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The Comparison between NGO Marketing and Conventional Marketing Practices from SWOT Analysis, Marketing Mix, and Performance Evaluation Perspectives

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Abstract

The study aims to let those who have altruistic impulses to know deeper about how marketing strategy can actually be applied on non-governmental organizations (NGOs). As there are misunderstandings that marketing is only available to corporates, some of the NGOs have lost their opportunities to raise more funds and as a result help more people in need. For this purpose, the paper includes the study on how marketing strategies are being used by NGOs. Besides, the study of conventional marketing is also being written on paper in order to clear up the misunderstandings. This paper uses some of the organization's examples to help provide discussion. Throughout the study, the formulae to formulate, implement and evaluate is the same. However, the ways to formulate make the differences as the purposes of NGOs and corporates are different. As a conclusion, this study will cause NGOs to realize the importance of marketing towards their mission and also their way to sustainability.
International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics
Vol. 2, No. 9, September, 2015
ISSN 2383-2126 (Online)
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The Comparison between NGO Marketing and
Conventional Marketing Practices from SWOT
Analysis, Marketing Mix, and Performance
Evaluation Perspectives
Fong Mun Yee
1
Center for Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) Programs, HELP
College of Art and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Rashad Yazdanifard
Center for Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) Programs, HELP
College of Art and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Abstract
The study aims to let those who have altruistic impulses to know deeper about
how marketing strategy can actually be applied on non-governmental
organizations (NGOs). As there are misunderstandings that marketing is only
available to corporates, some of the NGOs have lost their opportunities to raise
more funds and as a result help more people in need. For this purpose, the paper
includes the study on how marketing strategies are being used by NGOs.
Besides, the study of conventional marketing is also being written on paper in
order to clear up the misunderstandings. This paper uses some of the
organization’s examples to help provide discussion. Throughout the study, the
formulae to formulate, implement and evaluate is the same. However, the ways
to formulate make the differences as the purposes of NGOs and corporates are
different. As a conclusion, this study will cause NGOs to realize the importance
of marketing towards their mission and also their way to sustainability.
Keywords: NGO marketing, conventional marketing practices.
Cite this article: Yee, F. M., & Yazdanifard, R. (2015). The Comparison between Ngo
Marketing and Conventional Marketing Practices from SWOT Analysis, Marketing Mix, and
Performance Evaluation Perspectives. International Journal of Management, Accounting and
Economics, 2(9), 1075-1087.
1
Corresponding author’s email: fongmunyee@hotmail.com
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Introduction
There are different classifications of non-governmental organizations. For example,
culture, education and research, health, social services and environment (Tabaku, &
Mersini, 2014). Non-Governmental Organizations’ purposes are not about gaining profit
but to build awareness and so to help those in needs (Yazdanifard, Massoumian, &
Karimi, 2013). The objectives of NGOs are somehow different from corporations. Their
objectives are like fundraising, getting more volunteers, create awareness and look for
some support from corporates (Blery, Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). There will not be any
contributions from the donors if the NGOs are not recognized. Hence, marketing plans
are needed to create awareness among the people and so to gain support. For example,
World Wide Fund for Nature has implemented marketing plans to promote the protection
of animals threatened with extinction and so to get the supports from donors. The
examples of NGOs are World Vision, Care and Oxfam International (Aldashey &
Verdier, 2009). Some of the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) serve their own
countries but also other countries. According to previous studies, some of the NGOs did
not have their own marketing departments like private and public companies (Blery,
Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). NGOs did not want to implement marketing strategies as they
thought those strategies are manipulating. Due to the lack of understanding towards
marketing, NGOs also thought marketing methods are hard to be applied because of the
unchangeable products like ideas and mission and price that cannot be fixed (Blery,
Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). Besides, NGOs were being argued that they may spend a lot on
marketing to build the awareness but had forgotten to help those in need (Benett, 2007).
However, the perceptions of NGOs toward marketing have changed. NGOs implement
marketing strategies to sustain, to help more those in need, and so to satisfy those who do
not know how to help (Aldashey & Verdier, 2009).
Marketing is important for any type of businesses (Wall-To-Wall Marketing, 2015).
Conventional marketing is generally used by corporations which the ultimate purpose is
to earn more profits. The marketers focus on the use of the marketing mix which are
product, price, place, and also promotion (Grönroos, 2009). The corporates offer different
types of products and services and they set prices for each products and service offered.
The corporates’ primary purpose is to gain profit. Therefore, they will need strategic
marketing plans to increase sales. The corporates have to target who are their potential
customers. Besides, the corporates may need marketing plans in order to tighten the
relationships with customers as it will be more expensive to turn prospects into customers.
Loyal customers are more likely to recommend to their friends or family members the
products or services when they are happy about the values and services provided by the
corporate. From another perspective, maintaining relationships with customers allow the
corporates to gain more reputation (Richmond, 2012).
The Comparison between NGO Marketing and Conventional Marketing
Practices from SWOT Perspective
In order to create a good strategy, NGOs and corporates have to implement SWOT
analysis (Hooley, Saunders, & Piercy, 2004). The marketers first have to determine the
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (Mayer & Vambery, 2008). Well known
identities can be the strength for both NGOs and industries. However, the weakness of
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both NGOs and corporates might be the lack of marketing professionals. Besides that, the
opportunity may be the subsidies from the governments whereas the threat may be the
economic factor like deflation that cause problems to NGOs and corporates. Both NGOs
and corporates can also use Porter’s five forces analysis when doing SWOT analysis.
Porter’s five forces which include the rivalry among existing competitors, the threat of
new market entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers and the
threat of substitute products or services can be used to determine external opportunities
or threats (Minton, 2010).
The strengths of the NGOs will probably be the selling price for the missions and also
the costs of advertisements in newspaper (Blery, Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). The price is
low. Every donors can donate according to their own will. For example, the Word Wide
Fund for Nature’s product is the mission to adopt an animal and its price can be either 3
euros, 5 euros, 10 euros or other prices (World Wide Fund for Nature [WWF], n.d.).
Besides, World Wide Fund for Nature can place advertisements in newspapers for free
(Blery, Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). However, the weakness of NGOs is the capacity to
communicate with the public. Some of the NGOs have to pay for the manpower in order
to sustain (Blery, Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). Besides, there are donors who may want to
donate but they did not own a credit card so they are unable to donate to the organizations
through online. The advancement of technology and internet allows NGOs to advertise
with zero payment (Blery, Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). From another aspect, the internet
allows NGOs to reach out to the market more effectively as the users can view the
advertisements at any time and at any places (Rollyson, 2012). For example, social media
sites like Facebook has a sharing function that allows the users to share their posts or
videos (Darwell, 2013). When the users who have the interest to help those in need, they
can share the related posts to others who have the same interest. Whereas the threat is the
cost for TV advertisements because NGOs cannot invest on TV advertisement which
originally allows them to communicate more effectively with the people. Besides, the
numbers of donors will decrease after some time because of product life cycle (Mayer &
Vambery, 2008). For example, they may have concerns towards breast cancer awareness
but have forgotten about the concerns for animals. In addition, governments in Canada
and U.S. reduced the financial supports and has shifted the responsibilities to NGOs
(Wymer, Knowles, & Gomes, 2006). Thus, NGOs have more difficulties to help those in
need. From another perspective, NGOs also have their competition like corporates. The
competition is becoming stiffer as the numbers of NGOs are increasing.
The corporate’s strength may be having creative employees who can create high tech
products and to have higher market shares than others (Rice, 2010). For example, Apple
Company’s strength is its products like iPhone, MacBook and iPod (Ebscohost’s
database, 2015). The information can be saved in other devices automatically without
needing users to share or email. The weakness may be the types of productions are less.
However, the corporates can expand its products types by doing research and
development. Furthermore, there may be the unreliable channels of distribution or the
lack of capacity (David, 2011). The corporates can take control by changing the vendors
or implement forward integration strategy. Besides, the corporates can also increase its
capacity by gaining more shareholders by implementing strategic marketing plan. From
another aspect, corporates may be facing opportunity and threat at the same time. The
opportunity may be the increasing amounts of subsidies by government but the threat may
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be the invention of substitute products. For example, Apple Company introduced iPhone
6 whereas its competitor, Samsung introduced Samsung S6 at the same time (Briden,
2015). It showed the rivalry among the competitors as both of the companies were the big
giants in the market as at 1st of July, 2015. Both opportunities and threats are beyond the
corporates’ control but the corporates can change the weaknesses or threats into strengths
or opportunities by implementing strategic marketing plans (Goetz, Hoelter, & Krafft,
2013).
The Comparison of Product Planning between NGOs and Corporates
According to Mayer and Vambery (2008), every product has its own life cycle. Product
life cycle can be divided into four stages. For example, introductory stage, growth stage,
mature stage and decline stage. Introductory stage is when the product is new and just
starts being marketed. At this stage, there will be some customers who are innovators,
who will be the first to buy and try the new product. Followed by early adopters, they will
follow the innovators to consume the products or services (Huha & Kim, 2008). Growth
stage is when the sales are likely to grow and stop whereas mature stage is when the sales
of products reaches its peak. Lastly, decline stage is when the sales are dropping. After
that, the product’s life cycle will come to an end and the product will be driven out from
the market.
NGOs do not sell products or services but they sell mission and ideas (Blery, Katseli,
& Tsara, 2010). They sell missions and ideas in order to raise funds and help those in
need (Jordan, 2008). For example, World Vision’s mission is to help the poor ones (World
Vision, n.d.). Individuals or companies who agree with the mission will likely donate or
even join NGOs to help. Furthermore, NGOs may sell mission or ideas in order to gain
public awareness on the issues. For example, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
association’s mission is to treat ALS patients. It had successfully built the awareness of
public towards the disease by creating the event called the Ice Bucket Challenge (ALS
Association, 2015). Due to the campaign, ALS association successfully raised $220
million in order to implement research to find the way to cure the disease (ALS
Association, n.d.).
For corporates, there are different types of products like consumer products, shopping
products, specialty products, unsought products and business products (Boundless.com,
n.d.). Consumer products are goods for personal or household usage. The examples are
clothing, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, cleaning materials and insecticides
(Schettler, 2006). Shopping products are the goods that the consumers will have to
compare before purchasing. For example, car, house, laptop and computer software.
(Hsiao, 2009). Whereas specialty products are products that are unique and hard to get,
such as limited edition handbags and shoes that are made by famous designers (Lamb &
Dunne, 2011). Besides, there are also unsought products which customers buy because of
fear, precaution or need. For example, fire extinguishers, life insurance policies and
pharmaceutical products. Business products are products that will be sold to other vendors
or to the end consumers. The numbers that businesses will buy are large in amounts
compared to consumers’ purchases quantities (Richmond, 2012).
The Comparison of Pricing Strategies between NGOs and Corporates
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For NGOs, there are no fixed charges for the missions or ideas to be sold. However,
NGOs will need more funds to help those in need and so to pay to their personnel (Blery,
Katseli, & Tsara, 2010). NGOs do not name the price as “payment” but “gift” (ALS
Association, n.d.). NGO like ALS association suggests different gift amounts like $25,
$50, $100 and $500. When the donor does not know how much to donate, the suggested
choices enable the donor to choose and pay. Besides, the donor can also donate in other
amounts by filling the box given on the billing information form.
For corporates, the selling prices are fixed for products and services. Besides, some of
the companies use price to gain competitive advantages (Dass, 2013). For example,
Costco Wholesale’s mission is to provide quality goods and services at the lowest possible
quality (Costco Wholesales, n.d.). The customers buy the products or services not only
because of the selling prices but also the values they receive. Some of the companies may
cut down the prices in order target low income consumers. However, there are also
companies who increase the prices to show their brand identities.
The Comparison of Place Strategies between NGOs and Corporates
Donors or volunteers can find NGOs via internet or even visit to their centers (World
Visiom, n.d.). They can contribute via online or contribute at their center. For example,
World Vision has its official network site and official profiles at social media sites like
Facebook and Twitter. The donors and volunteers can easily find NGOs by typing the
names. Besides, donors and volunteers can also search the lists of NGOs using Google.
The official pages of NGOs show their missions and ideas. Besides, the addresses will
also be shown on the official pages which allows the ones interested to visit their centers.
Furthermore, the prospects can also find the missions in the newspaper. According to
Forstorp (2007), when there was the occurrence of Tsunami, there was billing form
displayed below the news article. The donors could fill in the details and send it to the
centers.
Corporates’ products or services can either be found in store or online. As the products
or services are different, the places to sell may be different. For example, the place may
be at a cinema, coffee shop, food halls or shopping malls (Hsiao, 2009). Different places
provide convenience to the customers. The customers can choose to go to any distributors
based on their time feasibilities and locations. Some of the customers will likely to go
malls to shop as they can have fun with their family or friends. Whereas, some of the
customers prefer to shop online because of time constraints. From another perspective,
some of the consumers prefer to purchase online as they can compare the prices of
different brands in the easiest way. No matter it is a brick mortar store or a click store, the
customers will be satisfied as long as they get the values they expected.
The Comparison of Promotion Strategies between NGOs and Corporates
Promotion mix includes advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, word
of mouth and public relations (Nour & Almahirah, 2014). The promotion tools can also
be used through medium like direct mail, word of mouth, television, radio, newspaper,
internet, signage, direct mail and telephone (Tuten & Solomon, 2015). With the
advancement of technology, some of the promotion mix like direct mail, word of mouth,
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newspaper can be done via internet. For example, social tagging enables web users to
express their thoughts using “tags” at Facebook, Twitter or even Instagram (Hyoryung &
Kannan, 2014). The others users will be noticed because of the “tags”. Furthermore,
NGOs can search for the same groups of people based on the tags. In addition, the donors,
volunteers, consumers or even business customers can use smart phones, laptops or even
computers to search for NGOs, industries and also the products information (Xia &
Pedraza-Jiménez, 2015). Most of the NGOs and corporates utilize the internet to promote
their products or services. Using internet, NGOs and corporates are able to reach their
purposes easier. To create word of mouth, NGOs and corporates can employ bloggers,
experts and ambassadors to advertise the missions and ideas (Tuten & Solomon, 2015).
Besides, NGOs’ and corporates’ official links can be included in the blogs so those who
are interested can easily get to NGOs’ official sites.
NGOs implemented different types of promotion strategies to reach the purposes. For
example, ALS association had successfully built the awareness of public towards the
disease by introducing Ice Bucket Challenge (ALS Association, 2015; Mayer &
Vambery, 2008). The participants of Ice Bucket Challenge had to tell the purposes of
doing it and then pour the ice water on their bodies. Nominating the others enabled the
messages to be passed on to more people. Adversely, some of the NGOs’ promotion
strategies failed because of wrong methods. Some NGOs use celebrity endorsements.
However, NGOs will not need to give any payments. The celebrities may receive the
payments in other forms. For example, he or she can build a better image or get involve
to satisfy his or her needs. Some of the celebrities were being doubted because of their
credibility (de los Salmones, Dominguez, & Herrero, 2013). However, it can be a
successful marketing strategy if the credibility is there because he or she can influence
the audiences’ emotion towards the mission. With the use of celebrities, the messages can
be passed around more effectively as they have a lot of followers. Besides, media may
report the events because of the celebrities. NGOs can promote indirectly at the same
time. When NGOs are promoting via press, NGOs should also include information about
the advertising fundraising events and also the information about community services
(Mayer & Vambery, 2008). For example, after Tsunami tragedy, the press were trying to
prove its credibility by attaching the pictures which showing the tragedy situations and
writing descriptions about how the victims are suffering (Abdullah, Husain, Bokhari,
Jano, Kamarudin, Saad, 2014; Forstorp, 2007). Besides, NGOs should also invite press
workers to join the events as they may need news to write about their articles. At the same
time, it also enables NGOs’ messages to be promoted through the articles. The articles
can be used to attract more donors, volunteers and so to increase the awareness among
public.
Corporation like Coca-Cola held campaigns via social media and one of the campaigns
was “Share a Coke Can” (Hepburn, n.d.). The customers have to purchase at certain
displays all around the world. They snapped the pictures of the Coca-Cola can which
labelled their names and hashtag “ShareaCoke”. The responses were good as there were
730,000 glass bottles were being personalized via online and 235,000 tweets about the
event. As the idea was good which enabled the customers to put their names on the cans,
it created the topic among their friends and family who saw the tweets or posts. From
another aspect, the campaign was successful as there were more than 150 million
personalized bottles sold. Celebrity endorsements are also popular among the
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corporations especially when they want to get the instant attention from the public. Some
of the customers purchase the products from the new set up companies not because of the
products themselves but the celebrities’ credibility. Besides, the corporates endorse the
celebrities for their brands as they want the prospects or customers to think of their brands
when there are discussing about the celebrities (Mukherjee, 2009). Besides, the prospects
and customers can easily think of the brands which are represented by celebrities because
the brands with celebrities can easily being differentiated in the market. In addition, the
customers will likely to stick to the brand as they are satisfied with the products or
services.
The Comparison of NGOs and Corporates in Performance Evaluation
To evaluate whether the marketing strategies is effective or not, the marketers will
need to have quantitative marketing measurement metrics and qualitative marketing
measurement metrics. The metrics used for both NGOs and industries are the same but
the only differences are the elements that each needs to be evaluated. Quantitative
marketing measurement metrics is which the marketers will be evaluate base on the
numbers of sales, profit margins, and also the numbers of customers. For NGOs, the
marketers will be evaluate base on the amount of funds, the numbers of donors and also
the numbers of volunteers (Šalkovska, & Ogsta, 2014). Social tagging is also one of the
ways to measure the performances of online campaigns. The tags will group the people
who have the same interests (Hyoryung & Kannan, 2014). Hence, it enables the NGOs
and corporates to evaluate the effectiveness of the events. Whereas qualitative marketing
measurement metrics are which marketers have to evaluate base on customers’ feedbacks
or behavior (Benett, 2007; Šalkovska, & Ogsta, 2014). For example, tags enable the
corporates to know about customers’ preferences, customers’ perceptions towards the
brands and products and customers’ loyalty. Whereas, the marketers for NGO may want
to know about the donors’ perceptions about the missions and also campaigns. However,
there are some of the challenges for marketers (Tuten & Solomon, 2015). The words used
by the customers may carry different meanings because of different cultures. Besides, the
marketers may define the collected data wrongly (Leeflang, Verhoef, Dahlström, &
Freundt, 2014). From another aspect, some of the customers who give their feedbacks on
NGOs’ and corporates’ sites may not be the real customers.
Discussion
In an effort to elucidate the differences of NGOs marketing and conventional
marketing, this paper includes the comparisons between products strategy, price strategy,
place strategy and promotion strategy. SWOT analysis are being used by both NGOs and
corporates when they formulate any marketing plans. The considerations of both NGOs
and corporates are somewhat similar and different. NGOs priorities is to have the
awareness being built among the public. Whereas, some of the corporates prioritize on
the opportunities to increase their bottom lines. To some extents, the opportunities for
both NGOs and corporations is the same. The advances of technology enables NGOs and
Corporations to increase more profits or funds by organizing campaigns online. Social
media platforms like Facebook and Twitter enable the customers or prospects to follow
the brands and products online. The sharing function allows the corporates to share their
new ideas or products. In addition, the followers and customers can also share and
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influence their friends or family members who have the same interests. Furthermore, the
threat for both NGOs and corporates may be the new entries of NGOs and corporations.
Although the word of “competition” is not suitable for NGOs but it is true that the funds
may be lesser as the donors may shift their attentions to other NGOs. Whereas, corporates
have their competitions within the industries. However, internal strengths allow
corporates to have different competitive advantages. The other comparisons are the
product strategies and the pricing strategies applied in NGOs’ and corporations’
marketing plans. NGOs do not produce products or services and sell them to customers.
However, they sell their missions and ideas without a charge. The donors or volunteers
contribute or join NGOs because of the missions. The mission may be to help the poor or
the animals which are on the verge of extinction. However, corporates will need to
produce consumer products, unsought products or specialty products to sell to the vendors
and also the consumers. The products or services require fixed selling prices. The
consumers may buy it because of the product designs, product functions and brand names.
However, the consumer may also reject the offer if the price is not equivalent to their
perceived values.
Furthermore, both NGOs and corporations have their products to be sold at online store
or brick and mortar store. All varieties of corporations’ products or services may be found
at the same places. Marketers of NGOs and corporations use different types of promotion
tools, medium and vehicles to promote the products. Online campaigns were successful
because of search engines and newsfeeds (Darwell, 2013). Customers can search their
interested fields via Google or Facebook search engines. By using that, the search engines
enable the customers to know about the products information, reviews from pundits and
the feedbacks from their friends or family. Whereas, NGOs and conventional marketers
can attract the attentions of the prospects by using newsfeeds. As Facebook will put the
hottest topics at the top of the newsfeeds, the chances of the posts will be exposed to the
prospect donors, volunteers or customers will be higher. Besides, the use of celebrity
endorsements are well known for NGOs and also corporates. However, the concerns of
both NGOs and corporates are the same. NGOs and corporates marketers may worry if
the images of celebrities will affect the brand images positioned in consumers in negative
ways. After all of the promotion strategies, the marketers of NGOs and corporations will
have to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies. They use the same measurement
metrics but the elements they use to measure will be somehow different from each other.
In summary, the paper suggests the NGOs marketing can also be effective as conventional
marketing.
Conclusion
This paper discussed about the comparisons of NGOs marketing and conventional
marketing from SWOT analysis, product mix and performance evaluation perspectives.
Both NGOs marketers and conventional marketers need to analyze the NGOs and
corporates using SWOT analysis in order to create marketing plans. Both NGOs and
corporates have their own strengths and weaknesses. NGOs and corporates will need to
identify the weaknesses and take some initiatives to turn the weaknesses into strengths.
Then, NGOs marketers and corporates marketers will need to use the strengths to adapt
the opportunities and avoid the threats while formulating the marketing plans. There are
more new NGOs being set up at different places in this era of globalization. The threat of
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NGOs is getting lesser funds than before. However, corporates will not being affected
because of the new emergence of NGOs but the new corporates from the same industry.
The corporate’ market shares or profits may be affected because of the choices provided
by the other corporates. From the other aspect, NGOs and corporates may have
opportunities like subsidies by government. The cost for NGOs marketing and
conventional marketing could be decrease because of the subsidies. However, the
government may only give subsidies to NGOs or corporates. NGOs will need to collect
funds from the corporates, government or the public by selling mission or ideas. However,
corporates do not collect funds. The corporates will need to sell products or services in
order to earn profits. Hence, the marketers will need to design different kinds of products
for NGOs and corporates. For pricing strategies, NGOs marketers cannot set a fix price
for the missions or ideas. However, corporates will need to set fix prices for the products
or services. Furthermore, NGOs and corporates will need to have the place for the donors
and consumers to purchase the products. Thus, NGOs and corporates marketers will need
to plan whether the selling centers should be in brick and mortar form, click and mortar
form or online form. In addition, the NGOs and conventional marketers will need to
promote the products. As NGOs have lesser budget to advertise so the marketers will need
to choose different medium to promote. For corporates, the budget may be less or more
so the marketers have more choices to approach the target markets depending on the
budgets. After all, the marketers for NGOs and corporates will need to evaluate the
marketing plans performances. NGOs marketers will need to evaluate the performances
by comparing the funds collected before and after the implementation of marketing plans.
However, the corporates marketers will need to evaluate by comparing the profits earned
before and after the marketing plans.
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... Previous studies indicate that even though NGOs use social media, and specifically YouTube in order to reach and influence target consumers (Almaraz et al., 2013;International Communication Association, 2017;Dale et al., 2017), there is a lack of direct engagement with shareholders' and consumers' motives and belief systems (Waters and Jones, 2011;Belk, 2011;Yee and Yazdanifard, 2015;Nitschke and Donges, 2018). At the same time, NGOs are now more relevant than ever. ...
... They may also focus on disaster relief and general assistance of vulnerable societal groups, and the scope of all activities may not be limited to local, but also national and international (Sheombar, 2015). It is important for NGOs to be engaged in societal changes, and also to develop relationships with local communities since there are various types of audiences and stakeholders that NGOs need to influence in order to survive and prosper (Yee and Yazdanifard, 2015). It is vital for every type of NGO to market its purpose and beliefs effectively towards each group/audience, in order to achieve stakeholder engagement and fund-raising and also in order to attract volunteers (Parthasarathy, 2013;Yazdanifard et al., 2015, Thrandardottir, 2017. ...
... It is important for NGOs to be engaged in societal changes, and also to develop relationships with local communities since there are various types of audiences and stakeholders that NGOs need to influence in order to survive and prosper (Yee and Yazdanifard, 2015). It is vital for every type of NGO to market its purpose and beliefs effectively towards each group/audience, in order to achieve stakeholder engagement and fund-raising and also in order to attract volunteers (Parthasarathy, 2013;Yazdanifard et al., 2015, Thrandardottir, 2017. Global economic downturn has created various challenges for NGOs. ...
... Not limited to that, social media and internet marketing will help to increase the awareness among different sectors of the community. Using Social media will reduce NGOs costs because these organizations cannot invest in costly advertising such as TV advertisement because of limited financial resources (Yee and Yazdanifard, 2015). ...
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