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Groundnut Research and its potential in Eastern India.

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In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
117
Groundnut Research and its Potential in Eastern India
A. L. Singh, M.S. Basu and N. B Singh
National Research Centre for Groundnut, P.B 5, Junagadh 362001, India.
1. Introduction
The groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) which is also known as peanut, is an important food legume in
tropical and subtropical areas and presently grown in about 90 countries in different agro-climatic regions
between latitudes 40ºS and 40ºN. It ranks 13th among the principal economic crops of the world. India has a
cultivation history of growing groundnut around 250 years and now it is grown on an area of about 8 million
hectare (m ha), producing 8 million tonns (m t) and is the most important oilseeds crop of the country. In India
the groundnut is grown in 260 districts mostly as rainfed crop on well drained sandy soils in low (750 mm
annual) and medium (750-1000 mm annual) rainfall areas. Upto 60s, in India, the groundnut was grown only in
rainy season (Kharif), but from 1971-72 its cultivation started in winter (Rabi) and summer also where it
showed higher yields potential than in Kharif. Between the decades of 60s and 70s, there is practically little
difference in productivity (700-800 kg/ha) indicating that the increase in production was largely due to the
expansion in areas. But during 80s, particularly during 1988-89 the productivity has crossed one tonne (1132
kg/ha) which is due to favorable season and transfer of available technologies through TMO (Technology
Mission on Oilseeds). The average yield of the crop during 1990-2000 was 994 kg/ha with a maximum of 1214
kg/ha during 1998.
To meet the demand of increasing population both as oil seed as well as food crop in India, the
production of groundnut has to be increased tremendously. As the productivity of groundnut can not be
increased after certain limit, and its area in the traditional groundnut growing belt is decreasing, the expansion of
groundnut cultivation in the non-traditional areas of north-east and eastern India is the alternative and efforts are
being made, since last one decade, to popularize groundnut in these areas. Also as the crop is grown mainly as
rain fed and so far only 19.4 % area could be brought under irrigation, the expansion of groundnut in the eastern
and north eastern areas, where the water is present in plenty, provide a solution to increase the production and
productivity of groundnut.
Though, in India, the average yield is around 1 t/ha the river belt of Orissa harvests more than 3 t ha-1
of groundnut pods during rabi-summer season clearly indicating that there is tremendous scope to increase the
groundnut yield through understanding of crop and its management (Basu, 2003). As groundnut is not very old
crop, particularly in eastern region of India, its agronomy and phenology are not well studied. Due to
underground fruiting, indeterminate growth habit and different botanical types still certain aspects of this crop
are not very clear. In this chapter an attempt has been made to synthesize the knowledge of groundnut
cultivation achieved so far in the eastern states and to pin point the major thrust areas, to increase its
productivity and availability in the eastern region.
2. Eastern States, their climate and soil types
The eastern region of India comprises of 5 sates namely, Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Sikkim, and
Orissa and Andaman & Nicobar islands as union territory. Barring Orissa, all other states in eastern considered
as non-traditional areas for groundnut cultivation. There are three dominant seasons, viz. winter (November to
February), summer (March to May-June) and monsoon (June to October). Most of the rainfall in these states is
received under the influence of the southwest monsoon between June and October. As the crops being
introduced or being taken up by farmers depends mainly on the basic conditions like climate, soil, water
resources and the land use pattern, a brief of all these are being mentioned in the following lines.
Bihar Bihar, bounded on the north by Nepal and south by Jharkhand, get worst of cold and heat, plenty of
flood. Bihar is almost level tract and extremely fertile land being water by Ganaga, Gandak and Saryu rivers.
Rice, wheat and Maize are principal crops besides oilseeds, pulses and jutes. In Bihar the groundnut is grown in
patches in Samastipur, Rohtas, Bhojpur, Gaya and Munger districts. The climate of Bihar is tropical hence
some time temperature goes very high, soil is alluvial and fertile land with rich in organic matter. Monsoon rains
starts towards the second week of June and lasts up to the second week of October.
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is rich in mineral, coal mines and thickly wooded and contain succession of hills. The
climate of Jharkhand is also tropical and rains starts in the second week of June and lasts up to the second week
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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of October. Though all the crops can be grown is Jharkhand the principal crops are, rice, maize, wheat, oilseed
and pulses. The northern Jharkhand is relatively plain and fertile land where groundnut find place both as
Kharif and Rabi crops, however it is most successful in Ranchi area. In southern Jharkhand, which is relatively,
hilly tract with acidic soil groundnut can be grown during Kharif season only. The groundnut is grown in
patches in Garhwa, Palamu, Ranchi, Hazaribag Chatra and Bokaro districts.
Orissa Orissa lies on the east coast of India in sub-tropical zone and drained by three great rivers the
Mahanadi, the Brahmani and the Baitarini. It is divided into four distinct tracts the northern plateau, the eastern
ghats, the central tract and the coastal plains. The climate of Orissa is sub-tropical in nature with dry summer
(max temp. 42 ° C) and hot and humid wet season. Monsoon rains starts towards the second week of June and
lasts up to the second week of October. Average annual rainfall is 1502 mm with 73 rainy days. The winter is
mild with minimum temperature of 8° C.
Although the Soil of Orissa differs widely from highly acidic to slightly alkaline and from light sandy
to stiff clay, they are mainly acidic with degree of acidity varying widely. Due to variation in topography there
are 8 soil groups, red sandy and red loamy, lateritic, red yellow, coastal alluvial, deltaic, black, mixed red and
black soils brown forest soils.
More than 75% of the population is dependant on agriculture and important oilseed crops are
groundnut, niger and mustard and among oilseed groundnut dominants and is grown in all the 30 districts of
Orissa. However, the main groundnut growing districts are Kendrapada, Cuttuck, Puri, Angal, Baraghar, Jajpur,
Bolangir, Dhenkanal, Jagatsinpur, Kalahandi districts. Orissa has 22.8% groundnut area under irrigation,
however, the natural calamities like drought and cyclone hit the agriculture.
The red sandy and red loamy and lateritic soils are generally acidic and deficient in organic matter, N,
Ca, P, Mo and B and P fixation is a problem. Perusal of district wise area and production in Orissa shows that
Baraghar district has the highest groundnut growing area (42 thousand ha) and production (46.7 thousand tones)
followed by Jajpur and Dhenkanal.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a group of more than 3000 islands, the majority of which are
uninhabited. The soils of the islands vary from heavy clay loam to sandy loams. The climate is tropical hot
humid with little annual variation in temperature from 3-5C and more than 25000 mm rainfall mainly during
May to October. Majority of area is covered with forest and only 6% of the area is available for cultivation with
rice, coconuts and arecanut as the principal crops. Other crops are sugarcane, pulses, fruit and vegetables,
spices, rubber and oilseeds crops are being tried. Groundnut cultivation was introduced in Andman by
Rehabilitation Department during 1975 with AK-12-24 variety and later on by CARI (ICAR) during 1982 and
found growing well as rabi crop from November-February. It has potential for cultivation over 5000 ha
Sikkim With four districts (North, South, East and West) and least populous Sikkim is a small mountain state
in the eastern Himalayas. It has seven hundred of different kinds of orchids and frequently referred as botanist’s
paradise. Agriculture is the main occupation and principal crops are maize, paddy millet wheat and barley
besides orange and cardamoms being the main cash crops. Groundnut is being introduced through ICAR
research complex for NEH region Sikkim center at Gangtok and nearby areas.
West Bengal
West Bengal has two natural division, the Himalayan north comprising of districts Darjeeling,
Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar and the alluvial plain that lies in South. Seventy percent of West Bengal population
is engaged in agriculture and contribute over 30% of the state income.
The eastern region is characterized with varied physical and climatological conditions, for example,
climate (tropical temperate) and annual rainfall (800-2000 mm). Most of the rainfall received under the
influence of the south-west monsoon between June and October. This region also suffers from severe soil
erosion due to rugged topography, high rainfall and shifting cultivation. Both surface and sub-surface soils of
the region particularly in the hilly region are highly leached exhibiting poor base saturation with low CEC.
These soil are very good for groundnut, but soil acidity in general and subsoil acidity in particular are the major
limiting factors for low productivity potential of these soils. There is a good depth of soil in eastern region and
most of them are low in CEC, pH strongly to medium acidic, dominated by inceptsol (45%) and entisol (28%).
Nutrient use is less in eastern region, so of pesticides. The organic, FYM etc are produced in lesser amount for
Orissa and West Bengal where livestocks number are less.
In the eastern region majority of soil is acidic which are represented by laterite (Bihar, Orissa, and
W.B.), and red and yellow soils (Orissa). Eastern plains covers, eastern Bihar and W. B. in the lower gangetic
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
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plains. Coastal plain occur mostly in Sunderbans in W.B. and Andaman and Nicobar soils and are acid sulphate.
Most of the soils in eastern states are acidic, deficient in Ca, P, K and Mg, degree of saturation of CEC is low
and have excess Al, Mn and Fe. Besides these soils have low water holding capacity, susceptible to crusting
erosion and compaction making them low productive.
3. Groundnut cultivation in eastern states
The state Agricultural Universities such as RAU, Pusa, BAU, Ranchi, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, BCKVV,
Nadia, and IIT Khargpur in collaboration with NRCG, Junagadh and All India Coordinated Research Project on
Groundnut conducted experiments on the varietal selection, optium agronomy and plant protection required for
realising maximum yield and brought out the required package of practices for Eastern States of India. Also the
All India Coordinated Research Project on Groundnut, National Research Centre for Groundnut at Junagadh and
ICAR, New Delhi and NOVOD, Gurgaon took initiative, funded various projects and put a lot of efforts to
develop the techonologies for eastern states to make these states self reliance in oilseed production.
The Rice, and maize are main cereal crops eastern regions. Presently, out of 45 million hectares area
under rice cultivation in India, the rainfed upland constitute about 8 m ha, of which about 2 m ha are confined to
eastern region. Modern agricultural technologies which brought in substantial yield increase is not always
applicable to these areas because of several biotic, abiotic and social constraints, and infrastructural facilities.
Groundnut is being grown in eastern India, especially in Bihar and Orissa, since long, but it is recent
introduction in the West Bengal. The productivity of rice and maize in uplands of eastern region which is quiet
low, groundnut can be a better substitution for upland rice and maize. It can also be grown in sequence after
rice or maize or as intercrop within rice and maize upland situations. Also, groundnut can be grown twice in a
year. The farmers grow groundnut with minimum effort as it has got less management problem compared to
other crops like rice and maize. Moreover, it requires less fertilizer inputs for its production except the seed cost
for which farmers may maintain seed materials themselves. Thus, groundnut has got high potential for its
cultivation in eastern region.
Cultivation of groundnut in Rice-Based Cropping System (RBCS) has become popular and area is
increasing in eastern india (AICRPG 1998, 1999). However, the biggest impediment in rapid spread of area is
non-availability of seed. Rabi-summer produce looses its viability rapidly and farmers of this region can not
keep their own seed for sowing in the next Rabi season. Thus, timely making availability of quality seed is the
greatest hindrance in groundnut cultivation. It is expected that area under groundnut may reach up to 0.5-1
million hectares in RBCS alone in eastern. It can be grown in river beds, in potato and mustard fallow during
spring season as sole crop or intercrop with rice and maize, and in the upland acid soils of Jharkhand (of
Chhotanagpur plateau), Orissa and West Bengal as an alternative to less renumerative local rice and minor
millets. These situations provide scope for expansion of additional 0.5 million ha area under groundnut in the
eastern states which may result in additional production of about 1 m t of groundnut.
Jharkhand
At present groundnut, in Jharkhand, is grown in 5,000 ha area during kharif season. However, there is
scope for increasing groundnut area and production in uplands of Chhotanagpur plateau of by replacing local
rice and minor millets. Maize + groundnut intercropping system have a great scope in major groundnut growing
areas of Jharkhand.
Orissa This state is important for both rabi and kharif groundnut production. The kharif rainfed groundnut area
increased from 0.91 lakh ha in 1979-80 to 2.2 lakh ha during 1990-91. In rainfed upland, groundnut has been
found to be more remunerative than other crops like paddy, minor millets and fibre crops as experiments
conducted indicated that net return from groundnut in upland was the highest (Rs. 2450/ha) compared to Rs.
630/ha in paddy and Rs.545 from minor millet. The concentration of rabi groundnut under rice fallow residual
moisture is highest in orissa (about 2 lakh ha during 1990-91). In rice based and river bed residual bed residual
moisture areas, the sowing starts from October and continue till February, depending upon the harvesting of the
preceding rice crop and receding of river water. Intercropping of groundnut and pigeonpea (2:1) is also popular
and remunerative in Orissa. There is a potential in Orissa for growing groundnut round the year in different
agroclimatic zones, as the temperatures are congenial.
West Bengal
In West Bengal, groundnut is grown in all the three seasons as kharif, rabi and summer crop. The
potential districts for rainfed kharif groundnut are Midnapore (West), Purulia, Bankura and Birbhum which
accounts for 30% of total groundnut area of the state. The next 70% areas are under rabi/summer season and
scattered in the districts of Midnapore (East), 24 parganas (North), Hoogly, Nadia and Murshidabad.
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for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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Groundnut area has increased from less than 5,000 hectares during 1979-80 to 17,000 ha during 1993-
94 and 30,000 ha by 1995-96 mainly because of its high economic return. From 1996 onward, the area is
stagnating, however, there is further scope to increase the same in fallows of rice and potato. Recent results on
intercropping groundnut with rice in row to row ratio of 1:1 or 2:2 in lateritic and alluvial soils indicated higher
yield advantage as compared to that of conventional sole cropping of rice. Performance of groundnut to chilli in
row to row ratio is 3:1 or 4:1 also encouraging. Four rows of groundnut grown in association with one row of
pigeon pea provided higher groundnut equivalent yield (25.5 q/ha) and net return. Such cropping system would
help to mitigate the current national shortage of pulses and oilseeds.
Potential for groundnut in RBCS also exists in Patha, Pratima, Falta, Mograhat I & II, Kupli and
Diamond Harbour I of 24-Parganas (South) with average productivity of 1500 kg/ha where most of the lands
remain fallow in post-rainy season.
Based on the research conducted by scientists, a package of practices for kharif and rabi/summer
groundnut has been developed. The production technology for kharif season is cheap in most of the places in
the region, however, the rabi-summer groundnut technologies has been proved to have better potential on the
farmers' field than Kharif groundnut in recent year. High rainfall is the main demerits of kharif groundnut not
being successful crop in WB and eastern States. However, the farmers have harvested good yield by adopting
new technologies for rabi-summer groundnut. There is a great potential of Rabi-summer groundnut in these
states. The research has been conducted on various aspects of groundnut to increase its productivity in the
eastern states and standard package of practices developed as the crop is new in these region being a non-
traditional areas except Orissa and Jharkhand, the production technologies are being refined time and again.
However, most of the technologies are common in all the three situations. The one suited for Orissa, West
Bnegal, Bihar and Jharkhand.
4. Cropping seasons, situations and optimum sowing time
Like other parts of the country, there are mainly three groundnut growing, Kharif, Rabi and Summer
seasons being followed in eastern states of India. Kharif is the main cropping season of these states lasting from
June to october. This coincides with the monsoon season when most of the rainfall is received. Crops are also
grown during rabi season (September to February) utilizing irrigation facilities, residual moisture in the soil. The
groundnut, during kharif season is sown in June-July in eastern states and harvested accordingly during
September-November. During Rabi, it is sown in September-October and harvested in January-February. The
summer season groundnut is sown during January-February and harvested during May-June.
Besides the various cropping seasons, there are following situations in which groundnut is grown in the
eastern states depending upon the land use pattern, moisture rainfall and climate.
Season Situations
Kharif Rainfed upland
Rabi Rainfed medium land on residual moisture
Rabi Irrigated medium land
Rabi River bank and river bed fallow on residual moisture
Summer Irrigated medium land (Rice fallow)
Summer River bed fallows.
The kharif crop in eastern states is mainly rainfed, hence it require occasional life saving irrigation, the
rabi crop is grown either on residual moisture with life saving irrigation or under totally irrigated condition
depending upon the situations and availability of moisture and irrigation. However, the summer crop in totally
irrigated except of a few river beds which sustain on residual moisture and with one or two life saving irrigation
can yield high. The average productions of kharif in India is about 900 kg ha-1 however, the Rabi and Summer
crop it is about 1600 kg ha-1.
During kharif season both the bunch and runner type groundnut cultivars are grown. However, during
rabi and summer seasons only bunch and sometimes semi-spreading groundnut cultivars are grown. The runner
type being longer in duration and sensitive to high temperature, are not grown during Rabi and Summer season
as it may not set good number of pods and may caught rain during harvest. Kharif is mainly grown as sole crop
as well as intercrop in eastern India. In the entire Bihar, Jharkhand and part of Orissa the groundnut is grown on
upland in patches as kharif crop during rainy season. In Bihar, Jharkhand and NE region, it is a replacement of
maize, millet and upland rice. In few parts of Jharkhand and Orissa it is grown as intercrop with Arhar
(Pigeonpea), which is a very old practice.
As rabi crop, the groundnut is grown in Orissa, West Bengal, by sowing the crop during September to
November in the rice fallows. This crop is grown particularly on upland and medium land with adequate
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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moisture content. In high rainfall area, such crop is sown on ridges to avoid water logging. The Rabi crop is
spreading fast in West Bengal and Orissa replacing other oilseed crop in rice fallows. Farmers of these states are
adopting this sequence in low land rice also because of the problems of the rice after rice where the insect pest
perpetuate round the year resulting in decline in productivity and profitability of the rice-rice cropping system.
Including groundnut in the rice based cropping system sustains crop production, improves soil health, breaks the
build up of dangerous insect-pests and pathogens. Besides this crop also requires less number of irrigations and
provides better nutritional and financial security than maize or other crops. Sowing of groundnut depends on
the harvest of rice, maize or any other crops. The time of sowing again region and situation specific and vary
from September to November.
The groundnut during Rabi season can be grown along with polythene mulch to avoid low temperature
effect and consideration of moisture. The low temperature during middle of crop growth is the major draw back
which reduces the growth affecting yield.
The summer crop of groundnut is mainly irrigated and has high yield potential. It is grown under
assured irrigation and nutrient management and has less infestation of weed and insects pests and diseases.
Though the time of sowing varies from region to region and situations, it is commonly sown during January-
February and harvested during May June. In some area groundnut is grown spring season after harvest of
potato and toria. Orissa, West Bengal, are the main states where groundnut is grown as summer crop.
However, it has also gaining popularity in Jharkhand, Bihar. In a field experiment during summer at Kalyani,
West Bengal, India, Pod yields of groundnuts cv. JL 24 were highest with sowing on 15 February, 3 irrigations
and a spacing of 25 X 12 cm with a maximum LAI at pod filling and maturity stages (Pastra et al 1998). In
Hoogly, Bardwan and Howrah district of West Bengal this crop is grown in Summer with high yield.
It is worthwhile increasing groundnut area under summer crop which will automatically increase the
production due to high productivity. However, during recent years, there is little decrease in rabi and summer
area in India. The riverbed provides an ideal situation for growing groundnut under residual moisture content
mainly due to deposition of silt and nutrient replenishment every year by flood. This cultivation has become
very popular in Orissa and now picking up fast in, West Bengal. The yield potential of groundnut grown in
river bed is very high and yield of 3000 kg ha-1 is commonly observed.
Generally the optimum sowing time for groundnut is 15th June to 15th July in entire eastern region
depending upon the rain. However, The sowing time recommended for different situations are given below:
Situations
Sowing time
Pre-Kharif
15th May-15th June
Rabi residual (River bed/rice fallow)
15th September-15th October
Kharif
15th June-15th July
Rabi residual (River bed/rice fallow)
15th September-15th October
Summer (Irrigated)
15th January to 15th February
Spring (Irrigated after Potato/ Mustard)
First fortnight of February to first fortnight of
March
4. Crop Improvement
4.1. Varietal identification and development
Through AICRPG and SAUs, a number of groundnut genotypes and cultivars were tested in the eastern
region, besides ongoing breeding programme in Orissa and Jharkhand and a number of cultivars have been
recommended from time to time. Some of them have become quite old and need to be replaced with new one.
In Orissa the popular cultivars are , AK 12-24 and Kisan, however recently OG 52-1 has been released. Nine
promising groundnut cultivars (TG-24, BG-3, JL-24, GG-2, GG 85-1, TG-22, AK 12-24, Kisan and Gangapuri)
were studied under 4 environments during kharif in Ranchi, where Genotype x environment interactions were
observed for the traits like days to flowering and maturity, shelling percentage, 100-kernel weight and pod
yields and the cultivars, JL-24 and BG-3 were the most stable for pod yield and other characters, and suitable for
cultivation in wide range of environmental conditions (Mahto and Mahto, 2000).
In West Bengal 12 groundnut varieties were evaluated yields in rainy and summer seasons on an
alluvial soil and ICGS 44, TAG 24 and JL 24 were recommended for cultivation (Patra et al, 1996b). Of the 8
cultivars tested, Kadiri 3 and ICGS-FDRS 4 gave highest pod yields of 2.40 and 2.39 t/ha and had oil contents
of 45.5 and 43.4%, respectively in West Bengal (Mitra and Rao, 1988). The groundnut Mutants BP1 and BP2,
which have a compact habit, large kernels and show early maturity, outyielded AK12-24, a predominant variety
in this region and were released as Sonya Bold 1 and Sonya Bold 2 for cultivation in Bihar (Sinha and
Rahman, 1979). Birsa Bold 1 (BAU13), derived from a 3-way cross (Asiriya Mwitunde X BG1) X M13, gave a
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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pod yield of 2.2 t/ha and seed yield of 1.4 t/ha is a variety with large red seeds and recommended for eastern
India (Rahman et al, 1995). Nair et al (1983) studied the growth, duration, pod yields and oil contents of 19
groundnut varieties and found all of them doing well in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Based on the over all performance the new varieties recommended for various seasons in eastern India are:
Kharif season : ICGS 76, ICGS 44, ICGV 86590, TKG 19A, TG 22, OG 52-1 and ICGS 11
Rabi season : ICGS 76, OG 52-1, ICGS 44 TAG 24 and JL 24
A number of released groundnut cultivars were tested in the eastern region and the suitable cultivars
are as follows:
States
Groundnut varieties performing well
Orissa
OG 52-1, ICGV 86648, ICGS 76, TKG 19A, TG 22, Jawan, JL 24 AK 12-24
West Bengal
ICGS 44, ICGS 11, Girnar 1, ICGS-FDRS 4, OG 52-1, VRI 3, JL 24
Jharkhand
BAU 13, TG 22, BG 3, TKG 19A, JL-24
Bihar
BAU 13, TG 22, BG 3 ,JL 24
Seven bunch, 2 semi-spreading and 9 spreading groundnut varieties/lines were evaluated for harvest
index and other related traits at Pusa, Bihar where the harvest index ranged from 15.09 to 38.51%, with a mean
value of 25.76% and there was a high heterogeneity for harvest index observed among the varieties with the
same habit group (Sharma and Varshney, 1995). Genetic variability, and genetic advance were high for harvest
index and its component traits. Pod yield per plant, pods per plant and shelling percentage showed positive
correlation with harvest index. Improvement in harvest index with the objective of improving yield could be
achieved by increasing pods per plant, seeds per pod, shelling percentage and secondary branches per plant.
4.2. Screening and evaluation of germplasm lines
Under the All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRPG) on Groundnut a number of groundnut
genotypes were evaluated in eastern region under various agroclimatic conditions. These genotypes comprised
of germplasm accessions, advanced breeding lines and groundnut cultivars.
Thirty one groundnut genotypes were screened for their tolerance of Al-toxicity and based on the data
for the consecutive four years study revealed that the genotypes NRCG 7599 and 1038, 3498 and, 6919 showed
comparatively more tolerance than others. However the genotypes GG 4 and GG 5 and GG 20 were most
sensitive.In the entire eastern states, the P and Ca deficiencies are major problem of groundnut. Several
genotypes were screened to identify P and Ca-efficient and inefficient groundnut genotypes based on the relative
performance of groundnut genotypes under fertilized (fertilized with that nutrient) over unfertilized conditions
for growth, dry matter accumulation, yields and nutrient uptake the efficient and inefficient groundnut
genotypes were identified. The high P concentration in leaves at early growth stages, high P uptake by plant at
harvest and low Ca content in leaves was observed in P-efficient genotypes. Though the genotypic differences
exist in Ca concentrations and uptake and yields between genotypes, there was no clear-cut relation between
high yield and high Ca uptake by plants. However the data clearly show that kernel of the Ca-efficient
genotypes showed higher Ca concentration than others.
As the nutrient efficiency refers to the ability of a plant to convert nutrient inputs into desired outputs, a
‘nutrient efficient’ genotype is the one that better converts nutrient inputs into desired outputs than other
genotypes, which by comparison are ‘nutrient inefficient’. In selection for nutrient efficiency the yield response
to nutrients over the low range of nutrient availability is increased without affecting the response to high rates of
nutrient uptakes which is more useful in situations of low nutrient availability and in low-input agriculture.
However, the types of nutrient efficiency having superior yield response at all levels of nutrient availability (low
and high) and genotypes showing this response are highly valued in selection and breeding programme which
has been taken in this study. However, based on the study the following genotypes were categorized as nutrient
efficient and inefficient (NRCG, 2000):
Nutrient efficient and inefficient genotypes
P-efficient
GG 5, NRCG Acc 7085-1, 6919, 1308, 3498, and SP 250A
P-inefficient
VRI 3, B 95, PBS 16003, 20012 and 18057
Ca-efficient
ICGHNG 88448, and NRCG Acc. 7085-1, 6155,
Ca-inefficient
BAU 13, TG 26, NRCG 7472 and 162
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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4.2. Agronomy and production technologies
4.2.1. Planting density and seed rate
The seed rate depends upon seed size of the variety grown and spacing adopted. The most common
spacing for bunch type of groundnut is 30 x 10 cm and for spreading it is 60 X 10. Accordingly the seed rate is
100-110 kg kernel/ha and 90-95 kg kernel/ha respectively for bunch and spreading groundnut genotypes. Under
field condition, the seed germination is only 70% and hence to maintenance of optimum plant population it is
necessary to increase the seed rate in groundnut cultivation. The recommended seed rate and spacing for
various type groundnut are given below:
Botanical types
Spacings
Seed rates (Kg ha)
Bunch
30 x 10 cm
120
Semi spreading
30 x 15 cm
100-110
Spreading
45 x 15 cm
90-100
Achieving optimum plant density of groundnut in rice fallow is a concern. Under limited soil moisture,
low density may be beneficial but where adequate moisture is available during the growing season slightly
higher density may improve pod yield. Select good quality pod shell them manually or by using hand
decorticator just before sowing as the viability in the stored kernel deteriorates fast and also there is problem of
storage pests attack on seeds. Kernel should be treated with Thiram @ 3 g kg-1 seed or Bavistin @ 2 g kg-1 seed
before sowing to control collar rot and other seed born diseases. In field experiments in summer at Kalyani,
sowing in a BBF system gave the highest yield with an increase pod yield by 14.1% and oil yield by 13.9%
over sowing in flat bed (Patra et al 1996).
4.2.2. Liming and Ca fertilizers
As groundnut is grown on a wide range of soils, it can be grown in all sites of eastern region.
However, the crop does best on well drained, light, textured loose and friable sandy loam or light alluvial soil,
having reasonably high levels of calcium and a moderate organic matter with pH 5.5 to 7.0. But, due to high
rainfall and leaching, most of the soils in the eastern states specially uplands and hilly areas are acidic in
reaction with low base and cation exchange capacity (CEC) and poor fertility. To bring the acid soil to
productive it require liming. Lime requirements (LR) have been estimated following one of the many methods.
Soils having pH less than 5.5 need to be corrected by applying lime @ 2 tonnnes per hectare. Lime should be
applied in furrows. CEC is the capacity of the soil's (clay mineral and organic matter) providing negative site to
bind exchangeable bases such as K, Na, Ca, Mg besides Fe, Mn, Al, Cu and Co etc and more the base saturation
better the soil fertility. Sharma and Tripathi (1989), using various methods to raise pH 6.5, found the LR of acid
soils of India varying from 2.6-24 t ha-1 CaCO3.
Calcium requirement of groundnut is quite high mostly during pod filling stage. Acid soils are deficient
in Ca, S and Mg. After reclamation of this soil by chemical or organic means gypsum @ 250 kg ha-1 at the time
of sowing along with other fertilizers and 250 kg ha-1 at the time of flowering should be applied to supply Ca
and S to groundnut. In eastern region application of gypsum as a source of S is advocated. Soil application of
10 kg Mg as MgSO4correct Mg deficiency. Soils of most of eastern states which are mainly characterized by
low organic matter, application of lime @ 0.2 t/ha as CaCO3/ CaSO4every year is comparable to single
application once in three years at full LR of slaked time @ 2.8 t/ha. Presently, liming at ¼ to 1/3 LR is
considered reasonable for lime responsive crops. A number of industrial wastes like basic slag from steel plants,
lime sludge from paper mill, press mud from sugar mill is available to eastern and NEH region. Such a cheaper
source of liming materials can increase yield of groundnut. The effectiveness of basic slag, lime sludge and
dolomite are rated to be 111% , 108% and 98% as against 100% for limestone with groundnut and other oilseed
and pulse crops.
Mathur (1997) reviewed the work done at Ranchi and reported that liming is more economical and
easy to adopt by farmers in acid soil region (ASR). In case of soybean and groundnut return per rupee invested
on lime is twice when applied as fertilizer in furrows. The CaCO3 at 1/10 of LR applied in rhizosphere at
sowing was at par with surface application of full LR for groundnut. The effects of CaCO3 and gypsum on
groundnut yields and on soil physical properties were studied by Mathur et al. (1983) who reported that both
CaCO3 and gypsum increased yield and exchangeable Ca, but the pH was increased due to CaCO3 only. Field
experiments on acid red loam soils report that while the highest mean yields of groundnut, soybean, gram and
barley were obtained with a full rate (2.85-5.5 t/ha) of lime application on the surface, these were on a par with
liming at levels of 300-400 kg/ha when applied in furrows, thus, lime is an effective source of fertilizer on
these soils and its application in small amounts (300-400 kg/ha) in furrows is recommended (Mathur et al 1985).
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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The liming increases solubility of Fe and Al phosphates and helps to retain phosphates in Ca-
phosphates form. The P level reached a peak value around one month after liming an acid laterite soil (Mishra
and Panda, 1997). From the farm data in W.B. lime dose at one-fourth of LR increased groundnut yields from
1.26 to 1.62 t ha-1. Rock phosphate and SSP mixture of 1:1 in rabi groundnut and kharif paddy sequence applied
to groundnut was more beneficial than applied to rice (Mitra et al. 1993). Application of lime at 1/4th of LR
level (750-1000 kg ha-1 CaCO3 or equivalent paper mill sludge every alternate year sustain the productivity of
rice-groundnut system (Mishra et al, 1990). The cropping pattern need to be adjusted in the wake of liming to
realise maximum benefit. In modern time efforts are made to modify soil as well crop species to produce more.
The lime should be fine enough to pass 10 mesh sieve, but for basic slag the recommended size is 30-40 mesh.
In 2-year trials on groundnuts-pigeonpeas intercropping on an acid lateritic soil (pH 5.85) increased groundnut
equivalent yields from 1.32 to 2.66 t/ha (Rao and Mitra 1991) . Yield increases with lime (1.25 t lime/ha) were
more pronounced in the intercropped stands than in pure stands of either crop.
4.2.3. Macronutrient fertilizers
The NPK requirement of groundnut is 200:30:140 kg ha-1, however being legume crop it takes
atmospheric N and hence a booster dose of 20-40 kg N ha-1 is applied. Groundnut being a leguminous crop fixes
atmospheric nitrogen in the root nodules with the help of Bradyrhizobium and is capable of meeting its 60-80%
nitrogen requirements from symbiotic nitrogen fixation and only 20-40 % by soil nitrogen. However, it takes
about 25-30 days for the development of root nodules and during the early stage of plant growth, nitrogen is
very much in demand. Thus 30-40 kg ha-1of the nitrogen should be supplied externally through any available N
sources. The Spanish and Valencia bunch groundnut, because of lesser Nitrogen-fixation and crop duration
respond more to nitrogen than the Virginia. The Native Bradyrhizobium are not abundant to fix adequate N at
most of the places in eastern states thus inoculation with Bradyrhizobium is must to meet the nitrogen
requirement.
Since P content of the soil in eastern region is very low (<10 mg/kg soil), groundnut responds to high P
doses in acid soil. Application of phosphatic fertilzier to groundnut is very important as it promotes root growth,
multiplication of Rhizobium and also helps the crop to tide over moisture stress. Single Super Phosphate is the
best source of phosphorus as it contains, Ca (19.5%) and S (12.5%) which are needed for the groundnut.
Maximum amount of applied phosphorus gets fixed with soil particles because of low pH. Therefore, higher
does of phosphorus is recommended for this region. A lot of experiments were conducted by OUAT,
Bhubaneswar to find a solution to use a cheap source of phosphorus like insoluble rock phosphate (Mussorie
RP, Udaipur RP) and found useful. In farmers field the legumes particularly groundnut because of the high
calcium requirement and mycorrhizal association were more efficient in utilizing P from RP and other less
soluble sources of P. A mixture of RP and SPP at 3:1 was best as it gave 1036 kg ha-1 groundnut yield with
70% shelling as compared with 987 kg ha-1 yield and 62% shelling with SSP. On sandy loam soils the
groundnuts cv. AK 12-24 grown with SSP + URP (Udaipur rock phosphate) mixture in the ratio 1:1 produced
similar yields to SSP alone and was superior to URP alone (Das and Sahu, 1988). In a trials with groundnuts
grown on a saline soil (pH 5.0), applying 1.25 or 2.50 t lime as paper mill sludge/ha gave pod yields 2.17 t/ha,
however, applying 60 kg P2O5/ha as DAP, SSP, Mussori rock phosphate (MRP) and 50% as SSP + 50% as
MRP gave yields of 1.81, 1.78, 1.91 and 2.11 t, respectively (Panda et al 1990).
Single super phosphate (SSP), due to its lower cost is predominantly used phosphatic fertilizer, but
majority of its water soluble (P) fertilizer is fixed to unavailable form in the eastern region soils. The soil acidity
in eastern region, however, help the release of phosphate from rock phosphate (RP), a cheap sources of P and
not used in phosphate industry can effectively be used in acid soil. Some amount of readily available form of P
(blending) depending upon soil acidity as shown below is beneficial to the farmers.
Soil acidity pH
rock phosphate RP
SSP
4.0-5.0
90%
10%
5.1-6.0
80%
20%
6.1-7.0
50%
50%
Optimum time of application of RP is 3-4 weeks before sowing. It is desirable to use ground rock phosphate
with particle size of 60 100 mm mesh.
The K content is medium and hence fertilization is must. Thus the fertilizer requirement of eastern
regions is 40:60:40 kg/ha of NPK. In field experiments the responses to P and K were quadratic and the
optimum rates of P and K were 37.3 kg and 50.6 kg ha-1, respectively in WB (Jana et al 1990). In a field trial in
the kharif seasons average pod yields and benefit:cost ratios in groundnuts cv. JL-24 were highest with 40 kg N,
40 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O at Jhargram. In an alluvial zone of West Bengal, application of 40 kg N and 45
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
125
kg K2O gave the highest number of pods/plant, shelling percentage and 100-seed weight of the rainfed
groundnuts cv, JL 24. In field trials during kharif seasons the pod and seed yields increased with increasing N
PK level and 40 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K20 was an optimum dose in WB (Barik et al., 1994). In a field
trial in the Andaman Islands, three groundnut cultivars DRG-4, ICGV-86885 and TAG-24, did well at 30 kg N
and 40 kg P ha. Pod yield averaged 2.15, 2.53 and 1.58 t ha-1 in cv. respectively but was not significantly
different between fertilizer rates (Gangwar and Dubey, 1998).
In general, for obtaining high yield of groundnut, application of FYM (5-10 t ha-1) followed by 40 kg
N, 60 kg P2O5and 40 kg K2O ha-1 is recommended however, for old groundnuts varieties such as AK 12-24 20
kg N + 60 kg P2O5+ 40 kg K2O is recommended. In field experiments at Coochbehar, West Bengal, in the
summer irrigated groundnuts cv. AK 12-24 the pod yields, yield components and oil yield increased with K
and higher K rates of 70 kg K2O/ha in split doses(0 and 40DAS) was better than applying all at sowing
(Saha et al 1994). Plant uptake of N, P and K was highest when 70 kg K2O/ha was applied in 2 splits.
A field experiment conducted for two consecutive kharif seasons, on a limed and unlimed Typic
Haplustalf acid soil at Ranchi (Bihar, India), the groundnut pod, oil and straw yields, oil content, and uptake of
Ca and S by the crop increased up to 300 kg/ha gypsum and the effect of gypsum was greater in the limed
soil (Surendra Singh et al 1996). In a field experiment on sandy loam soil at Dholi, Bihar, groundnuts cv. M-13
produced seed yields of 1.29, 1.57, 1.62 and 1.71 t/ha, at 0, 20, 30 and 40 kg S/ha respectively (Sakal et al
1993). However, in a field experiment in S deficient calcareous soil in Bihar, the yield of groundnut cv. M 13
grown during the kharif season followed by wheat cv. HD 1553 in rabi season on the same plots gave the
highest yields of groundnut (3.95 t/ha) and wheat (4.40 t/ha ) at 800 kg pyrite + pressmud and increased the
concentration and uptake of S by groundnut and wheat and availability of S in soil (Sinha and Sakal, 1993). In
field experiments in West Bengal, India, a minimum annual rate of 20 kg S/ha either as sulphates of different
cations or as elemental S was sufficiently effective to increase the productivity of one rice crop during the dry
season and one groundnut crop during the wet season in a yearly sequence (Mandal et al 1997). Applications of
S from any source to rice consistently increased groundnut pod from 11.2% to 33.3%, and among the different
S sources, applications of gypsum was most productive for both crops in sequence. In field and pot experiments
on a sandy loam soil (Inceptisol), groundnuts cv. JL-24 were given 20 kg S/ha as elemental S or gypsum + 24
kg N + 60 kg P + 60 kg K/ha where Pod yields were higher with gypsum S than elemental S (2.07 vs. 1.91
t/ha) (Mukherjee et al, 1995).
4.2.4. Micronutrients
The micronutrients deficiencies are more wide spread and increasing in eastern India. The results of
recent research work on and sulfur in the Bihar plateau of Ranchi (India) indicates widespread deficiency of B,
Mo and S in these soils Singh et al (1996). However, the deficiency of Cu, Fe and Mn was not recorded in soils
of the region. Visual symptoms of zinc deficiency are observed in alluvial calcareous sandy loam soil of Bihar
where application of up to 5 kg/ha Zn increased the yield (Singh et al 1983).
Studies on distribution of available B and Mo on lateritic and alluvial soils of groundnut growing areas
of Orissa, India, showed 75% B and 69% Mo deficiency in lateritic soil and 62% for both B and Mo deficiency
on alluvial soils (Sahu et al 1999). Vertical distribution of B and Mo in two profiles for upland and medium
land lateritic soils indicated increase of B and decrease of Mo with increase in depth. Groundnut significantly
responded to Mo seed treatment both in limed and non-limed soils.
In West Bengal, soil application of Zn, B and Mo singly or in combination improved nodulation and
nitrogenase activity in groundnut and increase in pod yield due to application of B, Zn+B, B+Mo, Mo+Zn and
Zn+B+Mo over control were 20.4, 34.8, 38.9, 25.0 and 46.9%, respectively (Tripathy et al 1999). In a field
experiment in Baruipur, West Bengal, Zn and Mo had the greatest effects in increasing biomass production
(BP), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and yield attributes, resulting in 61 and 41% greater pod
yields than the control in groundnuts cv. AK-12-24 (Sarkar et al 1998). In a field trials on sandy loam soil at
Kalyani, West Bengal the seed yield and oil and protein contents were highest with a combination of Rhizobium
+ cobalt sulphate seed treatments (1 p.p.m. cobalt sulphate) in groundnut cv. JL 24 (Jana et al 1994).
Acid soils are deficient in B and Mo. The high rainfall and hilly topography leach down most of the
basic nutrients causing low availability. Since cost of Mo is high, its application to soil is not profitable,
however seed dressing with 0.4 g of ammonium molybdate per kg kernel is advisable. Soil application of borax
@ 10 kg/ha corrects B deficiency.
4.2.5. Integrated nutrient use and Biofertilizers
The integrated use of both organic and inorganic fertilizers enhances the crop yields and sustain the
soil fertility and productivity of groundnut and experimental results reveals that application of various organic
manures (FYM, poultry manure and pig manure) increased the pod yield over the optimum dose of NPK
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
126
fertilizers. Organic manures helps in alleviating Al, Fe and Mn toxicity by formation of organo-metalo
complexes, besides improving soil moisture holding capacity, development is surface charges and active sites
for retention of P and Ca, particularly where liming is not practicable. Supplementary application of organic
matter is found to be necessary for the improvement of acid lateritic soils of India. Under such situation, use of
rock phosphate charged with FYM has been reported to be superior to lone-use of RP. The rock phosphate
coated urea is also superior to prilled urea and urea super granule in these soils RP charged with press mud is
advisable.Mixture of RP + SSP + organic manure is useful for yield improvement in groundnut in Eastern and
NEH region by alleviating nutrient deficiency. Piggery, poultry, rearing of cattle etc., are the main occupation
among the people of NEH region. In a study at Meghalaya and Tripura poultry manure + RP + SSP followed by
pig manure + RP + SSP and FYM + RP + SSP performed better in maize-groundnut sequence in low and mid
altitude than lone application of RP and SSP or in combination. Higher response due to organic manures
amended P fertilizer was attributed to the formation or organo-metalo complex with organic lignin which
decrease their susceptibility to absorption, fixation or precipitation reactions in soil and thus forming soluble
complex with native as well as applied P, Ca, Mg, K etc. In eastern states an excellant response of
Bradyrhizobium and PSM was observed in groundnut in all these states, with phosphatic fertilizer and lime as
continuous growing of rice has caused low population of Bradyrhiziobia hence their application is must.
4.2.6. Organic matter addition and mulching
In Indian agricultural, the role of organic carbon is the most important. Most of the soils in eastern
region are rich in organic carbon, but the uplands, terrace cropping no organic matter is added resulting in high
hematite and soil compactness. Press-mud, a waste product of sugarcane mill possessing 13.11% organic matter
and 41.7% Ca, was an effective source of ameliorant. Positive results were obtained from a series of field
experiments conducted on wheat and other cereal crops in acidic red loam soils at Ranchi on the effect of basic
slag. Basic slag applied on the basis of LR doses, incidentally contained as much P2O5as SSP. In Orissa paper
mill sludge are used as a liming material. The harmful effect of Al3+ ions can be largely prevented by raising the
organic content of the soil. Humic and other organic acids immobilize them by forming chelates.
Orissa has sugar and paper mills, the waste of which is rich in Ca. The sluge of paper mill contain 60 -
80% CaCO3 depending upon the period of exposure to the atmosphere after removal from sludge tank.
Application of lime stone powder (2.5 t ha-1) and lime sludge 1.25 t ha-1 raised the yield of groundnut by 1210
to 1710 and 1890 kg/ha, respectively in soil pH 5.5. Press mud from sugar factory and basic slag from factory
are other liming material. Some of them are sold as IRL-clay conditioner, Bhushakti and Tata slage powder.
The ameliorative role of lime and FYM was noticed where combined application of these amelioratives though
increased pod yield, over their application alone, but were not always beneficial. Application of lime and FYM
increased the nutrient contents particularly of Ca and P in the plant facing Al-toxicity and increased growth and
yield. Thus application of lime and FYM ameliorate the Al-toxicity and any one of these could be used.
Groundnuts pod yields and water use efficiency were highest with 2 irrigations + straw mulch of 7.5 t rice straw
or rice husk/ha; water consumption in the treatment was decreased compared with 3 irrigations (Mandal and
Ghosh, 1984).
Two edible (groundnut and mustard) and two non-edible (neem, Azadirachata indica; and mahua,
Madhuca indica [M. longifolia]) studied by Mukherjee et al (1991) for the changes in carbon, nitrogen and
microorganisms during 75 days of incubation and it was reported that these oilcakes increased organic carbon,
total and inorganic nitrogen and available phosphorus contents of the soil. Edible oilcakes released more
inorganic nitrogen from soil than the non-edible oilcakes. Non-edible oilcakes liberated available phosphorus
from soil in greater proportions than the edible oilcakes, and increased organic matter. Soil micro-organisms
responded differently to the addition of oilcakes. Edible oilcakes supported a greater number of bacteria, fungi
and actinomycetes in soil than the non-edible oilcakes.
4.3. Weed Control and allelopathic effects
In Jharkhand and Bihar the commonly occurring weeds are Echinochloa colonum, Eleusine indica,
Paspalum dilatatum, Setaria glauca, Cyperus iria, Cyperus rotundus, Celosia argentea, Ageratum conyzoides,
Amaranthus viridis and Trianthema portulacastrum. In West Bengal and Orissa, the most problematic weeds
are Digera arvensis, Euphorbia hirta, Cleome viscosa, Phyllanthus niruri, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon
dactylon and Eleusine indica during kharif. It is always advisable to keep the crop weed free up to 60 days
after sowing, as the maximum damage is caused during this period. One weeding and hoeing or earthing up at
25 days after sowing followed by one hand weeding at 40 days after sowing found to be effective and
economical. Further disturbance to the soil after 60 days will result in low yield due to the damage to pegs. One
In: Groundnut Research in India (Eds. M.S. Basu and N. B. Singh) National Research center
for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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to two hand weeding followed by hoeing are sufficient to make weed free situation up to 45 DAS. No
interculture should be done after peg formation.
Application of Lasso or Butachlor @ 1.5 Kg ai/ha, Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ai/ha in a volume of 500
liter of water as per emergence within 2 days of sowing helps in controlling weed. Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg
ai/ha followed by 1 hand weeding at 30 DAS performed to be better. Field trials, during kharif under rain fed
situations with groundnut cv. AK 12-24, conducted to control these weeds through various methods (1.0 and
1.5 kg/ha pendimethalin, 1.0 kg oxyfluorfen, 1.5 kg butachlor, 1.5 kg benthiocarb applied as pre-em.,
handweeding once 25 DAS and handweeding twice 15 and 25 DAS) report that pre-emergence applications
of pendimethalin (1.5 kg), butachlor and oxyfluorfen were found to be comparable with hand weeding twice
(Rafey and Prasad, 1995). Maximum pod yield (1800 kg/ha) was obtained using hand weeding twice and was
found to be equal to that obtained using a pre-emergence application of oxyfluorfen (1626 kg/ha).
Field studies conducted at Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India during the winter season have shown that
Fluchloralin and pendimethalin were superior to hand weeding in terms of most growth parameters(Mohanty et
al 1997). However, the greatest yield increases were obtained using fluchloralin (at 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1),
pendimethalin and hand weeding. Among the chemical weed control methods, pre-em. applications of
oxyfluorfen was most economical and had lowest weed index (9.7%). Hand weeding twice resulted in the
greatest weed control (49.86-60.14%), followed by Classic at 24 g (49.12- 54.41%) and increased seed yields of
groundnut cv. JL-24 (Karmakar et al 1994).
The crude extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, and Lantana camara applied to groundnuts cv. AK 12-
24 kernels had the most severe reductions in percentage germination (54 and 55%, resp.) and delayed
germination (from 4 to 7.2 and 6.6 days, resp.) (Prasad and Srivastava 1991).
4.4. Plant Growth Hormones
Though research has been conducted on the used of growth hormones to reduce the excessive growth
of the crop but these are not recommended commercially as it may lead to adverse effects. In an experiment,
various commercially available growth hormones were tested on four groundnut varieties at Kalyani, West
Bengal during kharif seasons where two spray at 30 and 60 DAS of Vipul (triacontanol), Planofix (NAA) and
Miraculan (triacontanol-based), produced 1.83, 1.77 and 1.72 t ha-1 respectively (Tripathi et al 1994).
4.5. Irrigation
As the rainfall is adequate for kharif season, generally irrigation is not required for groundnut, but
during rabi and summer season irrigation is required. In a field trial in on sandy loam soil, Pod yield and 100-
seed wt. increased with increasing frequency of irrigation at a irrigation water: cumulative pan evaporation ratio
of 0.75, and with increasing depth to 6 cm (khan and Datta, 1982). The crop irrigation requirement was greatest
during pegging to pod development and irrigation at 0.5 IW:CPE ratio during these periods markedly decreased
yield. Irrigation at an IW: CPE ratio of 0.7 during sowing to flowering and 0.9 during pegging and onwards till
maturity gave the highest pod yield (Pahalwan and Tripathi 1985). However, in some areas of eastern region
due to high rainfall and high water table, drainage is essential and to maintain a good crop it is generally grown
on broad bed furrows system.
4.6. Cropping Systems
In this approach two to three crops are grown in a sequence and also as mixed or intercrop. In eastern
India, the groundnut during kharif is mainly grown as rainfed where due to irratic rainfall there is risk and
farmer go for intercropping with other crops depending upon their need. In acid upland soil highly responsive to
liming and tolerant of soil acidity, is included as a first crop in rotation and rice and maize are main component
of acid soil cropping system. Second crops under this approach are pigeon pea, soybean and groundnut
The main cropping pattern in orissa, Jharkhand and part of Bihar and WB, based on the land use are given
below:
Land
Cropping patterns
Crops
Upland
Single cropping
Groundnut
Mixed cropping
Arhar + Groundnut
Groundnut + Redgram & Groundnut + Maize
Sequential cropping
Groundnut - Groundnut
Groundnut - Castor
Groundnut-Horse gram Groundnut-Green gram
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for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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Rainfed
Medium land
Sequential cropping
Paddy-groundnut
Sequential cropping
Rice Groundnut
Irrigated medium land
Sequential cropping
Rice groundnut
Low land (unirrigated)
(residual moisture)
Sequential cropping
Rice groundnut
River bank fallows
Single cropping
Groundnut
Table land with 53 mm
rainfall,
Single cropping
Groundnut
Adoption of sequential cropping with rice some times involves risk of partial or complete failure of
crop grown after rice. Thus improvement of soil health through incorporation of a crop residue of cowpea and
groundnut would be feasible with assured irrigation and such a system highly benefits direct sown upland rice.
Wherever sequential cropping is not feasible, intercropping groundnut with rice and maize may be taken up,
since rice based intercropping being more feasible and profitable for larger areas of rainfed soil uplands over
that of sequential cropping rice with legume.
A lot of work has been done on these aspects an the main cropping sequences and intercropping being
followed in eastern India are as follows:
Crop sequences
Intercropping
Rice-groundnut
Rice + Groundnut (4:2)
Rice-potato-groundnut
Groundnut + Maize (1:1)
Rice - mustard-groundnut
Groundnut + Pigeon pea (5:1)
Maize - groundnut
Groundnut + Chili (2:2)
Groundnut- Mustard
Maize + Groundnut (2:2)
Groundnut Radish
Groundnut + finger millet
Maize + Groundnut (2:2) Mustard
Groundnut + Redgram
Maize + Groundnut (2:2) Radish
Groundnut - Castor
Upland rice + Groundnut (4:2)- Mustard
Upland rice + Groundnut (4:2)- Radish
Groundnut-Horse gram Groundnut-Green gram
In field trials during monsoon season in 4 zones in Singhbhum district of Bihar, the highest seed
yields and net income resulted from intercropping arhar (Cajanus cajan ) cv. B 65 at a spacings of 90 X 20 cm
intercropped with 2 rows of groundnuts cv. AK12-24 at 30 X 10 cm and fertilized with 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5
+ 20 kg K2O/ha (Pradhan and Dhar, 1989). A two year field study on an acidic sandy loam soil of the, under
rainfed upland conditions of Ranchi area of, Jharkhand show that in pigeonpea-groundnut intercropping system,
available phosphate level in soil was higher with higher fertilizer levels (Srivastava and Srivastava , 1997). In
field trials at Dholi Bihar during rainy seasons, the land equivalent ratio of maize + early groundnuts cv.
Kuber, maize + late groundnuts cv. M13, pigeonpeas + late groundnuts intercrops were 1.34, 1.32 and 1.37,
respectively (Thakur and Sharma, 1988). At Ranchi, Intercropping of Panicum miliare cv. Birsa Gondli 1 with
groundnuts cv. AK 12-24 during rainy seasons in row ratios of 2:1 or 2:2 gave higher total yields than P.
miliare grown alone, but the groundnuts grown alone was most profitable (Ahmad and Prasad, 1996).
The groundnut-wheat sequence was most efficient in energy production through grain (321 MJ/ha per
day), but in terms of total biomass, the maize-wheat sequence was the most efficient (923 MJ/ha per day),
followed by groundnuts-wheat (609 MJ/ha per day) At Ranchi, Bihar (Singh et al 1997). At Ranchi, Bihar,
among the various crop sequences groundnut-wheat system had the highest net returns (Rs 16 410/ha),
benefit:cost ratio (1.87) and monetary productivity (Rs 68.38/ha per day) (Singh et al 1995). In a trials,
intercropping of 1 row of maize, groundnut, soyabean, ragi (Eleusine coracana) urd (Vigna mungo) or moong
(V. radiata) in between 75-cm wide rows of pigeonpea cv. Bahar increased the total production and net profit.
The cowpea intercrop decreased pigeonpea growth (Roy et al 1981).
The Maize + groundnut intercropping gave the highest combined intercrop seed yield (3554 kg/ha) and
highest total economic returns in WB (Mandal et al 1990). Intercropping of groundnut in the interspace of
maize grown in rows 75 or 90 cm apart gave additional yield of 1.85-2.04 t pod /ha and resulted in the highest
net profit (Pandey et al 1981). Intercropping pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in
finger millet (Eleusine coracana) gave higher total grain and straw yield compared to the sole cropping of finger
millet under rainfed conditions of upland (Ultisols) in lateritic belt of West Bengal (Maitra et al 2000).
Application of 60:13.3:25 kg NPK ha-1 recorded maximum productivity and the highest net return. In a field
trial at Kalyani, West Bengal in summer the maize-equivalent yield and water use efficiency were highest from
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the 1:2 maize-groundnut intercrop. Crop yields increased but water use efficiency decreased with increasing
irrigation level (Saren and Jana 1999). In a field experiment in Mohanpur, West Bengal, groundnuts cv.
Girnar-I intercropped with sesame cv. B-67 at 2:1 row ratios showed higher groundnut pod and oil yields
(Mahalanobis and Maiti, 1998).
In a field experiment at Nimpith, WB, during winter seasons, the total seed equivalent yield of
sunflowers was the highest in the paired row (30-60 cm) sunflower + groundnut intercropping system with
maximum land equivalent ratio (1.44), monetary advantage and indicated a modest competitive ratio
(1.47:0.67), proved the most efficient system (Sarkar et al 1997a). Groundnut can also be intercropped with
base crop like maize in 2:2 rows ratio and upland rice (4:2 rows ratio). During winter seasons at Neempith, West
Bengal, groundnut seed equivalent yield and land equivalent ratio were highest when paired rows of groundnuts
cv. AK 12-24 were intercropped with 2 rows of green gram cv. T44, with highest monetary advantage (Sarkar
et al 1997b). Among the various intercrops, sesame + groundnut under 2:1 row arrangement gave the
maximum sesame equivalent yield (1245 kg/ha), land-equivalent ratio (1.35), monetary advantage (Rs.3550
ha), during the spring seasons at Baruipur, West Bengal (Sarkar and Kundu, 2001).
On-farm farmer's participatory trials, were onducted during the rainy seasons of 1989-92 in Kalahandi
district, to investigate suitable crops and cropping systems for this region where maximum grain (rice)
equivalent (5.38 t/ha) and net return (Rs 8232/ha) was realised from groundnut and pigeonpea intercropping
(Behera and Jha, 1999).
4.7. Management of salinity belt in west Bengal
Growing of groundnut on ridges in areas of relatively high salinity.
Desiltation of canal and rivulets to check overflooding due to high tides.
In saline belt, growing of dhaincha (Sesbania spp.) during summer season helps in bringing down the
salt levels, where groundnut can be grown after rice as rice fallows.
Intercropping of sunflower + groundnut, chilli+ groundnut, groundnut+sesam may be adopted for
realise higher net monetary return.
Application of gypsum is necessary to improve Ca availability and also it acts as soil amendment.
Adequate subsurface drainage arrangement to bring down salinity level. Saline soils are usually
deficient in Zn and N. Application of 15-20 kg ha-1 ZnSO4and 30% additional N over the recommended
dose may be practiced. Groundnut varieties tolerant to salt is to be evolved.
4.8. Polythene Mulch Technology
The role of polythene mulch technology was studied in eastern India and in a field trial at Mohanpur,
West Bengal pod yield of groundnuts cv. ICGS 44 on flat beds was 1351 and 2038 kg/ha without and with
polythene mulch, respectively, while corresponding yields on broad beds and furrows were 1518 and 2136 kg
ha-1 (Samui and Ambhore, 2001).
5. Disease and pest Management
5.1. Disease
The early leaf spot (ELS) by Cercospora arachidicola Late leaf spot (LLS) by Phaeoisariposis
personata and rust by Puccina arachidis are the major foliar disease of groundnut occurring in eastern India.
Besides these bacterial wilt by Pseudomonas solanacearum smith, stem rot by Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo and
Alternaria leaf spot by Alternaria sp are also reported. Among all these ELS also known as Tikka found to be
most devastating causing some times more than 70 % leaf area damage in eastern India. Due to high rainfall and
humidity during kharif season whenever the temperature goes high, the development of foliar disease occur.
During rabi and summer, there is lesser disease. Dark spots surrounded by a bright-yellow ring on the leaves
following by per mature leaf shading is the typical symptom of Tikka. Spray Bavistin 0.05% (1.0 g Bavistin 50
WP per liter water) + Dithane M 45 0.2% (2.0 g Dithane M 45 per liter water) at 2-3 weeks interval for 2-3
times starting 4-5 weeks after sowing control the same.
The ELS appears 20-25 days after sowing and cause 29-57% reduction in pod yield. For controlling ELS, single
spray of carbendazim 0.05% + mancozeb 0.2% was effective in reducing percent disease index increasing yield.
Among the fungicides evaluated against cercospora, 0.2% chlorothalonil, a mixture of 0.05% carbendazim and
0.2% mancozeb, and carbendazim at 0.05% were the most effective in increasing pod yield, followed by
mancozeb at 0.2%. Agrozim (carbendazim) and Dithane M-45 [mancozeb] as seed treatments and foliar sprays,
controlled these diseases. A white weft or mycelium appears at the base of the affected plants known as coller
rot, turning the plants yellow and drying up of same. To avoid the treat the seed with Thiram @ 3 g/kg kernel or
Bavistin 2 g/kg kernel before sowing. The biological control agents, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum and
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Gliocladium virens, were isolated from suppressive soil and evaluated against the groundnut web blight
pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani, where pathogen. G. virens was the most effective inhibiting mycelial growth by
59.8% and sclerotial production by 70.0% (Dubey 2000).
Temporal and spatial spread of groundnut rust on groundnut (TG 17) sown at different dates over
three seasons and two years shown that late sowing in the rainy season caused lower disease severity whereas in
the winter and summer seasons early sowing minimized the severity of disease incidence WB (Das et al 1999).
Sowing time of groundnut and potassium significantly influenced the development of early and late leaf spots in
the Plateau region of Bihar, India where crops sown on 16th June and supplied with 30 kg ha-1 potassium as
basal dose together with recommended doses of phosphorus (50 kg P2O5ha-1) and nitrogen (25 kg ha-1) gave
maximum pod yield (1.5 t ha-1) with moderate disease intensity (25.7%) however, early sowing (1st June)
resulted in increased disease intensity and reduced yield (Dubey, 1999).
The effect of sowing date on the severity of rust on groundnuts was determined in WB, where the area
under the disease-progress curve (AUDPC) showed the highest peak for the crop sown on 1st June and delayed
sowing up to 15 June reduced the disease severity(Das and Raj, 1996). In subsequent sowings, AUDPC
increased with time, reaching a peak on 1 August. During the winter season the lowest disease severity was
observed in crops sown on 1st Oct. to 1st Nov. During the summer season a min. disease severity was
recorded on crops sown on 1st Feb.
Eighty-seven groundnut genotypes were tested in WB in the field for resistance to rust caused by
Puccinia arachidis. The resistant germplasms were ICGS (FDRS) 4, 10, 23 and 43 and of these, ICGS (FDRS)-
4 and ICGS (FDRS)-23 and five moderately resistant cultivars (ICGS-47, ICGS(E)-18, C-115, C-99 and 2706)
showed stability of resistance (Das et al 1995).
5. 2. Pest Management
Major insect pests in this region are termites, jassids, leaf folder and leaf eating cater pillar and pod
borers. Being comparatively a high rainfall area the eastern states in-compass a large number of insects and
pests in succession during the crop-growing season. Like disease, the insect pest infestation is more during
kharif than rabi and summer seasons and the green patch and forest around also provide food and shelter to
various insects. A trial was carried out to assess the damage caused by Dysmicoccus brevipes in paired plots
(one untreated and one treated with granular Aldicarb at 1 kg a.i. ha-1 15 days after sowing followed by a spray
of Chloropyrifos at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1) where the pest caused about 25% yield loss. Basal application of heptachlor
dust at 5% was highly effective in reducing infestation by E. annulipes and increasing yield, followed by dusts
containing 10 % BHC and 5% carbaryl at 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1.
The Nymph and adults of Aphids suck the sap from the leaves and other tender parts and also act as
vectors of virus diseases (rosette). Highly infected leaves turn yellow and fall down. Spray of Monocrotophos
0.05% (1.4 ml 35 EC per liter water) or Dimethoate 0.05% (1.7 ml Rogar 30 EC per liter water). The crop
infested by green soft-bodied insects called jassids adults and nymphs suck the sap from the leaves and other
leader parts infested leaves turn yellowish, cut and dry up. Spray of Monocrotophos 0.05% (1.4 ml Monocil 35
EC per liter water) or Dimethoate 0.05% (1.7 ml Rogar 30 EC per liter water) control the same.
In Orissa, during the rabi season 7 insecticides were tested and carbofuran at 1 kg a.i ha-1. was the
most effective against Spodoptera litura on groundnut followed by phorate and 1 kg a.i./ha and quinalphos
0.65% a.i.( Mohapatra et al 1995). Thrips are polyphagus, nymph and adults lacerate the leaves and tender
growing parts, causing white silvery sheens. Spray it Monocrotophos 0.05% (1.4 ml Monocil 35 EC per liter
water) or Dimethoate 0.05% (1.7 ml Rogar 30 EC per liter water). Leaf miner is a small dark brown with
conspicuous small pale-white spots on the enterior margin of the fore wings; smooth greenish caterpillars mine
the tender leaves and late fold the adjacent leaves to feed within. To damage the leaf miner i) Set up light trap
for attracting and destroying moths, or ii) Spray Carbaryl 0.2% (4 g Sevin 50 WP per liter water). Red Hairy
Caterpillar is a bright orange with black spots, caterpillars very hairy and deep orange, feed gregariously on the
foliage. Manage the same with (i) Dusting of Carbaryl or Parathion @ 25-30 kg/ha to control young leave. (ii)
Spray 2000 ml Dichlorophos 100 EC dissolved in 400 liters of water per hectare to control grownup caterpillars.
White Grub rubs feed on roots by cutting the same and kill the plant leading to wilting and death.
Manage the crop with (i) Treat the seed with Chlorophyriphos 20 EC @ 12.5 ml/kg of kernel. (ii) Soil treatment
with Thimet 10 G @ 20-25 kg/ha wherever the population is high. Termites feed on roots, killing the plant
outright. Apply 40-45 kg Chloropyriphos 2% per hectare before sowing or BHC powder. Seed dressing with
chlorpyrifos 20 EC at12.5 ml/kg seed had the lowest plant damage, by termites, highest pod yield and best
treatments (Mishra 1999). However, as soil application of chlorpyrifos 10 G and phorate 10 G were equal.
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6. Maturity, harvesting, drying and storage
The timely harvesting at physiological maturity is an important factor in determining the yield and
quality. The prominent symptoms of maturity are yellowing of foliage but it is rarely observed in eastern region.
In eastern states the bunch varieties mature in about 110-115 days and the semi spreading varieties in 120-125
days. The matures pod become hard and tough and inside shell surface becomes rough with net venation. The
mature pods give crack sound when pressed below thumb and under finger. Delay of harvest after maturity will
result in stem rot and weakening of pegs, thus many pods may be left in the soil. The Spanish bunch varieties of
non-dormant type will germinate and reduce the yield. The bunch and semi spreading varieties are usually
harvested by hand pulling when there is adequate moisture in the soil however spreading types are harvested by
running the blade. The produce is dried as quickly as possible to bring down the moisture content to less than
8% as higher moisture levels in the produce causes seed deterioration. The dry pods are to be cleaned, and
stored in gunny bags on racks. The bags should be piled on wooden planks to avoid damage from dampness,
rats etc. As seed viability of groundnut, in the eastern India, is the main problem a number of studies were
conducted for seed drying and storage. At Kalyani, West Bengal, with increase in storage period (9 months) of
groundnuts cv. JL-24, the viability of seeds decreased while pathogen activities, moisture and sugar content in
seeds increased gradually (Patra et al, 2000). The pods dried by conventional farmers' method, shade drying of
pods intact with plants and separation of pods thereafter, stripping of pods after harvest and exposing them to
direct sunlight in a single layer, lost viability rapidly while stripping of pods immediately after harvest and
shade drying in a single layer, and DOR (Directorate of Oilseed Research) method methods maintained
viability for a longer period. The plastic silo and polythene lined gunny bag containing anhydrous CaCl2
proved to be better containers for storing groundnut pods for seed material than gunny bag.
Pods and seeds of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) cv. Big Japan and M-13 stored after one month of
harvesting, in cloth bags and polyethylene bags were compared for up to 14 months at Patna by Sinha et al
(1997) where polyethylene bag was much better than the cloth bag for maintaining seed viability. Shelled seeds
of Big Japan and M-13 stored in polyethylene bags maintained high viability for 14 and 10 months, respectively
with 82 and 89 % seed germination, respectively. Groundnut cv. JL-24 pods stored in polyethylene-lined bags
containing anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2) or silica gel gave seed viability above 50 % after 12 months of
storage. Seeds stored in airtight containers without any chemicals (in closed tins or plastic silos) maintained
above 50% viability in storage for up to 10 months, while those stored in gunny bags or earthen pots failed to
germinate after this period (Tripathy et al., 1996). Retention of high seed viability in storage with CaCl2or
silica gel could be attributed to low moisture percentage of seeds during storage. The seeds stored in
polyethylene-lined gunny bag containing CaCl2 had the highest field emergence and produced the highest pod
yield (Tripathy et al., 1996).
In WB, K application maintained higher seed viability over a longer period in groundnuts cv. JL 24
and lower Infection by Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus spp (Patra et al 1996).
Groundnut pods obtained from plants supplied with 50 kg K2O/ha during kharif (rainy) season could retain
50% viability for up to eight months. Polythene-lined gunny bags containing anhydrous CaCl2(250 g/40 kg
pods) was the best storage method followed by the plastic silo (Patra et al 1998). However, pods obtained from
the crop fertilized with 50 kg K2O/ha and stored in polythene-lined gunny bag containing CaCl2retained a seed
viability up to 80 % even after 8 months storage, and a 58% seed viability after one year storage.
7. Mechanization
Many types of groundnut decorticators are available and in a study have shown that the 1 hp electric
motor operated groundnut decorticator cum cleaner has a minimum cost of Rs. 0.05/kg as compared to Rs.
0.24, Rs. 0.17, Rs. 0.13 and Rs. 4.00 by rotary hand-operated, oscillating hand-operated, oscillating pedal-
operated and conventional hand picking, respectively (Prusty et al 1996). Farmers can select a suitable
groundnut decorticator as per their requirement and investment capabilities.
Tiny oil mills manufactured at Rajkot in Gujarat may be suitable for processing oil at village level in
these regions on customer service basis and it may work round the year. Similarly, processing machines
available at Jasdan (Gujarat) may be useful for processing groundnut for confectionery purpose. Under an
international project the NRCG, Junagadh has installed several unit of such machine in Koraput, Orissa for
demonstration and found working well. Such implements need to be popularized in other states also. Such steps
would also generate employment in these states besides additional earnings to the farmers. Small and marginal
holdings constitute about 80% of the total operational holdings in these states. But the operational area held by
them is only 47%.
8. Major constraints and future research areas
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8.1. Constraints :
As the groundnut is a crop new in eastern regions except Orissa, inadequate research and development
activities on this crop is the major constraints. More over, as the area is dominated by rice crop, groundnut has
received less attention and the agronomy of the crop has not been understood properly. There are some
constraints in the cultivation of groundnut, which need to be removed so that farmers could adopt new
technologies and increase productivity. So far, as good as 215 research paper from West Bengal, 178 from
Orissa and 95 from Bihar (including Jharkhand), and 5 each from Andman and Sikkim, have been published
during last 25 years, but inspite of all these reports the major problem of groundnut in eastern regions are:
High rainfall and humidity during, kharif season and low temperature and prolonged drought like
condition during Rabi season affect the yields.
Acidic soils and phosphorus deficiency sometimes result in stunted crop growth and decrease grain
formation, leading to poor yield.
Non-availability of seeds of improved varieties and other inputs continues to be stumbling blocks for
increased production.
Lack of irrigation facilities affects Rabi groundnut production. The inflow of research information to
the farmers by the state agricultural extension agencies is very meager.
The extension agencies concentrate mostly on cereals and their attention in groundnut or other oilseeds
is very limited.
Excessive vegetative growth due to less number of sunny days and sun shine duration during kharif and
high soil fertility during Rabi crop leads to lodging of crop resulting in low yield and harvest index.
The Agrarian structure, in these region, is predominated by small and marginal farmers whose capacity
to invest is limited.
Irrigation facilities are available only to limited area out of a total cultivated area.
There is a problematic land caused by saline inundation, flooding and water logging and soil erosion
where productivity is low.
Soil acidity, Al-toxicity and Al-induced deficiencies of Ca, P and Mg.
Phosphorus fixation in soil.
Poor quality seed and quick loss of seed viability causes patchy crop stand during both the season,
however, germination problem is more during Rabi and Summer season than that of kharif as there is
quick loss of seed viability in the Rabi and Summer produce of these region.
Lack of short duration Spanish and Virginia cultivars as long duration of Virginia bunch culture face
pod damage by borers and termites leading to pod damage and rotting by other soil flora and fauna.
Lack of fresh seed dormancy in Spanish bunch groundnut as the harvesting of the summer crop often
coincides with early rains and provide congenial environment for in situ sprouting of seed.
High incidence of peanut bud necrosis, and foliar diseases during summer crop.
Micro-nutrient deficiencies particularly of B and Mo.
Seed storage facilities in the region.
Occurrence of Tikka disease, late and early leaf spots during kharif when temperature and humidity
goes up. However, such situations are more common in eastern states.
Infestation of leaf miner, during summer crop.
Release of land for groundnut for rabi season is usually delayed due to long duration rice cultivars as a
results the short time available for land preparation after harvest of rice causes difficulty in achieving
good tilth and hence poor plant stand.
Low population of native rhizobium in rice fallow because of change of soil microclimate from
anaerobic to aerobic.
Nutrient dynamics and soil flora in rice-fallow soil in relation to groundnut is not properly known.
Lack of low and high temperature tolerant cultivars with tolerance to cold at the early stage by rabi
crops and high temperature tolerance at later stage of the summer crop.
8.2. Future Research areas
There is an utmost need to undertake systematic and comprehensive research on all the above listed
problems and aspects to develop more efficient sustainable technologies for groundnut for various
seasons and agro-climatic zones, however, the most essential future research and extension activities
are summarized below:
Development of varieties tolerant/resitant to leaf spot, aphid, leaf miner etc.
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Development of cold tolerant varieties capable of growing faster during colder period of November to
December and capable of producing high pod yield.
Development of sustainable integrated nutrient management practices separately for various situations
in eastern states.
Screening and identification of nutrient-efficient groundnut genotypes for their cultivation in the low P
and Ca soils.
Screening and identification of Soil acidity and Al-toxicity tolerant groundnut genotypes for their
cultivation in the acid soils.
Amelioration of Soil acidity and Al-toxicity to raise crop with high productivity.
Development of effective post harvest technology for Rabi and summer groundnut.
Identification and development of varieties having seed dormancy period of about 20-25 days after
reaching maturity.
9. Strategies to increase production
Formation of ‘seed grid’ through seed village programme in eastern region will be highly rewarding. The West
Bengal State Seed Corporation (WBSSC), Orissa state seed corporation and NSC should take up the seed
production programme of recommended varieties for the region. In dry areas of Purulia, Bankura, Midanapore
(West) and Birbhum districts of W.B., the seed can be multiplied during rainy season. Seed production can be
organised in state seed farms/registered growers. The seed produced during rainy season can cater the
requirement of these states and adjoining areas in post-rainy season.
Implementation of seed village programme is also necessary which aims at making the increased availability of
quality seeds.
High organic matter, loose soil contributes to the boldness of the kernel and hence the large seeded groundnut
varieties for confectionery purpose may be grown successfully during rainy season in uplands of Jharkhand,
Orissa, and West Bengal states where rainfall is reasonably good with uniform distribution .
Development of high yielding, early maturing (80-85 days) bunch varieties coupled with fresh seed dormancy
for rice fallow is one of the important area of crop improvement. Incorporation of resistance to rust and leaf spot
diseases will be advantageous for hot-humid areas.
To facilitate early planting of groundnut and utilization of optimum soil moisture the promising high yielding,
recently released early duration rice varieties may be popularized in the area where groundnut succeeds rice.
Significant positive response of Rhizobium inoculation have been reported in a series of experiments indicating
that the population of native Bradyrhizobium in rice fallow is quiet low due to water logged condition during
rice cultivation. New strains of Bradyrhizobium such as IGR 6, IGR 40 and TAL 1000 have potential for its use
in rice fallows. Multilocational trials with these cultures showed increase in pod yield of groundnut by 150-170
Kg./ha. by using the improved strains. Efforts should be made for their further multiplication and distribution to
the farmers in this region.
Proper storage preferably the cold storage facilities are to be created in Eastern states to store groundnut in large
scale to overcome viability problem. Low cost technology developed by NRCG, Junagadh, OUAT,
Bhubaneswar and Nadia, West Bengal could be used in these states.
The use of polythene mulch during Rabi season may be popularized in this region, where ever low temperature
at the time of sowing delay the germination process.
Research need to be conducted on tillage techniques to find minimum tillage requirement for achieving suitable
soil tilth in rice fallows.
The NPK requirement of groundnut in eastern region is 40:60:40 kg/ha of NPK.
The eastern soils are Acidic and are deficient in Ca, S and Mg. Gypsum @ 250 kg ha-1 at the time of
sowing along with other fertilizers and 250 kg ha-1 at the time of flowering should be applied to supply Ca and S
to groundnut.
Single super phosphate (SSP), blended with rock phosphate (RP), can effectively be used in acid soil. Optimum
time of application of RP is 3-4 weeks before sowing
Application of lime @ 2-2.5 t ha-1 is the main approach in the management of acid soil since it improves the
base saturation. While in soils of most of eastern states which are mainly characterized by low organic matter,
application of lime @ 0.2 t/ha as CaCO3/ CaSO4every year is comparable to single application once in three
years at full LR of slaked time @ 2.8 t/ha. Presently, liming at ¼ to 1/3 LR is considered reasonable for lime
responsive crops.
A number of industrial wastes like basic slag from steel plants, lime sludge from paper mill, press mud from
sugar mill is available to eastern region. Such a cheaper source of liming materials can increase yield of
groundnut.
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Acid soils of eastern India are deficient in B and Mo and seed dressing with 0.4 g of Ammonium molybdate per
kg kernel is advisable. Soil application of borax @ 5 kg/ha corrects B deficiency.
Supplementary application of organic matter is found to be necessary for the improvement of acid lateritic soils
of most of the Eastern region of India. rock phosphate charged with FYM has been reported to be superior to
lone-use of RP.
One to two hand weeding followed by hoeing are sufficient to make weed free situation. Application of Lasso or
Butachlor @ 1.5 Kg ai/ha, Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ai/ha in a volume of 500 liter of water as per emergence
within 2 days of sowing helps in controlling weed. Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ai/ha followed by 1 hand weeding at
30 DAS performed to be better.
Major insect pest in this region are termites, jassids, leaf folder and leaf eating cater pillar. The tikka (leaf spot)
is a major disease in this region. This disease is severe during maturity time. The disease intensity can be
minimized by manipulation of sowing dates. Spray of carbendazim (0.1%) followed by thiophenate methyl
(0.05%) may control tikka disease.
For the management of salinity growing of groundnut on ridges in areas of relatively high salinity, application
of gypsum to improve Ca availability and also it acts as soil amendmentand growing of dhaincha (Sesbania
spp.) during summer season helps in bringing down the salt levels,
10. Conclusions
Groundnut could be a most viable crop in upland during kharif and rice fallows residual moisture
situations during the post rainy season in Orissa and West Bengal. Introducing polythene film mulch could
overcome the problem of low temperature at germination and slow seedling growth. Nearly one lakh hectare in
rainy season and two lakh hectare in post-rainy season could be additionally planned for realising 5-6 lakh
tonnes of groundnut pod in the eastern India whic will not only generate employment, but also provide
additional income to the farmers. With the growing food and nutritional insecurity of hundreds and thousands of
malnourished, poverty striken people, particularly in remote, tribal dominated areas, groundnut can play a
pivotal role in fortification of poor man’s staple food to increase the level of protein, essential amino acids,
vitamins and minerals in their daily diet. Groundnut has proved to be a poor man’s energy nut which has the
nutritional status similar to cashew at more than 6 time cheaper cost and therefore, deserves promotion.
The introduction of small post harvest processing equipment and tiny oil mill suitable for developing cottage
industry for oil extraction and value addition locally could generate employment to the un-employed rural
youths and contribute towards the economic development in this hill region.
While increasing the cropping intensity by bringing rice fallows under winter (rabi) cultivation, the
pressure on land for grazing is likely to increase which, could be minimized by introducing perennial, multi-cut,
rhizomatous groundnut species, as green fodder contains as high as 26 % leaf protein. Several perennial wild
groundnut species are self propagating and capable of quick land coverage with excellent fodder quality. Such
unique species could be introduced in abandoned Jhum land to check soil erosion and tone up fragile eco-
system. There is an urgent need to increase the groundnut production in eastern India, however, some states
show low level of production which appears to be due to use of traditional varieties with low harvest index.
Biotic and abiotic stresses, lack of infrastructural facilities and socioeconomic conditions are the other major
constraints affecting the production of groundnut in the region. Adoption of technology package with improved
varieties and integrated nutrient, diseases and pest management will go a long way in increasing the
productivity. In addition, setting up of improved infrastructural facilities for processing and extraction will help
farmers realize better return that will in turn help improve the productivity.
Experimental results on production potential clearly indicate that groundnut is highly potential in the
eastern region particularly in medium and river beds where the production is more than 3.0 t/ha (pod yield)
during rabi-summer season. Considering the low productivity of rice and maize in upland situations, groundnut
can be a good substitution for these two crops or it can be grown in sequence after rice or maize. It can also be
grown as intercrop with upland rice or maize. Development of early maturing varieties coupled with fresh seed
dormancy for this region needs attention. Similarly, screening of varieties tolerant of Al, Fe toxicity and low pH
need to be strengthened The quick loss of seed viability of post-rainy season groundnut is perpetual problem in
this region limiting the expansion of area under groundnut. Once the quality seed of suitable variety is available
to the farmers timely, the area under groundnut in this region may go up to 1 million ha sooner.
11. References
Ahmad S, Prasad N K 1996 Sustainable intercrop association of little millet ( Panicum miliare) with groundnut
(Arachis hypogaea) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). Indian-Journal-of-Agronomy. 41: 3, 354-358.
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for groundnut (ICAR), Junagadh, India. pp. 117-136.
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Barik A, Jana P K, Sounda G, Mukherjee A K 1994 Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization
on growth, yield and oil content of kharif groundnut. Indian-Agriculturist. 38: 2, 105-111.
Basu M S 1997 Mitigating challenges of food and nutritional security in India-not merely a peanut approach. Indian
Farming 29(12): 24-29.
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