Book

The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media

Authors:

Abstract

This book studies the rise of social media in the first decade of the twenty-first century, up until 2012. It provides both a historical and a critical analysis of the emergence of networking services in the context of a changing ecosystem of connective media. Such history is needed to understand how the intricate constellation of platforms profoundly affects our experience of online sociality. In a short period of time, services like Facebook, YouTube and many others have come to deeply penetrate our daily habits of communication and creative production. While most sites started out as amateur-driven community platforms, half a decade later they have turned into large corporations that do not just facilitate user connectedness, but have become global information and data mining companies extracting and exploiting user connectivity. Offering a dual analytical prism to examine techno-cultural as well as socio-economic aspects of social media, the author dissects five major platforms: Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, YouTube, and Wikipedia. Each of these microsystems occupies a distinct position in the larger ecosystem of connective media, and yet, their underlying mechanisms for coding interfaces, steering users, filtering content, governance and business models rely on shared ideological principles. Reconstructing the premises on which these platforms are built, this study highlights how norms for online interaction and communication gradually changed. "Sharing," "friending," "liking," "following," "trending," and "favoriting" have come to denote online practices imbued with specific technological and economic meanings. This process of normalization is part of a larger political and ideological battle over information control in an online world where everything is bound to become "social."
... To address this gap, this research adopts the stance taken by Wegner (1997) in his seminal work on the significance of interactive data over algorithms. In addition it adopts the stance taken by the scholars who critically engage with the assumptions regarding the non-neutrality of user activities on social media and the ways in which social data are produced by these platforms (Alaimo 2014;Alaimo andKallinikos, 2016, 2017;Bucher, 2012;Couldry and Kallinikos, 2017;Langlois and Elmer, 2013;van Dijck, 2013van Dijck, , 2014. From this perspective, this thesis unpacks the processes in which data representations of the individuals' tastes are produced and acted upon in the matchmaking operations of social media. ...
... Thus earlier approaches have since been problematized on the grounds that they tend to reduce social media to what is happening in the front-end, on the interface level (Couldry and Kallinikos, 2017). Critiques of such views instead argue that social media are artificially created technological environments that are designed with specific business and commercial objectives (van Dijck, 2013;Langlois and Elmer, 2013;Gillespie, 2010). And, contrary to views that see data generated on social media as fine grained-data about the social (i.e. ...
... Thus social media data have become increasingly acted upon sources that are assumed to reveal previously unknown patterns hidden in the data, which, according to Kallinikos (2013), are assumed 'to lift the veil of reality'. Scholars who challenge such neutral depictions of the nature of social media data, on the grounds of problematic ontological and epistemological assumptions underpinning their generation and use (Boyd & Crawford, 2012;Gitelman, 2013;van Dijck, 2013van Dijck, , 2014Kitchin, 2014b;Couldry and Kallinikos, 2017), have paved the way for the more recent conceptualisation of social media as platforms. ...
Thesis
There are long-standing practices and processes that have traditionally mediated between the processes of production and consumption of cultural content. The prominent instances of these are: curating content by identifying and selecting cultural content in order to promote to a particular set of audiences; measuring audience behaviours to construct knowledge about their tastes; and guiding audiences through recommendations from cultural experts. These cultural intermediation processes are currently being transformed, and social media platforms play important roles in this transformation. However, their role is often attributed to the work of users and/or recommendation algorithms. Thus, the processes through which data about users’ taste are aggregated and made ready for algorithmic processing are largely neglected. This study takes this problematic as an important gap in our understanding of social media platforms’ role in the transformation of cultural intermediation. To address this gap, the notion of platformization is used as a theoretical lens to examine the role of users and algorithms as part of social media’s distinct data-based sociotechnical configuration, which is built on the so-called ‘platform-logic’. Based on a set of conceptual ideas and the findings derived through a single case study on a music discovery platform, this thesis developed a framework to explain ‘platformization of cultural intermediation’. This framework outlines how curation, guidance, and measurement processes are ‘plat-formed’ in the course of development and optimisation of a social media platform. This is the main contribution of the thesis. The study also contributes to the literature by developing the concept of social media’s engines for ‘making up taste’. This concept illuminates how social media operate as sociotechnical cultural intermediaries and participates in tastemaking in ways that acquire legitimacy from the long-standing trust in the objectivity of classification, quantification, and measurement processes.
... Senior Wikipedia editors have developed bureaucratic procedures to prevent vandalism, but in doing so have made it more difficult for new editors to contribute (Geiger 2017). And when Flickr was acquired by Yahoo, professional photographers who used the site chafed at the company's new user agreement, which granted Yahoo the right to sell or display any user's work (Dijck 2013). ...
... Researchers who examine how platforms govern users are largely concerned with questions of what is allowed and who is responsible (Dijck 2013;Gillespie 2018a;Gorwa 2019;Suzor 2019): What types of participation are permitted on the platform? What are the conditions of participation? ...
... The two companies we analyze shared a mission of using technology to "disrupt" traditional modes of service provision, but varied in their business models and goals, distinctions that are likely to animate substantial variance in the practices of platform governance (Dijck 2013;Kelty et al. 2015). AllDone was a for-profit, venture capitalbacked platform that aimed to connect buyers and sellers of local services. ...
Article
How do digital platforms govern their users? Existing studies, with their focus on impersonal and procedural modes of governance, have largely neglected to examine the human labor through which platform companies attempt to elicit the consent of their users. This study describes the relationship labor that is systematically excised from many platforms’ accounts of what they do and missing from much of the scholarship on platform governance. Relationship labor is carried out by agents of platform companies who engage in interpersonal communications with a platform’s users in an effort to align diverse users’ activities and preferences with the company’s interests. The authors draw on ethnographic research conducted at AllDone (a for-profit startup that built an online market for local services) and edX (a non-profit startup that partnered with institutions to offer Massive Open Online Courses). The findings leverage variation in organizational contexts to elaborate the common practices and divergent strategies of relationship labor deployed by each platform. Both platforms relied on relationship workers to engage in account management practices aimed at addressing the particular concerns of individual users through interpersonal communications. Relationship workers in each setting also engaged in community management practices that facilitated contact and collaboration among users in pursuit of shared goals. However, our findings show that the relative frequency of relationship workers’ use of account management and community management practices varies with organizational conditions. This difference in strategies also corresponded to different ways of valuing relationship workers and incorporating them into organizational processes. The article demonstrates how variation in organizational context accounts for divergent strategies for governing user participation in digital platforms and for the particular processes through which governance is accomplished and contested.
... The discussion on SNSs provides a historical reminder of what the internet was like in the early 2000s, before it became dominated by a handful of large conglomerates (cf. Lovink, 2012;van Dijck, 2013a). It also offers perspective to the contemporary musings by providing evidence on how the sites have changed over the years. ...
... As previous scholarship points out, in the early 2000s, there was an abundance on sites to form networks with existing social circles, meet strangers or use one of many photo-sharing services, for instance (e.g. boyd & Ellison, 2008;Helmond at al., 2019;van Dijck, 2013a). However, the contemporary landscape of the hybrid media environment is drastically different, as few remaining sites have expanded into giants, either by assimilating their competitors or by adopting new features in ways that converge various forms of online activities, and data produced by those activities, into few platforms. ...
... Their definition also does not address the economic and political underpinnings of social media, such as the collection and sale of the data generated by users, nor does it address the social and cultural impact of these media (cf. Baym, 2015;Fuchs, 2014;van Dijck, 2013a). While their definition does indeed tick all the boxes for the technological affordances of most social media, Carr and Hayes (2015) take for granted the two separate concepts that make up "social media". ...
Thesis
Download the thesis from: https://trepo.tuni.fi/handle/10024/123774 Set off by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster was, in some ways, a series of simultaneously cascading events that appear to reflect several aspects descriptive of the early 21st century. The disaster resulted from multiple failings in a complex socio-technical system set in motion by an unexpectedly powerful natural phenomenon. As often during major disasters, the mediated coverage of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster was not just about what had happened and what was about to happen, but also about how the people involved in the events, either directly or vicariously, felt about what they experienced. In this dissertation, I delve into the intersection of the hybrid media environment and mediated feeling by examining the role of affect in the coverage of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster. I focus on how affects circulate and stick in the mediated narratives about Fukushima Daiichi in Finnish and international contexts, in both journalistic reporting and social media discussions. The introductory part of the thesis addresses the contemporary conditions of the hybrid media environment from a theoretical and methodological perspective. The aim of this section is to combine the understanding of affect with the notion of the public in a hybrid media environment, in the particular case of media coverage on the Fukushima Daiichi disaster. Presenting the results of case studies conducted between 2014 and 2016, the five publications included in this dissertation open diverse angles to affective dynamics of social media discussions and journalism. Through their versatile empirical settings, the articles contribute to the ongoing debate in media studies on how contemporary social media shape the public discourse. The articles illustrate how social media simultaneously act as platforms enabling various types of public expression and allow for private multi-billion-dollar corporations to create revenue through collecting and selling the data generated by their users. The articles also discuss how users shift between different actor roles in these settings, moving between being the audience, informed citizens and peers exercising their right to public speech. Each of the case studies provides a distinct angle to the actors and platforms that constitute the hybrid media environment. In two articles (Publication I; Publication V), the focus centres on the popular social media applications Twitter and Facebook, the analysis illuminating how affect circulates and sticks to certain figures in the conversations, and how affect is structured around cultural conventions, such as ritualised commemoration. One article (Publication III) examines what role traditional mainstream news journalism and scientific expertise play in circulating affect. Two articles (Publication II; Publication IV) examine how people use a mainstream media’s online commenting platform to express opinions and emotions about the news coverage of Fukushima Daiichi yet discuss scientific expertise in the same context. The articles about Facebook and online news commenting (Publication II; Publication IV; Publication V) shed light on the affective dynamics in online discussion and develop the notion of affective discipline as a conceptual tool to analyse how moods and tones develop in these discussions. The articles focusing on mainstream media (Publication III; Publication IV) also use this concept to examine how public affect and emotion are managed during crises. The results of the presented case studies provide new insights into the role of traditional mainstream journalism and social media during a global, disruptive event. By focusing on the concepts of affect and affective discipline, the study not only provides an analysis of media discussions about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that confirms previous results on the cultural circulation of affect, but also expands the knowledge on how journalistic practices and public discussion influence these processes. In addition, the work points to the affective labour done by journalists and members of the public alike when they engage in acts of affective discipline to manage the moods of public discussion. Through these mechanisms, the dissertation contributes to the theoretical and methodological discussion on how to study affect in mostly text-based media.
... Todos estos ejemplos son representantes de un nuevo tipo de economía que está surgiendo al albor del desarrollo de Internet y la Web, en forma de plataformas digitales (M. L. Gray & Suri, 2019;Kenney & Zysman, 2016;Srnicek, 2017; van Dijck, Poell, & Waal, 2018). Dichas plataformas comparten ciertas características que combinan tecnología, marketing, procesos y aspectos organizativos innovadores, así como otras connotaciones políticas y mediáticas que no estaban presentes en anteriores formas de organización empresarial. ...
... Sin embargo, no hay que olvidar que dichas plataformas dependen totalmente de la contribución de sus usuarios y la digitalización de las actividades humanas a la hora de la generación de valor comercial (M. L. Gray & Suri, 2019;Kenney & Zysman, 2016;Scholz, 2012;Terranova, 2000;van Dijck et al., 2018). ...
... La popularización de dichos servicios durante el surgimiento de la Web 2.0 (O´Reilly, 2005), así como la irrupción de las redes sociales han contribuido de manera decisiva a la generación de enormes bases de datos a través de plataformas CGU ( van Dijck, 2013). Además, la popularización y adopción masiva de los dispositivos móviles por parte de la ciudadanía (Vogelstein, 2013) también ha permitido a los impulsores de este capitalismo digital acceder a diferentes tipos de datos relacionados con sus usuarios, rutinas, hábitos y comportamientos. ...
Article
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En los últimos años hemos asistido a la aparición casi simultánea de diferentes interfaces conversacionales impulsadas por diversos representantes del capitalismo digital. Dichos interfaces han sido implementados en una variedad de dispositivos y objetos con la finalidad de facilitar la interacción entre humanos y computadoras. Sin embargo, dichas interfaces plantean nuevas problemáticas que están íntimamente asociadas con los modelos de negocio que guían su desarrollo tecnológico, a través de la denominada como “economía de las plataformas”. En el presente texto se hace una revisión de la literatura en torno a dichas plataformas que impulsan el capitalismo digital, prestando especial atención a la aparición de los nuevos interfaces conversacionales. Asimismo, se presta especial atención al proyecto CALO, financiado por la DARPA, y que constituye el germen de muchas de estas innovaciones. En el artículo se argumenta que la introducción de este tipo de interfaces conversacionales facilita la introducción de nuevas desigualdades y amenazas en el espacio online para las comunidades más minoritarias y menos empoderadas por las tecnologías digitales.
... 132.120.78. 19. for computers this is probably fine but humans it is a bit difficult to memorize it or remembering them especially if the host we want to visit are many [9]. ...
... With the Web 2.0 which emerged at the early 2000, online services started to evolve into something more interactive and not just providing channels for network communication. The impact that the Web 2.0 had was so immense that it was considered as an initial global Internet infrastructure just like electricity or irritation systems in our daily lives [19]. As we've observed in section 1.1 the technological advancement on the field of communications over the past two centuries shaped our social daily practices. ...
... As we've observed in section 1.1 the technological advancement on the field of communications over the past two centuries shaped our social daily practices. Some examples of these technological advancements are the evolution of the telephone communication which has been developed a lot or even the emerge chatting platforms and the ability of sending short messages from one computer onto another, using social media platforms or chatting applications over the Internet [19] [20]. In just few years, Web 2.0 was established as a functional infrastructure over the Internet and thus users started to use more often the online communication environments for their daily social activities. ...
Thesis
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The rapid evolution of computers as well as the emerge of the internet brought a new era on the field of communication systems. Many individuals can instantly communicate with each other (through instant messaging or through a video conference). This technological breakthrough set the stage for the emerge of the first internet communities. As a result, social media platforms emerged, were a set of free services is provided such as the interactive communication, multimedia content uploading etc. This new type of communication shapes the way by which an opinion can be expressed. Twitter is the most popular micro-blogging platform since its users can post a text of 280 maximum characters for a variety of subjects such as famous brands-products, celebrities, prominent events including political ones. As a result, Twitter is a tool that politicians tend to use frequently as it is a source for obtaining voters. This master thesis presents a web-based application that will use Twitter's API in order to obtain the most recent Tweets of the top three Greek political leaders and thus identify their additional popularity. To achieve this a set sample of recent posted tweets will be obtained (e.g. 200 tweets) from their additional Twitter accounts. These tweets will be processed in order to extract structured and unstructured data and present them in a form of graph series through a web-page. The structure of this web-based application consists of a front-end part created with HTML/CSS and a back-end mechanism which is developed using Python and Dash framework for the visualization process as well as Tweepy module for the application's intercommunication with Twitter's servers in order to obtain the data. More specifically the extracted information will be the number of likes, re-tweets and characters per posted tweet as well as the number of followers where they have. Furthermore, sentiment analysis of the tweet's text is identified and visualized, using the Greek version of SpaCy module and labeled according to their corresponding expressed emotion. The extracted data will be used in order to display a set of charts that will present a comparison between these three political leaders. The research purpose of this dissertation is to present an engineering perspective on what data can mined from Twitter, how these data can be useful in order to estimate a political result as well as well as presenting the capabilities of Python Dash framework, Tweepy and SpaCy modules.
... YouTube is distinct from other digital media platforms (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter; Murthy & Sharma, 2019) in that, in contrast to platforms such as Facebook -which is based on public, or semi-public, profiles as well as the accumulation of friends and the expansion of one's network (boyd & Ellison, 2007;Van Dijck, 2013) -its main purpose is providing a platform for broadcasting videos 10 . However, YouTube users, namely broadcasters and the audience, are able to interact and communicate on the platform (Murthy & Sharma, 2019). ...
... YouTube is characterized by a series of affordances that make it possible to express a reaction to a video. While an earlier version of YouTube emphasized sharing "self-made amateur videos" rather than "professionally generated content" (Van Dijck, 2013, p. 110), today it stands at a crossroad, making available both amateur videos as well as more familiar forms of mass media executed by professionals (Burgess & Green, 2009;Van Dijck, 2013). ...
... These algorithms, which are the basis on which videos are recommended, play a central role in the management of the platform, as stated by YouTube: "Your activity on YouTube, Google and Chrome may influence your YouTube research results as well as the recommendations that appear on your homepage, your apps' notifications and your suggested videos" 12 .Given recent revelations by Google employees, it seems clear that "YouTube represents one of the largest scale and most sophisticated industrial recommendation systems in existence"(Covington, Adams & Sargin, 2016, p. 1). Diffusion of YouTube's content relies on intermediary recommendation algorithms that filter as well as classify content in order to better align it to users, based on their Internet consumer habits(Van Dijck, 2013). In consequence, YouTube recommends the content users have access to according to a code that governs their experience of the Internet while promoting content selected according to an algorithm. ...
... Para desenvolver o estudo, partimos da compreensão de que o elemento psicológico e emocional da vida contemporânea está intimamente vinculado ao desenvolvimento das novas tecnologias e dos espaços digitais de interação. Isto, pois, com a internet há a possibilidade de criar laços fortes e redes voltadas à amizade e ao apoio/ajuda mútua (BAYM, 2010;MISKOLCI, 2017;FACIOLI;MISKOLCI, 2015;BELELI, 2012;CASTELLS, 2011;DIJCK, 2013), assim como a criação de laços fracos, de modo anônimo e guardando, em grande medida, o senso de segurança, autonomia e proteção, o que não era possível antes da experiência com a internet, uma vez que os espaços interativos eram quase sempre marcados pela exposição (BAYM, 2010;MISKOLCI, 2017). ...
... Recentes pesquisas que lidam com os usos de internet demonstraram que houve incremento quantitativamente significativo de usuários desde 2010, o que pode ser explicado, em grande medida, pelas políticas dos dois governos democráticos anteriores, com a ampliação do acesso ao crédito pelas classes populares desde 2005, redução das taxas incidentes sobre computador, celular e rede de telefonia móvel, o que permitiu uma espécie de "explosão demográfica" de usuários conectados a partir de 2012 (CASTELLS, 2011;DIJCK, 2013;MARTINO, 2015;MISKOLCI, 2017). ...
Article
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Resumo O objetivo deste estudo é identificar e analisar os indicadores de qualidade de vida e apoio/suporte social, bem como os descritores do perfil utilizados por homens de meia-idade que buscam e/ou se interessam por relações com o mesmo sexo em plataformas digitais. O desenho metodológico é de natureza quantitativa, descritiva de corte transversal. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de um questionário sociodemográfico, o WHOQOL-bref e a Escala de Apoio Social do Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Os dados foram analisados com auxílio do Statistical Package for the Social Sciences® (SPSS). Os resultados confirmaram que os descritores mais prevalentes foram aqueles que buscaram se desvencilhar de noções que pudessem remeter ao universo da maturidade e velhice fragilizadas, além do reforço às representações hegemônicas de masculinidade. Em relação aos escores totais de apoio social e qualidade de vida, estes apresentaram correlação diretamente proporcional, significativa e de magnitude moderada (rho = 0,609, p<0,001).
... Share has a higher engagement level [63], as it can be viewed not only as an important indicator of user recognition but as user recommendation. This indicates that sharing requires certain time to evaluate the post's value [64]. A comment is the highest level of public engagement, as it requires more effort by the public to figure out the meaning of posts and directly respond to the messages with words or descriptors [61]. ...
... A previous study [87] found that online self-presentation was a crucial part of impression management, in which the public carefully evaluated someone by how he presented himself. This suggests that sharing requires more cognitive effort [64]. Given that "honesty is the traditional morality of Chinese nationalities and is regarded as the basis of the making of a man" ( [88], p. 177), it is not surprising to see the public's willingness in sharing "honest" so as to promote positive personality traits on social media. ...
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Abstract: There is a growing need for the public to interact with pediatricians through social media in China, and genuineness is a crucial factor contributing to effective communication, but few studies have examined the relationship between genuineness and its effect on public engagement. This study developed a four-dimension framework including self-disclosure, genuine response, functional interactivity, and genuineness in Chinese culture to investigate the effect of genuineness in the communication of Chinese social media influencers in pediatrics on public engagement. Content analysis was employed to examine these dimensions and the related public engagement in 300 social media posts on the largest microblogging site in China. The findings indicate that genuine response was positively associated with the number of comments and positive comments, while negatively related to the number of shares. Functional interactivity made the site more appealing, resulting in likes and shares. Genuineness in Chinese culture was reflected in engagement through sharing posts by the public. This study is the first to develop an integrated framework to measure genuineness in online health communication and contributes to the understanding of the effect of genuineness on Chinese public engagement in social media.
... Social media in general, and Twitter in particular, is becoming an important tool in the social interactions of millions of people. Twitter's orientation towards connectivity and conversation makes it the preferred space to articulate political debates within the digital environment (Van Dijck, 2013), an aspect that confers a privileged position to this platform in the construction of the digital public sphere. ...
... Finally, yet another transformation introduced by digital media in the public sphere is the emergence of networked publics. One of the essential characteristics of social media is its connectivity (Van Dijck, 2013). These platforms allow people to find and connect with others who have shared interests (Tufekci, 2017). ...
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Social media has instituted new parameters for the political conversation in the digital public sphere. Previous research had identified several of these new phenomena: political polarisation, hate speech discourses, and fake news, among others. However, little attention has been paid to the users' geographical location, specifically to the role location plays in political discussion on social media, and to its further implications in the digital public sphere. A priori, we might think that on the digital landscape geographical restrictions no longer condition political debate, allowing increasingly diverse users to participate in, and influence, the discussion. To analyse this, machine learning techniques were used to study Twitter's political conversation about the negotiation process for the formation of the government in Spain that took place between 2015 and 2016. A big data sample of 127,3 million tweets associated with three Spanish cities (Madrid, Barcelona, and Valencia) was used. The results show that the geographical location of the users directly affects the political conversation on Twitter, despite the dissolution of the physical restrictions that the online environment favours. Demographics, cultural factors, and proximity to the centres of political power are factors conditioning the structure of digital political debate. These findings are a novel contribution to the design of more effective political campaigns and strategies, and provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the digital public sphere provided by Twitter.
... Based on the "technical rigor and in-depth investigation of how computing technologies work" (Bogost and Montfort 2009, vii), it aims to analyze "the connection between technical specifics and culture" (Bogost and Montfort 2009, vii). Scholars from this perspective understand digital platforms as ecosystems with a programmable digital architecture that can bring users, corporate entities, and public bodies into interaction, relying on the process of datafication, commodification, and selection (Gillespie 2010;van Dijck 2013;van Dijck and Poell 2013;van Dijck, Poell and de Waal 2018;Plantin et al. 2018). They place the activity of moderation at the center of our understanding of platforms, to highlight the platforms' capacity to curate, choose, select, and moderate the actors and content on the platforms (Gillespie 2018). ...
Article
With a special focus on the commercialization of creative videos, this article explores the research question of how digital platforms’ affordances simultaneously allow and constrain video producers’ commercialization activities in the platform era. This study adopts a case study design that focuses on the Chinese digital video producer Zheng Yun, founder of Zheng Yun Studio, using ethnographic participant observations and in-depth interviews. It explains how creative producers such as Zheng Yun struggle to survive in the context of intensified platformization and how they benefit from the digital platforms by employing various commercialization mechanisms, including the Revenue Sharing Program (RSP), Embedded Product Placement (EPP), Franchise Chains, Agent-commission, and Crowd-funding. This research also demonstrates the asymmetrical power relationships between platforms and video producers, which prompt us to rethink the political nature of platforms and the diversified nature of platformization in the digital platform age.
... At the same time, the use of hashtags points to controversial and tricky activities (projected to create, induce, or keep alive a given debate/conversation). Either way, these activities have demanded medium-specific methods and research (Gerlitz & Rieder, 2018;Rogers, 2013). In alignment with new media scholars (Highfield & Leaver, 2016;Langlois & Elmer, 2013;Rieder & Röhle, 2017;van Dijck, 2013), we argue that social media research faces multiple challenges related to its complexity, both in terms of the amount of information that circulates online and, especially, of the need to investigate how to carry out research with the indispensable technical knowledge. This involves raising questions, for instance, regarding how to approach hashtags through platform mechanisms and how to handle the affordances and limitations imposed by their infrastructure (see Marres, 2017;Rieder et al., 2015). ...
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This article seeks to contribute to the field of digital research by critically accounting for the relationship between hashtags and their forms of grammatization—the platform techno-materialization process of online activity. We approach hashtags as sociotechnical formations that serve social media research not only as criteria in corpus selection but also displaying the complexity of the online engagement and its entanglement with the technicity of web platforms. Therefore, the study of hashtag engagement requires a grasping of the functioning of the platform itself (technicity) along with the platform grammatization. In this respect, we propose the three-layered (3L) perspective for addressing hashtag engagement. The first contemplates potential differences between high-visibility and ordinary hashtag usage culture, its related actors, and content. The second focuses on hashtagging activity and the repurposing of how hashtags can be differently embedded into social media databases. The last layer looks particularly into the images and texts to which hashtags are brought to relation. To operationalize the 3L framework, we draw on the case of the “impeachment-cum-coup” of Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff. When cross-read, the three layers add value to one another, providing also difference visions of the high-visibility and ordinary groups.
... This article analyses everyday experiences with the smartphone as an inroad to understand how people experience and manage time in an age of constant connectivity. Constant connectivity describes a situation in which digital, datafied, and intrusive media shape our everyday lives (Chun, 2017;Das and Ytre-Arne, 2018;Van Dijck, 2013), intensifying dilemmas about the management of time and technology in areas such as work, family, leisure, or mundane activities. The smartphone has emerged as key in this context, as a meta-medium and container of our datafied selves (Rettberg, 2014), a "digital companion" (Carolus et al., 2018), and the chosen harbinger for a "procrastination economy" (Thussey, 2018). ...
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This article explores implications of the central position of the smartphone in an age of constant connectivity. Based on a qualitative study of 50 informants, we ask how users experience and handle temporal ambivalences in everyday smartphone use, drawing on the concepts flow and responsibilization to conceptualize central dimensions of such ambivalences. The notion of conflicting flows illuminates how brief checking cycles expand at the expense of other activities, resulting in a temporal conflict experienced by users. Responsibilization points to how users take individual responsibility for managing such conflicting flows, and to how this practice is difficult and conflict-ridden. We conclude that while individual time management is often framed as the solution to temporal conflicts, such attempts at regulating smartphone use appear inadequate. Our conceptualization of temporal ambivalence offers a more nuanced understanding of why this is the case.
... Alternatively, the firm may alienate stakeholders with opposing views for limited or no operational benefits [49]. Nalick et al. [49] view social media as a key enabler of SPI, as corporate leaders can share their views on socio-political issues for little or no cost [50]. ...
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Mobilization theory posits that social media gives a voice to non-traditional actors in socio-political discourse. This study uses network analytics to understand the underlying structure of the Brexit discourse and whether the main sub-networks identify new publics and influencers in political participation, and specifically industry stakeholders. Content analytics and peak detection analysis are used to provide greater explanatory values to the organizing themes for these sub-networks. Our findings suggest that the Brexit discourse on Twitter can be largely explained by calculated publics organized around the two campaigns and political parties. Ad hoc communities were identified based on (i) the media, (ii) geo-location, and (iii) the US presidential election. Other than the media, significant sub-communities did not form around industry as whole or around individual sectors or leaders. Participation by business accounts in the Twitter discourse had limited impact.
... Creative capabilities highlight expression and production, often referring to an optimistic idea of a seemingly more expansive audience agency in the digital media era, as central in questions of audiences turning producers (Bird, 2011) and applied to phenomena such as blogging, citizen journalism or elaborate fan practices (Jenkins, 2006). However, agency in the age of digital media can also be conceptualized as broadly connective capabilities, looking beyond productive acts to wider explorations of audiences' lives in mediated and technology-saturated societies (Baym, 2015;Van Dijck, 2013). ...
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This article develops a conceptualization of audience agency in the face of datafication. We consider how people, as audiences and users of media and technologies, face transforming communicative conditions, and how these conditions challenge the power potentials of audiences in processes of communication—that is, their communicative agency. To develop our conceptualization, we unpack the concept of audiences’ communicative agency by examining its foundations in communication scholarship, in reception theory and sociology, arguing that agency is understood as interpretative and relational, and applied to make important normative assessments. We further draw on emerging scholarship on encounters with data in the everyday to discuss how audience agency is now challenged by datafication, arguing that communicative agency is increasingly prospective in a datafied age. Thereby, we provide a theoretical conceptualization for further analysis of audiences in transforming communicative conditions.
... A surprising absence in the gifted and talented field is a deep and sustained engagement with the field of social media. The term social media has come to encompass a large suite of online digital applications that allow people to create networked connections with other users, generate and share their own content, interact and collaborate with their network and participate in a digital ecology (boyd, 2014;Guy, 2012;Kapoor et al., 2017;van Dijck, 2013). The types of offerings that support online engagement include social network sites (e.g., Facebook, LinkedIn), blogging and microblogging platforms (e.g., Tumblr, Twitter, Wordpress, Blogger), and photo and video sharing sites (e.g., Instagram, Flickr, YouTube). ...
Thesis
This thesis is an exploration of gifted and talented girls’ identity constructions, notions of empowerment and their engagements with social media. Adopting a critical constructivist position, I utilise Bourdieu’s concepts as thinking tools to explore the intersection between gifted and talented girls and their social fields, including social media, and interrogate the structuring principles of gifted and talented girls’ social fields to explore how their practices and identity constructions reproduce and resist internalised structures that position high-achieving girls as both empowered and vulnerable within their social locations.
... Over the last two decades, social media as applications that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content [3] has significantly changed, based on technological advances, and new platforms have emerged while others have vanished [4]. Given these dynamics and the relevance of social media for individuals, organizations, and society [5], we engage in foresight [6][7][8][9] and ask the following research question: How will social media change over the next five to ten years? ...
Article
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Over the past two decades, social media have become a crucial and omnipresent cultural and economic phenomenon, which has seen platforms come and go and advance technologically. In this study, we explore the further development of social media regarding interactive technologies, platform development, relationships to news media, the activities of institutional and organizational users, and effects of social media on the individual and the society over the next five to ten years by conducting an international, two-stage Delphi study. Our results show that enhanced interaction on platforms, including virtual and augmented reality, somatosensory sense, and touch- and movement-based navigation are expected. AIs will interact with other social media users. Inactive user profiles will outnumber active ones. Platform providers will diversify into the WWW, e-commerce, edu-tech, fintechs, the automobile industry, and HR. They will change to a freemium business model and put more effort into combating cybercrime. Social media will become the predominant news distributor, but fake news will still be problematic. Firms will spend greater amounts of their budgets on social media advertising, and schools, politicians, and the medical sector will increase their social media engagement. Social media use will increasingly lead to individuals’ psychic issues. Society will benefit from economic growth and new jobs, increased political interest, democratic progress, and education due to social media. However, censorship and the energy consumption of platform operators might rise.
... There is always something that goes missing in the translation of social action into data, and data into (self) knowledge. As many scholars (Couldry and Hepp 2016;van Dijck 2013) have pointed out, problems arise when data are treated as direct knowledge of the social world, or when metrics are seen as simply "by-products of communication" (Baym 2013). ...
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This chapter explores the implications of performance metrics as a source of self-knowledge and self-presentation. It does so through the figure of the contemporary musician. As performers on-stage and online, musicians are constantly assessed and evaluated by industry actors, peers, music fans, and themselves. The impact of powerful modes of quantification on personal experiences, understandings, and practices of artistic creation provides insight into the wider role that metrics play in shaping how we see ourselves and others; and how we present ourselves to others. Through in-depth interviews with emerging musicians, this chapter thus uses the artist as a lens through which to understand everyday life within the “performance complex.”
... Neste capítulo interessa-nos apenas um tipo de aplicação específico: os sites de redes sociais que se baseiam na relação entre indivíduos e grupos com laços fracos e em diversos aspectos da vida como profissional, geográfico, pessoal, familiar etc. ( VAN DIJCK, 2013). Recuero et al (2015) destacam que as redes sociais na internet são uma "tradução" das relações dos indivíduos nos espaços off-line. ...
... Prior studies have focused more on complexity theory. However, interaction norms among users are essential engagement mechanisms in the "technocultural construct" on social media platforms (Crawford & Gillespie, 2016;Gillespie, Boczkowski, & Foot, 2014;van Dijck, 2013) and have become guidelines for users to express their concerns and exchange information. For example, some scholars have confirmed that culture is not an obstacle to social capital in China (Mou & Lin, 2017;Wang, McNally, & Lenihan, 2019) or the United States (Son & Feng, 2019). ...
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This study proposes an integrated research model to validate the antecedents of Facebook users' information-seeking and information-sharing behaviors. We conducted an online survey to investigate the effects of affective-/cognitive-based trust on social capital, which subsequently influences information seeking and information sharing from the perspective of uses and gratifications theory. This study collected 665 valid samples and indicates that cognitive-/affective-based trust significantly and positively influences social capital (e.g., structural, cognitive, and relational), which has a significant and positive effect on information seeking and sharing. This study contributes to the research on uses and gratifications theory in three ways. First, it indicates that trust influences social capital (structural, cognitive, and relational). Second, it confirms the effect of social capital on information seeking and sharing. Third, it validates the mediating roles of social capital in the relationship between affective-/cognitive-based trust and information seeking and sharing.
... På begynnelsen av det 21. århundre, da mashup-musikken vokste frem, så det ut til at denne kontrollen ble svekket, ettersom internettplattformer gjorde det mulig for enkeltpersoner å laste opp og sirkulere innhold utenfor de tradisjonelle kulturindustriens infrastrukturer. Web 2.0 ble generelt hedret for å demokratisere kulturell deltakelse (Jenkins, 2006;Sinnreich, 2010) og for å tilby et tilsynelatende fristed fra kommersialisme og markedsdynamikker (Dijck, 2013). Dagens internettplattformer, som vokste frem i dette landskapet, belaget seg i starten på manuell gjenkjenning og overvåkning ( van Dijck, 2013, s. 15). ...
... There is always something that goes missing in the translation of social action into data, and data into (self) knowledge. As many scholars (Couldry and Hepp 2016;van Dijck 2013) have pointed out, problems arise when data are treated as direct knowledge of the social world, or when metrics are seen as simply "by-products of communication" (Baym 2013). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the implications of performance metrics as a source of self-knowledge and self-presentation. It does so through the figure of the contemporary musician. As performers on-stage and online, musicians are constantly assessed and evaluated by industry actors, peers, music fans, and themselves. The impact of powerful modes of quantification on personal experiences, understandings, and practices of artistic creation provides insight into the wider role that metrics play in shaping how we see ourselves and others; and how we present ourselves to others. Through in-depth interviews with emerging musicians, this chapter thus uses the artist as a lens through which to understand everyday life within the "performance complex."
... Nem véletlen, hogy erre épít a Facebook alapító, Mark Zuckerberg is, aki a technika segítségével orientálná a közösségi média használóit az egyetlen, valódi és autentikus én minél teljesebb feltárására, megmutatására és megosztására, azzal érvelve, hogy az így létrejövő teljes transzparencia lenne a demokrácia záloga. (Haimson-Hoffman 2016, Van Dijck 2013 Vajon ez a világ a titkok nélküli szabadságot és a számonkérhetőség felelősségét hozza el, ahogy Zuckerberg érvel, vagy a piacnak és az államnak való teljes kiszolgáltatottságot és megfigyelhetőséget, az érzelmek és az intimszféra áruvá válását az érzelmi kapitalizmus piacgazdaságban? (Illouz 2007) Az érzelmek kommunikatív konstrukciójának eltérő kontextusokban történő tanulmányozása talán közelebb vihet minket e kérdés megválaszolásához. ...
... Over the last two decades, social media as applications that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content [3] has significantly changed, based on technological advances, and new platforms have emerged while others have vanished [4]. Given these dynamics and the relevance of social media for individuals, organizations, and society [5], we engage in foresight [6][7][8][9] and ask the following research question: How will social media change over the next five to ten years? ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past two decades, social media have become a crucial and omnipresent cultural and economic phenomenon, which has seen platforms come and go and advance technologically. In this study, we explore the further development of social media regarding interactive technologies, platform development, relationships to news media, the activities of institutional and organizational users, and effects of social media on the individual and the society over the next five to ten years by conducting an international, two-stage Delphi study. Our results show that enhanced interaction on platforms, including virtual and augmented reality, somatosensory sense, and touch- and movement-based navigation are expected. AIs will interact with other social media users. Inactive user profiles will outnumber active ones. Platform providers will diversify into the WWW, e-commerce, edu-tech, fintechs, the automobile industry, and HR. They will change to a freemium business model and put more effort into combating cybercrime. Social media will become the predominant news distributor, but fake news will still be problematic. Firms will spend greater amounts of their budgets on social media advertising, and schools, politicians, and the medical sector will increase their social media engagement. Social media use will increasingly lead to individuals’ psychic issues. Society will benefit from economic growth and new jobs, increased political interest, democratic progress, and education due to social media. However, censorship and the energy consumption of platform operators might rise.
Article
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Kitle iletişim araçlarının baş döndürücü gelişimi özellikle soğuk savaş sonrası dönemden beri içinde yaşadığımız çağın basitçe dijital çağ olarak adlandırılmasına neden olmuştur. O zamandan beri insanlık bu adlandırılmaya uygun olabilecek birçok gelişmeye tanıklık etmiştir. Bu zamana kadar adım adım topluma entegre olmayı başaran yeni kitle iletişim araçları sosyal yaşamın merkezine yerleşmeyi başarmıştır. Artık bireyler bu araçlar ile sosyalleşmektedirler. Ancak bu sosyalleşme süreci düşünüldüğünden daha kapsamlı bir değişimin eşiğinde durmaktadır. Toplumsal yaşama ait her şey sayısallaşmakta ve dijitalleşmektedir. Tüm dünya dijital bir dönüşüm sürecinden geçmektedir. Dijital dönüşüm beraberinde yeni bir kamusallık biçimini getirmekte ve bu yeni kamusallık küresel ölçekte dijital bir kültürün oluşmasında alan vazifesi görmektedir. Böylece bu makalenin amacı dijital dönüşümün etkilerini, bu dönüşümün ortaya çıkaracağı riskleri ve fırsatları, toplumda oluşan dijital kamusallık biçimi ve giderek yükselmekte olan dijital kültür üzerinden analiz etmektir. Bu doğrultuda, Herbert Marcuse, Paul Virilio ve Manuel Castells’in görüşlerinden hareketle çeşitli istatistiklerden yararlanılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Dijital dönüşüm, dijital kültür, dijital kamusallık, ağ toplumu.
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Leggendo The Circle di Eggers ho iniziato a prendere nota mentalmente di tutte le similitudini che aveva con il capolavoro orwelliano che è 1984. Inoltre questo mi ha spinto a fare una riflessione più ampia e arrivare a trovare in questi romanzi dei segni premonitori dello scandalo che ha colpito Facebook e Cambridge Analytica nel 2018. Nel primo capitolo di questo elaborato viene raccontata la storia della distopia e vengono evidenziate alcune tematiche chiave che potranno poi essere ritrovate nei romanzi di riferimento per questa tesi. Temi come l'architettura della società, i rapporti interpersonali e la natura. Nel secondo capitolo viene analizzata l'ascesa della tecnologia e dei social media, focalizzandoci poi su come Facebook sia passato da un sito web per gli studenti di Harvard alla più grande corporazione del nostro secolo e analizzando gli eventi che hanno portato allo scandalo del 2018 e le sue conseguenze. Nel terzo e quarto capitolo verrà portata avanti un'analisi culturale dei due romanzi, ricordando di puntare l'attenzione sulla tecnologia e sulle modalità in cui essa viene utilizzata all'interno dei due tesi. Per concludere, l'ultimo capitolo tira le somme della tesi puntualizzando differenze e punti d'incontro, ma soprattutto trovando il risvolto attuale dei due romanzi e mostrando come molti studiosi e giornalisti hanno visto questi mondi fittizi diventare realtà con lo scandalo di Facebook e con il linguaggio distopico adottato da Trump prima durante la sua campagna e poi nella sua presidenza.
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It is possible to assert that the fashion system constitutes a complex device that determines consumption agendas. Fashion clothing is massively consumed, and consumer habits are deeply affected by online advertising. These consumption practices are not simply passive, sometimes they are creative, yet they are still part of the fashion disciplinary device. In these consumption practices, a range of expressions and discourses between individuals may be detected as well as multiple subjectivities under construction within contemporary societies. The intention of this article is to shed some light on the role of online fashion consumption practices within our societies, which are traversed by daily and prevailingly online advertising and encourage increased consumption. ‘Influencers’ are one novel example of how online advertising is subtly influencing fashion consumption. Even though consumers show certain tendencies in acquiring fashion clothing from specific brands, via different digital media outlets depending on their socioeconomic status and their peer groups, their consumption practices may try to subvert the conventional formats through which fashion clothing has been consumed traditionally. Nevertheless, as much as these practices seem to promote freedom, they might confirm the tactics of the system and just be a part of the algorithmic logic that imposes certain products, reproducing established categories.
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Though composition studies has long sought to leverage new technologies of literacy to help students go public, we remain anxious about our ability to do so, as students commonly enter our classrooms already composing for diverse public audiences in a variety of digital contexts. Yet students, too, are often anxious about these new modes of composition, which circulate in a destabilized rhetorical environment where traditional understandings of authority, argument, and audience no longer hold. This article identifies five topoi of this new rhetorical landscape-presence, persistence, permeability, promiscuity, and power-describing the anxieties and affordances they present for student writers, the dispositions toward writing they foster, and the challenges and opportunities they pose for composition. This framework provides a critical vocabulary for compositionists seeking to help students negotiate emerging networked publics. Online writing makes us anxious. As three scholars and students of the digital{1} [#note1] we ought to be more sanguine. Collectively, we have embraced a succession of online writing affordances-from HTML to blogs to wikis to Twitter Analytics-and sought to share them with our students. We belong to a field that has long been invested in leveraging new technologies of literacy to help students go public, an interest that has only intensified over the last decade, as new writing platforms have led to new writing ecologies in which members of highly social "networked publics" (boyd, "Social") write as a "mass daily experience" (Brandt 3) as part of an emerging "participatory culture" (Jenkins et al.). We should thus be ideally poised to help students navigate the affordances of this new terrain. Yet we often find our pedagogy inadequate, our vocabulary limited, and our students hesitant to participate in the very deliberative spaces new writing technologies ostensibly foster. We do not believe we are alone. Long-standing concerns in the field about the teaching of public writing-whether classrooms can serve as publics, assignments transfer to public settings, public writing spaces serve a democratic public sphere (Eberly; Ervin; Gogan; Wardle)-have only been exacerbated by the advent of new writing technologies, and scholars have expressed particular concern about the toxicity of online public discourse, corporate ownership of "public" writing spaces, and an increasingly privatized and neoliberal public sphere (Duffy; Giroux; Welch). Against these forces, students have often been treated as hapless, even willing victims (Bauerlein; Carr) by scholars expressing a grim technological determinism (Baym 27-44). Yet even generous readings of students' technoliteracy practices sometimes discount the deeply felt challenges students experience in negotiating the terrain of participatory culture, and it is our goal in this essay to call greater scholarly attention to these experiences and to further a pedagogical conversation in response. Our students are not naïve. But, like us, they are conflicted. On the one hand, they are immersed in emerging writing technologies and practicing public writing; not only do they enter our classrooms already composing for diverse public audiences in a variety of digital contexts, they often employ sophisticated strategies for doing so. At the same time, they are often anxious about these new modes of composition, which circulate in a destabilized rhetorical environment where traditional understandings of authority, argument, audience, and other classroom staples no longer hold. In the "habitus of the new" (Papacharissi and Easton), technological affordances we have long celebrated as a field can easily become liabilities; while networked publics allow for experimental revision, remediation, and remixing, they also require continual impression management. Moreover, the stakes for rhetorical failure are much higher than in the traditional writing classroom: writing that does not meet its mark is
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Digital hyperconnectivity is a defining fact of our time. In addition to recasting social interaction, culture, economics, and politics, it has profoundly transformed the self. It has created new ways of being and constructing a self, but also new ways of being constructed as a self from the outside, new ways of being configured, represented, and governed as a self by sociotechnical systems. Rather than analyze theories of the self, I focus on practices of the self, using this expression in a looser, more general sense than that used by Foucault. I begin by considering and reformulating two early lines of argument about the web as a medium for exploring and emancipating the self. Subsequent sections show how digital hyperconnectivity has engendered new ways of objectifying, quantifying, producing, and regulating the self—considered both as active, reflexive practices and as systemic, data- and algorithm-driven processes. I conclude by reflecting on the broader implications of contemporary modes of governing the self and by underscoring the ways in which hyperconnectivity has colonized the territories of the self, conscripting the self into the service of techno-social systems.
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This study compares the framing of the 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB) financial scandal and the politicising of the issue by a mainstream and an alternative newspaper before and after the historic change of ruling party in Malaysia in the 2018 general election. A quantitative content analysis of 1,357 news articles in The Star and Malaysiakini was conducted along with lexical analyses using a textual analytics software known as AntConc. The results indicate that 1MDB was more salient in Malaysiakini before the change of government but its salience was elevated in The Star during the new Pakatan Harapan regime. Both newspapers were oriented towards episodic framing, but in the new regime, The Star's percentage of episodic articles increased while that of Malaysiakini decreased. The low percentage of thematic articles (less than 11%) indicate that the media framing of 1MDB could have made readers oblivious to the ramifying impacts of 1MDB on Malaysia and its citizens. The Star tended to quote ruling party politicians and adopted a formal stance in reporting 1MDB-linked events whereas Malaysiakini used more varied news sources and a personalised stance to engage readers. Before the change of government, The Star had a balance of positive, negative and neutral 1MDB-related articles but Malaysiakini articles were inclined towards a negative valence. During the Pakatan Harapan regime, both newspapers adopted a positive stance in reporting on 1MDB, focusing on actions to resolve the financial scandal. The textual frequency analysis reveals an obvious lack of negative adjectives, indicating an avoidance of evaluative judgements on a financial scandal involving high-ranking political figures.
Article
The evolution of social networks in general, and Instagram in particular, has led to the emergence and proliferation of digital influencers, a figure that has taken over from fashion bloggers and managed to capture the attention of communication professionals in the sector due to their potential to generate engagement with their public. The objective of the present research is to determine the profile of micro fashion influencers, their casuistics, and the protocols of action that they use when managing their Instagram accounts. For this, qualitative research was carried out through a semistructured interview of a sample selected using the nonprobabilistic snowball technique. Specifically, between May and June 2018, fieldwork was carried out with a group of ten fashion micro instagramers in Spain, analyzing four research questions regarding how micro instagramers interact with and their relationship with brands and communication companies, the nature of their publications, and their motivations for being active on the mentioned social network. The responses of the micro instagramers, with a combined audience of 240,439 followers, suggest that their nonprofessional profile is characterized by the absence of collaboration agreements and minimum economic remuneration. In addition, they are aware of their technical deficiencies when creating and editing their posts. Resumen La evolución de las redes sociales en general y de Instagram en particular, ha propiciado el nacimiento y la proliferación de los influenciadores digitales, una figura que toma el relevo de los bloggers de moda y que ha logrado captar la atención de los profesionales de la comunicación del sector debido a su potencial en la generación de engagement con su público. El objetivo de la presente investigación es conocer el perfil de los micro fashion influencers, sus casuísticas y los protocolos de actuación que utilizan en la gestión de sus cuentas de Instagram. Para ello, se ha realizado una investigación cualitativa mediante una entrevista semiestructurada sobre una muestra seleccionada a través de la técnica no probabilística de bola de nieve. En concreto, entre mayo y junio de 2018 se realizó el trabajo de campo sobre un grupo de 10 micro instagramers de moda en España. A través de cuatro preguntas de investigación, se analiza de qué manera interactúan los micro instagramers, la relación que mantienen con las marcas y empresas de comunicación, cómo son sus publicaciones y qué motivaciones tienen para estar activos en la citada red social. Las respuestas de las micro instagramers, que acumulan una audiencia total de 240.439 seguidores, apuntan que se trata de un perfil no profesionalizado caracterizado por la ausencia de acuerdos de colaboración y una mínima remuneración económica. Además, son conscientes de sus carencias técnicas a la hora de realizar y editar sus posts.
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O presente artigo apresenta os resultados de uma meta-análise que objetivou demonstrar como o campo de estudos internacional sobre "Modelos de Negócios" foi tratado por pesquisadores, por meio do apontamento das características das publicações no período de 2010 - 2019, evidenciando a importância do conceito para a sociedade acadêmica atual. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de dados Web of Science e Scopus, com vistas à identificação das principais áreas temáticas, autores, tipos de documentos, título das fontes, países, anos de publicação, instituições e idiomas. Para isso, adotou-se na metodologia pesquisa bibliométrica, descritiva nas bases de dados Web of Science e Scopus, para seleção dos artigos que descrevem o tema deste estudo. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que houve um crescimento do número de publicações no período em estudo, um tema em franca expansão. Verifica-se que, o jornal Lecture Notes in Computer Science, apresenta o maior número de publicações, e dos autores que mais publicaram sobre o assunto destacam-se Ghezzi, A. na Scopus e Parida, V. na WoS. As conclusões mostram trajetórias produtivas para a pesquisa na área.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the topic of informing structure (infostructure). Infostructure refers to stable patterns of relationships between data segments and in information technology arrangements. Infostructure parallels and complements the formal social structure of organization. The discussion covers infostructure dimensions called infohierarchy, infocentralization, infoformalization, infodispersion, and infofragmentation. It is argued that changes in infostructure introduced by new information systems (IS) are indispensable for changing organizational structure and often spearhead it. Extremes in some infostructural dimensions can indicate problems in organizational structure. The perspective of informal organizational structure is equally important. It has regained importance with the advent of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and social media. Informal structure can be identified via network theory and analysis, and the perspective of infostructure can assist in such an investigation. The chapter also discusses technology and its information technology (IT) branch. It is argued that organization scholars think of technology in broad, abstract terms, blending it into a larger social frame of transformational process. This approach typically does not address specific information technologies, with an exception made in hi-tech research. In contrast, IS scholars usually think of information technologies in reference to computers, deploying materialistic and social ontologies. The chapter closes by discussing the IVO concept of IT. IT is defined as part of IS as materialized in terms of tools, devices, and machines whose purpose is to manipulate data. The IS stance is appropriate for discussing ontologies of IT. In particular, discussed are ontologies of technological imperative, strategic choice (action), cognition, institution, structuration, and emerging process.
Chapter
Social Media and Democracy - edited by Nathaniel Persily September 2020
Thesis
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“BEST. PD. EVER!” Some teachers make bold claims for the way that Twitter supports their professional development, yet research into this area is rather limited. This study sought to gain a better understanding of the practices involved and the part that Twitter plays. It uses a sociomaterial sensibility informed by actor-network theory (ANT) to unravel the complex webs of relations which form, break apart and reform when knowledge practices are enacted in the mediated arena of Twitter. To explore this rich but messy environment, I evoke the spirit of the Parisian flâneur to develop an ethnographic approach I refer to as ‘flânography.’ Characterised by purposeful wandering, the approach coupled participant observation and interviews, with emerging methods involving a bot and a 'walkie-talkie' app. Adopting the sensibility of the flâneur consistently through data collection, analysis and presentation resulted in traversals which render pathways of experience. This led to me presenting the findings in three ‘Gatherings’ (Law, 2004a), each taking a tweet or other data snippet as a point of departure. Through the Gatherings I present the activities of both human and nonhuman participants, establish how they came together (or didn’t) and gain a better appreciation of the outcomes of those interrelationships. In reading across the Gatherings, two interlocking dimensions emerged through which teachers' learning practices on Twitter might be conceptualised. ‘Compound learning’ describes how practices can be understood through three meanings of compound: framed chemically (through formation of bonds and associations), financially (like interest which grows cumulatively) and as a mixture (an assortment of actors engaged in activities). The second dimension describes how compound learning can be enacted across three ‘scales:’ acts, activities and practices. By extending previous research, this thesis contributes a richer and deeper understanding of what ‘Twitter Professional Development’ involves, thereby helping to legitimise it within broader professional development discourse. Adding to the current literature on teachers’ professional learning, this thesis reveals how significant personal-isation is in two senses: that teachers can exercise choice in what, when and how they learn; and secondly, the importance of being able to forge socio-professional connections with fellow educators in different ways. The flânographic approach and the new methods which arose within it offer wider contributions for studies exploring activities which range across online and offline spaces, and through time.
Conference Paper
Due to the online medium and the facilities it provides to people, new concepts and ways of promoting business are developed. Communication technology is in a continuous process of change and influencers from social media have a growing impact on consumers. The present paper aims to present the concepts of influencer and influencer marketing in the context of social media. Social networks are based on communication practices whose significations differ, being created to meet different needs: Facebook for socialization, Twitter for micro-blogging, Youtube to share videos, and Instagram for images. Starting from the main idea of social networks, namely informing, communicating and socializing, they have constantly developed and helped to create large communities of people who share the same principles. The power that the users have on online activities is inevitably overflowing to the offline environment. Users who enjoy a greater impact and a surprising influence in the online environment, with hundreds of followers, are the influencers. Influencers are those people who generate qualitative and relevant content for their target audience, but also have a large number of followers on social networks. To position themselves among the pursuers, they provide their perspectives on personal and everyday life, but also on the products and services they use. Brands appeal in many cases to influencers’ services because they come with new insights into how to promote products, have access to a niche audience that can later be transformed into a loyal one. The main task of an influencer is to test the company’s products and services and to communicate the information to users.
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Social media, which has become one of the most important mass media tools of today, increases the impact of individuals on their daily lives. Individuals communicate with social media both with close and distant others and rebuild their self-image through this field. However, there are differences between individuals' selves in social life and the presentations of their selfies on social media. Self-images created on social media and presented to others are “signifier-selfs” that represent individuals' selves. The aim of this study is to analyze the formation of signifier selfs through the social media usage of individuals, based on George Herbert Mead, Erving Goffman, and Manuel Castells’ approaches. Accordingly, 110 questionnaires were applied to 191 students studying at the Department of Sociology at Adıyaman University, using at least one of the Facebook, Twitter, Instagram applications, and the collected data were recorded in SPSS and AMOS programs. The variables that are thought to constitute the concept of signifier self is determined through the social media usage practices of the youth, and the one-factor first-level model has been created and this model has been tested by applying confirmatory factor analysis on the variables.
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Based on co-viewing and connected viewing literature (Pires & Roig, 2016), this article analyses connected co-viewing practices within and with the use of media platforms around a live television event, using the Eurovision Song Contest as a case study. This popular event has a long-running tradition which has fostered extensive use of different kinds of connected platforms, including an official app. Using a case study approach and focusing on the Spanish context, we have analysed connected co-viewing in three main platforms: Facebook (through unofficial groups), Twitter (through live conversation and hashtagging practices around the event) and by exploring the Eurovision official second screen app. The study indicates that: (1) co-viewing is mutually shaped by the affordances and interface features of the platforms, the viewers' practices and uses given to these platforms; (2) co-viewing can be expanded by platforms when designed for collective use; (3) user-generated content and data production are central elements to enhance co-viewing when using connected platforms; (4) platform affordances can create digital spaces, which might channel the way co-viewers perform and enjoy this activity.
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The aim of this thesis is to discuss the character, purpose, and use of the language surrounding new technology, specifically cloud computing. The thesis is situated within library and information science. Its theoretical basis and argumentation builds upon notions articulated by Berger and Luckmann (1966), known as “the social construction of reality”, and upon conceptual metaphor theory developed by Lakoff and Johnson (2003). The thesis discusses the consequences of how cloud computing is explained and legitimised by various actors, such as cloud providers, computer scientists, IT professionals, business leaders, and strategic staff in organisations that had implemented cloud services. It builds on four articles that are based on diverse empirical materials and methods. A starting point is that IT has been talked about as neutral and unobtrusive. Instead, the results of this thesis show that accounts about IT hide its complexity both regarding its implementation and use. Talk about computing as a utility from the 1950s and forward was surprisingly precise in predictions concerning future IT. However, rather than accepting such accounts as communicating clear insights, it can be argued that this use of language led to the legitimation and institutionalisation of certain normative ways to talk about IT. The utility metaphor could, therefore, be seen as a powerful persuasive device, guiding changes in policies and investments. In today’s promulgation of cloud technologies by Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon, the four internet giants sometimes referred to as GAFA, it is possible to distinguish the extension of the utility metaphor into images of power, choice, and a transformed life, while complexity issues are considerably downplayed. Societies, organisations, and individuals all over the world are now, more than ever before, connected to the internet through various cloud technologies. Scrutinised in the thesis are accounts about Google Apps for Education (GAFE), a suite of cloud-based apps increasingly introduced in schools in Sweden and all over the globe. These cloud services are described as free and able to fulfil various user needs. This persuasive promulgation, together with various rhetorical strategies in their privacy policies, disguises the circumstance that Google exploits user information for its own business purposes by creating algorithmic identities of users based on individual web behaviour. With customers’ utilisation, cloud providers such as Google can act powerfully from a distance. As they develop remote control through their widespread cloud technology, they can affect individuals, businesses, and society at large. In this and other ways, IT will continue to reshape communication, the way people relate to each other, and to themselves.
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Rapporten Skyddsvärden i vågskålen: Internet på folkbibliotek -– ideologi, juridik och praktik beskriver aktuella förutsättningar och strategier för tillhandahållande och användning av internet i svenska folkbibliotek. Rapporten bygger på en nationellt heltäckande enkät till samtliga huvudbibliotek i svenska kommuner samt ett mindre antal intervjuer med tillhörande dokumentstudie. Undersökningen har i synnerhet aktualiserats av två viktiga juridiska förändringar under 2018: inrättandet av EU:s allmänna dataskyddsförordning (GDPR) som svensk lag, samt ett tillägg i offentlighets- och sekretesslagen om utökning av tidigare bibliotekssekretess för uppgifter om lån och reservation till att även inkludera uppgifter om användares användning av informationsteknik. Studiens resultat sätts in i aktuellt biblioteksideologiskt och juridiskt sammanhang genom en omfattande litteraturstudie. Rapporten innehåller även bidrag från jurist Jonas Holm och presenterar därigenom direkta svar på specifika biblioteksjuridiska problem och oklarheter som framkommer i undersökningen, liksom en övergripande juridisk kommentar till de svåra tolkningar och gränsdragningar som uppstår i mötet mellan bibliotekets verksamhet, uppdrag och reglerande lagstiftning avseende tillhandahållande och användning av internet. Undersökningens resultat visar att användningen av internetfilter förefaller ha ökat med cirka 20 % under de senaste 20 åren, och att biblioteken i relativt stor utsträckning är utelämnade åt kommunens it-avdelningar för viktiga beslut om formerna för tillhandahållande av internet. Samtidigt framkommer att bibliotekens huvudsakliga kompetens och medvetna strategier för reglering av internet och skydd av användarnas integritet alltjämt till största delen handlar om det som syns och kan åtgärdas i det fysiska biblioteksrummet. Dessa båda tendenser samverkar till att transparensen för vad som gäller avseende villkor för internetanvändning och personuppgiftsbehandling vid tillhandahållande och användning av internet i biblioteket är mycket låg för såväl biblioteken själva som dess användare. Bristen på nationell samordning och tydliga riktlinjer för ansvarsfördelning samt formella plattformar för samverkan mellan kommun/it-avdelning och bibliotek utgör hinder för insyn, större ansvarstagande och medvetna åtgärder. Som slutsatser förordas i rapporten ökad utbildning för bibliotekarier och studenter i biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap i frågor om internet, intellektuell frihet och personlig integritet (informationsteknik och digital kompetens, datakompetens samt kritisk kompetens); ett ökat ansvarstagande från bibliotekens sida vad gäller användarutbildningar i motsvarande frågor; politisk lobbying från biblioteksrepresentanters sida för att säkra medvetenhet om bibliotekens uppdrag och vikten av tillhandahållande även av internet, samt för upprättande av likvärdiga villkor för insyn 12 och medbestämmande i kommuners och it-avdelningars besluts- och hanteringsmandat avseende internetfrågor; ökat stöd till och insatser i forskning om och utveckling av transparenta och pedagogiska gränssnitt och andra verktyg som synliggör struktur och villkor bakom internetrelaterade tjänster och verktyg för användare; samt stöd för utveckling av tydliga integritetspolicyer och användarregler för internetanknutna system och tjänster i biblioteket.
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Purpose Fans are proactive consumers of pop culture products, who can be seen as prosumers. Fanvideo production is one of their most widespread practices in the participatory culture scenario. Thus, the aim of the present study is to analyze how ludic prosumption is featured on plays performed in Brazilian fanvideos based on successful pop culture franchises. Design/methodology/approach Research based on the interpretive content analysis of fanvideos of plays produced by Brazilian fans based on five emblematic pop culture franchises and published on YouTube. Findings Results have shown six play types in the analyzed fanvideos – i.e. child's play, performing powers, cosplay, play in social rites, teaching to play and “zuêra” –, which revealed a way of having fun in different situations through different practices based on ludic consumption experiences in different spheres of social life. Originality/value CCT-based studies focused on investigating plays as ludic consumption phenomenon, as well as fan culture, remain at early research stage. Thus, the main contribution of the present study lies on associating such concepts based on the concept of prosumption.
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Social media encompass web-based programs and user-generated content that allow people to communicate and collaborate via mobile phones, computers, and other communication technologies. Unlike other media linked to a particular technology, social media are a phenomenon associated with a set of tools, practices, and ideologies for connecting and collaborating. Social media blur distinctions between one-to-many and face-to-face communication. They allow individuals and groups to connect across boundaries of space and time, both synchronously and asynchronously. Afforded by changing technology, social media are ever-expanding as users develop novel uses and creative content. Scholars have studied social media across a range of topics, including such issues as message content and construction, identity formation, relationship development, community development, political activism, disinformation, and cyber threats. Social media vary culturally. For instance, in China social media are impacted by internet censorship, including not only the kinds of apps that are used in China-WeChat and Weibo instead of Facebook and Twitter-but also forms of expression and online activities. While Chinese social media can be a site for political activism, and creative, humorous, and satirical messages, they are constructed in ways that avoid online censorship. Social media also afford the construction and maintenance of local communities and cultural identities. For instance, users with a shared interest, occupation, activity, or offline connection, such as a hometown, may communicate online using a shared language, vocabulary, or code. Hence, unlike mass media that can promote a collective, national identity, social media may facilitate the re-emergence and construction of local and diverse identities. Finally, social media can empower subaltern individuals and groups to mobilize and effect change through collective action. Yet social media, when employed by the state and/or neoliberal corporate powers, can work to suppress subaltern groups by co-opting social media as a technology that affords surveillance. They may also be used to spread misinformation or extremism by both state-sponsored and non-state actors.
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Family websites represent one of the more interesting areas of research into cultural change and reproduction. They also compellingly demonstrate the complex role of technology in both cultural processes. As the latest example of the long‐established practice of family photography, these hybrid multimedia products have followed the path of the analogue photograph, framed and displayed in the home, kept in wallets or presented as series of pictures in photo albums, with a marked move to the digital world and a much less noticed shift to the sophisticated multimedia context of the Web. This article examines how this fairly recent shift from private photography to the semi‐public space of the Internet, which is unfolding in dialogue with technology, has reinforced, expanded or radically changed the nature of family communications and the very significant social and cultural functions this highly codified practice has fulfilled from the onset. From an exploratory research study into online family websites, I discuss examples, which illustrate the similarities and changes taking place, the possible cultural‐propagandistic and emancipatory effects, and the wealth of cultural information that can be decoded. I further discuss the methodological aspects and implications of decoding these new and very vivid exponents of culture.
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In recent years, a new realm has appeared for the study of political and sociological phenomena: the Internet. This article will analyze the decision-making processes of one of the largest online communities, Wikipedia. Founded in 2001, Wikipedia—now among the top-10 most popular sites on the Internet—has succeeded in attracting and organizing millions of volunteers and creating the world's largest encyclopedia. To date, however, little study has been done of Wikipedia's governance. There is substantial confusion about its decision-making structure. The organization's governance has been compared to many decision-making and political systems—from democracy to dictatorship, from bureaucracy to anarchy. It is the purpose of this article to go beyond the earlier simplistic descriptions of Wikipedia's governance in order to advance the study of online governance, and of organizations more generally. As the evidence will show, while Wikipedia's governance shows elements common to many traditional governance models, it appears to be closest to the organizational structure known as adhocracy.
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This study examines the potential of PCTV (watching television on your PC) among consumers. An intercept field study that included product demonstration with a convenience sample of US adults was conducted (N = 309). Expectancy-value theory was used to measure respondents’ interest in PCTV. While a majority had heard of the product, expectations of what PCTV could provide remained low and as a result, value and subsequent interest was low. As terrestrial broadcasting, cable, telephone, internet companies and other programming providers explore the potential market for PCTV and promote that market, the possibility exists that value related to PCTV could be developed. In other words, PCTV remains an open field waiting for leadership to manifest its diffusion.
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The digital turn, and with it increased use of location-aware technologies, has yielded innovative image applications and posed new questions about the status and value of the image. These applications rely on algorithmically defined relations between the viewing subject and the world viewed, offering robust alternatives to the visual economies of the past. If we take seriously Heidegger's insights regarding the Welt-bild as a metaphor for the modern era, the algorithmic reconfiguration of subject-object relations in this emerging visual regime potentially offers insights through which we can reflect upon the current era – and a metaphoric alternative. This article uses two entry points to explore this possible reconfiguration and, with it, the question of value. Downloadable applications such as Photosynth aggregate location-tagged photographs into a near-seamless whole, and offer a way to consider such issues as collaborative authorship of the image, unstable points of view and the repositioning of subject-object relationships – all elements that fundamentally challenge western representational norms dominant in the modern era. In this new regime, the spatial referents of greatest value are points of uniqueness sought out and built upon by the program's algorithms – and not those perceived by the viewer. The viewer is in turn free to explore an extensive and dynamic image space unconstrained by (and, indeed, without access to) an authorised or ‘correct’ viewing position. A second case, built upon certain augmented reality applications, works by ‘recognising’ particular spaces and, through the use of computationally enhanced viewing screens, superimposing new images over real space. In this case, a system of virtual spatial annotation depends upon the ‘correct’ positioning of the viewer (and portable computing device) in the world. The two cases stand in a roughly reciprocal relationship, turning on different notions of algorithmic intermediation and subject-object relations and dynamics for the generation of meaning and value.
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This article focuses upon the concept of ‘affective economics’ arguing that it should be expanded to include a consideration of emerging forms of data-mining including ‘sentiment analysis’ and ‘predictive analytics’. Sentiment analysis in particular seeks to manipulate consumer behaviour by gathering data about emotional responses and conducting controlled experiments on consumers. Any consideration of affective economics should include the ways in which marketers seek to manage consumers through the collection not just of demographic information, but of extensive real-time databases of their online behaviour and conversations.
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Extended Abstract Microblogging is a form of online communication by which users broadcast brief text updates, also known as tweets, to the public or a selected circle of contacts. A variegated mosaic of microblogging uses has emerged since the launch of Twitter in 2006: daily chatter, conversation, information sharing, and news commentary, among others (Java et al, 2007). Regard-less of their content and intended use, tweets often convey pertinent information about their authors mood status. As such, tweets can be regarded as temporally-authentic microscopic instantiations of public mood state (O'Connor et al, 2010). Here we perform a sentiment analysis of all public tweets broadcasted by Twitter users between August 1 and December 20, 2008. For every day in the timeline, we extract six dimensions of mood (tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion) using an extended version (Pepe and Bollen, 2008) of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a well-established psychometric instrument (Norcross et al, 2006; McNair et al, 2003). We compare our results to fluctuations recorded by stock market and crude oil price indices and major events in media and popular culture, such as the U.S. Presidential Election of November 4, 2008 and Thanksgiving Day (see Fig. 1). We find that events in the social, political, cultural and economic sphere do have a significant, immediate and highly specific effect on the various dimensions of public mood. In addition, we found long-term changes in public mood that may reflect the cumulative effect of various underlying socio-economic indicators. With the present investigation (Bollen et al, 2010), we bring about the following methodological contributions: we argue that sentiment analysis of minute text corpora (such as tweets) is efficiently obained via a syntac-tic, term-based approach that requires no training or machine learning. Moreover, we stress the importance of measuring mood and emotion using well-established instruments rooted in decades of empirical psychometric research. Finally, we speculate that collective emotive trends can be modeled and predicted using large-scale analyses of user-generated content but results should be discussed in terms of the social, economic, and cultural spheres in which the users are embedded.
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We investigated how doctored photographs of past public events affect memory for those events. Italian participants viewed either original images or misleading digitally doctored images depicting the 1989 Tiananmen Square protest in Beijing and a 2003 protest in Rome against the war in Iraq, and they subsequently answered questions about those events. Viewing the doctored images affected the way participants remembered the events. Those who viewed the doctored photograph of the Beijing event estimated that a larger number of people participated in it. Those who viewed the doctored photograph of the Rome event rated the event as more violent and more negative, recalled more physical confrontation, damage to property, and injuries to demonstrators, and were less inclined to participate in future protests. Both younger and older adult participants were affected by the manipulation. Results indicate that doctored photographs of past public events can influence memory, attitudes and behavioural intentions. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Instead of the currently prevailing competitive model, a more collaborative strategy is needed to address the concerns related to the unsustainability of today’s business. This article aims to explore collaborative approaches where enterprises seek to build long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with all stakeholders and want to produce sustainable values for their whole business ecosystem. Cases here analyzed demonstrate that alternative ways of doing business are possible. These enterprises share more democratic ownership structures, more balanced and broader governance systems, and a more comprehensive view of organizational goals and performance – which goes beyond the narrow concept of financial bottom line and into a stronger and systematic care of the needs and requirements of the different stakeholder groups. Thanks to this evidence and different theoretical and empirical contributions, we suggest that the strength and sustainability of enterprises come from their ability to fit into the environmental, social, and cultural context in which they operate. By creating values for all stakeholders, enterprises can involve them and gain deep support based on their commitment. This may lead to superior performance from a multiple-bottom-line perspective.
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Many have questioned the reliability and accuracy of Wikipedia. Here a different issue, but one closely related: how broad is the coverage of Wikipedia? Differences in the interests and attention of Wikipedia's editors mean that some areas, in the traditional sciences, for example, are better covered than others. Two approaches to measuring this coverage are presented. The first maps the distribution of topics on Wikipedia to the distribution of books published. The second compares the distribution of topics in three established, field-specific academic encyclopedias to the articles found in Wikipedia. Unlike the top-down construction of traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia's topical coverage is driven by the interests of its users, and as a result, the reliability and completeness of Wikipedia is likely to be different depending on the subject-area of the article.
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Privacy has largely been equated with every individual's right to privacy. Accordingly, current efforts to protect privacy on the Internet have sought anonymity by breaking, where possible, links with personally identifiable information (PII)—all uses of aggregated data stripped of PII are considered legitimate. This article argues that we need to use a broader concept, general or group identifying information (GII), because even aggregated data stripped of PII violate privacy at the community level. The search engine companies, or anyone else with access to their log files, can use these data to generate a moment-by-moment view of what is on the collective mind. Such a view can be used in a variety of ways, some with deep economic and even political impact. In order to frame this discussion, it is necessary to examine some of the realities of the search engine-mediated associative interface to the World Wide Web. While this interface has enormous benefits for the networked world, it also fundamentally changes a number of issues underlying various current debates about Internet governance.
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Free software is supposedly developed by a loosely organised "community" of programmers. However it has been quite unknown until now who, except for some well-known celebrities, belongs to this community, and more importantly how contributions are distributed. The authors present a first survey of free software authorship, with the emphasis not on building a census or even a "hall of fame", but on identifying patterns of concentration and distribution of contribution. The sample code size is not necessarily representative and there are several errors due to the automated and vast nature of the task of identifying and crediting authors. Nevertheless, comprehensive data is collated for the first time, and can be scrutinised in detail on the survey Web site.
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This article investigates a paradox in the reception of Web 2.0. While some of its services are seen as creators of a new informational economy and are hence publicly legitimized, other features are increasingly under surveillance and policed, although in reality the differences between these services is far from obvious. Our thesis is that we are currently experiencing a temporary postponement of the law, in the context of Web 2.0. Agamben's work on the state of exception is here used to theorize the informational economy as an ongoing dispossession, under the guise of 'networked production'. This dispossession is seen as a parallel to the concept of 'primitive accumulation', as a means of moving things from the exterior to the interior of the capitalist economy. This theory lets us problematize the concept of free labor, the metaphor of the enclosure, and puts into question the dichotomy between copyright and cultural commons. © 2010, First Monday.
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In this article [1] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post-Marxists. What we have witnessed, however, is that the Internet functions as a double-edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content. Different historical and contemporary examples are provided to map how the architecture of participation sometimes turns into an architecture of exploitation.
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A number of studies have assessed the reliability of entries in Wikipedia at specific times. One important difference between Wikipedia and traditional media, however, is the dynamic nature of its entries. An entry assessed today might be substantially extended or reworked tomorrow. This study paper assesses the frequency with which small, inaccurate changes are quickly corrected.
Article
The use of Flickr, a photo sharing Website, is examined in the context of amateur photography as a 'serious leisure' pursuit. Method. Eleven telephone interviews were carried out with users of Flickr, using an open-ended interview schedule to explore use of the system within the context of the interviewees' photographic practices. Analysis. Practices described are set against theoretical considerations from the literature, specifically the alternate paradigms of the photographic club and the photo magazine. Sontag's cultural critique of photography is an important, challenging reference point. Results. The affordances of the system affect the satisfactions of hobby photography. Flickr creates moral dilemmas, such as whether to reciprocate comments or tag the photos of others. The system's appeal lies in its moral qualities as much as whether it is easy to use or performs functions efficiently. Flickr draws users into the hobby and so, like the camera club or the magazine, can be linked to the interests of industry. Yet it is too pessimistic to see it as simply a vehicle of consumerist culture; users expressed almost unqualified satisfaction with the system for its direct pleasures and learning opportunities. Conclusions. The fluid social relations of Flickr potentially free the hobby from the rather restrictive codes and ordering of the photographic club.