal of the urgency and importance of debated issues and to the debaters' commitments. At the interpersonal level, they indicate the scope of the debaters' strengths and weaknesses, and the degree of their adversarialness. At the institutional level, they signal the debaters' compliance with or defiance of institutional norms that regulate MPs' behaviour and verbal performance during PMQs.
... Articles, belonging to a wider category of determiners, are considered to express a domain restriction over their NP (von Fintel 1994;Gillon 2006, among many others). The unique-ness reading, encoded by the definite article, represents the narrowest domain restriction: there is only one referent satisfying the description under the given circumstances, and that is the strongest statement to which the speaker can commit (following Grice's (1975) maxim of quantity). Otherwise, the speaker would have used a less strong expression with a wider domain, e.g., an indefinite description. ...
... Notice that author is a relational noun. It is interpreted as unique in accordance withGrice's (1975) maxim of quantity. The hearer infers that it is the stronger statement the speaker can commit to. ...
Article
The article compares the interpretation of singular topical nominals in Romance (Catalan) and Slavic (Russian), and its relation to the presence/absence of the article in the overt morphosyntax. The empirical study, presented in this paper, confirmed the theoretical prediction that in Catalan the presence of a definite article conveys uniqueness of the referent, while an indefinite article suggests nonuniqueness. In the absence of articles (in Russian), bare nominals are compatible with both a uniqueness and a non-uniqueness interpretation. The reading of a bare noun phrase is inferred pragmatically, depending on contextual factors and the background knowledge of the interlocutors.
... Silverstein 1977;Irvine 2001;Bauman & Briggs 2003;; see Agha 2007a:222 for a concise discussion). As for grammars of usage, they gradually became a separate domain of study (called "Pragmatics") through the work of language philosophers such as Austin (1962), Grice (1975) and Searle (1969) (cf. Verschueren 1999. ...
... I cannot enter into detail here, but the well-known Gricean Maxims(Grice 1975) assume cooperativity in communication as a givenin general, we want to understand and be understood whenever we communicate -and there is an entire tradition of "Accommodation Theory" in which speech convergence between interlocutors is studied(Giles, Coupland & Coupland 1991). Cooperation is also the central assumption to most of Conversation Analysis (e.g.Schegloff, Jefferson & Sacks 1977). ...
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The general election of 2014 is considered a milestone in political history. Political Historians has compared the said election with 1957,1971 and 1984 general elections as it witnessed ‘majority’ governments. The noteworthy aspect of the 2014 general election is the extensive use of ICT based social media. ICT based social media allowed parliamentarians to reach out to individuals directly. Parties indulged in campaigning used highly cynical information & multimedia across social media platforms. Major national parties contesting for election used either misinformation or miss interpreted information to counter each other. The study focuses on the usage and application of rumours (unverified stories) through media as a tool to counter rival parties during the election campaign.
... Wright (2014) accounts for the high acceptance rates of flexible accomplishments in incompletion contexts by arguing that the completion inferences made with this class are conversational implicatures, not entailments. 2 As such they can be cancelled in the right context (8b, d) but also strengthened (9) The completion conversational implicature is based on the Gricean maxim of quantity (Grice 1975). When addressees hear sentences like (8a,c), they expect speakers to have been as informative as possible about the trajectory of the event and the extent of its progress towards its natural limit. ...
... He made a box entails He completed the box. Conversational implicatures are inferences that are not triggered by the semantic content of a sentence, being the result of the application of pragmatic norms such as the Gricean maxims and the Principle of Cooperation (Grice 1975, Kearns 2000. 3 An anonymous reviewer raises the issue that predicates with direct object DPs with indefinite articles (10) are not really compatible with durative time adverbials in Romanian because they suggest completion. ...
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The experimental study in the present paper explores the nature of the completion inferences made by Romanian adult speakers in relation to strict (make a hat) and flexible accomplishments (sew a blouse) (Wright 2014). It has been claimed that, for strict accomplishments, the idea of completion is an entailment. Faced with the sentence He made a hat, interpreters automatically assume that the hat is completed. For flexible accomplishments, completion is not obligatory, being only a pragmatic implicature. The proposition He sewed a blouse does not entail that the blouse is finished, the idea of completion being optionally inferred. The experiment used a truth-value judgment task based on written scenarios that presented telic situations that came or did not come to their natural endpoint. The participants were asked to evaluate the truth value of past tense sentences based on strict or flexible accomplishment predicates with indefinite quantized direct objects. The prediction was that there would be a degree of acceptance of incompletion for flexible accomplishments but that speakers would reject incomplete scenarios with strict accomplishments. The results confirmed this prediction. The speakers' incompletion acceptance average rates ranged from 36% to 54% for a limited number of predicates, but, for other accomplishments, incompletion was always rejected. This is evidence that, in Romanian, completion inferences are not obligatory for all telic durative predicates.
... Stalnaker (2002) defined the notion of common ground as the sum of interlocutors' mutual, common, or joint beliefs and knowledge. Since Grice (1975), the importance of cooperation in a successful conversation was pointed out. In Grice (1989, p. 65), the term of common ground was introduced as related to communicative processes. ...
... The traditional version of this principle exhorts speakers not to expend any more effort than they need to get their addressees to understand them with as little effort. Grice (1975) used two maxims of the cooperative principle to account for the communicative effort: according to the maxim of quantity, the speaker must not make their contribution more informative than is required, and, according to the maxim of manner, they must also be brief and avoid prolixity. In detail, the general principle of least collaborative effort introduced by Clark and Wilkes-Gibbs (1986) was used by the authors to criticise the general speaker economy principle (Brown 1958) which does not always represent the right strategy for grounding. ...
Article
This work reports on the literature on grounding in conversational agents, as one of the pragmatic aspects adopted to ensure a better communicative efficiency in dialogue systems. The paper starts with a general description of the theory of grounding. As far as its computational implications are concerned, grounding phenomena are firstly framed in the common grounding processes described in terms of grounding acts. Secondly, they are considered in the argumentation-related framework within which already grounded information are processed. Open issues and application gaps are finally highlighted.
... When an individual produces an ostensive stimulus, it means that they will get the intended attention; the assumption of relevance is created (GRICE, 1975;WILSON, 1996). ...
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One of the possible problems in teaching English in Brazil may be linked to students’ lack of interest in online English classes. That demotivation may be linked to irrelevant content and an inadequate approach. When it comes to teenagers, it is known that technology plays a crucial role in their lives; however, some institutions and teachers have not mastered that tool yet. Nowadays, in pandemic times, technology has become essential. The outbreak of the virus has led to the tremendous growth of online teaching platforms. The pandemic of COVID-19 has transformed online teaching from a nice-to-have to a must- have. In light of Sperber and Wilson’s Relevance Theory (1996) and recent multimodality studies and pragmatics (YUS, 2018, 2016; FORCEVILLE; CLARK, 2014; KONSTANTINEAS; VLACHOS, 2012, O’KEEFFE; CLANCY; ADOLPHS, 2011), this paper presents a didactic unit designed to provide teenage students (12 year-olds to 15 year-olds) with compelling topics in a relevant way in online classes. Being humor an inherently human trait which covers a whole range of communicative, social and psychological aspects of human behavior, it was used as a means to enhancing students’ interest. The central idea is to suggest tasks designed using humorous internet memes as well as technology; such as platforms and websites. Following the didactic unit, the author received positive feedback from the specific group of learners and noticed overall improvement of students’ communicative abilities in the target language.
... Considering its evolution in time, one can notice important differences between the pragmatics of the beginnings of the field (the seventh decade of the past century: Austin 1962, Searle 1969, and then Grice 1975 and present-day pragmatics, which attests to the creative nature of the concept of paradigm. ...
... В статье 1975 г. (Grice 1975) Г. П. Грайс ввел понятие коммуникативной импликатуры 2 , которая, по его определению, отличается от конвенциональной (т.е. семантической) тем, что в ее основе лежит нарушение тех или иных правил речевого поведения, связанных с принципом кооперации (Грайс 1985: 226) 3 . ...
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The subject matter of the study is communicative implications as one of the forms of implementation of speech acts. The starting point is the well-known theory of H. P. Grice, in which pragmatic implications are based on the principle of cooperation. The author shows the limitations of Grices theory, which presents the communicative conditions of implications, but does not present the communicative consequences. As an alternative, the author proposes the concept of pragmatic implications, taking into account the premises and consequences of indirect speech acts. Considering implication as a two-place relation between antecedent and consequent, the author identifies three types of implications that differ in the type of information in the antecedent and consequent parts: 1) semantic antecedent pragmatic consequent; 2) pragmatic antecedent pragmatic consequent; 3) pragmatic antecedent semantic consequent. This approach makes it possible to present indirect communication to the fullest extent, and also to explain many communicative phenomena in terms of the interaction between semantics and pragmatics. Implications are interpreted as the result of mental processing of conditionally categorical syllogisms, in which the first premise is an element of the cultural worldview. Thus, the author shows the relative nature of the opposition of conventional and communicative implications. The article uses the material of the modern Russian language, borrowed from various sources: journalism, fiction, the Internet, urban folklore and colloquial speech. The leading research method was pragmatic, namely, illocutionary, analysis with elements of discourse content analysis.
... E két speciális esetet jól jelezheti a beszélő a megadott négy diskurzusjelölő egyikével vagy másikával (az olvasóra bízzuk annak eldöntését, hogy mikor melyiket használná). Vajon nem kötelező-e azonban a speciális esetekben valamelyik diskurzusjelölő használata, például Grice (1975) mennyiségi maximájának azon következménye értelmében, miszerint ha képesek vagyunk pontos fogalmazással több információt nyújtani a hallgatónak, akkor -ha ezt nem tesszük -, azzal arra utalunk, hogy nem is tudnánk pontosabb információt adni? Ezen a ponton szögezzük le a tanulmány egyik bírálójának felvetésére reflektálva, hogy a [-5,+5] skála alkalmazása (ráadásul az episztemikus dimenzión túl más attitűdök fokozatosságának megragadására is) csupán kiindulópont, kezdőhipotézis -viszont ez szükségszerűen így van, nem valamiféle hiányosság, hanem a tudományos kutatás szükségszerű velejárója. ...
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A ℜeALIS reprezentacionalista gyökereinek felvázolását és a kurrens dinamikus-pragmatikai célrendszer (Farkas–Roelofsen 2017) feltérképezését követően azt az adósságot kívánjuk törleszteni, hogy a kérdő mondattípus pragmaszemantikai jellemzéséhez hasonló alaposságú leírást (Alberti et al. 2019a) kapjon a felkiáltó és az óhajtó, valamint a felszólító és a kijelentő mondat is. E mondattípusok pragmaszemantikai jellemzésének finom részleteivel kívánunk szolgálni, végső soron az emberi kommunikációs tevékenység mentális megalapozását jelentő elmebeli lehetségesvilág-struktúra feltérképezéséhez járulva hozzá. Azt is szemléltetjük, hogy a diskurzusjelölők hogyan vonnak be újabb világokat e mentális térbe. Végül (az addigi feladói perspektíva helyett) a címzetti perspektívából vesszük szemügyre a hallgatói perlokúciós műveletek révén tovább gyarapodó „lehetséges lehetséges világainkat”.
... Principio de Economía Cognitiva: the task of category systems is to provide maximum information with the least cognitive effort […] while conserving finite resources as much as possible; y Principio de Estructuración del Mundo Percibido: the perceived world comes as structured information rather than as arbitrary or unpredictable attributes Contrariamente al Principio de Cooperación griceano (de naturaleza interpersonal, casi contractual), y al igual que los principios cognitivos de Rosch, los principios de Relevancia no son "algo que es razo nable que nosotros sigamos, (…) algo de lo que no tend ríam o s que apartarnos 1 " (Grice, [1975] 1991: 519) -por lo tanto, algo que puede ser violado en la praxis comunicativa sin que esto signifique una contradicción interna en la teoría-, sino que, según Sperber y Wilson (1995, 2003, los seres humanos tienen una tendencia natural (presumiblemente como resultado de una adaptación evolutiva, aunque esto es claramente controversial) a maximizar la relevancia, supuesto recuperado en el llamado Primer Principio de Relevancia: la cognición humana tiende a la maximización de la relevancia (Wilson y Sperber, 2004: 243). ...
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La sintaxis formal y la pragmática han sido frecuentemente vistas como disciplinas independientes, hasta contrapuestas, desde el desarrollo de la gramática generativa transformacional y de la pragmática de orientación filosófica. No obstante, el surgimiento de la pragmática de orientación relevantista-cognitiva, a partir de los trabajos de Sperber y Wilson (1995, 2003), abre la posibilidad de encontrar puntos de contacto entre los dos enfoques sobre el estudio del lenguaje. Ambas teorías se ubican dentro de las ciencias cognitivas, y buscan explicaciones a los fenómenos que estudian en un nivel subpersonal. Intentaremos explicitar algunos puntos de contacto entre las teorías, de manera tal que Teoría de la Relevancia pueda formalizarse como una teoría del componente Conceptual-Intencional generativista, incorporando nociones semántico-pragmáticas en el marco general de una sintaxis semánticamente dirigida.
... As Raskin and Attardo (1994) have argued, puns, like many kinds of verbal humor, violate the "cooperative principle" of conversational communication. As first documented by the linguist Paul Grice (1975), the cooperative principle refers to the implicit pragmatic norms that allow conversational communication to unfold effectively. In fact, Michael Tomasello (2010) has argued that these implicit norms were a prerequisite for human language to evolve in the first place. ...
Article
A mythopoetic paradigm or perspective sees the world primarily as a dramatic story of competing personal intentions, rather than a system of objective impersonal laws. Asma (2017) argued that our contemporary imaginative cognition is evolutionarily conserved-it has structural and functional similarities to premodern Homo sapiens’s cognition. This article will (i) outline the essential features of mythopoetic cognition or adaptive imagination, (ii) delineate the adaptive sociocultural advantages of mythopoetic cognition, (iii) explain the phylogenetic and ontogenetic mechanisms that give rise to human mythopoetic mind (i.e., genetically endowed simulation and associational systems that underwrite diverse symbolic systems), (iv) show how mythopoetic cognition challeng­es contemporary trends in cognitive science and philosophy, and (v) recognize and outline empirical approaches for a new cognitive science of the imagination.
... A crucial trait of CFs of the form if p, q is that they pragmatically implicate (in other words, suggest) that p is false without, however, semantically entailing it. For instance, as shown by (32), the counterfactual implicature of CFs can be made explicit without being redundant (which is a standard test for implicatures in pragmatic analyses following Grice 1975 This is in line with the modal reading as sketched in (31b). On the one hand, the given semantics merely says that a CF of the form if p, q is about worlds that exclude the actual world; therefore, semantically speaking, the CF is not about the actual world w@ and thus does not make explicit whether p holds in w@ or not. ...
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This paper addresses the question of how to account for the distinction between narrator-creating and narrator-neutral narration from a linguistic perspective. I first take issue with the approach by Eckardt (2015), according to which narrator-neutral narration is due to a lack of knowledge about the narrating situation; specifically, I raise an existence problem, an anthropomorphism problem, and a tense problem. Second, combining ideas of the Institutional Theory of Fiction as described by Walton (1990) and Köppe/Stühring (2011) and formal tools of Attitude Description Theory as developed by Maier (2017), I propose an imagination-based alternative account of narrator-neutrality. According to this, the distinction between narrator-creating and narrator-neutral narration is captured by optional existential binding of a narrating situation and a narrator in an imagination component of an interpreter’s mental state. Particular attention is paid to the semantics of the German preterit in fictional narratives. On the one hand, I confirm the famous hypothesis by Hamburger ( ³ 1977) and her successors in German linguistics that the preterit licenses an atemporal reading and thus an interpretation that eliminates the grammatical need for a narrating situation within the fiction. On the other hand, I reject the prevailing assumption that the preterit in its atemporal reading marks the fiction as such. In lieu thereof, the preterit is argued to instruct interpreters to imagine the story from the perspective of a distant observer.
... 'Hurt', according to Lachenicht (1980, 607), is achieved by (a) conveying that the addressee is not liked and does not belong and by (b) interfering with the addressee's freedom of action. However, Lachenicht (1980) does not consider silence or 'opting out' (Grice 1975) as a possible strategy to aggravate or 'hurt' the addressee. ...
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This study attempts a pragmatic analysis of impoliteness strategies utilized by Hamlet in his interactions with other characters in the play. It aims at examining other characters' verbal responses to Hamlet's impolite speech acts and identifying which response strategies are more frequently associated with which impoliteness strategies. To achieve these objectives, the study collates (32) impolite speech acts along with their responses from Hamlet to represent its data for analysis. Out of these data, (15) examples are randomly selected to analyze the impoliteness strategies utilizing Culpeper's (1996/2011/2017) and Culpeper, Bousfield and Wichmann (2003) models. Moreover, Bousfield's (2008) model was adopted to account for the interlocutors' responses to impoliteness. The findings of the study show that mock impoliteness, bald on record impoliteness and positive impoliteness are repeated in the play, of which mock impoliteness is the most frequently used strategy. Concerning the response strategies, the defensive and defensive-offensive strategies are frequently used by the characters in Hamlet, but the most frequent one is the defensive strategy. These impoliteness strategies and their responses have adversely affected the relationship amongst characters in the play and its general atmosphere.
... As Raskin and Attardo (1994) have argued, puns, like many kinds of verbal humor, violate the "cooperative principle" of conversational communication. As first documented by the linguist Paul Grice (1975), the cooperative principle refers to the implicit pragmatic norms that allow conversational communication to unfold effectively. In fact, Michael Tomasello (2010) has argued that these implicit norms were a prerequisite for human language to evolve in the first place. ...
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Dad jokes, I argue, are a manifestation of a much older fatherly impulse to tease one’s children. On the surface, dad jokes are puns that are characterized by only violating a pragmatic norm and nothing else, which makes them lame and unfunny. Only violating a pragmatic norm and nothing else, however, is itself a violation of the norms of joke-telling, which makes dad jokes a type of anti-humor. Fathers (i.e., “dads”) may in turn seek to embarrass their children by purposively violating the norms of joke-telling in this way, thus weaponizing the lame pun against their children as a type of good-natured teasing. Given their personality profile, it makes sense that fathers should be particularly prone to weap­onize dad jokes teasingly against their children like this, with the phenomenon bearing an illuminating resemblance to the rough-and-tumble play that fathers have engaged their children in since before the dawn of our species.
... Arguably, there is an unavoidable difference between what is directly said in an utterance and what the actual communicative intention behind the utterance is. Thus, all effective communication in social situations is based on the participants complying -and trusting that others will also complywith what Grice (1975) termed the "cooperative principle. " Essentially, compliance with that principle requires that the participants make the specific inferences needed to make sense of each other's behaviors as actions in a given communication situation. ...
Article
All effective communication is based on the participants trusting that they share their basic orientations to the world – that is, they have a common ground. In this paper, however, we examine situations in which such trust is lacking. Drawing on conversation–analytic methodology and on 30 hours of video data featuring persons with dementia and their caregivers in a Swedish-language daycare center in Finland, we consider some of the social consequences resulting from a lack of trust. Our analysis focused on three different interactional contexts, highlighting the relevance of different facets of the participants’ common ground. These facets are anchored in the deontic, epistemic, and emotional orders, respectively. We show that, with regard to each order, a lack of trust in the existence of common ground has drastic consequences, leading to (1) problems related to getting one’s will acknowledged, (2) a scarcity of conversational partners, and (3) a lack of resources to maintain affection.
... Practically, his answer is implicit and intentional. However, in borrowing Grice 1975 cooperative principle assertion in which one is expected to make one's conversational contribution as informative as is required, the response flouts quantity and manner maxims for being under-informative and involving unnecessary prolixity. This is a strategy to opt out of the demand of the question. ...
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More often in political debates, participants do not readily expound their identities and attitudes; they employ language structure that requires the analysis of the placing of self/other in certain positions for comprehension. Hence, this study aims at exploring identity construction through positioning act strategies and the identities projected in the discourse practices by two vice presidential debate candidates in defining selves/others, parties’ stance and group categorization. The study used Langenhove and Harre (1999) positioning theory. The data for the study are delimited to five excerpts randomly selected from thirty-two online-transcribed discourses between two debate participants. Findings reveal that the candidates made use of first and second order performative and accountive positioning acts to implicate self/party’s moral order and positive stance and the other’s immoral attributes. The modes of positioning are moral, personal, intentional, deliberate self and other and forced self-positioning. The discursive practices involved are such that are strategically manipulated to divulge the individual’s attitudes to the socio-economic and political development of the nation, thereby portraying the following identities: Scrupulous, dogged, competent, loyalist and committed (self/group) identity and corrupt minded, incompetent, failure and uncommitted (others) identity. In conclusion, the knowledge of the concepts of positioning and its applicability to the understanding of political debates is essential for the understanding of the politicians’ ideologies and identities as well as their stance on the nation’s growth.
... 177 Relevant notes on this evaluative marker can be found in Peretz (1940, 123) and Ulašin (2006, 57). 178 The masculine form of this marker usually takes the form -ete (instead of in -eto). For a discussion of the allomorphs -eto/-eta, see Hidalgo Navarro (2003, 586) and Herrero Moreno (1989, 84). ...
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The dissertation aims mainly to develop a descriptive and quantitative framework to analyze the morphosemantic features of EVALs in view to obtain measurable parameters that can be applied cross-linguistically in EM studies, both descriptive and contrastive. Accordingly, the following tasks have been established to achieve various individual objectives: 1. To review critically EM literature and survey up-to-date theoretical perspectives to assess the state of affairs in the study field. 2. To identify and discuss terminological and conceptual discrepancies in the relevant literature, and to adopt a set of terms that may be applicable cross-linguistically. 3. To define and characterize EVALs as a distinctive lexical type within the larger group of evaluative constructions. 4. To establish a set of analytical variables associated with productivity and diversity in EVAL-formation, and to provide quantitative measurements of how each variable is represented in a language’s EM system. 5. To carry out a detailed review and critical analysis of existing literature on Spanish and Latvian EM, as well as a systematic description and contrastive analysis of their respective EM resources.
... Es interesante recordar el concepto de "prueba cualificante", que Greimas (1983) elabora a partir de las clásicas funciones del relato propuestas por Propp (1977) para el estudio del cuento popular: la prueba, con sus "coadyuvantes y oponentes", como un paso obligado en el tránsito del héroe (la heroína) a la madurez, la sabiduría, la justicia. Aquí, sin embargo, la acumulación abrumadora de pruebas, el devenir sin pausa del diálogo, las réplicas alternadas de las participantes -el orden de los "turnos" en la conversación, tema caro a los "conversacionalistas" americanos (Grice, 1975)-al tiempo que operan un efecto de distanciamiento, cual una puesta en escena, rozan también el umbral de lo excesivo. La retención y el desbordamiento aparecen así como dos modos contrapuestos de narrar -y de leer-la experiencia traumática. ...
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Sujetos en proceso investiga al sujeto humano durante las primeras décadas del siglo XXI en su relación con los cambios y vaivenes sociales, en sus circunstancias y en su subjetividad e identidad. En la tradición occidental, el concepto de subjetividad se ha centrado en la figura del individuo autónomo, autoconsciente, racional y con fuertes raíces. No obstante, en este libro se desarrolla una concepción de sujeto compleja, nómada y fluida que permite un mejor acercamiento a su comprensión en el mundo actual. Esta concepción parte de Nietzsche y entreteje su argumentación con pensadores posmodernos y antiesencialistas, centrada en el tratamiento del tema desde las transformaciones múltiples y los constantes e intensos intercambios y contactos culturales. El libro aporta elementos contextuales y conceptuales productivos para comprender a los sujetos en proceso, en movimiento, entre problemáticas, tensiones y formas de vida nuevas -y en momentos, ininteligibles-, encarnados en la fluidez, el paisaje, el nomadismo y la diáspora.
... The bottom layer is constituted by what he refers to as the 'ethological elements', such as mutual gaze or turn-taking, including vocal turn-taking, which can be found in many primate clades (Levinson & Holler 2014). Levinson argues that cooperation may have been bootstrapped by these ethological elements in the context of novel ecological pressures (e.g., favouring bigger groups), which in turn laid the foundation for the inferential background of human communication, exemplified by the presumption of cooperation (Grice 1975) and the presumption of relevance (Sperber & Wilson 1986). ...
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Many controversies in language evolution research derive from the fact that language is itself a natural language word, which makes the underlying concept fuzzy and cumbersome, and a common perception is that progress in language evolution research is hindered because researchers do not ‘talk about the same thing’. In this article, we claim that agreement on a single, top-down definition of language is not a sine qua non for good and productive research in the field of language evolution. First, we use the example of the notion FLN (‘faculty of language in the narrow sense’) to demonstrate how the specific wording of an important top-down definition of (the faculty of) language can—surprisingly—be inconsequential to actual research practice. We then review four approaches to language evolution that we estimate to be particularly influential in the last decade. We show how their breadth precludes a single common conceptualization of language but instead leads to a family resemblance pattern, which underwrites fruitful communication between these approaches, leading to cross-fertilisation and synergies.
... Therefore, by uttering (1-a) instead of (1-b), (1-a) implicates at least 8 passed but not at least 9, hence it must be exactly 8. This pragmatic inference was called a conversational implicature by Grice (1975). A few years after Grice's William James Lectures, Laurence R. Horn (1972) worked out a general pattern that this and many other examples follow. ...
Chapter
A key prerequisite for drawing the quantity implicature from ‘three’ to ‘not more than three’ in e.g. ‘Nigel has three children’ is the assumption that the speaker knows the exact number of Nigel’s children. This led to the assumption that ‘more than n’ constructions generate no implicatures as the comparativeComparatives quantifier ‘more than’ signals that the speaker lacks sufficient knowledgeKnowledge for making a more precise statement (Krifka 2009). However, experimental results from Cummins et al. (2012) show that scalar implicaturesScalar implicature are available from these constructions. For example, the size of the interval defined by the estimated lower and upper bounds for the number of people getting married is much higher for More than 100 people got married today than for More than 110 people got married today, in spite of 100 being smaller than 110. This led some researchers (Cummins et al. 2012; Cummins 2013; Benz 2015) to assume that the estimated most likely true value and distance to the upper bound of a modified numeralModified numerals n is determined by the roundness level of n (Jansen & Pollmann 2001). However, the experimental study by Hesse & Benz (2020) showed that the most likely value is determined by a fixed 10% rule, and that the distance to the upper bound is determined by the distance to the next rounder number. In this paper we explore the implications of this finding for semantic and pragmatic theory. In particular, we will argue that the interpretation of numerals recruits general cognitive mechanismsCognitive mechanisms that make an analysis of modified numeralsModified numerals along the lines of alternativeAlternative semantics or a Hornian theory of scalar alternativesAlternative unsuitable.
... ZurBeschreibungder verbalen Höflichkeit als diskurstraditionelles Wissen greife ich aufdas vonEugenio Coseriu (2007) entworfene Modell der Sprache als kulturelle Kompetenz zurück, das vomSprechen als dialogisch angelegte energeia ausgeht und damit -anders als die wesentlich monologische Sprechakttheorie -eine ideale Basis für die Gesprächsforschung bildet.B ekanntlich hat das Sprechen als Tätigkeit nach Coseriu (2007: 74 f.) Der universellen Ebene zugeordnet sind die in allen Sprachen und Kulturen gültigena llgemein-universellenR egeln und Prinzipien des Sprechens.S ie sind Gegenstand einer aufU niversalien des Sprechens konzentrierten universellen Gesprächsforschung,d ie sich etwa mit universellenT echniken des Sprecherwechsels oder dem Prinzip der Kooperation (Grice 1989) beschäftigt.D ie einzelsprachlichen Traditionend er historischen Ebene umfassen das sprachliche Wissen und die Beherrschung konkreter Sprachen. Die einzelsprachlich orientierte Gesprächsforschung untersucht sprachliche Strukturen konkreter Sprachen und deren Funktionen, etwa Strukturen des Spanischen oder Französischen, die in Dialogen Sprecherwechsel ankündigenu nd realisieren. ...
... A beszédaktus-elmélet klasszikusai intuíció és gondolatkísérletek segítségével vizsgálták a beszédaktusokat (vö. Austin 1962;Searle 1969;Grice 1975). intuícióból származó adatok alapján állapította meg, hogy egyes nyelvi formák konvencionálisan használatosak közvetett beszédaktusok végrehajtására, és közismert tanulmányában a közvetett direktívumok végrehajtására konvencionálisan használatos mondatok különböző csoportjait különítette el az angol nyelvben. ...
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Az utóbbi évtizedekben a korpuszadatokra való támaszkodás a nyelvhasználat kutatásának alapelvévé vált, ami a korpuszpragmatika megszületéséhez vezetett (Jucker 2013; Aijmer–Rühlemann 2015; Rühlemann–Aijmer 2015). Bár a hagyományos pragmatikai kutatási módszerek továbbra is nélkülözhetetlenek az implicit nyelvhasználati jelenségek vizsgálatában, korpuszmódszerrel való kombinálásuk gyümölcsözőnek bizonyulhat. Jelen tanulmány korpuszpragmatikai megközelítésben, a Magyar Nemzeti Szövegtár előfordulásaiban vizsgálja a magyar közvetett kérések tud igét tartalmazó módozatait, ugyanakkor számos módszertani kérdést is körüljár. A más adatforrások segítségével nem kinyerhető spontán nyelvhasználati példák alapján eddig nem vizsgált stratégiákat is feltár. A korábbi kutatások a képességre utalással végrehajtott kérések közül csak a kérdő, infinitívuszos szerkezetekkel foglalkoztak, melyek közül a feltételes igealakot tartalmazó pozitív eldöntendő kérdés bizonyult a tipikus formának. Jelen tanulmány a MNSZ2 mint adatforrás bevonásával számos ettől eltérő, nem kérdő és nem főnévi igeneves szerkezetet is bemutat, rávilágítva a korpuszadatok figyelembevételének hasznosságára.
... Linguistic forms carry information on (at least) two levels. On a descriptive level, they convey content about the world -a package of information typically resulting from integrating the logical meaning of the expression with a variety of contextual cues (e.g., conversational assumptions, prior discourse, world knowledge ;Grice 1975;Horn 1984;Roberts 1996Roberts /2012. On a social level, they convey content about the speakers -a constellation of demographic, relational, and ideological features constitutive of the identity and personality of the interlocutors, typically known as soci(o-indexic)al meaning (Labov 1966;Ochs 1992;Silverstein 2003;Eckert 2008;Campbell-Kibler 2011 i.a.). ...
Article
Recent work at the interface of semantics and sociolinguistics showed that listeners reason about the semantic/pragmatic properties of linguistic utterances to draw social inferences about the speaker (Acton and Potts 2014; Beltrama 2018; Jeong 2021). These findings raise the question of whether reverse effects exist as well, i.e., whether (and how) social meanings can also impact the interpretation of semantic/pragmatic meanings. Using (im)precision as a case study, we provide experimental evidence that (i) numerals receive stricter interpretations when utteredbyNerdy(vs. Chill) speakers; and that (ii) this effect is stronger for comprehenders who don’t (strongly) identify with the speaker, suggesting that pragmatic reasoning is crucially shaped by social information about both the speaker and the comprehender. These findings suggest that different layers of meanings inform one another in a bi-directional fashion – i.e., semantic information can invite social inferences, and Misocial information can guide meaning interpretation.
... El tipo de presuposición relevante para los efectos marco es la que implica usos bien arraigados o cristalizados de ciertas expresiones, satisfaciendo las máximas griceanas de cantidad y relación. 9 Las presuposiciones provocadas por los marcos podrían acomodarse mejor aplicando una noción estrechamente relacionada con la de presuposición pragmática, a saber, la de implicatura conversacional generalizada (Grice 1975). Las implicaturas son inferencias en las que la proposición inferida no tiene ninguna relación funcional de verdad con el enunciado incluido en el discurso. ...
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Las variaciones en la forma en que los sujetos responden a las descripciones de un mismo asunto enmarcadas positiva o nega-tivamente han sido estudiadas desde las ciencias sociales, donde, sin embargo, una concepción insuficientemente desarrollada de la interpre-tación del discurso ha socavado las diferentes explicaciones ofrecidas. Los efectos marco suelen considerarse un signo de irracionalidad, ya que entrarían en conflicto con el "principio de extensionalidad", un supuesto habitual en la teoría de la elección racional, según el cual las diferentes formas de presentar el mismo conjunto de opciones posibles no deberían cambiar las elecciones de los sujetos con respecto a esas opciones. El 1 Agradezco a Agustín Vicente sus valiosos comentarios sobre versiones anteriores de este artículo. También estoy en deuda con los participantes en The First Context, Cognition and Communication Conference (Warsaw 2016) por las interesantes cuestiones planteadas. Extiendo igualmente mi agradecimiento a David Mandel y Donald Bello Hutt por su ayuda en la mejora de mi trabajo. Esta investigación ha sido financiada por los proyectos: "Laws and Models in Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Social Scien-ces" (PICT-2018-03454, ANPCyT, Argentina), y "Stochastic Representations in the Natural Sciences: Conceptual Foundations and Applications (STOCREP)" (PGC2018-099423-B-I00, Ministerio Español de Ciencia, Investigación y Universidades).
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In linguistic pragmatics norms can be seen as traditions that guide verbal interaction. In order to pin down the notion of tradition, we use a model of linguistic pragmatics that goes back to Eugenio Coseriu’s system of linguistic competence and to the concept of tradition elaborated by Ramón Menéndez Pidal, thus bringing together linguistics and philology. The functioning of norms as traditions is illustrated with two examples: with a routine of verbal politeness and with a narration style that is based on the aspect system of Romance languages and functions as a cultural tradition.
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La tradición discursiva como concepto es un saber cultural que rige la configuración de textos y, por esta razón, es un componente esencial de la competencia textual. Las tradiciones discursivas son un concepto cultural, textual y pragmalingüístico y comprenden tres dimensiones: la culturalidad, la textualidad y la cooperatividad. Como estas tres dimensiones implican diferentes grados de complejidad, la tradición discursiva es por tanto un concepto que aúna la competencia textual con el concepto de la complejidad textual. Este artículo desarrolla el concepto de tradición discursiva para, posteriormente, discutir a través de ejemplos dados, las tres categorías y complejidades que se desprenden de este saber discursivo-cultural.
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The design of current natural language oriented robot architectures enables certain architectural components to circumvent moral reasoning capabilities. One example of this is reflexive generation of clarification requests as soon as referential ambiguity is detected in a human utterance. As shown in previous research, this can lead robots to (1) miscommunicate their moral dispositions and (2) weaken human perception or application of moral norms within their current context. We present a solution to these problems by performing moral reasoning on each potential disambiguation of an ambiguous human utterance and responding accordingly, rather than immediately and naively requesting clarification. We implement our solution in the DIARC robot architecture, which, to our knowledge, is the only current robot architecture with both moral reasoning and clarification request generation capabilities. We then evaluate our method with a human subjects experiment, the results of which indicate that our approach successfully ameliorates the two identified concerns.
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This thesis is a corpus linguistic investigation of the language used by young German speakers online, examining lexical, morphological, orthographic, and syntactic features and changes in language use over time. The study analyses the language in the Nottinghamer Korpus deutscher YouTube‐Sprache ("Nottingham corpus of German YouTube language", or NottDeuYTSch corpus), one of the first large corpora of German‐language comments taken from the videosharing website YouTube, and built specifically for this project. The metadatarich corpus comprises c.33 million tokens from more than 3 million comments posted underneath videos uploaded by mainstream German‐language youthorientated YouTube channels from 2008‐2018. The NottDeuYTSch corpus was created to enable corpus linguistic approaches to studying digital German youth language (Jugendsprache), having identified the need for more specialised web corpora (see Barbaresi 2019). The methodology for compiling the corpus is described in detail in the thesis to facilitate future construction of web corpora. The thesis is situated at the intersection of Computer‐Mediated Communication (CMC) and youth language, which have been important areas of sociolinguistic scholarship since the 1980s, and explores what we can learn from a corpus‐driven, longitudinal approach to (online) youth language. To do so, the thesis uses corpus linguistic methods to analyse three main areas: 1. Lexical trends and the morphology of polysemous lexical items. For this purpose, the analysis focuses on geil, one of the most iconic and productive words in youth language, and presents a longitudinal analysis, demonstrating that usage of geil has decreased, and identifies lexical items that have emerged as potential replacements. Additionally, geil is used to analyse innovative morphological productiveness, demonstrating how different senses of geil are used as a base lexeme or affixoid in compounding and derivation. 2. Syntactic developments. The novel grammaticalization of several subordinating conjunctions into both coordinating conjunctions and discourse markers is examined. The investigation is supported by statistical analyses that demonstrate an increase in the use of non‐standard syntax over the timeframe of the corpus and compares the results with other corpora of written language. 3. Orthography and the metacommunicative features of digital writing. This iii iv analysis identifies orthographic features and strategies in the corpus, e.g. the repetition of certain emoji, and develops a holistic framework to study metacommunicative functions, such as the communication of illocutionary force, information structure, or the expression of identities. The framework unifies previous research that had focused on individual features, integrating a wide range of metacommunicative strategies within a single, robust system of analysis. By using qualitative and computational analytical frameworks within corpus linguistic methods, the thesis identifies emergent linguistic features in digital youth language in German and sheds further light on lexical and morphosyntactic changes and trends in the language of young people over the period 2008‐2018. The study has also further developed and augmented existing analytical frameworks to widen the scope of their application to orthographic features associated with digital writing.
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To interact with humans, artificial intelligence (AI) systems must understand our social world. Within this world norms play an important role in motivating and guiding agents. However, very few computational theories for learning social norms have been proposed. There also exists a long history of debate on the distinction between what is normal (is) and what is normative (ought). Many have argued that being capable of learning both concepts and recognizing the difference is necessary for all social agents. This paper introduces and demonstrates a computational approach to learning norms from natural language text that accounts for both what is normal and what is normative. It provides a foundation for everyday people to train AI systems about social norms.
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Previous research reveals that the visual design of open-ended questions should match the response task so that respondents can infer the expected response format. Based on a web survey including specific probes in a list-style open-ended question format, we experimentally tested the effects of varying numbers of answer boxes on several indicators of response quality. Our results showed that using multiple small answer boxes instead of one large box had a positive impact on the number and variety of themes mentioned, as well as on the conciseness of responses to specific probes. We found no effect on the relevance of themes and the risk of item non-response. Based on our findings, we recommend using multiple small answer boxes instead of one large box to convey the expected response format and improve response quality in specific probes. This study makes a valuable contribution to the field of web probing, extends the concept of response quality in list-style open-ended questions, and provides a deeper understanding of how visual design features affect cognitive response processes in web surveys.
Thesis
Bien que locuteurs d'une meme langue, les hommes et les femmes d'une meme culture semblent presenter des comportements linguistiques differencies. Le choix des themes et des strategies conversationnels est lie au sexe du locuteur et ou de l'interlocuteur. La differenciation sexuelle donne egalement lieu a un certain nombre de representations socio-culturelles partagees des comportements conversationnels des hommes et des femmes.
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Dans sa recherche sur l’analyse des langues, Culioli (1968, 1971) stipule qu’il est essentiel de construire un système de représentations avec des propriétés formelles pour effectuer des calculs en linguistique. Dans cet article, nous tentons d’identifier les fondements de la formalisation théorique culiolienne qui ont permis à Adamczewski (1978) de construire sa grammaire méta-opérationnelle de l’anglais, grammaire consistant en des principes qu’il considérera plus tard comme principes universels, à partir de la structure anglaise be + ing. À la manière de la formalisation en linguistique établie par Culioli, nous avons intégré d’autres principes et outils au modèle adamczewskien, comme le principe partie / tout ou le principe de génération d’inférences par exemple. Cela permet de déterminer d’autres caractéristiques de cette structure, telles que sa capacité à se référer à des événements révolus, même lorsqu’elle est conjuguée au présent. Ce modèle intégré, construit avec des paramètres de formalisation culioliens, nous permet d’analyser et de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement énonciatif de la structure, ou de ses équivalents dans d’autres langues, comme en français être en train de. Il nous permet également d’esquisser, toujours dans le cadre énonciativiste, une hypothèse sur la possible motivation métaphorique dans le cas du français.
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This monograph investigates semantic change and semantic extension of verbs in Tamil. The semantic change and semantic extensions of meaning of verbs are studied from the perspectives of cognitive semantics and generative lexicon. The monograph is organized into six chapters. They are briefly described below. There are a few earlier researches in Tamil on lexical semantics and semantic change. By chance they are the research works undertaken by Rajendran. “Syntax and semantics of Tamil verbs” is the PhD research work of Rajendran (1978). This work followed the principles of Nida (1975a) expounded in his book entitled “Componential analysis of meaning: an introduction to semantic structures”. This work has great relevance to the present research work as Rajendran has classified verbs into certain semantic domains and subdomains based on the principles of componential analysis propounded by Nida (1975a). He has also classified verbs into certain number of semantic domains based on the number and types of arguments taken by the verbs. He has identified the semantic features of verbs to distinguish one verb from the other and also identified common semantic features which can be ascribed to the verbs which belong to a particular semantic domain. The polysemy of each verb is identified and classified based on the semantic parameters. Another important work on lexical semantics by Rajendran is his post-doctoral work on “Semantics of Tamil vocabulary”. These works have been culminated into two books entitled “taRkaalat tamiz coRkaLanjciyam (Thesaurus for modern Tamil)” which has been written in Tamil and published by Tamil university in 2001 (Rajendran 2001) and ‘tamiz min coRkaLanjciyam (Tamil electronic thesaurus)” written in collaboration with Baskaran and published by Tamil University in 2006 (Rajendran 2006). He has published a book on lexical semantics entitled “coRkaL: vaazvum varalaaRum (Words: Life and History)" written in collaboration with Sakthivel. His research papers entitled “Verbs of ‘seeing’ in Tamil’ (Rajendran 1982), “Coming and Going in Tamil” (Rajendran 1983), “Semantic Structure of Directional verbs of movement in Tamil”, (Rajendran 2002), “Syntax and semantics of Verbs of Transfer in Tamil” (Rajendran 2002), “Creating generative lexicon from dictionaries” (Rajendran 2003), “Building generative lexicon from MRDs in Tamil” (Rajendran 2010), “Grammaticalization verbs in Tamil” (Rajendran 2018) and “Cognitive extensions of meaning in verbs of movement in Tamil” (Rajendran 2019), (Ontology of Tamil Vocabulary" (Rajendran and Anitha 2019), "WordNet and its dimesions" (Rajendran 2021) have direct or indirect bearing on the present research work. Some of unpublished research manuals uploaded in the websites academia.edu and Research Gate which can be said to be directly or indirectly concerned with the present research work are “tamiz peyarc coRkaLin aakkamuRai akaraati” (Generative lexicon for Tamil nouns)” and “tamiz vinaicoRkaLin aakkamuRai akaraati (Generative lexicon for Tamil)”. The present work has its starting point in “Syntax and semantics of Tamil verbs (Rajendran 1978). The verbs of Tamil have been collected and classified based on the principles of componential analysis meaning propounded by Nida (1975). Also the polysemy of the verbs is explained based on the principles explained by Nida in the same book. Attempts have been made to classify the meanings that can be given under particular verbs. The synonymy is explained based on the senses rather than by words. Such classification explained the semantic extension of verbs which can be attributed to various principles such as metaphorical extension, metonymical extension, and analogical extension and so on. The aim of this research is to find out the magnitude and dimension semantic change and semantic extension of meanings of verbs and to find out the general principles on these processes of dynamics of meaning. The units of meaning can include words, phrases and grammatical units. For example, the verbs in Tamil such as vaa ‘come’, poo ‘go’ have been grammaticalized to function as auxiliary verbs denoting some aspectual meaning (Rajendran 2019). Two theories have been going to be explored to explain the sematic change and sematic extension of verbs: one is cognitive theory of meaning and another is the theory propounded by Pushtejovsky (1995) in his generative lexicon. Explaining the semantic extension or semantic change of meaning of verbs is undertaken in two ways: one is to classify the verbs into certain semantic domains based on their distinctive semantic features and then explain the polysemy in the members of each domain (Rajendran 1979, 2020); and another is to explain how verbs belonging to a domain move to another domain by cognitive principles of semantic extension. Dictionaries list words as entries and give different meanings based on their usage and thus function as word information resources. Dictionaries list different meanings of a verb under an entry and try to convince the users that each is a separate meaning by explanation and giving the examples to support their conviction. Thesaurus on the other hand, classifies the words into semantic domains and subdomains and gives word under each domain or subheading. WordNet is a combination of thesaurus and dictionaries. In WordNet, words are grouped into synsets (synonymous sets) and the synonyms are linked by semantic and lexical relations, thus forming a network of words or concepts (each meaning denoted by a word is a concept). The problem with a dictionary is that in its efforts to account for the different uses of a lexical item or word, it goes on increasing the list of meaning under each word entry. This will cause not only the increase in the size of the dictionary but also the increase in number of volumes of the dictionary. A verb expands its usage quite wider than a noun. The expansion of numbers of senses under each nouns is comparatively less when compared to verbs. The polysemy found in verbs leads to ambiguity which is a serious issue in machine translation. The polysemy found in verbs and the expansion of dictionaries disproportionately due to polysemy needs to be accounted by different means. The expansion of meaning in terms of different senses can be assumed or predicted or expected to some extent. This predictable expansion of meaning can be explained or put into rules. But the senses assigned to a verb undergo unpredictable mutations which cannot be easily explained. In order to account for the dynamic process of polysemy mainly due to semantic change or meaning expansion, especially in verbs, it is felt that the polysemy needs to be addressed seriously. The endless list of meanings found in the entries of verbs in a dictionary led to the present study. It is felt that the semantic change or meaning extension need to be explained properly for the verbs to lessen the burden in lexicon. Practically speaking, there is no principal difference between semantic extension and sematic change. Tamil verbs expand its range of application of meaning or usage of meaning in predictable terms as well as unpredictable terms. For the native speakers of Tamil such expansion of range of application of meaning may not appear strange. But a non-native speaker such extension of change of meaning may appear strange and it may be difficult for them to understand the meaning of a lexical item in unaccustomed contexts. The expansion or change of meaning of a lexical item will be explicitly revealed if we compare the early dictionaries of Tamil (Tamil Lexicon of Madras University) with the present one (Creas’s Modern Tamil Dictionary). It is presumed here in this research that the meaning expansion or change are somewhat predicable and can be explained by cognitive principles or principles of generative lexicon. It is a well-known fact that meaning of a lexical item expands or changes metaphorically, metonymically and analogically. This leads the moving of lexical items belonging to a domain into another domain. This movement is due to the acquiring of new semantic features which are shared with the entity’s new place of existence. It is hoped that this can be explained by general principles of semantic expansion or change.
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DISCURSO FERNANDO CASTAÑOS ZUNO Se sintetizan los cambios en el significado de la palabra DISCURSO como se ha empleado en el lenguaje cotidiano en las últimas décadas. A continuación, se indican las principales conceptualizaciones académicas que han propiciados aquellas modificaciones. Se reseñan las principales corrientes de estudio del discurso, se ofrecen perspectivas del desarrollo del campo interdisciplinario que conforman y se proponen planteamientos clave para el desarrollo de una ciencia dentro del mismo, en la que se articulen coherentemente principios ontológicos, epistemológicos, teóricos y metodológicos.
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