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The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis

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... Different units may seek to achieve very different overall goals (Thornton & Ocasio, 2008) reflecting material differences in the knowledge communities' knowledge practices (such as teaching, research, and public engagement) most relevant to these disciplines. This significance of contradictory practices and different belief systems within institutions is addressed by Friedland and Alford's (1991) "institutional logics" approach. Institutional logics are "socially constructed, historical patterns of material practices, assumptions, values, beliefs and rules by which individuals produce and reproduce their material subsistence, organize time and space, and provide meaning to their social reality" (Thornton & Ocasio, 1999, p. 804). ...
... An institutional logic approach thus provides a possible means to understand the conditions under which universities might contribute to social innovation. Institutional logics perspective contends that individuals' values, norms, beliefs and interests are shaped by their wider institutional context, reflecting both individual intensions and decisions alongside what is possible within the institutional context (Friedland & Alford, 1991;Thornton & Ocasio, 2008). Institutional logics shape which individuals and organisations achieve status, prestige, and competitive advantage (Sewell, 1992), and those who are able to exercise initiative and achieve change, something termed as "embedded agency." ...
... Embedded agency reflects three elements. Individuals, organisations and institutions possess partial autonomy in their actions (Battilana, 2006;Friedland & Alford, 1991); individuals engage in contests and mediation, while organisations and institutions are fields of conflicts and contradictory practices (Thornton & Ocasio, 2008). All three are mutually interdependent, and this interplay both constrains and enables individual/organisational action; these interplays determine institutional outcomes and provide a lens for exploring universities' limited engagement with social innovation. ...
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Social innovation has been increasingly regarded as an instrument through which transformative structural change, necessary to address grand societal challenges can be achieved. Social innovations are encouraged by the emergence of innovation systems that support changes not exclusively driven by a techno‐economic rationality. In the context of this special issue, there has been both little understanding of social innovation systems within mainstream innovation ecosystem approaches and little analysis of the roles played by universities in social innovation systems. We here focus on the institutional complexity of universities and their field‐level dynamics as serving as a potential break on the institutionalisation of social innovation. To deepen our understanding of this, we utilise a literature around institutional logics to foreground characteristics of organisational fields with regard to social innovation. Drawing on empirical data gathered in two public universities located in different countries, we show that in one case the potential of social innovation is undermined by two dominant institutional logics, in the other its permeation across the organisational field is seriously challenged by a more powerful dominant logic. The institutional logic approach is useful to highlighting the barriers to building productive innovation ecosystems incorporating social considerations, and helps to explain the persistent difficulties in reframing ecosystems approaches to reflect wider societal dynamics.
... Institutional logics refers to the "socially constructed patterns of symbols and material practices, assumptions, values, beliefs, and rules by which individuals and organizations produce and reproduce their material subsistence, organize time and space, and provide meaning to their social reality" [15]. Institutional logics allow individuals and organizations to provide meaning to actions and structure to conflicts [16] by guiding and constraining decisions about tasks and by channeling attention to particular issues [17]. To reflect the uncertain and complex nature of the healthcare context, we draw on the notion of competing institutional logics [18][19][20] in healthcare [21][22][23]. ...
... Institutional logics refer to the practices and belief systems that shape how individuals and groups engage in an organizational, societal, or political context [16,29]. While an institution represents a set of culturally and historically grounded social practices and behavioral patterns, institutional logics establish the rationale that underpins institutions and provides meaning and organizing principles for institutionalized practices [30][31][32]. ...
... The logic of care focuses on delivering the best possible treatment to the patient. The logic of care is unique to the healthcare industry since it provides meaning to actions [16] of physicians and other clinicians. Clinicians are well trained in the logic of care [46], even though many uncertainties and complexities guide and constrain decisions that shape this logic, such as comorbid medical problems a patient presents, drug interactions and contraindications, the patient's prior medical history, and socio-demographic factors. ...
... Institutions are transrational ways of organizing people and objects in space and time (ALFORD et al., 1991). Friedland goes as far as arguing that institutions are themselves spaces and times, "locations in which those persons and objects carry particular meanings" (FRIEDLAND, 2002, p. 382). ...
Thesis
This dissertation examines in a comparative approach the similar shift made by Israeli-Jewish and Palestinian-Muslim national-religious movements since the 1990s, from the political and social margins to center-stage. This shift was generated on both sides by an objection to the Israeli-Palestinian peace process and territorial and ideological compromise. This work examines this transformation from its historic and ideological roots through its institutional and political manifestations, by an ideological and thematic analysis of its contemporary discourse.The work is divided into three parts. In the first part, Chapter 1 lays down a theorical infrastructure on Strong Religious-Nationalism (SRN), a form of Religious-Nationalism in which both elements are equal, intertwined and interdependent. In Chapter 2 the theory of SRN is applied to the Israeli-Palestinian case by reexamining the conflict’s historical roots. This highlights both the special role of SRN in the mainstream national narrative and its centrality in the conflict. The second part of the dissertation deals with the shift from the margins towards hegemony through the process of politicization and institutionalization. It includes two chapters, examining first Hamas and then religious-Zionism (RZ) with a comparative reference to the previous chapter.The third part exemplifies how SRN becomes hegemonic through a dialectic of ideological discourse. Both RZ and Hamas advanced to center stage by posing a comprehensive ideological worldview. These SRN worldviews interact. The main interlocutors surveyed are Jewish and Muslim RN clergy, public intellectuals and politicians.
... This also means that there is not just one type of legitimacy but continuously many different forms of legitimacy for actors to consider. Shifts in context or institutional spheres, from state to market, for example (Friedland and Alford 1992; Thornton et al. 2012), will therefore change the social rules and expectations of how to gain legitimacy or to behave legitimate. ...
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This chapter will address the question of public legitimacy in connection to the communication of political governed organizations (PGOs). My point of departure is that legitimacy in the public sphere is a central purpose in the communicative effort of any political governed organization. Overall, the paper takes an institutional approach to the subject and aims to clarify the institutional modes and forms PGOs are embedded in connection to the public sphere, as well as how these forms and modes transform in the public sphere. I will not only address the institutional form and modes but also the agency and strategic ability to influence the challenge of public legitimacy.
... 803), constitute the context within which organizations function [5,10]. It is impossible to analyze individual or organizational behavior without considering the societal context [11]. The impacts of institutional logics on behavior may be stronger or weaker depending on an organization's ties with other members [12,13]. ...
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