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Look at us: Collective narcissism in college student Facebook photo galleries

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Look at us: Collective narcissism in college student Facebook photo galleries

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... Instead, as Mendelson and Papacharissi (2011) point out, the publication of personal photos brings about a shift in one's personal presence with respect to the text, highlighting particular moments in the life of persons (weddings, birthdays, vacations, etc.). As these authors explain, such photos are not only an aid for the memory, but also a symbolic instrument giving value to shared experiences and, potentially, to group membership and cohesion. ...
... As pointed out by Mendelson and Papacharissi (2011), self-presentation by way of tools furnished by SNS, synthesized in the two dimensions we are considering here, is tied to performance, since it closely selects the information published, therefore constituting a mediated identity. ...
... c) Members of the third group use SNS primarily by publishing photos; that is, they narrate their life stories visually. We characterize them with the description, "friendship maintenance" since, as other authors point out (Mendelson and Papacharissi, 2011), their approach reveals the importance they give to their peer group, and their greater focalization on face-to-face relations. The time spent online by this group is restricted to essentials, unbound from any need to deepen personal interests or to give vent to moods. ...
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This paper explores various strategies for self-presentation used on Facebook, among a sample of 1330 Italian students aged 14-19 years. Based on two social network site practices, the production of text material and the publication of personal photos, we have constructed a model embracing four types of categories and behaviors. We examined the categories according to structural variables, variables regarding self-narration, and two psychological scales. The results show the validity of the four categories in distinguishing different styles of Facebook use and allowing us to define those styles in greater depth. In particular, the publication of photos by those who do not contribute written text seems to indicate the need to maintain one's real-life social network; the production of text alone seems to reflect the need to deepen one's most passionate interests; while the combination of the two communicative modes tends to reveal a greater capacity in planning for the future.
... Today, users upload more pictures on social media than ever before: more than 150 million photos are uploaded daily to Instagram and 350 million to Facebook (Hutchinson, 2016;Omnicore, 2021). Consequently, scholars have analyzed the use of visual imagery in social media platforms (e.g., Hurley, 2019;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010), showing that posting romantic pictures are deemed equivalent to offline affective expressions (e.g., holding hands or kissing) and aimed at displaying happy relationships to a wide audience (Mod, 2010). Accordingly, these photos commonly display physical contact such as sitting on the lap of the other or hugging (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). ...
... Consequently, scholars have analyzed the use of visual imagery in social media platforms (e.g., Hurley, 2019;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010), showing that posting romantic pictures are deemed equivalent to offline affective expressions (e.g., holding hands or kissing) and aimed at displaying happy relationships to a wide audience (Mod, 2010). Accordingly, these photos commonly display physical contact such as sitting on the lap of the other or hugging (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). Therefore, users may conceal their romantic status if they believe that it could produce a negative impression or that a public declaration would impair the relationship (Emery et al., 2014). ...
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This study draws on Knapp’s offline relationship development model to examine how people construct romantic relationships on social media, with particular attention to the role of affordances in this process. Based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 30 relational partners, we show that Knapp’s five traditional stages of relationship construction merge online into three because of social media affordances, including searchability, visibility, anonymity, persistence, storage, and editability. These affordances allow users to search and obtain information about potential partners quickly, conveniently, and anonymously before, during, and after the first interaction. They also enable users to initiate or avoid romantic interactions relatively easily, present shared memories, build a sense of togetherness, and edit or erase online content about previous partners. The findings suggest that most participants perceived Facebook, more than Instagram, as a platform of choice for relationship construction. Addressing the interplay between social media affordances, online relational practices, and offline relationship dynamics, the study shows that offline and online spaces are highly interrelated in terms of interinfluence. Therefore, we argue that the merger of stages is not merely a technical rearrangement but an indication of the fundamental role that online practices play in people’s offline realities, including romantic relationships.
... Through visual and textual representations, individuals utilize social media to construct an impression about oneself, nurturing a certain narrative regarding life and identity (Boyd 2008). The presentation of personal information and pictures on social media allow individuals to present themselves though their online profiles (Mendelson and Papacharissi 2010;Valkenburg, Peter, and Schouten 2006). That is, individuals demonstrate their identities through "practices [that] serve as performative exercises of identity and belonging, simultaneously declaring and corroborating shared experiences" (Mendelson and Papacharissi 2010, 32). ...
... These examples correspond with the notion that consumers will deem a product acceptable when the celebrity image is congruent with an image of an associated brand (Mendelson and Papacharissi 2010). The YouTube data is limited in terms of identifying viewers Whether or not viewers are tattooed, however, our findings demonstrated that KvD's discourse of her possessions is perceived by viewers not only as inspirations but also as a means of connecting self with the social media celebrity through shared tastes and consumption experiences. ...
Article
Kat von D (KvD), a social media influencer, uses her tattooed body, artwork, make-up brand, and narrative via YouTube to convey her lived experiences as a tattooed cis-gendered woman. KvD’s YouTube platform provides valuable data to explore the phenomenon of using social media for self-presentation and online social networking among the group of heavily tattooed women. Informed by Écriture feminine and presentation of the self as theoretical lenses, we conducted a qualitative study analyzing KvD’s narratives and viewers’ comments on YouTube. The first themes pertain to KvD’s self-presentation as a tattooed woman on social media: (1) empowering autonomy of one’s body, (2) empowering voices of the marginalized group, and (3) empowering women entrepreneurship. Then, two themes emerged focusing on the impact of KvD’s social media presence on tattooed members’ group identity and consumption culture: (1) sense of belonging through shared values and (2) sense of belonging through shared consumption experiences. Our findings demonstrate that KVD’s YouTube narratives of her tattooed body, fashion, and lifestyle have contributed to transcend the status of the tattooed body to the fashioned body that expresses her values.
... Prior research shows that the enhancement of profile pictures can lead to a high likelihood of success in online dating (Gibbs et al., 2006). Similar to online daters, SNS users also participate in the selective self-presentation by uploading information or photographs that make themselves look attractive, positive or ideal (Bergman et al., 2011;Manago et al., 2008;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010;Siibak, 2009;Zhao et al., 2008). This selective selfpresentation on SNS was found to be positively related to online life satisfaction (Y. ...
... The internalization of positive traits of the self-presentation may allow selfie-posters to build positive illusions of themselves. As mentioned earlier, individuals consciously or subconsciously make efforts to take, select, and edit selfies in order to show a preferred and hoped-for version of themselves before posting them on their SNS (Chua & Chang, 2016;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). Hence, SNS selfies can be a tool of more selective self-expression compared to SNS photographs taken by others. ...
Article
An online survey was conducted to explore how Instagram users’ selfie-posting behavior affects their self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Female college students from South Korea (N = 321) participated in the survey. Results showed that Instagram users’ selfie-posting was positively related to their self-esteem. Moreover, Instagram users’ self-esteem mediated the relationship between their selfie-posting behavior and body dissatisfaction. Findings showed that Instagram users’ selfie-posting behavior may positively influence their self-esteem, which may consequently contribute to reducing their body dissatisfaction. Such an indirect effect of selfie-posting was moderated by Instagram users’ levels of the need for popularity. The indirect influence of selfie-posting on body dissatisfaction through self-esteem was only significant among those with low or moderate levels of the need for popularity. This suggests that those with lower levels of the need for popularity can benefit more from posting their selfies. These findings advance the emerging literature on the effects of selfie-posting by providing a moderated mediation model of selfie-posting and body image concerns.
... Regarding social media ability in providing users with self-presentation tools, several pieces of research has explained it by using Irving Goffman's impression management works on online platforms (Hogan, 2010;Mendelson and Papacharissi, 2010;Çadırcı and Güngör, 2019;Kang and Wei, 2020). The general assumption of impression management is that individuals would employ the selective disclosure of personal details designed to present an idealized self. ...
... Not only should it fulfill the aesthetics requirement to be uploaded, but it should also have a supporting caption, which I give a thought about it first", explained one of the research participants in describing the character and qualification of her Instagram post. While Mendelson and Papacharissi (2010) observed the use of photo galleries as an instrument of self-presentation that conform to impression management's traditional notions, Hogan (2010) proposed the updated version of impression management theory. ...
... In the context of asking for images, nonetheless, other factors can also play a role. Individuals, for instance, are less familiar with the procedure of uploading images from their PCs than from their smartphones (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). Carrington (2020) reported that, by 2020, 91% of all pictures taken worldwide would come from a smartphone camera. ...
... Nonetheless, this interaction was only present for ImagePush which, as discussed in the previous subsection, suggests that the difference in slopes is associated with motivational messages affecting differently those individuals participating through PCs than those using smartphones. Even if individuals are less familiar with the procedure of uploading images from their PCs than from their smartphones (Carrington, 2020;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010), our results suggest that no differences between devices should be expected in terms of the impact of asking for images compared to asking participants to answer with text on the four indicators. ...
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Images might provide richer and more objective information than text answers to open‐ended survey questions. Little is known, nonetheless, about the consequences for data quality of asking participants to answer open‐ended questions with images. Therefore, this paper addresses three research questions: (1) What is the effect of answering web survey questions with images instead of text on breakoff, noncompliance with the task, completion time and question evaluation? (2) What is the effect of including a motivational message on these four aspects? (3) Does the impact of asking to answer with images instead of text vary across device types? To answer these questions, we implemented a 2 × 3 between‐subject web survey experiment (N = 3043) in Germany. Half of the sample was required to answer using PCs and the other half with smartphones. Within each device group, respondents were randomly assigned to (1) a control group answering open‐ended questions with text; (2) a treatment group answering open‐ended questions with images; and (3) another treatment group answering open‐ended questions with images but prompted with a motivational message. Results show that asking participants to answer with images significantly increases participants' likelihood of noncompliance as well as their completion times, while worsening their overall survey experience. Including motivational messages, moreover, moderately reduces the likelihood of noncompliance. Finally, the likelihood of noncompliance is similar across devices.
... Goffman's (1959) theory of self-presentation has been widely used to guide studies about online self-presentation (Yang and Brown, 2016;Stern, 2007;Bortree, 2005). Past studies have analysed a wide range of behaviours related to online self-presentation, including choice of Facebook profile picture (Back et al., 2010) and other online photo-sharing behaviours Scholars like Mendelson & Papacharissi (2010) noted that when people use SNSs as a channel to articulate their identities, they tend to present a "highly selective version of themselves" (p.4). Young people try to present what is best in themselves and show their in-group identity through compliance with peer standards and expectations (boyd, 2014). ...
... Social media users do not merely capture a selfie and share it; they orchestrate poses, find flattering angles, and take multiple photos to secure the perfect shot (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2011). The process of taking a selfie engages the user as both the producer taking the photo and the object of the photo (Marwick, 2015), making the user both the agent and the recipient of the process of objectification. ...
Article
This study investigated the effects of taking photos (of the self or objects) on women. Objectification theory states that women are subjected to societal pressure to focus on their physical appearance. The emergence of social media as a communication channel has further reinforced the emphasis on women’s appearance, beauty ideals, and body image. On social media, selfies serve as a self-presentation of one’s appearance to an online audience. In this 2 × 2 experiment, women (N = 120, Mage = 19.87) took pictures of themselves (i.e., selfies) or objects. They were told beforehand that these pictures would be kept private or that they would be posted online on social media. After taking pictures, we assessed women’s self-objectification, mood, and self-esteem. Women then engaged in a photo tagging task in which they selected hashtags for selfies of other women. Selfie takers expressed higher self-objectification, more negative mood, and diminished self-esteem compared to those taking pictures of objects. Selfie takers also demonstrated comparatively less social aggression, using fewer derogatory tags on other women’s pictures. Although taking selfies may negatively affect producers, there may be benefits for online social interaction with peers.
... The accumulation of work-related achievements and experiences in turn become markers of potential organisational value. (Tomlinson 2017, 347) Many students are already engaged in sophisticated forms of online personal branding and impression management (Mendelson and Papacharissi 2010), and are quick to understand the concept of the presentation of self (borrowing from Goffman) through multiple forms of self-performance and exhibition (Hogan 2010). However, what is not always immediately understood (to persist with Goffman's metaphor) is the implication of the employer as audience. ...
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Teaching students aspiring to media work presents the educator with a fundamental dilemma. On the one hand, students require the knowledge and skills necessary to find and sustain employment within existing industry practices, systems and structures. On the other hand, students need to be prepared for the uncertain and shifting nature of media work, and highly problematic aspects of some of those selfsame practices, systems and structures. How do you ensure the former without condoning or under-playing the latter? An overly theoretical and critical education risks producing graduates unprepared for the practicalities of media employment. An overly instrumental education risks graduates lacking the necessary responsiveness and resilience required to drive a media career over time, or the ability to recognise, navigate or challenge systemic problems within these industries. This article approaches the dilemma from the UK perspective, through a consideration of the notion of employability, interpreted as career readiness. It advocates five interrelated forms of graduate capital: human capital; social capital; cultural capital; psychological capital and identity capital. The article argues that their application to aspiring media workers, in particular, provides a valuable conceptual framework for educators concerned with finding an approach to employability that is both instrumental and critical.
... However, alternative research has indicated that many CMC users are utilising it to maintain existing ties, rather than to replace them (boyd 2007, 2014; Mendelson & Papacharissi 2010;Rainie & Wellman 2012;Miller 2016). These scholars contend that online and offline relationships do not exist entirely independently but are related and developed across both online and offline spheres, where "ICTs supplement -rather than replace -human contact"! ...
... Goffman's (1959) theory of self-presentation has been widely used to guide studies about online self-presentation (Yang and Brown, 2016;Stern, 2007;Bortree, 2005). Past studies have analysed a wide range of behaviours related to online self-presentation, including choice of Facebook profile picture (Back et al., 2010) and other online photo-sharing behaviours Scholars like Mendelson & Papacharissi (2010) noted that when people use SNSs as a channel to articulate their identities, they tend to present a "highly selective version of themselves" (p.4). Young people try to present what is best in themselves and show their in-group identity through compliance with peer standards and expectations (boyd, 2014). ...
... People are highly selective in what they present on social media (Mendelson and Papacharissi, 2010). They carefully curate the things they upload on social media that portrays the "perfect" aspects of their lives, such as flattering photographs, expensive goods, and personal successes (Siibak, 2009;Gonzales and Hancock, 2011;Blease, 2015). ...
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Existing meta-analyses have shown that the relationship between social media use and self-esteem is negative, but at very small effect sizes, suggesting the presence of moderators that change the relationship between social media use and self-esteem. Employing principles from social comparison and evolutionary mismatch theories, we propose that the social network sizes one has on social media play a key role in the relationship between social media use and self-esteem. In our study (N = 123), we showed that social media use was negatively related to self-esteem, but only when their social network size was within an evolutionarily familiar level. Social media use was not related to self-esteem when people’s social networks were at evolutionarily novel sizes. The data supported both social comparison and evolutionary mismatch theories and elucidated the small effect size found for the relationship between social media use and self-esteem in current literature. More critically, the findings of this study highlight the need to consider evolutionarily novel stimuli that are present on social media to better understand the behaviors of people in this social environment.
... On social media, users are not just recipients of content but also creators (Holland & Tiggemann, 2016;Perloff, 2014). Users can present an idealised identity on social media (Fox & Vendemia, 2016;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010), and content analyses have determined that several social media trends perpetuate appearance ideals. These trends include fitspiration (i.e., promotion of exercise and diet regimes to improve health, appearance, and lifestyle; Boepple, Ata, Rum, & Thompson, 2016;Carrotte, Prichard, & Lim, 2017;Deighton-Smith & Bell, 2018;Simpson & Mazzeo, 2017) and thinspiration (i.e., promotion of thinness and weight loss; Alberga, Withnell, & von Ranson, 2018;Talbot, Gavin, van Steen, & Morey, 2017;Wick & Harriger, 2018). ...
Article
This article presents four meta-analyses that can inform causality in the relationship between social media and body image; 24 experimental samples comparing the effect of appearance-ideal social media images to non-appearance-related conditions (n = 3816); 21 experimental samples examining the effect of contextual features (e.g., comments and captions) accompanying appearance-ideal social media images (n = 3482); 14 experimental samples investigating the effect of appearance-ideal images versus other appearance images on social media (n = 2641); and 10 longitudinal samples on social media use and body image (n = 5177). Social media appearance-ideal images had a moderate negative effect on body image (Hedges’ g = −0.61, p < .01), were more damaging in higher- than lower-risk contexts (Hedges’ g = −0.12, p < .01), and were moderately more impactful than other social media appearance images (Hedges’ g = −0.68, p = .05). These effects were smaller but significant with outliers removed. Social media use had a very small, negative correlation with body image longitudinally (Fisher’s Z = −0.08, p < .001). No significant moderators emerged. Clinicians should consider approaches to managing social media use, particularly exposure to appearance-ideal imagery, in case conceptualisation and psychoeducation for clients at risk of, or experiencing, body image disturbance.
... Social media cultures present personal identities as something to be managed and curated. There is a large amount of literature on online reputation management presenting a long list of recommendations on how to optimize one's digital presence for personal promotion or branding (Mendelson and Papacharissi, 2011). Digital communication combines effectiveness with techspressive ideologies of fun, escapism, and narcissism (Kozinets, 2008). ...
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Political philosophy is applied to analyze the democratic potential of tourism social media. This study shows that while these media have deliberative potential, they also reflect the post-political and post-democratic condition in tourism digital communication. This analysis is illustrated through the discussion of three metaphors: the menu, the stranger, and the tourist-light. The menu represents the increased invasion of lifeworlds by the commercialization and corporate regulation of the tourism social Web. The stranger symbolizes the weak accountability of online communities. The tourist-light embodies the relevance of hedonism in virtual worlds. Social media contributes to digital narcissism and support consumer centricity. Digital communication produces a sanitized version of tourism and entails a subtle constraint of political citizenship.
... The advent of social media creates more complicated "front" and "backstage" roles as people curate their online "self" to create their virtual persona. This has been studied by scholars across several online platforms, including personal home pages (Dominick, 1999), weblogs created by teenage girls (Bortree, 2005), photos that college students post on Facebook (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010), and celebrity athlete usage of social media (Sanderson, 2011). Commonly considered a modern version of Goffman's (1959) self-presentation theory, prior scholars have also shown that self-presentation on social media is worthy of exploration, specifically related to celebrities and public figures (Hull, 2014;Hull & Lewis, 2014;Sanderson, 2011). ...
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Using an online survey ( N = 528), this study examines the impact of race/ethnicity and gender on the perceived objectivity of broadcasters who are women of color. Findings show that when the broadcaster is a woman of color, Twitter engagement does not necessarily lead to positive perceived objectivity. Most respondents (52.6%) following broadcasters on Twitter agreed that broadcast women of color were more biased than other broadcasters they follow on Twitter, with men being more likely to agree than others. In addition to perceived objectivity, 38.7% of respondents either agree or strongly agree that the race/ethnicity of the journalist impacts their objectivity. Of the respondents who follow broadcast women of color on Twitter, 57.4% either agree or strongly agree that they share too many opinions. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
... Nevertheless, some of the same biases occur and the photos posted are likely to show happy people on celebratory occasions with new possessions (Belk 2010(Belk , 2011. However, whereas in analogue photography the photographer was seldom in the photo (Mendelson and Papacharissi 2011), with the advent of camera phones and arm's length "selfies," it has become normal for the photographer to appear in digital photos. ...
Article
L’Oreal research results shows that majority Indonesian women believe that they have dark complexion skin and expressed the desires to have brighter one. Support by the fact that whitening products’ sales is growing significantly year to year; it is interesting to analyze the underlying factors that motivate individuals to pursue having brighter skin complexion. Researcher employed Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique as qualitative method revealed that cultural values and some psychological factors have motivated individuals to pursue brighter skin complexion and generated a research framework for afurther quantitative analysis regarding the topic.
... Research has shown tagging other people in one's photos to be a contentious issue when a user has risqué or compromising photos of their friends in which they would rather not be tagged (Besmer, Watson, & Lipford, 2010;Hampton, Goulet, Marlow, & Rainie, 2012;Stutzman & Kramer-Duffield, 2010). At the same time, though, photo tagging can have beneficial effects: it builds social capital, increases group cohesion, and allows one to express one's identity (Hampton et al., 2012;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010;Russo & Nov, 2010;Stutzman & Kramer-Duffield, 2010). The tendency to tag photos also relates to users' perceptions about the tagging feature's ease of use (Kramer-Duffield, 2010), which means that a system that automatically tags photos (e.g., Stone, Zickler, & Darrell, 2008) can have substantial benefits. ...
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Online companies exploit mindless compliance during users’ privacy decision making to avoid liability while not impairing users’ willingness to use their services. These manipulations can play against users since they subversively influence their decisions by nudging them to mindlessly comply with disclosure requests rather than enabling them to make deliberate choices. In this paper, we demonstrate the compliance-inducing effects of defaults and framing in the context of a Facebook application that nudges people to be automatically publicly tagged in their friends’ photos and/or to tag their friends in their own photos. By studying these effects in a Facebook application, we overcome a common criticism of privacy research, which often relies on hypothetical scenarios. Our results concur with previous findings on framing and default effects. Specifically, we found a reduction in privacy-preserving behaviors (i.e., a higher tagging rate in our case) in positively framed and accept-by-default decision scenarios. Moreover, we tested the effect that two types of justifications—information that implies what other people do (normative) or what the user ought to do (rationale based)— have on framing- and default-induced compliance. Existing work suggests that justifications may increase compliance in a positive (agree-by-) default scenario even when the justification does not relate to the decision. In this study, we expand this finding and show that even a justification that is opposite to the default action (e.g., a justification suggesting that one should not use the application) can increase mindless compliance with the default. Thus, when companies abide by policy makers’ requirements to obtain informed user consent through explaining the privacy settings, they will paradoxically induce mindless compliance and further threaten user privacy.
... Students may use Facebook to support informal learning, but view it primarily as a social tool (Madge, Meek, Wellens, & Hooley, 2009). In terms of expressing identity, authentic self-presentation on Facebook relates to the presence of social support and self-esteem (Yang & Brown, 2016), but college students focus on sharing photographs that are posed and portray positive events (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). This paper investigates the identity-related issues that can arise, considering student attitudes toward context collapse and privacy, when a social networking site (SNS) that students use for personal purposes is coopted for formal class use. ...
... Scholars like Mendelson and Papacharissi (2010) noted that when people use SNSs as a channel to articulate their identities, they tend to present a "highly selective version of themselves" (p.4). Young people try to present what is best in themselves and show their ingroup identity through compliance with peer standards and expectations (boyd, 2014). ...
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Drawing on an online survey of 232 Egyptian teenagers and youth of TikTok users during Covid19 Pandemic to investigate the impact of their motivations (gratifications sought) of using this platform, the anxiety status level, and the demographic variables on the level of using TikTok and the kinds of uses. The findings showed that the motivations of escapism and fame seeking, in addition to the school economic level increased the level of TikTok usage while there was a negative effect of users’ age. There was no effect of anxiety level on both TikTok level of usage and on kinds of TikTok uses. The implications of the findings are discussed. Key Words: TikTok, anxiety, Covid19, motivations, gratifications, fame seeking, escapism, self- expression, social interaction
... Social media enabled the user to communicate with others and helped him to express himself and reveal his personal feelings; in addition to meeting his needs such as searching for culture, professional opportunities, and self-help, the user is exposed through modern social media from sharing opinions and providing the opportunity to develop social relations (Chasombat, & Karuchit, 2020). In addition to the presence of individuals on it for entertainment, belonging to the group, and many gratifications to the needs of young people (Mendelson, & Papacharissi, 2010). ...
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Article History The study aimed to identify the impact of YouTube and Facebook networks on reducing religious extremism among Jordanian youth from mosque imams' viewpoints. The study sample consisted of (230) mosque imams. By (110) mosque imams from Mafraq governorate, and (120) mosque imams from Zarqa governorate in Jordan. A descriptive survey method was used, where the data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of (20) paragraphs. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. After collecting and processing data, the results showed a moderate degree of the impact of YouTube and Facebook networks in reducing religious extremism among Jordanian youth from the viewpoint of mosques imams. Furthermore, there is no difference in this effect according to the variables of the place of residence, academic qualification, and years of experience. The results were discussed. A set of recommendations were made, the most prominent of which is to verify the validity of religious information posted on YouTube and Facebook networks before the youth discusses it.
... Moreover, females' preference for loverelated emoticons has already been indicated by [65]. Regarding the embedded images, ref. [66] found that females shared more photos than males. On the other hand, refs. ...
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Within the area of Natural Language Processing, we approached the Author Profiling task as a text classification problem. Based on the author’s writing style, sociodemographic information, such as the author’s gender, age, or native language can be predicted. The exponential growth of user-generated data and the development of Machine-Learning techniques have led to significant advances in automatic gender detection. Unfortunately, gender detection models often become black-boxes in terms of interpretability. In this paper, we propose a tree-based computational model for gender detection made up of 198 features. Unlike the previous works on gender detection, we organized the features from a linguistic perspective into six categories: orthographic, morphological, lexical, syntactic, digital, and pragmatics-discursive. We implemented a Decision-Tree classifier to evaluate the performance of all feature combinations, and the experiments revealed that, on average, the classification accuracy increased up to 3.25% with the addition of feature sets. The maximum classification accuracy was reached by a three-level model that combined lexical, syntactic, and digital features. We present the most relevant features for gender detection according to the trees generated by the classifier and contextualize the significance of the computational results with the linguistic patterns defined by previous research in relation to gender.
... Besides fostering individual understandings of body impressions, selfie has now become important to the construction and presentation of the self through the apparatuses of modern photography technology. The significance of selfie for personal and social identity construction is seen as its positive dimension (Barker & Rodriguez, 2019), prompting a focus on selfie as a means of self-reflection and self-actualization, rather than as mere instances of unbridled self-absorption (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). As technology of identity construction, selfie is inextricably linked to the online environment and culture, including its pressures and interactions. ...
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Indeed, selfie represents technological evolution in self-portraiture which embodies the flexibility underpinning advance in photography. Yet when attention shifts from selfie as technology to selfie as an interpretive construction of the self, it becomes clear that selfie is also an embodied enterprise of nuances hinged on the making, remaking and the presentation of the exorcized self in everyday life. Using Erving Goffman's approach of life as a dramaturgical stage performance of actor's before diverse audiences along with the qualitative research method predicated upon 40 In-depth Interviews, 20 Key Informant Interviews and 5 Focus Group Discussion instruments, this study identifies selfie as an enclave of four theatrical performances: aesthetic emotional construction of the self; an idealized reconstruction of the self; a communicative expression of self; and a validation-seeking presentation of the self. Ultimately, the social relations sustaining selfie as drama are rooted not in sociability but in mastery of smartphone photo-technology.
... They wanted ownership of their photos and profile and were not willing to give this up even for an influencer of whom they were a fan. This confirms what studies have found in that Facebook photos are a practical and informative means of interpreting self-image, interpersonal impressions, and a key tool for identity management (Mendelson and Papacharissi 2011;Pempek et al. 2009;Van Der Heide et al. 2012). ...
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This study explores the relationship between social media influencers and the online identity of Egyptian youth. The context of this study is Egypt, a developing country in the Arab World which underwent a nation-changing revolution in 2011. Its youth, who represent around 60 per cent of the population, were one of the most impacted groups in the society. They are the heaviest users of social media and represent the biggest number of fans for influencers. The research question focuses on the relationship between social media influencers and the construction of the online identity of their youth fans. The research question is addressed through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine social media influencers and eighteen of their fans. The analysis revealed that influencers play an indirect role in their fans online identity negotiation and construction.
... The social networking sites are almost an inseparable part of the students' lives, as they tend to share demographic and personal information. Studies show that the average college student shares over 100 photos on their Facebook gallery, while females posted three times more photos than males [28]. ...
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Most of the research literature on cyberbullying (CB) has focused on adolescents, but due to their intensive, unsupervised use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT), higher education students are at high risk of being involved in CB. The current study examined the nature of CB among 1004 higher education students. In addition, we explored the relationships between cyber-victimization, social support, loneliness, and self-efficacy. For that purpose, we applied a path analysis model (PA) to explain the effect of each variable on the cyber-victimization experience, expecting that high levels of loneliness and low levels of self-efficacy will predict cyber-victimization, but might be moderated and reduced by high levels of social support. Results revealed that social support moderated the relationships between these socio-emotional variables and cyber-victimization, and might serve as a protective factor. These findings on young adults may contribute to the understanding of the nature of cyber-victimization throughout the life cycle. Nowadays, academic institutions are facing an uphill effort in trying to restrain online misbehavior. In view of the findings, higher education policy could help facilitate coping with CB through student support and focused intervention programs.
... Social media play an increasingly important role in the development and maintenance of a user's social identity, with accounts becoming extensions of one's self, useful for users' mobility, personalization, autonomy, and enhanced communication (Bij de Vaate et al., 2020;Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010;Richardson, 2018). Often cited in social media research, Goffman's (1957) dramaturgical perspective analogizes that, as in the theatre, self-presentation occurs on the stage, and we will perform different versions of our play depending on the audience. ...
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... Consequently, although the romantic connections acquired on the net may be intensive, this does not necessarily testify to any genuine reality. Couple relations on the net often create a fantasy for the user (Mendelson and Papacharissi, 2010). The probability that two people meet on the net is insufficient to ensure that a relationship will be formed. ...
Chapter
This chapter examines the impact of three different aspects of romantic discourse on social networks: romance, identity, and privacy. Qualitative research focused on the influence of the social networks on the opinions and interpersonal behavior of 11 single academics, aged 30-45 years old, men and women who used Facebook as a means for meeting potential romantic partners. The research employed semi-structured in-depth interviews to elicit qualitative data. Results indicate that an intimate, romantic setting cannot exist on the social network. Most users enhanced their identity in order to appear more attractive online. Most of the interviewees clearly felt that they needed to control the exposure of their personal details, and there was a clear indication that privacy does not exist online: it seems to be impossible to limit exposure of the published contents to specific selected audiences. Online romantic relationships are a metonymy for rapidly changing values and social norms in a dynamic global reality.
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This chapter explores what it means to be ‘social’ online. We begin with a discussion of the manner in which our online social experiences, expectations, and engagements are enmeshed with extant socio-cultural resources in various ways. The discussion then moves to consider the various ways of engaging with social media beyond networking and peer interaction, before moving on to consider the importance of research exploring the ways social media is engaged with beyond content production alone. The chapter makes a clear call for a move away from big data research which at best places undue emphasis on content production and at worst wilfully misrepresents online user experiences. Finally, this chapter presents research exploring how young people negotiated the social milieu online and how they engaged with the various social media platforms they used.
Chapter
This chapter examines the impact of three different aspects of romantic discourse on social networks: romance, identity, and privacy. Qualitative research focused on the influence of the social networks on the opinions and interpersonal behavior of 11 single academics, aged 30-45 years old, men and women who used Facebook as a means for meeting potential romantic partners. The research employed semi-structured in-depth interviews to elicit qualitative data. Results indicate that an intimate, romantic setting cannot exist on the social network. Most users enhanced their identity in order to appear more attractive online. Most of the interviewees clearly felt that they needed to control the exposure of their personal details, and there was a clear indication that privacy does not exist online: it seems to be impossible to limit exposure of the published contents to specific selected audiences. Online romantic relationships are a metonymy for rapidly changing values and social norms in a dynamic global reality.
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Chapter
This chapter presents a sustained look at data collected from a year-long series of interviews with young people to consider how they framed and understood identity online. The data reveals a number of elements which shape how identity manifests online.
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The images and pictorial practices referred to as ›selfie‹ are symptoms among others that illustrate the relevance of image-based forms of self-expression in contemporary society. The article discusses the question of which social and media conditions bring about the need for pictorial face-work for individuals. Particular attention is paid to the reconstruction of social problems that arise with photography as a technical medium in the 19th century, as well as to the specific solutions in the field of self-styling that address these problems. It turns out that the outlined relationships are still of great importance, since self-stylizations, even in the context of computerized communication, essentially is based on photography as a medium of representation.
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Selfe has evolved into a global phenomenon. The popularity of selfe has brought some great concerns about identity, privacy, security and control. The habit that accompanied when uploading selfes is excessiveness of information provided. This study explores privacy in selfe culture with communication privacy management (CPM) theory. This research uses qualitative research method of phenomenology. The experience that became phenomenon in this research is about selfe. Phenomenological research is done by collecting data from people who have experienced the phenomenon, and developed a description of the essence of experience for all individuals. This description consists of “what” they experience and “how” they experience it. The results of the analysis show that there is a consideration of privacy by respondents in uploading selfe. Respondents who have received the condition of private informacy turbulence try to balance the situation their own needs, and the opinions around them. Based on the results of the study it is understood that early adolescent age group of 12 to 17 years old actually has a higher level of privacy for their selfe and upload it in social media compared to other age groups. There is a need for further research on selfe namely others research on motivation for those who take selfe, and research related to public perception related to selfe by public offcial.
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By mobilizing Instagram time’s affordances, The AIDS Memorial (@theaidsmemorial) account has unique potential to remake normative AIDS time. Even as @theaidsmemorial sometimes extends endemic AIDS time’s normalizing registers, this archive is positioned to redesign AIDS’ temporal rhythms. @theaidsmemorial could powerfully expose the structural persistence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Through close readings of recent posts, this article illustrates how through disruptive animacy @theaidsmemorial could be made to harness Instagram’s immediacy and nowness. @theaidsmemorial can engender affective immediacy through circulating images and spatiotemporal immediacy through geotagging. Together these temporal mechanisms make HIV/AIDS disruptively animate in the present in ways that rupture normative AIDS time. @theaidsmemorial could uncover, beyond the tight bounds of AIDS communities, the continued immediacy of HIV/AIDS in the times and spaces the privileged also occupy. Reigniting urgency around AIDS can improve the lives and life chances of people living with HIV/AIDS and bolster memory transmission and intergenerational exchange.
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The high use of social media among youth, coupled with smartphone ownership, has spawned the production and distribution of photos online. One particular genre of photos stands out as novel: food photos. Advancements in technologies have given users the ability to endow images with enhanced emotion and awe, turning food photos into food porn. This study uncovers—within the framework of uses and gratifications and affordance theory—whether food posting is food porn, why users share it, and how considerations of gratifications are connected to specific social media affordances. Our mixed-methods data were comprised of three sequential studies collected at an urban university in the United States using in-depth interviews (2015 and 2016) and open-ended questions from a survey (2019). Results suggested that most of the shared content served to enhance participants’ image via self-presentation. We argue that users’ perception of privacy affordances guides their choice of platform.
Thesis
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La presente investigación gira en torno a la formulación de bases analíticas que permiten indagar en los procesos de comunicación de los jóvenes universitarios en Madrid, en el marco de constitución de sus relaciones y de su personalidad, desde las redes sociales online. Se trata por tanto de determinar cómo los jóvenes participan en los escenarios comunicativos presentes en las redes sociales, así como de examinar cuáles son los principales códigos y claves comunicativas empleadas por éstos para proyectarse e identificarse con sus iguales. La propuesta metodológica de esta investigación basada en la triangulación está compuesta de: análisis de los perfiles, análisis visual de las fotografías, seguimiento de bitácoras, grupo de discusión y análisis cualitativo de los “Me gusta”.
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The seventh chapter analyses the delicate ways in which the construction of self is touched upon in the data of the research. The chapter is divided into three sub-chapters that illustrate how the self is touched upon in relation to the three dialectical themes of 1) inside and outside, 2) expression and repression and 3) fragments and totality. The data of the research shows how influences both from within and without impact upon the ways in which the subjects define themselves, thus reflecting also back on questions of control, collectively and individuality. It is shown how forms of expression and repression of aspects of the self influence the construction of self, this leads to the assumption that there is a sense of distortion between that what is expressed and that what is repressed in its online representation (both willingly shared and unknowingly collected). Finally this leads onto the questions of whether or not the subjects imagine their selves as well as the representation of their selves online as one totality or rather in individual fragments, reflecting back onto the theoretical framing in the third chapter.
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Photo sharing has become one of the most common behaviors in social networks. Today, photo-based social networks, especially Instagram, have increased their number of users. With the profiles they create, users can share the moments they consider important from their lives with others. Users want to be popular on these platforms. For this purpose, users do various edits and enhancements to look attractive in the photos they share. In this study, photo manipulation and photo investments done by users were considered related with online popularity. Individuals trying to become popular online may enhance the photos they share. When photo sharing is considered in the context of objectification theory, it imposes individuals to monitor their own body images according to the perspectives of others. Due to that, fear of negative evaluation can also lead users to such behavior. The relationship between popularity and photo enhancement may be mediated by the fear of negative evaluation. The research was applied in survey technique in Covid-19 days and data was collected from university students, one of the most important users of social networks. The research was approved by Anadolu University Ethics Board with protocol number 72908 on 30.12.2020. According to the results of the research, both photo manipulation and photo investment's relations with popularity are mediated by fear of negative evaluation. In addition, women do more photo manipulation and photo investment significantly. In terms of number of followers, usage times and frequency of sharing, significant difference were observed in variables; online popularity, photo manipulation, photo investment and fear of negative evaluation. The quarantines experienced during Covid-19 days are thought to increase the appearance concerns of individuals. Structured Abstract: Many people's lives have changed as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. Users' interactions with appearance-based accounts increased during the Covid-19 period, just as their use of social networks increased (Vall-Roque et al., 2020). People who were quarantined in their homes interacted with others via social networks or video calls. As a result of these experiences, the individual became more aware of his or her own image and began to assess it more critically (Pfund et al., 2020). Social networks provide information and opinions on many issues for their users. These platforms define social norms on issues that are elements of attractiveness and fashion, and guide the expectations that form in society (Mingoia et al., 2019: 2). The most important social networking platform today (Tiggemann & Zinoviev, 2019: 131) photo-based social network Instagram has become very popular among young people recently. In Instagram and similar
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El presente estudio tiene por objeto determinar si los influencers españoles muestran un comportamiento narcisista en las redes sociales y en qué aspectos esta posible conducta es más obvia. Para ello se ha llevado a cabo un análisis de contenido de los perfiles y las publicaciones realizadas por doce influencers españoles en Instagram en el que se han estudiado cinco apartados, basados a su vez en investigaciones previas sobre la materia. Los resultados demuestran que los influencers presentan comportamientos narcisistas en las redes sociales, aunque con salvedades. Las conclusiones dan pie a una importante reflexión sobre el papel que juegan los influencers, como nuevos líderes de opinión, en el fomento de patrones de comportamientos propios de la sociedad de consumo actual como el narcisismo, y su repercusión social, especialmente entre los jóvenes, quienes están inmersos en un entorno cada vez más dominado por las redes sociales.
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The Covid-19 global pandemic has resulted in many countries moving teaching and learning online. South Africa is a country with major inequalities in terms of access to electricity, internet and information technologies, which have created considerable problems for online learning at institutions of higher learning in the country. In this paper, we analyse student feedback from two large undergraduate English courses at a school of Education of a major South African university. We specifically focus on two qualitative questions which asked students about the challenges they faced and the skills they developed in online learning. Results are considered through the lens of critical digital pedagogies and decolonisation. Our findings indicate that a lack of access and resources, disruptive home environments and unfa-miliarity with online learning methods were significant obstacles for students. In addition, many students indicated developing computer skills and learning how to use online resources during the courses. The study suggests that online teaching and learning in South Africa and similar contexts exacerbates inequalities, and must be accompanied by rigorous support structures for students who are vulnerable in these contexts.
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This paper aims to propose a typology of replies to insults based on data retrieved from Twitter, which is ripe with offensive comments. The proposed typology is embedded in the theory of impoliteness, and it hinges on the notion of the perlocutionary effect. It assumes that what counts as an insult depends primarily on whether or not an utterance is evaluated as offensive by the insultee. The evaluation can be signalled behaviourally or verbally and includes expressed replies as well as so-called silent replies. The insults, regardless of the presence or absence of an insulting intention of the insulter (potential insult), that are not rendered as offensive by the target are only attempted insults, while those that are experienced as offensive amount to genuine insults. The analysis has illustrated select types of reactions and has shown that potential, attempted and genuine insults may be further divided into: in/direct insults, explicit/implicit, non-/pure, and non-/vocatives, whilst reactions can be subsumed by three overarching strategies: agreeing, attacking and rejection.
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BACKGROUND The present study investigated perfectionism from the bioecological model perspective as a multidimensional construct manifested in forms of excessively high personal standards, exaggerated worries about personal mistakes, doubt in one’s performance, oversized order and organization emphasis, and the importance of parental valuations and expectations. AIM To investigate the relation between perfectionism; the quality of family, peer, and college relationships; and media usage and content interests. METHODS The research was implemented in 2020 with 203 students (134 female, 66%) aged 18-25 years, enrolled at the University of Osijek in Croatia. The questionnaire had five parts: A) sociodemographic data; B) the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale; C) the “general life satisfaction” and “current situational life satisfaction” scale; D) family, peer, and college relationships quality scale; and E) media usage and content interests scale. All of the implemented instruments showed satisfactory reliability. A hierarchical regression analysis was implemented with the aim of establishing significant perfectionism predictors. RESULTS Age and gender were significant predictors of perfectionism. Participants with lower family relationship quality reported higher parental expectations and complaining as well as significantly higher doubts in personal performance and concern about mistakes. Similarly, a lower peer relationship quality predicted doubts in personal performance and stronger concerns about mistakes. The quality of college relationships positively predicted higher perfectionist personal standards and organization. General life satisfaction predicted higher concerns about mistakes, while current situational life satisfaction predicted higher levels of perfectionist organization. Media usage intensity had no significant effect. Adolescent interest in information-educational media predicted higher personal standards as well as concern about mistakes and organization. Higher interests in entertainment media content predicted more concern about mistakes, while interest in negative media content negatively predicted organization in adolescents. CONCLUSION Sociodemographic traits, relationships with family, peers and colleagues, as well as life satisfaction and media content interests represent significant adolescent perfectionism predictors, explaining 14%-28% of individual perfectionism dimensions.
Research
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Food as a plethoric embodiment of culture and values plays a crucial role in everyday communication, and recent years the internet and social media in particular has heightened attention to the visual communication of food. There has been an increasing trend on Instagram for users to document their dining experiences and eating habits via photographs of what they eat or locations. The current project therefore aimed to fill gaps in social media research related to the motives and attitudes towards food photography on Instagram. A mixed-methods approach of online questionnaire and semi-structured interviews revealed 1) positive correlations between respondents' viewing and posting frequencies of Instagram food photos, and their rated importance of food appearance in food preferences; 2) communicative affordances of Instagram promotes the motives of engaging in food photography, which influences users' attitudes and behaviours related to food photography and food aesthetics. Implications of findings were discussed in theoretical frameworks of Goffman (1959)'s presentation of self and Carey (1975)'s ritual view of communication.
Chapter
As people increasingly spend more time online, social media have become one of the most important means of communication in contemporary society. Social media have transformed the ways people communicate, have created communities beyond traditional social networks, and have posed new challenges about the limits of understanding and the spread of disinformation. Social media have also become important platforms for communicating about the past. Heated debates about disputed memories ignite on Twitter; gamers live stream and discuss historical video games on Twitch; tourists review heritage sites and museums on TripAdvisor; students and pupils learn for exams by watching YouTube clips; history bu s create Wikipedia pages, answer questions on Quora and discuss content on Reddit-the list is endless. Yet, social media are underrepresented as a subject of study in historical culture. 1 This may partly be related to the relative novelty of the phenomenon, but also to the fact that the theories and models of understanding historical representation that scholars have at their disposal-most importantly narrative theories-are not unequivocally applicable to social media. Narrative theory harks back to the medium of the book and its embeddedness in literary conventions and modes of argument and emplotment. Social media mobilize a great array of signi ers, such as emojis and hashtags, and modes of signi cation, such as memes and snaps, which seem to elude the interpretive framework of narrativism. [...]
Article
Background : This current study aimed to fill the gap that is the relationships of different strategies of online self-presentation (OSP) on sensory impairments students and further explored the effect of social support between them. Methods : Results were from a cross-sectional survey (N=303) with 191 hearing impaired students and 112 visual impaired students, which examined two mediations among online positive and honest self-presentation (PSP and HSP) in self-esteem of sensory impaired students through social support. Results : Specifically, we found that HSP was positively correlated with self-esteem and social support, conversely, PSP was only positively correlated with social support. Moreover, results revealed a suppression of the association of PSP with self-esteem via social support. However, social support had the role of a complete intermediary between HSP and self-esteem. Conclusions : Findings indicated that students with sensory impairments dislike the camouflage effect of positive self-presentation about themselves, from which the psychological deficiencies of self-esteem are derived. When students with sensory impairments feel social support, honest self-presentation were more likely beneficial to their self-esteem.
Chapter
This chapter approaches human communicators as performers and presents a detailed analysis of Erving Goffman’s ‘dramaturgical perspective’ as outlined in his important work, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Goffman suggests that human beings are constantly performing roles or characters (‘self-presentation’) and constantly trying to control or manage impressions of themselves (‘impression management’). This chapter explores these terms as well as the core concepts (front, performances, teamwork, and regions) that make up Goffman’s dramaturgical perspective. It also explores his analysis of embarrassment, which he uses to illustrate that successful social interaction is a collective accomplishment. This chapter considers a range of studies that have ‘applied’ Goffman’s framework in radically different contexts (e.g., strip clubs, swimming pools, Disney theme parks, and Facebook photo galleries).
Article
Instagram is one of the fastest-growing photo sharing social media platforms. Drawing from the uses and gratification theory (U&G theory), this study examines the gratifications in photo sharing on Instagram. Participants were 639 respondents from India aged between 15 to 62 years. This study identified seven gratifications: disclosure, peer influence, trend influence, self-promotion, diversion, habitual pastime, and social interaction. Hierarchical regression of the survey reported that active users with disclosure and peer influence gratification shared more photos online. This study also found that: Age is in positive correlation with peer influence and negative correlation with diversion; gender differences were identified among disclosure, peer influence, self-promotion, and social interaction gratifications.
Article
The purpose of the current study was to explore the influence of competitiveness on the photos that men and women choose to present of themselves on Facebook. Participants consisted of 236 undergraduate students. Participants completed competitiveness and narcissism scales. Participants allowed researchers to screen shot their most recent 10 Facebook photos, including their profile. Results indicated that competitive men were more likely to post athletic photos. Men lower in vanity were more likely to post attractive photos. Men and women higher in authority/entitlement were more likely to post sexual photos. Overall, the study supports the argument that both competitiveness and narcissism influence the photos that men and women choose to post on social media. In addition, competitiveness and narcissism predicted different types of photo selection.
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