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... Mental models have potential to be used not just to enhance science and risk communication of hazards, but also to enhance our public education campaigns. They can also be used to advance shared understanding during participatory co-development of a risk assessment and mitigation plan with communities and individuals [28][29][30][31][32][33]. While much research has considered the application of this method for understanding natural hazards phenomena to advance risk communication [e.g. ...
... As reviewed in Doyle & Becker [41] risk communication has shifted over time from risk education in the 1970s towards risk consultation in the early 2000s [30], including a spectrum of approaches that ranged from 'one-way' to 'two-way' communications, also defined as 'informing' vs. 'empowering', or 'technical' vs. 'democratic' [28][29][30][31][32][33]. The earlier models were often grounded in a 'deficit' model of communication [see also [127]] which viewed the public as lacking experts' understanding of risk and science and aimed to rectify those knowledge gaps. ...
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We present a scoping review of methods used to elicit individuals' mental models of science or risk. Developing a shared understanding of the science related to risk is crucial for diverse individuals to collaboratively manage disaster consequences. Mental models, or people's psychological representation of how the ‘world works’, present a valuable tool to achieve this. Potential applications range from developing effective risk communication for use in short-warning situations to community co-development of future communication protocols for the co-management of risk. A diverse range of tools, in diverse fields, have thus been developed to elicit these mental models. Forty-four articles were selected via inclusion criteria from 561 found through a systematic search. We identified a wide range of direct and indirect elicitation techniques (concept, cognitive, flow, information world, knowledge, mind, fuzzy cognitive, decision influence diagrams) and interview-based techniques. Many used multiple elicitation techniques such as free-drawing, interviews, free-listing, sorting tasks, attitudinal surveys, photograph elicitation, metaphor analysis, and mapping software. We identify several challenges when designing elicitation methods, including researcher influence, the importance of external visualization, a lack of evaluation, the role of ‘experts’, and ethical considerations due to the influence of the process itself. We present a preliminary typology for elicitation and analysis and suggest future research should explore methods to assess the evolution of mental models to understand how conceptualisations change through time, experience, or public education programs. These lessons have the potential to benefit both science and disaster risk communication activities, given best practice calls for mutually constructed understanding.
... If literacy appropriate messages can provide people with a greater sense of control in high stress situations, other preparedness or risk messages can be crafted to ensure proper response in the event of an emergency. This has wide communication implications in that having a sense of control is a key component of emergency risk communication and is related directly to compliance with recommendations (Covello & Sandman, 2001). ...
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Behavioral, attitudinal, and emotional reactions to terrorism can be minimized by communication that promotes successful response through preparedness. However, a challenge to adequate preparedness is the substantial proportion of adults with "below basic" or "basic" literacy skills and how this affects development of health messages. This research explored whether a non-verbal emotional measurement and modeling technique (AdSAM®) can be used with a limited literacy population to support the development of message strategies for disaster situations such as a "dirty bomb" terror event. Adults with limited literacy were randomly assigned to review either a standard CDC decision aid written at a 9th grade level (n=22) or an adapted aid written at a 6rd grade level (n=28). Using the AdSAM® emotional response instrument, participants answered questions regarding their feelings about a 'dirty bomb'. The group shown the adaptive aid had more positive emotional responses, including less arousal and greater empowerment. The AdSAM® approach can provide researchers with insights into the design of tailored messages for a limited literacy population in high risk, high-emotion situations.
... Um das Vertrauen zu fördern, ist es wichtig auch wissenschaftliche Unsicherheiten zu kommunizieren [20,23]. Risikokommunikation, und das sind an dieser Stelle die FAQ, sollte die komplexen Prozesse der Wissenschaft und die dahinterstehenden Phänomene und Erklärungen für die Bevölkerung verständlich und nachvollziehbar erklären [53,54]. Dies kann dann zur Akzeptanz etwaiger Empfehlungen und Maßnahmen beitragen und das Vertrauen in die kommunizierende Institution stärken. ...
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Zusammenfassung In der Ergänzung des Nationalen Pandemieplans zur Bewältigung der COVID-19-Pandemie ist festgelegt, dass die Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (BZgA) über die Internetseite www.infektionsschutz.de Informationsmaterial zum Coronavirus SARS-CoV‑2 für die Allgemeinbevölkerung zur Verfügung stellt. Dieses soll insbesondere Antworten auf häufig gestellte Fragen (FAQ) sowie Verhaltensempfehlungen zur Prävention beinhalten. Dieser Artikel beschreibt, wie die Ad-hoc-Erstellung von Informationsinhalten in Form von FAQ erfolgt und welche Bedeutung diese in der Krisenkommunikation haben. Dabei wird der Wandel der FAQ vom einfachen Informationsangebot zum interinstitutionellen Krisenreaktionsinstrument (Rapid Reaction Tool) im Rahmen einer agilen Kommunikation zum Coronavirus deutlich. Im Sinne einer kongruenten und tagesaktuellen Informationsbereitstellung ist eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Institutionen erforderlich. Die Arbeits- und Abstimmungsprozesse sowie verschiedene Vorgehensweisen bei der Aktualisierung werden vorgestellt. Aus den beschriebenen und bewerteten Arbeitsprozessen können theoretische Implikationen für die Krisenkommunikation und das Krisenmanagement – insbesondere die Zusammenarbeit zwischen verschiedenen Institutionen – abgeleitet werden. Auch können sie von anderen Institutionen als Beispiel für „gute Praxis“ aufgegriffen und ggf. weiterentwickelt und auf andere Kontexte übertragen werden.
... Mit dem Wandel zur Risiko-und Chancenkommunikation könnten Droh-und Furchtbotschaften mit ihren problematischen Auswirkungen einfacher und nachhaltiger vermieden werden. Wie oben beschrieben, werden in Krisen negative Informationen eher wahrgenommen und im Gedächtnis behalten [23,24]. ...
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Zusammenfassung Die Risikokommunikation öffentlicher Institutionen soll die Bevölkerung im Falle bestehender Risiken bei der Entscheidungsfindung unterstützen. In gesundheitlichen Notlagen wie der Coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2)-Pandemie spielt sie eine besonders wichtige Rolle. Bereits nach dem SARS-Ausbruch im Jahr 2003 hat die Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) ihre Internationalen Gesundheitsvorschriften (IHR 2005) überarbeitet und gefordert, Risikokommunikation in allen Mitgliedsländern als einen Kernbereich in der Gesundheitspolitik zu etablieren. Während der gesundheitspolitische Akzent begrüßt wurde, konnten die Möglichkeiten der Risikokommunikation in diesem Bereich bisher nicht voll ausgeschöpft werden. Gründe sind u. a. Unstimmigkeiten im Begriffsverständnis der Risikokommunikation und die Vielzahl zur Verfügung stehender Methoden. Der vorliegende Diskussionsartikel soll dazu beitragen, ein neues Verständnis von Risikokommunikation in Public-Health-Notlagen (Emergency Risk Communication – ERC) zu etablieren. Es wird vorgeschlagen, neben den Risiken die Chancen der Krise stärker einzubeziehen und Risikokommunikation noch mehr als einen kontinuierlichen Prozess zu begreifen, der an verschiedenen Stellen optimierbar ist. Der Earlier-Faster-Smoother-Smarter-Ansatz und hierbei insbesondere die frühere Erkennung von Gesundheitsgefahren (Earlier) könnten das Management von Public-Health-Notlagen zukünftig unterstützen.
... These include a lack of time to examine risk communication thoroughly (Johnson & Chess, 2006), reluctance to communicate due to job pressures (Derks & Bakker, 2010), recipients' perceived meanings of the risk types (Gutteling & De Vries, 2017;Scheer et al., 2014;Xie et al., 2011) and cultural differences within and across agencies and professionals who manage risk communication (Riley et al., 2006). Some studies also highlight concerns about communications that fail to accommodate nonexperts' perspectives (Claassen et al., 2016), the absence of local knowledge and technical resources needed by experts for communicating and managing risk communication effectively (Covello & Sandman, 2001;Moser, 2010), and the public attitude of distrust toward policy administrators (Carlsson et al., 2012). These, together with people's incapability to access risk information (Gutteling & De Vries, 2017) and reluctance to accept the message (Visschers et al., 2009) can also obscure accurate analysis of risk communication and effective disaster management. ...
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This study conceptualizes how fire management authorities can empower nonexpert public to participate in fire risk communication processes and increase their own responsibilities for managing fire preventive, protective and recovery processes effectively. Drawing narratives from 10 disaster management experts working at government institutions and nine micro‐entrepreneurs operating self‐sustaining businesses in different merchandized lines in Ghana, we analyzed the data thematically and explored new insights on mental models to generate a two‐way fire risk communication model. The findings suggest that fire management authorities planned fire disasters at the strategic level, collaborated with multiple stakeholders, disseminated information through many risk communication methods, and utilized their capabilities to manage fire at the various stages of fire risk communication, but the outcomes were poor. The micro‐entrepreneurs sought to improve fire management outcomes through attitude change, law enforcement actions, strengthened security and better public trust building. The study has implications for policymakers, governments, and risk communication authorities of developing countries to strengthen their fire disaster policies to minimize commercial fire incidents and address the damaging effects of fire on people's livelihoods, businesses, properties, and environments. Our proposed two‐way fire risk communication model is a new theoretical lens for experts and the nonexpert public to assess each other's beliefs about risk information and manage fire risk communication effectively at all stages.
... Risk communication is a science-based approach for communicating effectively in high concern situations, and it is based on a multi-level process of interactive exchange of information between public government and citizens (Sellnow and Sellnow, 2010). Often, it involves multiple messages about the nature of the risk and/or about the legal and the institutional arrangements for risk management (Covello and Sandman, 2001). ...
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Purpose Covid-19 is a worldwide pandemic disease that changed the government communication to citizens about the health emergency. This study aims to provide in-depth research about regional Italian government communication through social media (SM) and its effects on citizens' engagement. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a case analysis, focusing on the Italian context. In detail, the authors analyse the more involved Italian regions in Covid-19 pandemic (Lombardy, Veneto, Piedmont, Emilia Romagna and Tuscany) applying the Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model. Findings The results reveal that SM is a powerful tool for communication during a health emergency and for facilitating the engagement with stakeholders. However, results also highlight a different perception about the timing of the Covid-19 crisis. Practical implications Findings suggest a gap between the answer of the public government compared to the citizens' needs that are clear since the first earlier stage of the pandemic event. The engagement level is very high since the first phase of the pandemic event; however, to be adequately developed, it requires specific and timing information that are not always in line with the citizens’ communication needs. Originality/value This is the first research that aims to study the citizens' engagement in the Italian regions during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Article
The role of the risk analyst is critical in understanding and managing uncertainty. However, there is another type of uncertainty that is rarely discussed: The legal, social, and reputational liabilities of the risk analyst. Recent events have shown that professionals participating in risk analysis can be held personally liable. It is timely and important to ask: How can risk science guide risk analysis with consideration of those liabilities, particularly in response to emerging and unprecedented risk. This paper studies this topic by: (1) Categorizing how professionals with risk analysis responsibilities have historically been held liable, and (2) developing a framework to address uncertainty related to those potential liabilities. The result of this framework will enable individual analysts and organizations to investigate and manage the expectations of risk analysts and others as they apply risk principles and methods. This paper will be of interest to risk researchers, risk professionals, and industry professionals who seek maturity within their risk programs.
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The spread of accurate and inaccurate information happened quickly in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and understanding how this occurred is important to prepare for communication of future disease outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to understand Americans’ information seeking and sharing behaviors during the early stages of COVID-19 and was guided by the following objectives: identify passive sources/channels of information; identify active sources/channels of information; and describe how frequently and across which channels/sources the U.S. public shared information about COVID-19 in early stages of the pandemic. Results indicated people first found information about COVID-19 from personal communication but turned to national and international organizations if they were to actively seek information. Scientists and universities were some of the least sought after and shared sources of information. The sources shared most were from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization. Implications from this research are a need for communicators to use grassroots communication efforts during a crisis, to actively share information early during a crisis, to share information outside of traditional academic networks, and to collaborate with sources inside and outside of traditional Extension networks.
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Evaluation globale des Plans nationaux santé – environnement (2004 – 2019) (HCSP, Avis et Rapports) Francelyne Marano, Daniel Bley, Muriel Andrieu-Semmel, Jean-Marc Brignon, Sara Brimo, Patrick Brochard, Rémy Collomp, Sébastien Denys, Alice Desbiolles, Hélène Desqueyroux, François Eisinger, Luc Ferrari, Éric Gaffet, Philippe Hartemann, Sabine Host, Philippe Hubert, Jean-Marie Januel, Joseph Kleinpeter, Agnès Lefranc, Laurent Madec, Charlotte Marchandise-Franquet, Laurence Payrastre, Kiran Ramgolam, Jean-Louis Roubaty, Michel Setbon, Jean Simos, Fabien Squinazi, Anne Vidy, Denis Zmirou-Navier, Dominique Maison, Soizic Urban-Boudjelab, Lottie Friederici Editeur : Haut Conseil de Santé Publique Version du 18 Mars 2022 Mise en ligne 20 Juin 2022 (450 Pages) https://www.hcsp.fr/Explore.cgi/AvisRapportsDomaine?clefr=1223 https://www.hcsp.fr/Explore.cgi/Telecharger?NomFichier=hcspr20220318_valglodesplanatsanenv.pdf
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Management of risks and uncertainty played an important role in the rise of human cultures from the beginning. Long journey has been taken from deciphering spiritual signs to the usage of artificial intelligence. Communication about risks also went through an evolutionary path and became highly specialised. During previous decades, food safety risk communication developed to be a distinguishable and well-grounded profession. Based on literature of the last 40 years, the evolution of food safety risk communication is presented from the perspectives of consumer involvement, methodological approach, and challenges. Expected future trends are also unfolded during the analysis. The paper identifies 5 + 1 stages in the evolution of food safety risk communication: Pre-risk communication era, Deficit model, Dialogue model, Partnership model, and Behavioural insight model. Expected future trends are summarised as a 6th stage, called Controlled risk environment model. The models are separated by level of consumer involvement and methodological approach. Consumer science played a crucial role in the evolutionary procedure. Despite the observed advancement between the stages, the application of each communication model might have justification under certain circumstances. In practice, the different stages have no clear boundaries, and the models can overlap. An organisation can even move on to the next phase by skipping a previous evolutionary step.
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