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Ostracism: The indiscriminate early detection system

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... Silent treatment leads to broadening the asymmetry of power between the perpetrator and the target. In the case of bullying, various forms of ostracism appear: physical isolation when the target is excluded from others, for instance by working in a room distant from other workers; social ostracism when a target is ignored, excluded from social activities or prevented from having opportunities to speak with other workers; and cyber ostracism when a victim's e-mails or phone calls remain unanswered as bullies do not reply (Williams and Zadro, 2005). ...
... Findings on experimentally manipulated rejection have indicated a number of different outcomes for both sides in the interaction (Williams, 2007). First, through both experimental research and observations on bullying, findings regarding reasons for people's use of social exclusion and their possible gains by rejecting others have shown that use of ostracism by a group fulfills the need tgo belong within the group (Williams and Zadro, 2005). Even playing a role of an ostracizing person increases the sense of power, perceived social status and feeling of belonging with those who reject (Williams, Bernieri, Faulkner, Grahe andGada-Jain, 2000). ...
... Even short episodes of social rejection lead to immediate negative consequences for the ostracized person. As shown, rejection causes distress, anger and sadness and a threat to social self-esteem, as well as a need to belong, a need for control and for a sense of meaningful existence (Williams and Zadro, 2005;Zadro, Williams and Richardson, 2004). ...
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In the present article, theoretical insight into the bullying phenomenon from social influence practices is used to present a framework to understand the employment and functions of negative workplace activities. Bullying is perceived as a process of use of multiple strategies. Its antecedents and background which may trigger negative behavior are described. The forms and dynamics of bullying are presented from the perspective of social influence tactics taxonomies as well as knowledge on the impact of such social influence practices as manipulative communication, social rejection, rumors, and work-related behavior. The role of negative social influence strategies in the group regulation processes and how it relates to bullying is discussed.
... Social exclusion brings a host of negative feelings. Following social exclusion in experiments conducted by Williams and colleagues, participants reported strong feelings of anger, frustration, and sadness, and also lowered self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence (Williams, 2012;Williams & Zadro, 2005). Hence, it is not difficult to understand that individuals who experience social exclusion strive for some way to remedy the hurt feelings. ...
... In that sense, we argue that what threatens such specific needs should also threaten significance. A vast literature has shown that social exclusion does in fact threaten fundamental human needs such as self-worth, and value, but also meaningful existence, feelings of power, and respect (Williams, 2007;Williams & Zadro, 2005). Moreover, previous research shows that following social exclusion, individuals adapt to an including group because it provides them with an opportunity to re-establish the threatened needs (Maner et al., 2007;Williams et al., 2000;Williams & Sommer, 1997). ...
Article
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This article aims to explore if social exclusion can constitute a pathway to radicalization, and if individual level of sensitivity of rejection moderates the effect of social exclusion. Humans innately seek belonging and meaning, and strive for re-establishing a sense of value and belongingness if faced with social exclusion. One way to achieve this is by adherence to a new and inviting group. In four studies, we test to what extent individuals who face social exclusion adapt to a radical including group. In Studies 1 ( n = 104) and 2 ( n = 308), we use a social media-like paradigm to manipulate social exclusion. In Study 3 ( n = 1041), we use the so-called Cyberball paradigm, and in Study 4 ( n = 40) we use a real-life manipulation. All studies show that rejected individuals who are sensitive to rejection are more prone to identify with, engage with and endorse an extreme group. The results hold over both ideological (Studies 1–3) and non-ideological (Study 4) content. Only the last study showed a main effect of social exclusion. We discuss the results in reference to the significance loss model of radicalization.
... Ostracism typically has highly adverse psychological consequences, as prominently described by the Temporal Need Threat Model of Ostracism (Williams, 2009): Rooted in the evolutionary necessity for cooperation and belonging to larger groups for individuals' survival, humans have been theorized to possess an ostracism detection system (Williams & Zadro, 2005) that reacts strongly to even short incidents of being excluded. If ostracism is detected, in what is termed the reflexive response, individuals experience a strong, immediate sense of threat to four fundamental needs, namely, the need to belong, the need for control, the need for meaningful existence and the need for self-esteem (Williams, 2009). ...
... Second, humans are generally very sensitive to experiences of ostracism (e.g., Williams & Zadro, 2005). Therefore, any experience of ostracism, whether it is offline or on Instagram, might decrease need satisfaction. ...
Article
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Humans are highly sensitive to ostracism experiences and thus, even very short occurrences of being excluded and ignored can threaten fundamental needs and lower mood. We investigated whether not being tagged causes similar negative responses as being excluded in real life. Using a multi-method approach, we show across five studies (total N = 1149) that not being tagged in a posted photo strongly threatens fundamental needs. This effect is moderated by individuals’ need to belong, such that individuals with a higher need to belong experience not being tagged as more aversive. Results replicate across vignette studies in which participants imagine not being tagged on Instagram (Studies 2 and 3) and across studies using an alleged group task paradigm that mimicked the psychological mechanism of not being tagged outside of Instagram (Studies 4a and 4b). All experimental studies were pre-registered and we freely share all materials, code and data. Extending ostracism effects to the social media phenomenon tagging, the present research bridges real-world and digital social interactions. The results add to theoretical knowledge on social media, ostracism, and digital well-being and have practical implications for social media app design, social media interventions and our everyday interactions that increasingly happen online.
... Un aspetto rilevante che emerge da queste ricerche è rappresentato dal fatto che le misure neuro-fisiologiche, rispetto alle misure self-report, sono registrate durante l'esperienza di ostracismo, dando sostegno alla spiegazione che alcuni autori (Haselton & Buss, 2000;Kerr & Levine, 2008;Spoor & Williams, 2007;Williams & Zadro, 2005) hanno fornito circa l'immediatezza della risposta negativa all'ostracismo e alla sua intensità anche in un contesto virtuale. Questi studiosi hanno teorizzato che gli esseri umani sono dotati di un sistema di rilevamento veloce, grezzo e sbilanciato in favore di un eccesso di rilevamento dell'ostracismo atto quindi «in primoluogo a rilevare e successivamente a faredomande» (Haselton & Buss, 2000). ...
... Le linee teoriche emerse indicano che gli individui possiedono un sistema di rilevamentobasicodell'ostracismo (Kerr & Levine, 2008;Spoor & Williams, 2007;Williams & Zadro, 2005) che li predispone a rispondere a esso in modo automatico come dimostrato dalle ricerche con le misure di neuroimaging (si veda Eisemberger et al., 2003). Tale sistema, in linea con quanto affermato da Cacioppo, Berntson, Larsen, Poehlmann e Ito (2000), è sensibile alle variabili contestuali (e.g., appartenenza di gruppo), le quali moderano la relazione tra gli stati affettivi degli individui e le loro attivazioni neuro-fisiologiche (Krill & Platek, 2009;Paolini et al., 2016). ...
Article
L’ostracismo rappresenta un fenomeno sociale negativo abbastanza frequente nelle relazioni quotidiane, si pensi alle diverse forme di bullismo e di mobbing. Poiché la socialità e il senso di appartenenza sono bisogni umani fondamentali, quando essi vengono minacciati dall’ostracismo gli individui sperimentano vissuti dolorosi e alienanti con gravi conseguenze sul piano psicologico. Analizzando gli studi nei quali l’ostracismo è stato manipolato attraverso il paradigma del Cyberball, il presente contributo di rassegna tenta di fornire una panoramica delle evidenze empiriche sulle conseguenze neuro-fisiologiche, psicologiche – intrapersonali – e comportamentali – interpersonali – dell’ostracismo, sia dalla prospettiva di chi è direttamente esposto all’ostracismo sia di chi ne è osservatore.
... The model of ostracism was proposed first in 1997 (Williams, 1997) and revised subsequently (Williams and Zadro, 2005). Based on abundant results of the behavioral and neuroimaging research, the latest temporal need-threat model of ostracism proposed by Williams describes and predicts processes and responses at three stages of reactions to ostracism, i.e., the reflexive, the reflective and the resignation. ...
... The temporal models of ostracism suggest that human beings be evolved an efficient pre-cognitive warning system to immediately detect and respond to ostracism (Zadro et al., 2004;Williams and Zadro, 2005;Williams, 2009;Williams and Nida, 2011). Reliably, the enhanced frontocentral P200 to averted gaze in our experiment reflect an earlier affective processing of social exclusion. ...
Article
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Eye gaze plays a fundamental role in social communication. The averted eye gaze during social interaction, as the most common form of silent treatment, conveys a signal of social exclusion. In the present study, we examined the time course of brain response to social exclusion by using a modified version of Eye-gaze paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs) data and the subjective rating data showed that the frontocentral P200 was positively correlated with negative mood of excluded events, whereas, the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) was positively correlated with the perceived ostracism intensity. Both the P200 and LPP were more positive-going for excluded events than for included events. These findings suggest that brain responses sensitive to social exclusion can be divided into the early affective processing stage, linking to the early pre-cognitive warning system; and the late higher-order processes stage, demanding attentional resources for elaborate stimuli evaluation and categorization generally not under specific situation.
... Іноземні науковці вивчали соціалізацію індивідів як форму толерантного сприйняття і запо-бігання остракізаторським тенденціям, підкреслюючи, що соціальне регулювання не тільки покращує сучасний соціальний стан особи, а й підвищує її здатність саморегулюватися в майбутньому [4, с. [12][13][14][15]. Дослідження організаційної поведінки підкреслює реляційні переваги регулювання соціальних емоцій, особливо щодо побудови довіри [6, с. 311-344]. ...
... Після того як референт приймає на себе супроводжуючу функцію, створена діада має обрати відповідні засоби соціального регулювання або супроводу. Нині передбачають три фактори, які керують процесом вибору стратегії соціального регулювання [2, с.[12][13][14][15][16]. ...
... Observable variables that are affected by the Cyberball paradigm include emotional responses (for a review see 14,15 ) behavioral attention such as aggressive responses 15 and average ball tosses [16][17][18] . Many studies show that experimentally induced social exclusion negatively affects emotional well-being 19,20 . However, Blackhart et al. 14 concluded in their review that the effects of social exclusion eliminate positive emotions but do not necessarily increase negative emotions. ...
... Striking evidence exist concerning the effects of social exclusion on emotions. While Blackhart et al. 14 concluded in their review that the effects of social exclusion eliminate positive emotions but do not necessarily increase negative emotions, other studies show effects on both positive and negative emotions 19,20 . Our results support the latter as they show a reliable increase in negative emotions and reduction of positive emotions, following social exclusion. ...
Article
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Social rejection and exclusion (ostracism) represent main stressors in daily life and even threaten mental and physical health. Abundant data from subjective measures in social exclusion paradigms are available, but the dynamic behavioral response is largely unexplored. Here, we applied modified variants of the Cyberball paradigm in two consecutive experiments to investigate the adaptive behavioral and emotional reactions to partial social exclusion. In experiment 1, 68 healthy participants (females, mean age 24.76 ± 4.05 years) played 2 min inclusion, 5 min partial exclusion and 2 min total exclusion. In experiment 2, 94 healthy participants (48 females, mean age 34.50 ± 12.08 years) underwent an experimental condition (2 min inclusion, 10 min partial exclusion) and a control condition (12 min inclusion only) in randomized order. In experiment 1, behavioral responses to partial exclusion showed two characteristics: (1) an immediate increase in ball passes to the excluding player followed (2) by a later return of participants’ behavior to baseline. This finding was replicated for both genders and in comparison to a control condition in experiment 2. The dynamic behavioral response observed here may point to overlapping principles of cooperation in this ball tossing paradigm and serves as a novel experimental proxy.
... Ostracism, a negative daily interpersonal experience, can influence several aspects of the self. For instance, ostracism threatens self-esteem (Williams, 2009;Williams & Zadro, 2005), triggers self-uncertainty (Hales & Williams, 2018;Williams et al., 2019), disrupts self-concept clarity (Ayduk et al., 2009), and amplifies self-concept malleability (Richman et al., 2015). Previous studies have focused on the evaluative (e.g., self-esteem) and structural aspects of the self (e.g., self-concept clarity and malleability). ...
... Our research suggests that the main effect of ostracism might not be attributed to how it is a negative experience or how it violates expectations. Previous research has shown that ostracism influences various aspects of the self, including self-esteem (Williams & Zadro, 2005), self-concept clarity (Ayduk et al., 2009), self-concept malleability (Richman et al., 2015), and self-uncertainty (e.g., Hales & Williams, 2018;Williams et al., 2019), which may explain the unique influence of ostracism on self-continuity. ...
Article
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We conducted six studies to test our hypotheses that ostracism disrupts self-continuity and that self-affirmation counters ostracism’s negative influence on self-continuity. Participants who experienced more ostracism in their daily lives (Study 1), imagined being ostracized (Studies 2 and 5), recalled a past ostracism experience (Studies 3 and 6), and were ostracized in a ball-tossing game (Study 4) reported lower levels of self-continuity than their counterparts. Moreover, neither violations of expectation nor negativity of the experience was sufficient in decreasing self-continuity (Study 5). Finally, self-affirmation weakened the negative effect of ostracism on self-continuity (Study 6). Taken together, our findings provide converging causal evidence for our hypotheses and provide novel insights for the literature on how daily interpersonal interactions influence individuals’ sense of an enduring self. In addition, the moderation of self-affirmation reported in our research indicates an effective approach to diminishing the negative influence of ostracism.
... In line with this, social exclusion may be conceived of as a type of significance loss. Social exclusion threatens the individual's self-view and damages fundamental human needs such as feeling in power, belongingness, self-esteem and feelings of a meaningful existence (Williams, 2007;Williams & Zadro, 2005). ...
... In that sense, we argue that what threatens such specific needs, should also threaten significance. A vast literature has shown that social exclusion does in fact threaten such fundamental human needs such as self-worth, and value, but also meaningful existence, feelings of power and respect (Williams, 2007;Williams & Zadro, 2005). Moreover, this research show that following social exclusion, individuals adapt to an including group because it provides them with an opportunity to re-establish the threatened needs (Williams et al., 2000;Williams & Sommer, 1997;Maner et al., 2007). ...
Conference Paper
The present research aims to determine how the so called quest for significance plays into the radicalization process. Humans innately seek significance, for instance self-worth, value and respect. Loss of significance elicits a search for ways to re-establish self-worth, value and respect. One way to achieve this is by adherence to a radical ideology. We here analyze social exclusion as a type of significance loss, and establish effects on adaption to a radical group. Social exclusion has been shown to affect individuals in a similar manner as a more general ‘significance loss’ – social exclusion threatens basic human needs for affiliation, belongingness and the desire to ‘be somebody’. Following social exclusion, individuals are more prone to adapt to others who provide an opportunity for inclusion. We use a validated online experimental manipulation of social exclusion that takes the form of a social media platform, similar to Facebook. Two studies show that excluded individuals, especially those highly sensitive to rejection, were more likely to identify as a right-wing/left-wing activist after having been included into a radical right-wing/left-wing group. They were also more likely to want to join the radical group that included them following exclusion. Hence, our results show that the mechanism of significance loss is independent of ideological content, and works the same for individuals to the left and right of the political spectrum, which in line with the significance quest model of radicalization.
... Indeed, research conducted by Zadro et al. (2004) found that individuals tend to perceive ostracism indiscriminately. In other words, irrespective of the circumstances, the pain associated with ostracism signals something is amiss with the social connection and influences the victim's desire to remedy the situation (K.D. Williams & Zadro, 2005;Zadro et al., 2004) either with prosocial or antisocial behaviors. Research indicate the psychological impact of ostracism produces contradictory social behaviors in targets. ...
Article
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This paper empirically examines first-movership in the newspaper industry. The first hypothesis generated shows the size of a firm, as measured by advertising rates, is a precursor to which firm was a first-mover into e-commerce. The second hypotheses generated shows a surprising result coming from first-mover adoption of e-commerce. The firms that were first-movers actually experienced a decrease in size, as measured by advertising rates. The two hypotheses in conjunction show that the very reason some firms may have adopted e-commerce may have also caused a first-mover disadvantage. This study extends first-mover theory and e-commerce theory in a very understudied industry.
... In more specific terms, an individual's reputation for cooperation, known by the group through reputational discourse, enables group members to preferentially interact with those individuals who cooperate and avoid those who are defective and adversarial (e.g., Fehr & Schneider, 2010;Milinski, Semmann, & Krambeck, 2002;Mohtashemi & Mui, 2003;Nelissen, 2008;Wedekind & Braithwaite, 2002;Wedekind & Milinski, 2000). The ability to identify noncooperators serves to keep the rewards of mutual cooperation amongst those with reputations for being good to the group (e.g., Hales, 2002;Kurzban & Leary, 2001;Williams & Zadro, 2005), and is associated with cognitive mechanisms such as the perceptual attunement to cheaters (Cosmides & Tooby, 1992), communication (Brown & Moore, 2002;Frank, Gilovich, & Regan, 1993), behavioral signals of trustworthiness (Frank, 1988), and prosociality (Keltner, Kogan, Piff, & Saturn, 2014). In terms of personality, trust was the first category assigned to the personality factor of agreeableness (Norman, 1963). ...
Article
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In this paper we examined the content, structure, and dynamics of reputation, a person’s agreed-upon character that is constructed within social groups. In Study 1, we examined longitudinally the content and structure of an individual’s reputation as distributed across a newly forming group. In Study 2, we examined how the dynamics of reputation shape gossip, a form of reputational discourse. In keeping with theoretical claims about the function of reputation, trustworthiness and status potential proved to be central to reputation content that is shared across a social network and emerged over the course of a year (Study 1). Gossip, a form of reputational discourse, was found to focus upon individuals who are untrustworthy and of questionable and undeserved status (Study 2). We discuss how the results from these studies shed light on how reputation is essential to cooperation and cohesion within groups.
... Both rejected or being ignored contains implicitly an aspect of negative evaluation fear. When social exclusion occurs in any form then the immediate response is always painful and distressful but it instantly followed by coping and appraisal mechanisms that direct the individuals towards thoughts and assessments (Chung & Yang, 2017;Williams & Zadro, 2005). This cognitive process usually starts to analyze the personal standings socially. ...
Article
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Workplace mistreatment is although one of crucial reality of organization’s life that exists inevitably but it may possess certain potential in collaboration with other variables to act into prosocial behaviors. Based on affective events theory (AET) this research study attempts to investigate the impact of workplace ostracism on employees’ fear of negative evaluation. This model explains that workplace ostracism could lead to employees’ fear of negative evaluation but belief in reciprocity as moderator has property to weaken this relationship. In an environment of workplace mistreatment, the belief in reciprocity actually sets the degree of employees’ understanding to avoid fear of negative evaluation by considering themselves responsible first for workplace mistreatment. Data was collected from education sector of Pakistan, comprising faculty and non-faculty members working at different hierarchical levels in public and private school, colleges and universities. Results have confirmed our hypotheses and found the moderating impacts of belief in reciprocity on the relationship between workplace ostracism and fear of negative evaluation. This paper has used SPSS and AMOS tools for data analysis. For practical implication, managers can use implicit property of belief in reciprocity strategically in the interest of organization and employees. According to which belief in reciprocity creates the awareness and direct one’s attention towards previous actions of one-self.
... If the need remains chronically unfulfilled, human beings suffer and feel lonely, particularly if they desire to establish meaningful interactions and relationships. And individuals who are socially excluded, i.e., being cut off, rejected, or ignored by others, feel a sharp and immediate pain in the moment of exclusion (Williams & Zadro, 2005). The need to belong is a fundamental pervasive human desire, and a thwarted sense of belonging causes distress, if not pain. ...
... Striving for the feeling of belonging is a one of the key motivations (Baumeister & Leary, 1995), which originates in evolutionary history. Because people were historically highly dependent on their family and others for survival, even the slightest sign of rejection may have negative consequences (Williams & Zadro, 2005;Leary et al., 1995), first producing psychological pain (MacDonald et al., 2005), followed by more complex emotional and cognitive responses (Gerber & Wheeler, 2009). Enhanced sensitivity to social cues helps dealing with rejection as it allows for rapid detection of signs indicating future rejection (Pickett & Gardener, 2005). ...
Article
Idealization – a positive bias in perception of the romantic partner is common and usually helps sustain the relationship, but in case of closeness perception the negative bias might be a more secure option. The present study examined whether spouses are more inclined to be negatively biased about the characteristics of their relationship and whether sex and rejection sensitivity (tendency to overperceive and overreact to even slight or ambiguous rejection) might foster this negative bias even more. Based on a model for understanding the process of relationship functioning, involving two independent dimensions, closeness, related to high self-other differentiation, and intrusiveness, related to blurring of self-other boundaries, we conducted a study among 50 married couples. The results indicated that participants underestimated their partner's closeness and intrusiveness. Women were more negatively biased than men when judging closeness of the partner. Furthermore, rejection sensitivity was associated with more negative bias in Closeness. These results were discussed with respect to error management theory, and models of ostracism and rejection.
... These needs include more internal and independent individual attributes, such as actively pursuing efficiency, competitiveness, and autonomy. In the context of exclusion, the behavioral response of an individual depends on the perception of what needs are threatened (Williams, 2007;Williams & Zadro, 2005). If social ostracism threatens relational needs, then ostracized individuals will seek to fortify these needs, by thinking, feeling, and behaving in a relatively prosocial manner. ...
Article
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This study explores the effects of intergroup exclusion on need-threat and the behavioral tendencies of excluded individuals. Results show that those excluded by in-group members perceived more threat to relational needs, while participants excluded by out-group members perceived more threat to efficacy needs. In addition, participants excluded by out-group members displayed significantly more aggression intention and less helping intention than those who were excluded by in-group members. This study indicates that the group relationship between excluders and the excluded will directly affect threat perception and behavioral responses.
... Escalation is an indication that the process of NWB persistently worsens into more serious forms of NWB. Terms used for this process are spiral (Leymann, 1996;Lutgen-Sandvik, 2003;Nielsen et al., 2015), cycle (Robinson, 2008;Fisk, 2010), circle (Williams and Zadro, 2005;Chan, 2006;Martinez et al., 2008;Khoo, 2010), increased levels (Cortina and Magley, 2003;Hauge et al., 2011;Namie and Namie, 2011;Leon-Perez et al., 2015;Bashir et al., 2019), or chain of reactions (Kane et al., 2008;Webb, 2008). ...
Article
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The objective of this systematic review was to identify the overlapping and unique aspects of the operationalizations of negative work behaviors (NWBs) to specify a new integrative definition of NWB. More specifically, we examined (1) how many operationalizations and conceptualizations of NWB can be identified, (2) whether these operationalizations can be categorized into facets, i. e., the nature of NWB, harm, actor types, and roles, with subcategories, (3) what the meaningful overlap in these operationalizations was, (4) whether the operationalizations tapped unique and meaningful elements, i.e., positive labels and dynamic processes, and (5) how the overlapping and unique elements of the operationalizations could be integrated into a new theory-based research model for NWB for future research. In the literature search based on the Prisma framework, Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, we identified k = 489 studies that met the inclusion criteria of our review. The results of these studies revealed 16 frequently studied NWB labels, e.g., bullying and aggression. Many of these could be categorized in the same way, namely, in terms of the type of behavior, type of harm, and type of actor involved in the NWB. In our new definition of NWB, we integrated the content of the overlapping and meaningful unique elements of the 16 labels.
... When these results are fed back, 'I' could be motivated to take action. The social acceptance can fulfill the fundamental human needs, such as belonging, control, self-esteem, and meaningful existence (Williams & Zadro, 2005) . In contrast, isolation is the state in which such needs are threatened, motivating the prevention of threats and promoting relationships with others (Molden, Lee & Higgins, 2008) . ...
Article
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This research aims at the empirical understanding of the distinctive Japanese mentality related to ‘seken’ and discusses ‘self’ functioning in an intrapersonal psychological process that is invoked in the social environment and social anxiety, which occurs as an adaptational warning. The study included 595 university students (M=19.57 years), and their self-function and social anxiety were measured. We found that the ‘selffunctions’ were focused on their understanding and evaluation of ‘seken.’ The evaluation contents were fed back to ‘I’ indicating the early occurrence of anxiety as a warning. This research not only deepened the empirical understanding of ‘seken’ but also provided further implications on the adaptational meanings of selffunction and social anxiety.
... Thus, it might be suggested that children merely ponder mental states of others after exclusion because they are wondering why they were excluded. Indeed, Cyberball is a causally ambiguous task (Williams and Zadro, 2005), i.e., participants are not informed why their co-players stopped passing them the ball. However, if increased mentalizing merely reflected a wish to understand the reasons for exclusion in Cyberall, excluded children would be expected to focus their attention more narrowly on mental states of perpetrators in their stories. ...
Article
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Much is known about when children acquire an understanding of mental states, but few, if any, experiments identify social contexts in which children tend to use this capacity and dispositions that influence its usage. Social exclusion is a common situation that compels us to reconnect with new parties, which may crucially involve attending to those parties’ mental states. Across two studies, this line of inquiry was extended to typically developing preschoolers (Study 1) and young children with and without anxiety disorder (Study 2). Children played the virtual game of toss “Cyberball” ostensibly over the Internet with two peers who first played fair (inclusion), but eventually threw very few balls to the child (exclusion). Before and after Cyberball, children in both studies completed stories about peer-scenarios. For Study 1, 36 typically developing 5-year-olds were randomly assigned to regular exclusion (for no apparent reason) or accidental exclusion (due to an alleged computer malfunction). Compared to accidental exclusion, regular exclusion led children to portray story-characters more strongly as intentional agents (intentionality), with use of more mental state language (MSL), and more between-character affiliation in post-Cyberball stories. For Study 2, 20 clinically referred 4 to 8-year-olds with anxiety disorder and 15 age- and gender-matched non-anxious controls completed stories before and after regular exclusion. While we replicated the post regular-exclusion increase of intentional and MSL portrayals of story-characters among non-anxious controls, anxious children exhibited a decline on both dimensions after regular exclusion. We conclude that exclusion typically induces young children to mentalize, enabling more effective reconnection with others. However, excessive anxiety may impair controlled mentalizing, which may, in turn, hamper effective reconnection with others after exclusion.
... And then, if possible, the organizations can provide mentoring and training programs that encourag them to use appropriate strategies to cope with workplace ostracism. The appropriate strategies such as forgiveness seeking, clarity seeking, and mediation can be used to achieve this goal (Williams and Zadro, 2005). ...
Article
As a pervasive workplace phenomenon in service organizations, knowledge hiding can cause serious economic losses to companies. This study seeks to identify a new interpersonal antecedent of knowledge hiding, specifically workplace ostracism. We further focus on the moderating roles of negative reciprocity beliefs and moral disengagement in the relationship between workplace ostracism and knowledge hiding in service organizations. Using a time-lagged research design, we collected data from 253 samples in 17 Chinese hotels. As predicted, we found that workplace ostracism was positively related to hospitality employees’ evasive hiding and playing dumb, but not related to rationalized hiding. In addition, we supported a hypothesized three-way interaction involving workplace ostracism, negative reciprocity beliefs, and moral disengagement on evasive hiding and playing dumb, but not on rationalized hiding. In particular, workplace ostracism was most positively related to evasive hiding and playing dumb when both negative reciprocity beliefs and moral disengagement were high. However, workplace ostracism was not related to evasive hiding and playing dumb when service workers have low levels in either or both.
... It is important to note that preliminary analyses revealed that the same general pattern of results was found for both the in person and online subsamples. 2. Williams and Zadro (2005) contend that common behavioral responses to both real and imagined rejection include avoiding, responding antisocially (e.g., complaining, retaliating), and responding prosocially (e.g., acting friendly). In the present study, prosocial responses were assessed by asking participants to rate how likely they would be to Act Friendly in a given social situation. ...
Article
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This study sought to examine the extent to which undergraduates' experiences with and attitudes relevant to rejection may be associated with their emotional and behavioral responses to ambiguous social situations in which rejection might be inferred. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires that assessed their experiences with and attitudes relevant to being rejected. Next, each participant read six hypothetical scenarios that described various situations that could be interpreted as interpersonal rejection. Following each scenario, participants completed questionnaires that assessed their emotional and behavioral responses to the hypothetical situation. Analyses revealed that the participants' experiences with rejection (and, to a lesser extent, their rejection-relevant attitudes) were associated with a negative emotional response and some negative behavioral responses. In sum, when another individual's interpersonal behavior has an uncertain intent, undergraduates' prior experiences with rejection may be especially important in determining the extent to which they feel and act as if they have been rejected.
... Three pilot studies (see the web appendix) support this theorizing. 1 Interpersonal devaluation (e.g., the perception that someone does not value us) is an especially powerful stressor (Dickerson and Kemeny, 2004;Gruenewald et al. 2004). Indeed, even innocuous cues of devaluation trigger a cascade of psychological responses, because the psychological system that monitors our social acceptance status is very sensitive (Leary 1995(Leary , 2005Williams and Zadro 2005). As a result, people react to trivial devaluation cues (Leary et al. 1998), even when coming from sources whose acceptance should not matter (Gonsalkorale and Williams 2007). ...
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We investigate one of the factors that might explain behavioral loyalty in face of service failures. Research suggests that individuals with low self-esteem who experience relational transgressions develop an avoidant attachment style, which impairs their interpersonal functioning and their willingness to take further interpersonal risks (Park and Maner 2009), and in particular to engage in other long-term relationships (Walker 2009). Drawing on this research, we propose that low self-esteem (LSE) consumers who experience service failures become unwilling to commit themselves to alternative brands, even when they have the opportunity to do so, thus—paradoxically—they remain trapped in their current brand relationship. High self-esteem (HSE) consumers, instead, are more likely to switch to other available service providers when they experience service failures, as compared to when they do not experience failures. We also predict that LSE consumers who experience service failures tend to avoid new commitments in general, thus favoring transactions relative to long-term contracts, even in consumption domains that are unrelated to the service failure. In study 1a, participants completed a measure of self-esteem (Rosenberg 1989) and reported the quality of their internet connection. Finally, participants indicated how likely they would be to switch to a competitor of their current Internet provider. As the quality of their internet connection decreased, HSE consumers were more likely to switch. However, frequency of failures did not have an effect on LSE consumers’ likelihood to switch. In study 1b, we replicated these findings in an experimental setting: HSE consumers who imagined to use an extremely faulty Internet connection were more likely to switch to an available provider as compared to their counterparts who imagined to use a perfectly functioning Internet connection; LSE consumers did not express different switching intentions between conditions. Since we had hypothesized that the loyalty of LSE consumers in face of service failures is driven by their avoidance of new long-term relationships, in study 2 we manipulated the length of the contract offered by an alternative Internet service provider. When an alternative service provider offered a long-term contract (1 year), HSE consumers were more likely to switch to this alternative service provider as the quality of their internet connection worsened, but LSE consumers were not. Instead, when an alternative service provider offered a short-term contract (1 month, renewable), LSE consumers were as likely as HSE consumers to switch to this provider. In study 3, we demonstrate that the fear of new commitments induced by service failures extends to unrelated domains. LSE consumers who imagined to use an extremely faulty Internet connection expressed a greater preference for buying a magazine at the newsstand relative to subscribing to this magazine, as compared to their counterparts who imagined to use a perfectly functioning Internet connection and participants in a negative mood condition. The preferences of HSE consumers, instead, were not affected by service failures.References available upon request.
... Finally, studies investigating RS tend to focus mainly on the risks of being high on RS, particularly high anxious RS, and there is a relative dearth of research examining the interpersonal correlates associated with low levels of RS. Human beings are strongly motivated to avoid social rejection and maintain social bonds and have developed an "ostracism detection system" or "sociometer" to monitor their level of acceptance or rejection and to facilitate acceptance when rejection is detected (M. R. Leary & Guadagno, 2011;Williams & Zadro, 2005). This system responds to cues indicating real or potential rejection by evoking negative feelings that alert the individual to the threat, thereby motivating the person to behave in ways that minimize the probability of rejection and promote acceptance. ...
Article
Individuals high in rejection sensitivity (RS) are at risk for experiencing high levels of interpersonal distress, yet little is known about the interpersonal profiles associated with RS. This investigation examined the interpersonal problems, sensitivities, and values associated with RS in 2 samples: 763 multicultural undergraduate students (Study 1) and 365 community adults (Study 2). In Study 1, high anxious RS was associated with socially avoidant interpersonal problems, whereas low anxious RS was associated with vindictive interpersonal problems. In Study 2, we assessed both anxious and angry expectations of rejection. Circumplex profile analyses showed that the high anxious RS group reported socially avoidant interpersonal problems, sensitivities to remoteness in others, and valuing connections with others, whereas the high angry RS group reported vindictive interpersonal problems, sensitivities to submissiveness in others, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior. Low anxious RS was related to domineering interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior, whereas low angry RS was related to submissive interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing receiving approval from others. Overall, results suggest that there are distinct interpersonal profiles associated with varying levels and types of RS.
... Groups might be buffered from some threats (e.g., they can seek each others' support to maintain a sense of belonging), but they might also be predisposed to respond provocatively and hostilely, in order to gain attention and respect (Hogg 2005;Jetten et al. 2006). Williams (1997Williams ( , 2001 and Williams and Zadro (2005), when formulating the first theory related to social exclusion and ostracism, have proposed the following sequences: (1) reflexive painful response to any form of ostracism, unmitigated by situational or individual difference factors; (2) threats to the need for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence, and increases in sadness and anger; and (3) a reflective stage that is responsive to cognitive appraisals of the situation. ...
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It was predicted that higher levels of gender-based rejection sensitivity would be related to higher tendencies to objectify women (that is, higher tendencies to perceive women as lacking in human mental states and uniquely human emotions). It was also predicted that an enhanced tendency to perceive women as objects would increase men’s tendencies to engage with myth rape acceptance. In a study involving 94 Kosovo men, however, the rejection sensitivity index did not correlate with any outcome variable. The tendency to objectify women did not correlate with myth rape acceptance. Hurt proneness or anxiety in close relationships was positively correlated with the tendency to perceive women as human beings (rather than as objects) and to attribute them human emotions or human mental states. These latter correlations clearly emerged among male participants currently involved in romantic relationships but not in those not involved in romantic relationships.
... Three pilot studies (web appendix) support this theorizing. 1 Interpersonal devaluation (e.g, the perception that someone does not value us) is an especially powerful stressor (Dickerson and Kemeny, 2004;Gruenewald et al. 2004). Indeed, even innocuous cues of devaluation trigger a cascade of psychological responses, because the psychological system that monitors our social acceptance status is very sensitive (Leary 1995;Leary 2005;Williams and Zadro 2005). As a result, people react to trivial devaluation cues (Leary et al. 1998), even when coming from sources whose acceptance should not matter (Gonsalkorale and Williams 2007). ...
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We investigate a psychological factor regulating consumers’ switching in response to poor service quality: chronic global self-esteem. Whereas high self-esteem consumers tend to switch to other providers in response to poor service quality, low self-esteem consumers often do not. This happens because low self-esteem consumers who experience poor service become risk-averse, and therefore reluctant to engage in new committed service relationships. Indeed, low self-esteem consumers’ likelihood to switch to an alternative provider in response to poor service quality increases when this provider offers a less risky, low commitment (vs. more risky, high commitment) contract. Moreover, experimentally reducing low self-esteem consumers’ risk aversion increases their likelihood to switch to alternative providers in response to poor service quality. Finally, low self-esteem consumers’ risk aversion mediates their reluctance to switch in response to poor service. We rule out failure severity perceptions, power, autonomy, affect, and action-orientation as alternative explanations. The implication of this research for public policy makers is that promoting competition (by offering consumers options and by reducing switching costs) may not be enough to protect the welfare of low self-esteem consumers. We also suggest ways in which firms can untie vulnerable consumers from negative service relationships.
... Ostracism, or being ignored and excluded (Williams, 2001(Williams, , 2009, involves the dissolution of social connections and threatens that sense of belongingness. Social cohesion and the need to belong are thought to be fundamental motivations underlying evolutionary pressures that favoured sociality and cooperation (Spoor & Williams, 2007), but that also shaped an alleged ostracism-detection system, which activates a pain signal to warn the threat of social segregation (Williams & Zadro, 2005). Within an evolutionary framework, social exclusion may serve as a twofold function: as form of social control legitimizing punitive actions against deviance and as a strategy fostering group cohesiveness (Williams, 2001). ...
Article
Humans are commonly motivated towards cooperation and prosociality. In this study, we examined this motivational predisposition in autistic individuals. Using an adaptation of the Cyberball paradigm, we investigated subsequent pro-social behaviour after witnessing social exclusion. Participants witnessed and played a series of Cyberball games, rated their affective state and valued emotional faces with respect to their approachability. Results showed that participants from both groups were aware of the social exclusion. However, while neurotypically developing participants engaged in pro-social behaviour in reaction to the exclusion, autistic participants showed less alterations, in terms of either behaviour or affective state. The current findings suggest a distinct motivational drive and processing of social reward stimuli in autism, which may result in behavioural responses divergent from typical development when engaging in the social world.
... Emotional reactions and vulnerability to social exclusion have been investigated in healthy as well as in different clinical samples. A most commonly used paradigm for experimentally mimicking social exclusion is the computer program Cyberball by Williams (Williams 2000, Williams 2001, Williams and Zadro 2005. The computer program mimics a ball tossing game in which two players are controlled by the computer and one by a participant. ...
Article
Background: Social exclusion (ostracism) can lead to interactional frustration and may play an important role as trigger and symptom amplifier in affective disorders. To investigate immediate emotional and behavioral reactions as well as coping, social exclusion can be mimicked in experimental situations, e.g. in the Cyberball paradigm, a virtual ball tossing game which is well established in social psychology. The present cross-diagnostic study compares the responses to social exclusion in patients with chronic depression (CD), episodic depression (ED) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in comparison to a healthy control group. Methods: After baseline characterization, 120 participants (29 patients with CD, 20 with ED, 28 with BPD and 43 healthy controls) played Cyberball with two virtual players and complete exclusion after three times receiving the ball. Thereafter, standard questionnaires were applied for measuring needs, threats, inner tension, emotions and behavioral intentions. Results: Patients with CD showed a higher intensity of ostracism and aversive impact, as well as the wish to escape the situation (behavioral intention) compared to ED. In most categories, CD and ED had scores between BPD and healthy controls (with this sequence) and with BPD patients showing the largest difference to healthy controls. Limitations: The assessment did neither include objective behavioral measures (which is a general limitation in the majority of studies using Cyberball) nor any biological variables. The sample sizes of the diagnostic subgroups were moderate. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that social exclusion situations lead to a more aversive emotional and behavioral reaction in CD compared to ED. Psychological and biological underpinnings of these reactions should be addressed in future transdiagnostic studies. Moreover, psychotherapy in CD should focus on specific needs of CD patients for developing a functional coping in threatening interpersonal situations.
... Ingratiation is a basic behavior strategy for content with ostracism (Williams & Zadro, 2005). Ingratiation is a social behavior in which individuals attempt to ameliorate their attractiveness in society (Liden & Mitchell, 1988). ...
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In this study, we examined the effect of workplace ostracism on employee's eudaimonia at work. We also tested the serial mediating effect of felt sadness, extra role and/or ingratiatory behavior along with moderating effects of differing regulatory focus of employees. We examined this phenomenon through the lens of affective event theory. The data was collected from 291 public sector employees of Pakistan. For data collection, we used time lag and multi-rated survey technique. Data was analyzed through smart PLS software. Results indicated that sadness mediates the relationship between workplace ostracism and extra-role behavior and also mediates between ostracism and ingratiation at work. The result indicated that promotion focus antagonistically moderate the relationship between sadness and extra-role and prevention focus failed to moderate the relationship between sadness and ingratiation at work. Furthermore, results also indicated that extra-role behavior positively related to eudaimonia and ingratiation at work negatively related to eudaimonia at work.
... This idea is consistent with studies demonstrating that exclusion can mimic neural responses to physical pain (e.g., increased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; [135,136]) and cortisol responses after threat [137]. Many other studies have also found higher levels of self-reported distress following ostracism, with large effect sizes and positive linear relationships with the amount of experienced ostracism [11,[137][138][139]. In contrast, the numbness account posits that social exclusion causes a temporary absence of affect, rendering the person relatively numb to both emotional and physical pain [43, 129,140]. ...
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The experience of social exclusion in the workplace adversely impacts employees’ well-being, job satisfaction, and productivity, and no one quite knows what to do about it. In this report, we describe the development and testing of three ostracism interventions, designed to help people cope with the negative effects of being excluded by one’s team. Across five studies, participants were assigned to a virtual ball toss game where they were either included or excluded by their teammates. Afterwards, they were given a task where they could earn money for themselves, for their entire team, or for an unrelated group (charity). Excluded participants worked less hard for their teams (even when this meant sacrificing their own earnings). This sabotage effect was specific , meaning that excluded individuals worked less hard on behalf of their teams, but not when they worked for themselves or for charity. We devised three intervention strategies—perspective, mentorship, and empowerment—to combat the negative effects of ostracism on people’s willingness to work for their teams. These interventions were successful; each increased people’s persistence in a team-based reward task, and in some cases, even raised the outcomes of excluded teammates to levels observed in included teammates. The effectiveness of these interventions also replicated successfully, using preregistered hypotheses, methods, and analyses. These studies add novel insights to a variety of fields that have examined the consequences of social exclusion, including social psychology, organizational behavior, and management science.
... Il s'agissait d'une procédure utilisée à Athènes où, après vote démocratique, un citoyen état banni de la cité pour une durée déterminée. De nos jours, il désigne plus généralement le fait d'ignorer et d'exclure un ou plusieurs individu(s) d'une activité ou relation sociale (Williams & Zadro, 2005). D'autres termes sont utilisés dans la littérature pour nommer cette rupture de lien social, tels que le rejet social et l'exclusion sociale (Tableau 1). ...
Thesis
Les humains sont motivés par un besoin fondamental de maintenir des relations stables et durables. De nombreuses études comportementales ont démontré que l’exclusion sociale menace ce besoin fondamental d’appartenance. Au niveau neuronal, il a été mis en évidence l’implication du cortex cingulaire antérieur sous génual (CCAsg) et de l’insula antérieure (AI), deux régions aussi impliquées dans la dépression majeure, où le rejet social constitue un facteur de risque établi. A ce jour, le rôle du CCAsg et de l’AI dans les processus d’intégration et de régulation de l’exclusion sociale reste cependant inconnu. Afin d’étudier les conséquences comportementales de l’exclusion sociale ainsi que les rôles différentiels du CCAsg et de l’AI, nous avons dans un premier temps développé une nouvelle tâche d’exclusion sociale chez le rat. Cette tâche nous a permis, dans un second temps, d’étudier i) les conséquence socio-affectives de l’exposition à un stress social, ii) l’effet de lésions discrètes au niveau de l’homologue murin du CCAsg (cortex infralimbique, A25) et de l’AI (insula agranulaire) sur la réponse affective et iii) l’impact de l’administration d’ocytocine (OT), un neuropeptide impliqué dans les processus affiliatifs, sur les interactions sociales. Nous avons pu montrer que l’exclusion sociale impactait négativement les interactions sociales ainsi que les comportements de type dépressifs. Les lésions au niveau de A25 et l’administration d’OT ont réduit cet effet négatif et modulé l’activation neuronale au niveau du CCAsg et de l’AI. Nos données permettent de proposer un modèle d’intégration et de régulation des signaux d’exclusion sociale impliquant le CCAsg et l’AI.
... Sosyal değişim teorisine dayanan dışlanma (ostracism), bir kişinin görmezden gelinmesi ya da yok sayılmasıdır (Ferris vd., 2008(Ferris vd., , 1348. İş yerinde dışlanma ise bir birey ya da bir grubun bir başka birey veya grup tarafından görmezden gelinmesi ya da gruba dâhil edilmemesi olarak nitelendirilmektedir (Williams ve Zadro, 2005;Williams, 2007). Çalışma ortamında iletişim ve etkileşimin ihmal etmesi sonucunda ortaya çıkan iş yerinde dışlanma olgusu, bireyin çalışma arkadaşları ve/veya üstleri tarafından kasıt olmaksızın ya da kasıtlı olarak ihmal edilmesi ve sosyal etkileşimden mahrum bırakılması olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Robinson vd., 2013;Karabey, 2014). ...
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z Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, iş yerinde dışlanma ve örgütsel sinizmin, işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Bu kapsamda, Alanya'da faaliyet gösteren otel işletmelerinde çalışan 439 kişiye anket uygulanmıştır. İlişkisel tarama modelinde tasarlanan araştırmada, "İş Yerinde Dışlanma", "Örgütsel Sinizm " ve "İşten Ayrılma Niyeti " ölçekleri kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler istatistik paket programı aracılığıyla analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde betimleyici istatistikler, Pearson korelasyonu ve çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre, ankete katılan otel çalışanlarının hem iş yerinde dışlanma hem de işten ayrılma niyetleri düşük düzeydedir. Bununla birlikte, çalışanların örgütsel sinizm algıları ortalamaya yakındır. Araştırma bulguları, otel çalışanlarının iş yerinde dışlanma ve örgütsel sinizm algıları ile işten ayrılma niyetleri arasında pozitif yönlü ve orta kuvvette bir ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca işten ayrılma niyeti üzerinde iş yerinde dışlanma algısının örgütsel sinizmden daha etkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: İş Yerinde Dışlanma, Örgütsel Sinizm, İşten Ayrılma Niyeti, Otel İşletmeleri. Abstract The aim of this study is to examine the effects of workplace ostracism and organizational cynicism on turnover intention. Within this context, a questionnaire was applied to 439 people working in hotel establishments that have been operating in Alanya. In the research designed in the relational survey model of screening, " Workplace Ostracism", "Organizational Cynicism" and "Turnover Intention" scales were used. The obtained data were analyzed through the statistical package program. In the analysis of the data descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used. According to the findings of the study, the surveyed hotel employees' perceptions on both workplace ostracism and turnover intentions are low level. However, employees' perception of organizational cynicism is close to the average. The findings of the study, show that there is positive and a moderate correlation between the hotel employees' perceptions of workplace ostracism and organizational cynicism and their turnover intention. Additionally, it was determined that the perception of workplace ostracism is more effective than organizational cynicism on the turnover intention.
... Considering that even negative interactions have their functions in interpersonal relationships, ostracism is the surest concept that shows that an individual is completely shunned by his or her organization. Therefore, some researchers argued that ostracism is a threat to the survival of individuals in an organization over other negative mistreatments (Ferris et al., 2017;Williams & Zadro, 2005). ...
Article
As positive nontask behavior, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a well-known concept that has been investigated by numerous studies. However, weakness in the research stream is viewing this concept from the perspective of the actor. In this study, OCB is considered as a social activity that assists actors' survival in their organizations, and how OCB affects ostracism that effectively reflects belonging in the organization is investigated. Moreover, to identify the relationship in detail, three different independent variables are used, including OCB, OCB aggregate gap, and OCB profile similarity, using social exchange theory and similarity attraction theory. The analysis is conducted using samples from 210 employees who work for Korean companies. The results indicate that OCB profile similarity has a stronger effect on reducing ostracism than the absolute level of OCB and the OCB aggregate gap.
... Sosyal değişim teorisine dayanan dışlanma (ostracism), bir kişinin görmezden gelinmesi ya da yok sayılmasıdır (Ferris vd., 2008(Ferris vd., , 1348. İş yerinde dışlanma ise bir birey ya da bir grubun bir başka birey veya grup tarafından görmezden gelinmesi ya da gruba dâhil edilmemesi olarak nitelendirilmektedir (Williams ve Zadro, 2005;Williams, 2007). Çalışma ortamında iletişim ve etkileşimin ihmal etmesi sonucunda ortaya çıkan iş yerinde dışlanma olgusu, bireyin çalışma arkadaşları ve/veya üstleri tarafından kasıt olmaksızın ya da kasıtlı olarak ihmal edilmesi ve sosyal etkileşimden mahrum bırakılması olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Robinson vd., 2013;Karabey, 2014). ...
... Birey gruptan dışlandığı zaman bu ihtiyaçlarını karşılamakta zorlanmaktadır (Abayhan ve Aydın, 2014; Aydın, Şahin, Yavuz Güzel, Abayhan, Kaya ve Ceylan, 2013). Başka bireyler tarafından yok sayılması, görmezden gelinmesi ya da gruba dahil edilmemesi olarak tanımlanan psikolojik dışlanma günlük yaşamda sık karşılaşılan durumlardan biridir (Williams, 2007;Williams ve Zadro, 2005). Dışlanma konusunda yapılan araştırmalar çoğunlukla Williams, Cheung ve Choi (2000) tarafından geliştirilen Sanal Top Oyunu paradigmasına dayanmaktadır (meta-analiz için bkz., Hartgerink, van Beest, Wicherts ve Williams, 2015). ...
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The cyberball paradigm, which is the most used in the literature to reveal the effect of ostracism, has problems in its structure since it is a slow ball game and requires a controlled environment. Other techniques also measure ostracism indirectly or include stigma and long-term adverse effects on the future of the person. In this research, the ostracism paradigm, which is developed based on visual and vignette, focuses on the exclusion of a person by other people on the first day of starting a course. In the control condition, there is no exclusion. After this hypothetically developed model, a total of 55 participants were asked to rate how angry, calm, disappointed, excluded, happy, annoyed, worried, and sad about the situation in which they read themselves on an 11-point scale. Later, the participants filled out the Need Threat Scale. The findings of the study showed that compared to control condition, the ostracized participants had 1) more anger, frustration, exclusion, boredom, anxiety, and sadness; 2) they felt more unhappy and nervous, and 3) had a lower level of scores in belonging, self-worth, sense of control, and existence. The effect of this new ostracism paradigm on these measurements was strong. These results of the study indicate that this model can be used reliably to reveal ostracism and may have applications in psychology, education, therapy, and organization.
... Furthermore, social exclusion is known to recruit brain areas otherwise dedicated to the processing of physical pain (Eisenberger, Lieberman, & Williams, 2003). Besides ensuring individuals' health and wellbeing, being socially valued by others in relationships increases access to material and sexual resources (Williams & Zadro, 2005). ...
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Exposure to death-related threats, thoughts and cues (actual or anticipated death of conspecifics, including oneself) remain powerful stressors across primate species, including humans. Accordingly, a pervasive issue in psychology pertains to the kind of social–cognitive responses exposure to deadly threats generates. To this day, psychological models of reactions to death-related threats remain underspecified, especially with regards to modern evolutionary theory. Research on both humans and nonhuman primates’ reactions to death-related threats highlights a general tendency of human and nonhuman primates to “cling to the group” and to display increased social motivation in the face of death and deadly events (predator attacks, disasters, terror attacks. . .). Given the adaptive value of social networks, which provide individuals with resources, mating pool and support, we propose the existence of an evolved mechanism to explain these affiliative responses. In particular, we propose a “conspecific loss compensation mechanism” (CLCM) that actively keeps track of and compensates for threats to the integrity of one’s social network. In the face of death-related cues signaling a danger for one’s social network, or actual conspecific loss, CLCM triggers proportional affiliative responses by a process labeled compensatory socialization. After reviewing existing evidence for the CLCM, we discuss its plausibility, parsimonious character, and explanatory power of the diversity of responses observed among threatened and grieving individuals. We also formulate clear and novel predictions to be tested in future research.
... For instance, potential sources of ostracism could be informed about the negative outcomes of ostracism for the unit and organizational performance. Concerning targets, ingratiation can be used as a means to increase their attractiveness in the eyes of their peers (Liden and Mitchel, 1988;Williams and Zadro, 2005). Of course, training in task related skills is crucial, ensuring that all newcomers are at least equally capable with their peers to perform their tasks (Treadway et al., 2007). ...
Article
Purpose The detrimental effect of workplace ostracism on core employee and organizational outcomes has received increasing attention. However, very little is known about its impact on group related outcomes. Given that workplace relationships play a salient role in enhancing employee willingness to share information and knowledge, the present paper examines the link between workplace ostracism and information exchange. In doing so, we also highlight the mediating role of a novel construct, namely self-serving behavior. Design/methodology/approach To test our hypotheses, we conducted two studies using both a scenario paradigm (54 students) and a field study (172 working adults). Findings Results indicated that self-serving behavior fully mediates the effect of workplace ostracism on employee information exchange. Research limitations/implications Both studies have limitations that need to be considered. The scenario paradigm lacks realism whereas the cross-sectional nature of our survey cannot infer causality. As regards the latter, data were collected using a single source and thus common method variance may exist. Originality/value The present study provides novel insights into the outcomes of workplace ostracism and the underlying mechanisms that account for its negative effect. Moreover, it adds to limited current knowledge on self-serving behavior.
... Birey gruptan dışlandığı zaman bu ihtiyaçlarını karşılamakta zorlanmaktadır (Abayhan ve Aydın, 2014; Aydın, Şahin, Yavuz Güzel, Abayhan, Kaya ve Ceylan, 2013). Başka bireyler tarafından yok sayılması, görmezden gelinmesi ya da gruba dahil edilmemesi olarak tanımlanan psikolojik dışlanma günlük yaşamda sık karşılaşılan durumlardan biridir (Williams, 2007;Williams ve Zadro, 2005). Dışlanma konusunda yapılan araştırmalar çoğunlukla Williams, Cheung ve Choi (2000) tarafından geliştirilen Sanal Top Oyunu paradigmasına dayanmaktadır (meta-analiz için bkz., Hartgerink, van Beest, Wicherts ve Williams, 2015). ...
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This article aims to investigate how workplace ostracism acts as a motive behind customer service sabotage. We examine the role of stress as a meditating variable along with the moderation of perceived organizational support (POS) on the said association by using conservation of resources and equity theory. A total of 217 nurses from hospitals of the southern Punjab region in Pakistan participated in the study. Data were collected through survey and structured questionnaires. SPSS and AMOS were used to analyze data with the latest techniques of bootstrapping and process macros. The results showed that stress mediated between the association of workplace ostracism and service sabotage behavior. POS was confirmed as a moderator between this relationship. POS buffered the harmful effects of ostracism and stress on customer service, as POS demonstrates to personnel that they are cherished and respected by the organization. This lessens the strength of perceived stress due to workplace ostracism. Organizational leadership should take advantage of the stress-alleviating effect of POS, which is important in producing adequate levels of work performance.
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This study combined Chinese indigenous social capital theory with Conservation of Resource Theory and Somatic Marker Theory,and proposed a theoretical framework of social capital and self-conscious emotion affected economic cooperative behavior. After Public Goods Game,the result showed that ( 1) players in friend network had less Free Rider Index than those in stranger network; ( 2 ) By resource incentive and embarrass and low self-esteem) are negative relativewith Free Rider Index; ( 3) The effects of social capital on cooperative decision-making were partially mediated by positiveself-conscious emotions (pride ) and negative self-conscious emotions (embarrass and low self-esteem ) .Practical implication,limitations and future research directions are discussed.
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Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.
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Die mit den Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien einhergehende zu vermutende Veränderung des Menschen wird differenziert betrachtet, indem konkrete Fragen formuliert werden: Ändert sich die Wahrnehmung der Umwelt, weil in der virtuellen Welt nicht mehr alle Sinne beteiligt sind? Wie erfolgt angesichts einer zunehmenden Informationsmenge die Informationsselektion? Ist der Cyberspace frei von Emotionen? Ist Internetsucht eine spezielle Form der Stressbewältigung? Wie verändert sich durch die zunehmend engere Verknüpfung von Computer und Mensch die personale Identität? Wird die Face-to-Face- gegenüber der Online-Kommunikation zweitrangig? Wird der Mensch durch das Internet infolge der Anonymität virtueller Gemeinschaften unsozialer und aggressiver? Wie lässt sich Cybermobbing verhindern? Wie kommt es, dass Menschen online viel von sich preisgeben, zugleich aber eine Überwachung und die Verletzung ihrer Privatsphäre befürchten? Führt exzessives Computerspiel zu einer eingeschränkten Umweltaneignung? Bewirkt der Einsatz von Navigationsgeräten, dass die räumlichen Strukturen von Umwelten nicht mehr mental abgebildet werden? Verliert der Mensch seine Autonomie, wenn Computer Aufgaben übernehmen? Wird der Mensch zunehmend abhängig von Technologien? Diesen Fragen wird in sechs Themenbereichen nachgegangen: Informationsverarbeitung, Stress und Stressbewältigung, Identität und Selbstdarstellung, soziale Interaktionen, Privatheit sowie Umweltbeziehungen. Es werden die Charakteristika der Online- gegenüber der Face-to-Face-Kommunikation dargestellt: die Unabhängigkeit der sozialen Interaktionen vom räumlichen Kontext und von Zeitvorgaben, die Asynchronizität der Kommunikation, das Fehlen nonverbaler Hinweisreize, die ständige Konnektivität und die Anonymität des Internet. Die Modalitäten von Umweltbeziehungen: die Aneignung von Umwelt, die emotionale Ortsverbundenheit sowie spirituelles Erleben, und deren Wandel im Cyberspace werden beleuchtet. Des Weiteren wird das Konzept des Virtuality-Kontinuum, das sich zwischen realen und virtuellen Umwelten erstreckt, vorgestellt. Dieses macht deutlich, dass sich reale und virtuelle Umwelten nicht ausschließen, sondern mit jeweils unterschiedlichen Anteilen zu Mixed Realities zusammenfügen. Das allgemeine Fazit ist: Die Mensch-Umwelt-Beziehungen und damit auch der Mensch verändern sich, wenn sich im Zuge der Digitalisierung die Lebenswelt des Menschen wandelt.
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p>Ostracism is a critical issue with its influence on employee motivation, employee performance and hence on organizational success. The purpose of this cross cultural study is to investigate whether being a victim of ostracism in the workplace has an impact on work effort or not. Additionally, it aims a comparative examination of differences between Turkish and Azerbaijani employees in terms of workplace ostracism and work effort, with regard to factors such as gender and sector of employment. Results confirm that, experiencing ostracism in the workplace decreases the amount of work effort in a sample of 240 Turkish and Azerbaijani employees. Furthermore, the results also show that, Azerbaijani employees are being subject to workplace ostracism behaviors more than Turkish employees and there are statistically significant differences between male and female employees in terms of workplace ostracism and work effort.</p
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This chapter provides a literature review on workplace ostracism in the context of workplace bullying. First, the context of ostracism in the workplace is conceptualized and distinguished from other phenomena (e.g. workplace deviance, incivility and bullying). A brief history of research on ostracism in the workplace and ways of measuring it are included. Second, a theoretical background is provided, and the most important models of ostracism as well as the outcomes of ostracizing and being ostracized (immediate responses, cognitive and behavioural strategies of coping, and the long-lasting outcomes of being rejected) are described. The focus is on the negative consequences of being ostracized (e.g. antisocial responses, including a drop in empathy and self-regulation). Workplace ostracism antecedents, both macro- and micro-organizational (organizational structure, organizational culture, power structure), and their consequences at the individual level, such as the target’s well-being, and at the organizational level, such as job search behaviour, actual turnover and counterproductive behaviour, are presented. Findings that suggest positive outcomes of being ostracized are also provided (e.g. an increase in work performance, compliance). Based on the multimotive model of responses to rejection, the likelihood of antisocial or prosocial responses to ostracism in the workplace is highlighted. The possible mechanisms, functions and moderators of workplace ostracism are discussed as well, and practical implications are drawn. Finally, in the concluding remarks, future research directions and suggestions for prevention and intervention are suggested.
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Introduction Social-media can contribute to building up adolescents' relationships, but they might also bring negative exclusionary experiences. Being excluded is a subtle yet hurtful form of relational aggression, which affects people's psychological wellbeing, especially during developmental stages. In this study, we (1) analyzed the effects of social-media exclusion adapting the Ostracism Online paradigm to a cohort of Italian preadolescents (Mage = 11.47, 53% girls) and (2) tested the efficacy of two potential recovery strategies (i.e., social bonds vs. social surrogate). Method Inclusionary status was manipulated through the number of “likes” participants received on a fictitious online social network. In the exclusion condition, participants received fewer likes than everyone else. In the inclusion condition, participants received a similar number of likes of other users. Then, all participants were asked to think of a significant positive relationship with a family member (social bonds), a celebrity (social surrogate), their present moment thoughts (control). Results Preadolescents who received fewer likes than others reported higher levels of need threat (i.e., belong, self-esteem, meaningful existence, but not control) and negative emotions. Moreover, the social-bonds strategy generally brought a faster psychological recovery from social-media exclusion than the control condition. The efficacy of social-surrogates strategy was greater for boys than for girls, probably due to different choices in their favorite celebrities. Conclusion These findings show how offline life offers compensatory opportunities for adolescents’ online life. When the lack of “Likes” signal exclusion on social-media, thinking of an existing social relationship help adolescents to cope with this negative experience.
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Although ostracism is known to have negative consequences, individuals are affected to differing extents and show different patterns of recovery. To better understand these differences, the Big‐Five personality model was used to examine the moderating role of personality on immediate and delayed ostracism distress. In this laboratory study, 408 participants played Cyberball and completed batteries on needs satisfaction and mood distress. The results show that more Agreeable or Conscientious individuals experienced greater distress on the immediate and the delayed distress measures (needs satisfaction and mood). Greater Openness to experience was related to greater effects of Agreeableness or Conscientious on distress experienced after being ostracized than when included. The discussion centers on the steps that can be taken to achieve greater relief after ostracism. This research contributes new theoretical insights and presents practical implications leading to a better understanding of those individuals who are at greater risk of being affected by ostracism, the personality characteristics that moderate ostracism distress, and when.
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Despite their shared characteristics, the literatures on workplace ostracism and incivility have evolved in different directions. In this review, we discuss the similarities and differences in the conceptualizations of the two constructs and trace the different measures, histories, theories, and topics covered in the two literatures. Although small, we also review the subset of studies that have directly contrasted the effects of ostracism and incivility within the same study. Subsequently, we outline future research areas for both literatures, with a particular focus on research areas that may produce results that help further differentiate the two constructs. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Volume 4 is March 21, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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