Article

Just how much of what we taste derives from the sense of smell?

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Abstract

It is frequently asserted that somewhere between 75 and 95 % of what we commonly think of as taste actually comes from the sense of smell. However, empirical evidence in support of such a precise-sounding quantitative claim is rarely, if ever, cited. Indeed, a closer look at the study that appears to have given rise to statements of this general type simply does not support the claim as made. As we will see, the often confused, and certainly confusing, use of the term “taste”—sometimes in the layman’s everyday sense of flavour and, at other times, in the more precise scientific meaning of gustation, adds to the difficulty here. Furthermore, the widespread disagreement concerning which senses should be considered as constitutive of flavour perception and which merely modulatory means that it is probably not going to be possible to provide an exact answer to the question of how much of what people commonly think of as taste actually comes from the nose, until one has carefully defined one’s terms. Even then, however, the answer is likely to vary quite markedly depending upon the particular combination of olfactory and gustatory stimuli that one is thinking about. Nevertheless, despite the difficulty associated with generating a precise value, or even range of values, most researchers would appear to agree that olfaction plays a “dominant” role in the tasting of food. This important observation (just without the precise-sounding percentages attached) certainly deserves to be shared more widely. Crucially, the evidence suggests that it can sometimes inspire the modernist chefs, not to mention the culinary artists and designers, to change the way in which they deliver multisensory flavour experiences to their customers (in order to capitalize on olfaction’s often dominant role in our perception of food and drink).

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... While significant effects of adding/changing the colour of food and drink have been reported in many studies, no significant results have been reported in certain others (e.g., see [138] for a review). As such, the empirical research that has been published to date has been somewhat unclear as to the precise conditions under which changing the colour modifies the taste and/or flavour of food and drink. ...
... When the discrepancy was larger, however, the colour cue was seemingly ignored. Given that most of what we think we taste we actually smell (via retronasal olfaction; see [138] for a review), Shankar et al. 's 'degree of discrepancy' account of coloured aromas should likely also apply in the case of colour's influence over flavour perception (though see [61]). ...
... Several challenges arise when one attempts to model multisensory flavour perception, the first of which is one of dimensionality. For, in contrast to visual information, which can be characterized in terms of properties of light at different spatial locations, the dimensionality of flavour (or even just aroma, given that 75-95% of what we think we taste we really smell; see [138], for a review) is far more complicated, likely requiring a high-dimensional space. For example, the relationships between the flavour profiles of strawberry, coffee, onion, and orange are far more complex to characterize than the relationships between different colour patches in an image. ...
Article
The colour and other visual appearance properties of food and drink constitute a key factor determining consumer acceptance and choice behaviour. Not only do consumers associate specific colours with particular tastes and flavours, but adding or changing the colour of food and drink can also dramatically affect taste/flavour perception. Surprisingly, even the colour of cups, cutlery, plates, packages, and the colour of the environment itself, have also been shown to influence multisensory flavour perception. The taste/flavour associations that we hold with colour are context-dependent, and are often based on statistical learning (though emotional mediation may also play a role). However, to date, neither the computational principles constraining these ubiquitous crossmodal effects nor the neural mechanisms underpinning the various crossmodal associations (or correspondences) that have been documented between colours and tastes/flavours have yet been established. It is currently unclear to what extent such colour-taste/flavour correspondences ought to be explained in terms of semantic congruency (i.e., statistical learning), and/or emotional mediation. Bayesian causal inference has become an increasingly important tool in helping researchers to understand (and predict) the multisensory interactions between the spatial senses of vision, audition, and touch. However, a network modelling approach may be of value moving forward. As made clear by this review, there are substantial challenges, both theoretical and practical, that will need to be overcome by those wanting to apply computational approaches both to understanding the integration of the chemical senses in the case of multisensory flavour perception, and to understanding the influence of colour thereon.
... Objective assessment of taste was not available. Considering the recognized ambiguity between taste and smell perception [23,24], we preferred not relying on subjective assessment of taste and we concentrated the objective clinical assessment on the smell deficit. About 50-67% of the patients also had clinical signs of cold with cough, rhinorrhea, or fever. ...
... Considering that all but one patient complained about altered sense of taste, it would have been of great interest to investigate the brain metabolic changes specifically associated with dysgeusia. As discussed above, due to the recognized ambiguity between taste and smell perception [23,24], we decided not to include any correlation analyses with the subjective evaluation of taste (i.e., visual analog scale). ...
Article
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Objectives Sudden loss of smell is a very common symptom of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This study characterizes the structural and metabolic cerebral correlates of dysosmia in patients with COVID-19. Methods Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) were prospectively acquired simultaneously on a hybrid PET-MR in 12 patients (2 males, 10 females, mean age: 42.6 years, age range: 23–60 years) with sudden dysosmia and positive detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on nasopharyngeal swab specimens. FDG-PET data were analyzed using a voxel-based approach and compared with that of a group of healthy subjects. Results Bilateral blocking of the olfactory cleft was observed in six patients, while subtle olfactory bulb asymmetry was found in three patients. No MRI signal abnormality downstream of the olfactory tract was observed. Decrease or increase in glucose metabolism abnormalities was observed (p < .001 uncorrected, k ≥ 50 voxels) in core olfactory and high-order neocortical areas. A modulation of regional cerebral glucose metabolism by the severity and the duration of COVID-19-related dysosmia was disclosed using correlation analyses. Conclusions This PET-MR study suggests that sudden loss of smell in COVID-19 is not related to central involvement due to SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasiveness. Loss of smell is associated with subtle cerebral metabolic changes in core olfactory and high-order cortical areas likely related to combined processes of deafferentation and active functional reorganization secondary to the lack of olfactory stimulation.
... However, while this kind of research demonstrates that perceptual thresholds for specific tastants sometimes change systematically over the course of the day, it is by no means clear what the implications of such observations might be for the everyday food preferences/flavour perception of consumers. What is more, it should also be remembered that the majority of what we consider to be taste is actually derived from retronasal olfactory cues (see Spence, 2015, for a review). As such, it might well be argued that any circadian variation in olfactory perception would be much more relevant in terms of helping to explain the changes in the kinds of foods that we consume (and the flavours we favour) as a function of the time of day (at least when addressing the question from a perceptual standpoint). ...
... Koza, Cilmi, Dolese, & Zellner, 2005;Rozin, 1982;Small, Veldhuizen, Felsted, Mak, & McGlone, 2008). It is therefore perhaps somewhat surprising that no one has yet investigated whether there is a circadian/diurnal rhythm in retronasal olfactory perception, given that it is retronasal (not orthonasal) olfaction that directly (i.e., constitutively) contributes to multisensory flavour perception (see Spence, 2015). ...
Article
When questioned, people typically report that different foods are appropriate at different times of day. What is more, patterns of food consumption tend to exhibit marked diurnal/circadian variations in many parts of the world too. The question addressed in this review is what factors help to explain these temporal differences in food consumption. While it has been suggested that our nutritional needs may differ somewhat over the course of the day, cultural conventions, marketing-led interventions, atmospheric (e.g., think only of changes in ambient temperature and/or daily light levels), perceptual (i.e., threshold) and/or hedonic changes, as well as psychological factors have also been suggested to play a role. Taken together, though, the evidence reviewed here would appear to support the view that cultural and psychological factors, not to mention the ubiquitous influence of food marketing, may be the most important factors in terms of helping to explain why it is that so many of us choose to eat different foods at different times of the day. Relevant psychological factors here include everything from the purported depletion of self-restraint resources over the course of the day through to the fulfilment of different psychological needs (e.g., functional or hedonic) associated with different mealtimes. Given the unhealthy foods typically associated with breakfast in many western countries (e.g., think only of sugar-laden breakfast cereals), gaining a better understanding of the factors underpinning current temporal patterns of food consumption may potentially help those wanting to nudge consumers toward making healthier food choices in the future.
... The nutty, chocolately, fruity, cereal, and floral aromas that roasting and blending the right combination of beans can help to deliver are all enjoyed (or rather detected) primarily by the olfactory receptors in the nose (Spence, 2015a). In fact, coffee is one of the few drinks that is mentioned as sometimes being even more pleasurable orthonasally as we sniff and inhale the aroma, 3 than when we get a retronasal burst of flavourful volatiles pulsed out from the back of the nose (Rozin, 1982;cf. ...
... Meanwhile, contemporary interest in the sound of odor has highlighted the musical translation for the fruity, earthy, and nutty notes that one can find in a specialty coffee (e.g., Belkin et al., 1997;Spence, 2010, 2012a). Indeed, given that 75-95% on what we think we taste, we actually smell (Spence, 2015a(Spence, , 2016, matching the sonic seasoning to what we smell (whether by the orthonasal or retronasal route) is likely going to be especially important. The typical aromas that the consumer may expect to experience in a cup of freshly-brewed specialty coffee include "nutty, " "almond, " "brown spice, " "floral, " and "jasmine" (see, for example, the coffee lexicon developed by World Coffee Research: https:// worldcoffeeresearch.org/work/sensory-lexicon/; Chambers et al., 2016;Croijmans and Majid, 2016, on the language used by the coffee experts). ...
Article
Full-text available
The coffee drinking experience undoubtedly depends greatly on the quality of the coffee bean and the method of preparation. However, beyond the product-intrinsic qualities of the beverage itself, there are also a host of other product-extrinsic factors that have been shown to influence the coffee-drinking experience. This review summarizes the influence of everything from the multisensory atmosphere through to the sound of coffee preparation, and from the typeface on the coffee packaging through the drinking vessel. Furthermore, the emerging science around sonic seasoning, whereby specific pieces of music or soundscapes, either pre-composed or bespoke, are used to bring out specific aspects in the taste (e.g., sweetness or bitterness) or aroma/flavor (nutty, dark chocolate, dried fruit notes, etc.) of a coffee beverage is also discussed in depth. Relevant related research with other complex drinks such as beer and wine are also mentioned where relevant.
... It turns out that there are, in fact, several neuroscience-based explanations for why one might expect there be a link between personality and taste/flavour preferences. However, at the outset, it is important to stress that the connection has more to do with the taste-buds (i.e., gustation), and the mouthfeel/trigeminal elements of tasting food (i.e., the burn of chile pepper) than with the olfactory contributions to flavour, important though the latter undoubtedly are (Spence, 2015). While there are some important individual differences in terms of our ability to smell the many different volatiles that contribute to flavour (e.g., see Blakeslee, 1935;Blakeslee and Salmon, 1931;Reed and Knaapila, 2010), these genetic differences have not, as yet, been linked directly to characteristic personality traits. ...
... At the same time, however, increased levels of anxiety, as induced in lab-rats by the presentation of unpredictable loud noises, results in sweetness becoming more pleasant (Kupfermann, 1964). The suggestion here being that we may be drawn toward those tastes that signal the energy we might need to help us get out of an anxiety-causing situation (see Spence, 2014, for a review). At the same time, however, stress situations have also been reported to make both rats and humans more sensitive to bitterness (Dess, 1992;Dess and Edelheit, 1998). ...
Article
A number of personality characteristics have been linked to various aspects of taste (gustation), trigeminal, and olfactory perception. In particular, personality traits have been linked to olfactory sensory thresholds and olfactory identification abilities, as well as to the sensory-discriminative aspects of taste/flavour perception. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on Sensation Seeking (including Experience Seeking, and Openness to Novel Experiences), with the latter being linked to a preference for spicy, and possibly also crunchy, sour, and bitter foods/drinks. Novelty-seeking has also been linked to a preference for salty foods, while anxious individuals appear to enjoy a much narrower range of foods. A bidirectional link has also been documented between taste and mood. Certain of the personality-based differences in taste/flavour perception and food behaviour have been linked to differences in circulating levels of neurotransmitters and hormones in both normal and clinical populations. Taken together, therefore, the evidence that has been published to date supports a number of intriguing connections between personality traits and taste perception/food behaviour.
... The copyright holder for this preprint this version posted September 13, 2022. ; https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.09.11.507407 doi: bioRxiv preprint flavors [31]. However, subjective report on individual taste modalities (such as bitter, sweet, salty) also had very low correlation with objective measures for that taste modality. ...
Preprint
Gustatory ability is an important marker of health status, including COVID-19 disease. We compare self-reporting with home and lab psychophysical “taste strips” tests in healthy subjects. The taste test consisted of paper strips impregnated with sweet, bitter, salty, or sour tastants, and with the trigeminal stimulus capsaicin, each in high and in low concentration. The test was carried out either in a controlled lab environment (74 participants, 47 women) with the strips being administered by the experimenter or self-administered by the participants at home (77 participants, 59 women). After self-reporting their subjective assessment of chemosensory ability, the participant identified the taste of each strip and rated intensity and pleasantness. Identification score, intensity, and pleasantness averaged over the 8 taste strips were similar between the lab and the home-administered tests. Self-rated taste ability did not correlate with any of these scores, but strongly correlated with self-rated smell ability in the lab group (r=0.73), and moderately correlated in the home group (r=0.51). Taste identification correlated with intensity ratings (r=0.63 lab, r=0.36 home) but not with the pleasantness ratings (r=-0.14 lab, r=0.1 home). The results of the taste strips test were similar in the lab and at home for healthy young participants and provide a baseline against which taste tests can be compared in future applications.
... Participants may mistake lack of flavor perception due to reduced retronasal olfaction caused by OD as taste problems in the acute phase of COVID-19 [35][36][37] . This finding could either be due to more severe olfactory loss being related to longer duration of the symptom, or that GD does influence olfactory recovery by unknown mechanisms. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OD, GD) are prevalent symptoms following COVID-19 and persist in 6%-44% of individuals in the first months after the infection. As only few reports have described their prognosis more than 6 months later, the main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of OD and GD 11 months after COVID-19. We also aimed to determine test-retest reliability of subjective chemosensory ratings for the follow-up of chemosensory sensitivity, as this measure is often used for remote follow-up. Methods: Inclusion criteria included a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection; exclusion criteria were the presence of other respiratory infections and chronic sinusitis. To assess whether OD and GD had changed compared to pre-pandemic levels, we designed an observational study and distributed an online questionnaire assessing quantitative chemosensory function to healthcare workers 5 and 11 months after COVID-19. Specifically, we assessed olfaction, gustation, and trigeminal sensitivity (10-point visual analog scale) and function (4-point Likert scale) separately. We further assessed clinically relevant OD using the Chemosensory Perception Test, a psychophysical test designed to provide a reliable remote olfactory evaluation. Qualitative chemosensory dysfunction was also assessed. Results: We included a total of 366 participants (mean age of 44.8 years old (SD: 11.7)). They completed the last online questionnaire 10.6 months (SD: 0.7) after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Of all participants, 307 (83.9%) and 301 (82.2%) individuals retrospectively reported lower olfactory or gustatory sensitivity during the acute phase of COVID-19. Eleven months later, 184 (50.3%) and 163 (44.5%) indicated reduced chemosensory sensitivity, 32.2% reported impairment of olfactory function while 24.9% exhibited clinically relevant OD. Three variables predicted OD at follow-up, namely chest pain and GD during COVID-19 and presence of phantosmia at 5 months. Olfactory sensitivity ratings had a high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.818 (95% CI: 0.760 - 0.860)) Discussion: This study suggests that chemosensory dysfunctions persist in a third of COVID-19 patients 11 months after COVID-19. Subjective measures have a high test-retest reliability and thus can be used to monitor post-COVID-19 OD. OD appears to be a common long-term symptom of COVID-19 important to consider when treating patients.
... The decline in the sense of smell with aging [26,31,32] is likely to exert a more pronounced detrimental effect on multisensory flavour perception than any loss of taste (gustation), given figures suggesting that as much as 75-95% of what we think we taste, we actually smell [33]. Here, though, it is important to highlight the potentially important distinction between orthonasal smell (as when we sniff food) and the retronasal release of volatile-rich aromas pulsed out from the back of the nose when we swallow and masticate [34,35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The growing aging population are increasingly suffering from the negative health consequences of the age-related decline in their senses, especially their chemical senses. Unfortunately, however, unlike for the higher senses of vision and hearing, there is currently nothing that can be done to bring back the chemical senses once they are lost (or have started their inevitable decline). The evidence suggests that such chemosensory changes can result in a range of maladaptive food behaviours, including the addition of more salt and sugar to food and drink in order to experience the same taste intensity while, at the same time, reducing their overall consumption because food has lost its savour. Here, though, it is also important to stress the importance of the more social aspects of eating and drinking, given the evidence suggesting that a growing number of older individuals are consuming more of their meals alone than ever before. Various solutions have been put forward in order to try to enhance the food experience amongst the elderly, including everything from optimising the product-intrinsic food inputs provided to the remaining functional senses through to a variety of digital interventions. Ultimately, however, the aim has to be to encourage healthier patterns of food consumption amongst this rapidly-growing section of the population by optimising the sensory, nutritional, social, and emotional aspects of eating and drinking. An experimental dinner with the residents of one such home where nostalgic-flavoured healthy ice-creams were served is described.
... Oftentimes, those interested in understanding where a particular factoid or anecdote came from create citation trees to help trace back the development of the idea (e.g., Sivak, 1996;Spence, 2015a). Unfortunately, however, the citation tree in the case of the blue steak experiment stops squarely with Wheatley (1973), since neither of the references that are mentioned in her article (namely Lüscher, 1969;Townsend, 1969) mention the blue steak experiment. ...
Article
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Is blue food desirable or disgusting? The answer, it would seem, is both, but it really depends on the food in which the color happens to be present. It turns out that the oft-cited aversive response to blue meat may not even have been scientifically validated, despite the fact that blue food coloring is often added to discombobulate diners. In the case of drinks, however, there has been a recent growth of successful new blue product launches in everything from beer to tea, and from wine to gin, arguing that coloring food products blue is more than simply a contemporary fad. In fact, the current interest in blue food coloring builds on the color's earlier appearance in everything from blue curacao to blue-raspberry candyfloss (cotton candy), and thereafter a number of soft drinks. Over the years, the combination of blue coloring with raspberry flavoring has also appeared in everything from bubble-gum to patriotic pop rocks (popping candy in The United States). Ultimately, it is the rarity of naturally-blue foods that is likely what makes this color so special. As such, blue food coloring can both work effectively to attract the visual attention of the shopper while, at the same time, being linked to a range of different flavors (since this is one of the few color-flavor mappings that are essentially arbitrary) depending on the food format in which it happens to appear. Note also that the basic descriptor “blue” covers a wide range of hues having a range of different associations, hence eliciting different reactions (be they positive or negative). While blue was once associated with artificiality, a growing number of natural blue food colorings have come onto the market in recent years thus perhaps changing the dominant associations that many consumers may have with this most unusual of food colors.
... We found that cases with isolated disturbances of taste or smell were less in number; however, their simultaneous occurrence was quite common, as mentioned before. The rationale for this unique occurrence can easily be explained as smell constitutes 75-95% of our sense of taste [17]. The pathogenesis of loss of taste or smell in Covid-19 infection is not yet clear. ...
Article
We conducted the study to find the prevalence of ENT symptoms amongst mild Covid-19 patients from the hilly region of North India and attempted to propose a solution to curb the spread of Covid-19 through early identif ication, isolation, and treatment. A retrospective, cross-sectional study at a secondary healthcare center in a hilly region of North India covered 423 mildly symptomatic Covid-19 patients from April 2020 to March 2022. These patients were telephonically contacted or called in person at the outpatient department to answer a preset questionnaire with various parameters such as age, gender, ENT symptoms, and time to recover. The data obtained were statistically analyzed. 207 out of 423 mild Covid-19 patients complained of different ENT symptoms. Cough was the most common ENT symptom and was reported by 162 patients. Dizziness was the least common ENT symptom and was reported by 9 patients. Recovery time for tinnitus was maximum (persistent till six months in 5 patients). A high index of suspicion for Covid19 disease in patients with ENT symptoms must be practiced. As the Covid-19 restrictions are gradually relaxed, widespread community education for strict adherence to Covid-19 appropriate behaviour and sensitization of General Practitioners a well as Otorhinolaryngologists regarding the importance of ENT symptoms in mild Covid19 disease will play a pivotal role in the early identification, isolation, and treatment of mild Covid-19 disease, which eventually may curb the future waves.
... In fact, not all of the sensations that the brain associates with the experience of wine originate from the tongue [6]. Olfaction, for instance, is dominant before, and while wine is being tasted [7]. Thus, for a more precise understanding of the way a consumer experiences wine, it is crucial to consider how the senses interact prior to, during, and even after the wine tasting experience itself (e.g., with the latter potentially affecting the purchase intention, and/or willingness to pay for a food/drink product). ...
Article
Full-text available
The existing multisensory literature suggests that the combination of the different human senses in a controlled fashion during food/drink experiences can provide more enjoyment to consumers. The present research reviews recent literature relating multisensory perception with wine experiences, focusing on the interaction of the five basic senses (taste, smell, vision, touch, and sound). This is mostly being assessed from a perceptual and behavioral consumer perspective. Here, the authors report different ways in which such interactions across these senses can affect the way a wine is experienced, prior to, during, and even after tasting. The authors finish this literature review by providing some insights in the context of wine and food pairing, while also generally reflecting on potential future work. These insights may be inspirational for a diverse group of organizations working with wine. Based on such multisensory approaches, it may be possible to bring unforeseen sensations to the different wine experiences, while at the same time stressing particular sensory and/or emotional attributes.
... Another potential explanation for the lack of agreement between patients' self-reported taste function and function measured using sensory evaluation techniques is that patients may misidentify olfactory dysfunction as taste dysfunction (Rozin 1982;Stevenson et al. 1999;Spence 2015). Studies have shown that olfactory dysfunction also occur in HNC patients after radiotherapy (Alvarez-Camacho et al. 2017) (Supplementary Table 2). ...
Article
Survivors of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) frequently complain of taste dysfunction long after radiation therapy is completed, which contradicts findings from most sensory evaluation studies, which predict dysfunction should resolve few months after treatment. Therefore, it remains unclear whether taste and smell function fully recovers in HNSCC survivors. We evaluated HNSCC survivors (n=40; age 63±12 years, mean ± standard deviation) who received radiation therapy between 6 months and 10 years before recruitment and compared their responses to those of a healthy control group (n=20) equivalent in age, sex, race, smoking history, and body mass index. We assessed regional (tongue tip) and whole-mouth taste intensity perception using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale and smell function using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). To determine possible differences between groups in retronasal smell perception, we used solutions of sucrose with strawberry extract, citric acid with lemon extract, sodium chloride in vegetable broth, and caffeine in coffee and asked participants to rate perceived smell and taste intensities with and without nose clips. We found groups had similar UPSIT and taste intensity scores when solutions were experienced in the whole mouth. However, HNSCC survivors were less likely to identify low concentrations of bitter, sweet, or salty stimuli in the tongue tip relative to healthy controls. Our findings suggest persistent and subtle localized damage to the chorda tympani or to the taste buds in the fungiform papillae of HNSCC survivors, which could explain their sensory complaints long after completion of radiotherapy.
... One might consider whether the few studies of the olfactory modulation of person perception where the participants have been given a number of different scales to rate a person's attributes (six in the case of Marinova & Moss, 2014; ten in the case of Capparuccini et al., 2010; and two in the case of Seubert et al., 2014), presumably help to address this potential concern, as do McGlone et al. 's (2013) neuroimaging results (discussed earlier). 18 At the same time, however, it is also worth noting that the senses of taste and smell are much more closely connected (and hence easily confusable; Spence, 2015Spence, , 2016 than are olfaction and vision. 19 This may perhaps reduce the likelihood of this potential alternative explanation for the data (though see also Kappes et al., 2006). ...
Article
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In recent decades, there has been an explosion of research into the crossmodal influence of olfactory cues on multisensory person perception. Numerous peer-reviewed studies have documented that a variety of olfactory stimuli, from ambient malodours through to fine fragrances, and even a range of chemosensory body odours can influence everything from a perceiver’s judgments of another person’s attractiveness, age, affect, health/disease status, and even elements of their personality. The crossmodal and multisensory contributions to such effects are reviewed and the limitations/peculiarities of the research that have been published to date are highlighted. At the same time, however, it is important to note that the presence of scent (and/or the absence of malodour) can also influence people’s (i.e., a perceiver’s) self-confidence which may, in turn, affect how attractive they appear to others. Several potential cognitive mechanisms have been put forward to try and explain such crossmodal/multisensory influences, and some of the neural substrates underpinning these effects have now been characterized. At the end of this narrative review, a number of the potential (and actual) applications for, and implications of, such crossmodal/multisensory phenomena involving olfaction are outlined briefly.
... But when we have food, the experience is not controlled only by these tastes. Food flavour is combination of smell & taste, where our sense of smell in responsible for about 75% to 95% of what we taste (Spence C, 2015). With our nose blocked, due to cold or other reason, most of the foods seem to taste bland. ...
Conference Paper
Food Tourism engages all faculties of senses of a tourist. In any tourism activity, sight, hearing, and touch are very common. But when we plan food tourism, our other two senses become extra active. Sometimes we have no idea about the delicacies of a place. On enquiring, we get information about the food item from relatives, friends & colleagues. Magazines, newspapers & books also provide information. But these are only descriptions supported with pictures. If we search through internet, we would get little more details, maybe in the form of write-ups, pictures, audio & video clippings. So, mainly two of our senses are getting involved – sight & hearing. Sense of smell & taste, which are most important for food, are totally neglected, and even touch. A device, with suitable interfaces can be designed, which would be able to provide the customer the flavour of the food remotely. On satisfactory flavour sampling, the online customer will be converted to a potential ‘Food Tourist’. In this research paper the developments in the field of ‘digital flavour’ and its promising contribution in future ‘Food Tourism’ are discussed. Beside ‘Food Tourism’, the concept of ‘Digital Smell’ can also be very helpful for the industries directly related to smell or aroma.
... In order to simplify matters, those working in the flavour and fragrance industries typically refer to the food aromas that they produce as flavours, based on the fact that the majority of taste is delivered by the volatile olfactory cues. Indeed, one can find the view that 75-95% of what people think that they are tasting actually comes from the sense of smell (i.e., from retronasal olfactory cues) echoed throughout the academic and popular press over the last three decades or so [5]. Though, as for so many often-repeated statistics, it turns out that there is no robust underpinning evidence concerning what the correct percentage might actually be in this case. ...
Article
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This narrative review examines the complex relationship that exists between the presence of specific configurations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in food and drink products and multisensory flavour perception. Advances in gas chromatography technology and mass spectrometry data analysis mean that it is easier than ever before to identify the unique chemical profile of a particular food or beverage item. Importantly, however, there is simply no one-to-one mapping between the presence of specific VOCs and the flavours that are perceived by the consumer. While the profile of VOCs in a particular product undoubtedly does tightly constrain the space of possible flavour experiences that a taster is likely to have, the gustatory and trigeminal components (i.e., sapid elements) in foods and beverages can also play a significant role in determining the actual flavour experience. Genetic differences add further variation to the range of multisensory flavour experiences that may be elicited by a given configuration of VOCs, while an individual’s prior tasting history has been shown to determine congruency relations (between olfaction and gustation) that, in turn, modulate the degree of oral referral, and ultimately flavour pleasantness, in the case of familiar foods and beverages.
... Sight is also being employed to assist in the selection of grazing material. At the same time olfaction plays a role in feed selection and in taste or flavour differentiation [21]. Nasal breathing, as is the case with most mammalians including humans [22], is employed exclusively whilst masticating. ...
... ; https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.16.21262058 doi: medRxiv preprint 16/29 chronic pain disorders. Moreover, the taste perception does not simply depend on the choice of gustatory qualities, such as sweet, bitter, sour, salty, savory, on taste intensity and on taste valence (unpleasant/pleasant), but also depends on other factors, most prominently retronasal olfaction 60 . Our present study was limited to two moderately intense taste qualities, namely bitter and sweet in comparison to tasteless placebo drops. ...
Preprint
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We conducted a randomized, double-blind, between-group study to investigate how the taste of oral medication affects placebo analgesia. Over three sub-studies, 318 healthy volunteers (297 included) were subjected to experimental tonic cold water pain (cold pressor test) before and after receiving taste-neutral (water), bitter (quinine), sweet (saccharine), or no placebo drops. Pain ratings indicated that taste enhances placebo analgesia. This effect was small but accounted for a substantial portion of the overall placebo effect and was comparable to WHO stage 1 analgesic effects. Moreover, placebo treatments were associated with an increase in peak heart rate response to cold water. Adverse effects were minimal. These results indicate that added taste may be an easy-to-implement, cost-effective, and safe way to optimize treatment outcomes and that taste-neutral preparations may reduce placebo-related outcome variance in clinical trials. Further studies are needed to test if these findings can be translated into clinical scenarios.
... Despite the early state of gustatory-enabled gaming (Obrist, Gatti, et al., 2017;Obrist, Ranasinghe, et al., 2017), concerns about possibly encouraging obesity through rewarding players with sweet treats/rewards have already been raised. What is more, it is worth noting that digital taste, while possible, has so far proved to be a pretty "thin" experience (see Spence, 2017;Spence et al., 2017), given that most of what we think we taste actually results from retronasal olfaction (see Spence, 2015b). ...
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There has long been interest in both the tonic and phasic release of scent across a wide range of entertainment settings. While the presentation of semantically congruent scent has often been used in order to enhance people’s immersion in a particular context, other generally less successful attempts have involved the pulsed presentation of a range of scents tied to specific events/scenes. Scents have even been released in the context of the casino to encourage the guests to linger for longer (and spend more), at least according to the results of one controversial study. In this narrative review, I want to take a closer look at the use of scent in a range of both physical and digital environments, highlighting the successes (as in the case of scented theme park rides) and frequent failures (as, seemingly, in the context of scent-enabled video games). While digitally inducing meaningful olfactory sensations is likely to remain a pipe dream for the foreseeable future, the digital control of scent release/delivery provides some limited opportunities to enhance the multisensory experience of entertainment. That said, it remains uncertain whether the general public will necessarily perceive the benefit, and hence be willing to pay for the privilege.
... 8. Note that the by-now extensive literature on 'sonic seasoning' (Spence, 2021b), where what people listen to has been shown to modify the taste of food and drink, falls beyond the scope of this review, despite the fact that sonic seasoning has become a major area of interest, and is closely linked to musical scents given that most of what we think we taste we actually smell (Spence, 2015b). 9. Oftentimes, the scented programs that were handed out at theatre performances were fragranced with one of Rimmel's favourite perfumes, "Royal Aquarium Bouquet" (Alipaz, 2015). ...
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The matching of scents with music is both one of the most natural (or intuitive) of crossmodal correspondences and, at the same time, one of the least frequently explored combinations of senses in an entertainment and multisensory experiential design context. This narrative review highlights the various occasions over the last century or two when scents and sounds have coincided, and the various motivations behind those who have chosen to bring these senses together: This has included everything from the masking of malodour to the matching of the semantic meaning or arousal potential of the two senses, through to the longstanding and recently-reemerging interest in the crossmodal correspondences (now that they have been distinguished from the superficially similar phenomenon of synaesthesia, with which they were previously often confused). As such, there exist a number of ways in which these two senses can be incorporated into meaningful multisensory experiences that can potentially resonate with the public. Having explored the deliberate combination of scent and music (or sound) in everything from “scent-sory” marketing through to fragrant discos and olfactory storytelling, I end by summarizing some of the opportunities around translating such unusual multisensory experiences from the public to the private sphere. This will likely be via the widespread dissemination of sensory apps that promise to convert (or translate) from one sense (likely scent) to another (e.g., music), as has, for example already started to occur in the world of music selections to match the flavour of specific wines.
... The small differences in fluid intake between menthol-containing solutions and CHO indicate that this hypothesis is supported by our data. Similar effects are noted as a result of the 'bite' individuals experience when drinking carbonated water, which is considered more thirst satiating than still water because of its CO 2 content [59,60]. This reduction in thirst, however, did not appear to alter performance or mean power output, suggesting that as athletes progress through exercise in the heat hyperthermia and associated perceptual responses likely outweigh modifications in thirst brought about by menthol mouth swilling, as per Figure 4F. ...
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The current study compared mouth swills containing carbohydrate (CHO), menthol (MEN) or a combination (BOTH) on 40 km cycling time trial (TT) performance in the heat (32 • C, 40% humidity, 1000 W radiant load) and investigates associated physiological (rectal temperature (Trec), heart rate (HR)) and subjective measures (thermal comfort (TC), thermal sensation (TS), thirst, oral cooling (OC) and RPE (legs and lungs)). Eight recreationally trained male cyclists (32 ± 9 y; height: 180.9 ± 7.0 cm; weight: 76.3 ± 10.4 kg) completed familiarisation and three experimental trials, swilling either MEN, CHO or BOTH at 10 km intervals (5, 15, 25, 35 km). The 40 km TT performance did not differ significantly between conditions (F 2,14 = 0.343; p = 0.715; η 2 = 0.047), yet post-hoc testing indicated small differences between MEN and CHO (d = 0.225) and MEN and BOTH (d = 0.275). Subjective measures (TC, TS, RPE) were significantly affected by distance but showed no significant differences between solutions. Within-subject analysis found significant interactions between solution and location upon OC intensity (F 28,196 = 2.577; p < 0.001; η 2 = 0.269). While solutions containing MEN resulted in a greater sensation of OC, solutions containing CHO experienced small improvements in TT performance. Stimulation of central CHO pathways during self-paced cycling TT in the heat may be of more importance to performance than perceptual cooling interventions. However, no detrimental effects are seen when interventions are combined.
... Rasa yang enak dapat menarik perhatian konsumen sehingga konsumen lebih cenderung menyukai makanan dari rasanya. Cita rasa dari bahan pangan sesungguhnya terdiri dari tiga komponen yaitu: bau, rasa, dan ransangan mulut (Spence, 2015). Rasa adalah salah satu faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi penerimaan seseorang terhadap makanan. ...
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Application of science-technology-society (STS) in the village of Ambon City Music Attraction through empowerment of Gandaria (Bouea macrophylla) Maluku Endemic Plants. Community service is participatory in nature, namely the method of strengthening community capacity is not in the form of training but increases knowledge and skills that are normative. The service is carried out in Amahusu village as a tourist attraction village in Ambon city. The subjects in this service activity consisted of Mrs. PKK, and teenagers in Mahahusu village. The products produced include 6 snacks and beverages, namely: Yogurth, Nata, Wine, Dodol, Boble Tea, and Jelly drinks. Organoleptic test on color, aroma, texture, taste, and acceptability. This service program has changed the culture of the community into producing products. In addition to the ability of the program, it is hoped that the community will be more independent and just
... Five basic taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami) are widely recognized (Kan & Hummel, 2019). Foods often have a predominant taste, though the taste and flavor of foods are complex, and smell appears to contribute significantly more to the flavor of food than gustation (Spence, 2015). Examples of each taste are sweet (candy, ice cream), sour (cranberries, lemons), salty (bacon, beef jerky), bitter (beer, coffee), and umami (umami dashi soup) (Meier et al., 2012;Motoki et al., 2019). ...
Article
We test how and why food taste and brand personality interactively influence consumer evaluations. Although food branding is a substantial and large market, studies on food taste and brand personality have only been conducted separately. Across four studies (including one real-brand study), the present study aimed to reveal the association between brand personality and tastes and how and why congruency between these two may influence brand evaluations. Sincerity as a brand personality trait is reliably associated with sweet tastes, regardless of culture, measures of brand personality, and experimental designs. Process evidence suggests that the relationship between sincerity and sweet foods increases perceived congruence, which leads to positive brand attitudes. Moreover, brand sincerity is positively associated with sweet food sales. These findings reveal a novel link between food taste and brand personality and provide practical implications for food branding.
... Nevertheless, suggestion has been robustly questioned by Auvray and Spence (2008) and . Two key issues to bear in mind here are first that the connection between olfactory stimuli and gustatory properties is not idiosyncratic between individuals, and second that people tend to experience a unitary flavor rather than a distinction between inducer and concurrent that is such a signature feature of synesthesia proper (see Spence, 2015). For these and several other reasons, the description of OITE as a ubiquitous form of synesthesia would seem misleading and hence should probably be abandoned. ...
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In this narrative historical review, I want to take a closer look at the concept of perceptual similarity both as it applies within, and between, the chemical senses (specifically taste and smell). The discussion is linked to issues of affective similarity and connotative meaning. The relation between intramodal and crossmodal judgments of perceptual similarity, and the putatively special status of those odorants that happen to take on taste qualities will also be discussed. An important distinction is drawn between the interrelated, though sometimes distinct, notions of perceptual similarity and crossmodal congruency, specifically as they relate to the comparison of chemosensory stimuli. Such phenomena are often referred to as crossmodal correspondences, or by others (incorrectly in my view), as a kind of ubiquitous synesthesia.
... As for the appearance, broiler chicken appeared to be in bright beige with the value of 12.00 ± 0.826, while the juiciness is also considerably high with 6.50 ± 0.698. Hence, broiler chicken is significantly increasing one's appetite as Spence [50] mentioned that a high amount of juiciness and appearance (bright color) could psychologically be appealing to one's appetite. Table 15 lists the result between control colored chicken (CCC) and market colored chicken (MCC) sold at three different markets. ...
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Village chicken is known as a high-quality product perception and sold at high prices. However, the authenticity of village chicken is doubted because colored chicken has been claimed as village chicken to fraud the consumers and to gain high profit. No stringent strategy has been implemented by the local authority on the authenticity of the claimed village chickens. Thus, the study aimed to determine the meat quality of different chicken breeds including village chicken, broiler chicken (Cobb), colored chicken (Hubbard), and layer chicken from genuine suppliers and chickens sold at different local markets based on the physicochemical characterization, textural properties, and sensory evaluation. Chicken breeds were obtained from genuine suppliers and slaughtered at the slaughtering house Universiti Putra Malaysia. Proximate composition, color, and textural properties were evaluated. Minitab-19 and SIMCA-13 software were used to analyze the results, applying analysis of variance and partial least squares discriminant analysis, respectively. The study revealed that some of the market-supplied chickens were not authentic based on the features studied. About 20% of market village chickens had possessed similar results as the control village chicken. It can be shown that 80% of the claimed village chicken sold in the market was not authentic village chicken. This study showed the differentiation in texture composition such as chewiness, hardness, gumminess, cohesiveness, resilience, and springiness, followed by protein content, ash content, and a ∗ and b ∗ values as an indicator to differentiate the authenticity of different chicken breeds.
... One research further suggested that older adults with olfactory dysfunction had three-fold increased mortality rates compared to older adults with normosmia [4]. To date, olfactory and taste dysfunction have been considered a multifactorial disorder that might be affected by influenza-like infection, nasal and paranasal sinus infectious diseases and head trauma [5][6][7][8][9]. Recently, some studies have indicated that hypertension, diabetes and pro-inflammatory status might be associated with an increased risk for olfactory and taste dysfunctions [10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
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Background It is plausible that immunopathological processes associated with psoriasis might contribute to the occurrence of olfactory or taste dysfunction. However, the actual association was still unknown. Purpose To determine the relationship between olfactory or taste dysfunction and psoriasis. Methods Two cross-sectional studies were performed by using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Participants with psoriasis were defined as cases and those without psoriasis were identified as controls. Taste and smell self-reported questionnaires were used to define smell/taste alterations and identification tests were used to assure the smell/taste dysfunctions. Logistic regression models with inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) strategies were conducted to investigated the relationship between psoriasis and olfactory or taste dysfunction. Results Self-reported questionnaires indicated that psoriasis patients were more likely to have perceived taste alteration (IPTW-aOR = 1.43) and smell alteration (IPTW-aOR = 1.22). Identification tests revealed that psoriasis was associated with taste dysfunction (IPTW-aOR = 1.28) and olfactory dysfunction (IPTW-aOR = 1.22). Relevant findings showed that psoriasis may be significantly associated with taste or olfactory dysfunction regardless of the questionnaire data or identification examination data used. Conclusion Olfactory and taste dysfunction could be considered comorbidities in patients with psoriasis based on our observational study. Therefore, physicians should be cautious of olfaction and taste alterations among patients with psoriasis.
... These sensations appear when a substance activates certain receptors located in the mouth (though see also 27). Finally, flavor refers to a multisensory perception of food or drink involving not only taste, but also retronasal smell (see 28) and, on occasion, the trigeminal nerve (the nerve responsible for the face and motor functions that provides sensations such as temperature, astringency, or pungency; 29) as well. ...
Article
Chemotherapy is an aggressive form of treatment for cancer and its toxicity directly affects the eating behavior of many patients, usually by adversely affecting their sense of smell and/or taste. These sensory alterations often lead to serious nutritional deficiencies that can jeopardize the patient's recovery, and even continue to affect their lives once treatment has terminated. Importantly, however, not all patients suffer from such alterations to their chemical senses; and those who do, do not necessarily describe the side effects in quite the same way, nor suffer from them with equal intensity. The origin of these individual differences between cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment has not, as yet, been studied in detail. This review is therefore designed to encourage future research that can help to address the perceptual/sensory problems (and the consequent malnutrition) identified amongst this group of patients in a more customized/personalized manner. In particular, by providing an overview of the possible causes of these large individual differences that have been reported in the literature. For this reason, in addition to the narrative bibliographic review, several possible strategies that could help to improve the chemosensory perception of food are proposed.
... A common symptom of COVID-19 is altered smell and taste, including loss and distortion of smell and taste [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Given the importance of taste and smell in motivating and guiding eating behaviour [7][8][9][10][11], these symptoms can be expected to have significant effects on food choice and food intake, and in turn adversely affect nutritional status if changes in taste and smell are long lasting. The present study sought to add to the record of lived experiences of participants for whom altered taste and smell was a confirmed symptom of COVID-19, with a particular focus on characterising the nature of the changes in taste and smell perception, and on documenting and interpreting the nature and extent of associated changes in appetite and food choice. ...
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A common symptom of COVID-19 is altered smell and taste. This qualitative study sought to further characterise this altered chemosensory perception and its effects on appetite for food and drink. Eighteen women and two men who had experienced chemosensory loss associated with COVID-19 participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five major themes. These confirmed that all participants had experienced an altered sense of smell (anosmia, and less frequently parosmia and phantosmia) of variable duration. Loss of taste (ability to detect sweetness, saltiness, etc.) was less common. Participants experienced decreased, no change or increased appetite, with six participants reporting weight loss. Consistent with evidence linking diminished appetite with inflammation, for two participants, decreased appetite preceded anosmia onset. Anosmia reduced enjoyment of food and drink. Compensatory strategies included choosing salty, sweet and ‘spicy’ foods, and increased attention to food texture, and there was evidence that the postingestive rewarding effects of food intake were also important for maintaining appetite. Some participants mentioned increased alcohol intake, in part facilitated by reduced intensity of disliked flavours of alcoholic drinks. The narratives also underlined the value placed on the sociability and structuring of time that daily meals provide. This research adds to the record and analysis of lived experiences of altered chemosensory perception resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it contributes insights concerning the role of smell and flavour in motivating and rewarding food ingestion.
... Flavor, the sensory experience of food from the chemical senses, is a combination of taste and scent [330]. The odor plays a dominant role in the sensory experience, allowing for a profound estimation of the flavor through characterization of the scent [331]. In humans, food odors affect the food choice, portion size, and trigger the desire for specific food consumption [332]. ...
... We do not have data on hospitalization rates in this cohort to accurately assess the severity of the disease. Participants may mistake lack of flavor perception due to reduced retronasal olfaction caused by OD as taste problems in the acute phase of COVID-19 (Spence 2015;Kakutani et al. 2017;Liu et al. 2020). This finding could either be due to more severe olfactory loss being related to longer duration of the symptom, or that GD does influence olfactory recovery by unknown mechanisms. ...
Article
Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OD, GD) are prevalent symptoms following COVID-19 and persist in 6%–44% of individuals post-infection. As only few reports have described their prognosis after 6 months, our main objective was to assess the prevalence of OD and GD 11-month post-COVID-19. We also aimed to determine intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of chemosensory self-ratings for the follow-up of chemosensory sensitivity. We designed an observational study and distributed an online questionnaire assessing chemosensory function to healthcare workers with a RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 5- and 11-month post-COVID-19. Specifically, we assessed olfaction, gustation, and trigeminal sensitivity (10-point visual analog scale) and function (4-point Likert scale). We further measured clinically relevant OD using the Chemosensory Perception Test, a psychophysical test designed to provide a reliable remote olfactory evaluation. We included a total of 366 participants (mean [SD] age of 44.8 (11.7) years old). They completed the last online questionnaire 10.6 months (0.7) after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Of all participants, 307 (83.9%) and 301 (82.2%) individuals retrospectively reported lower olfactory or gustatory sensitivity during the acute phase of COVID-19. At the time of evaluation, 184 (50.3%) and 163 (44.5%) indicated reduced chemosensory sensitivity, 32.2% reported impairment of olfactory function while 24.9% exhibited clinically relevant OD. Olfactory sensitivity had a high test–retest reliability (ICC: 0.818; 95% CI: 0.760–0.860). This study suggests that chemosensory dysfunctions persist in a third of COVID-19 patients 11 months after COVID-19. OD appears to be a common symptom of post-COVID-19 important to consider when treating patients.
... Indeed, under certain conditions, taste percepts can be induced by the appropriate olfactory stimulus in the absence of the relevant gustatory input. And, should a tastant be present, then the addition of the relevant (i.e., congruent) aroma may well lead to the modulation (i.e., enhancement) of taste intensity (see Spence, 2015aSpence, , 2022. ...
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There is undoubtedly a spatial component to our experience of gustatory stimulus qualities such as sweet, bitter, salty, sour, and umami, however its importance is currently unknown. Taste thresholds have been shown to differ at different locations within the oral cavity where gustatory receptors are found. However, the relationship between the stimulation of particular taste receptors and the subjective spatially-localized experience of taste qualities is uncertain. Although the existence of the so-called ‘tongue map’ has long been discredited, the psychophysical evidence clearly demonstrates significant (albeit small) differences in taste sensitivity across the tongue, soft palate, and pharynx (all sites where taste buds have been documented). Biases in the perceived localization of gustatory stimuli have also been reported, often resulting from tactile capture (i.e., a form of crossmodal, or multisensory, interaction). At the same time, varying responses to supratheshold tastants along the tongue’s anterior-posterior axis have putatively been linked to the ingestion-ejection response. This narrative review highlights what is currently known concerning the spatial aspects of gustatory perception, considers how such findings might be explained, given the suggested balanced distribution of taste receptors for each basic taste quality where taste papillae are present, and suggests why knowing about such differences may be important.
... Sense of smell guides our selection and appreciation of food and plays a dominant role in flavour perception [1]. When that sense is missing or impaired, the consequences are far-reaching. ...
Article
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Olfactory dysfunction is amongst the many symptoms of Long COVID. Whilst most people that experience smell loss post COVID-19 recover their sense of smell and taste within a few weeks, about 10% of cases experience long-term problems, and their smell recovery journey often begins a few months later when everyday items start to smell distorted. This is known as parosmia. The aim of this study was to identify the key food triggers of parosmic distortions and investigate the relationship between distortion and disgust in order to establish the impact of parosmia on diet and quality of life. In this cross-sectional study (n = 727), respondents experiencing smell distortions completed a questionnaire covering aspects of smell loss, parosmia and the associated change in valence of everyday items. There was a significant correlation between strength and disgust (p < 0.0001), and when the selected items were reported as distorted, they were described as either unpleasant or gag-inducing 84% of the time. This change in valence associated with loss of expected pleasure and the presence of strange tastes and burning sensations must certainly lead to changes in eating behaviours and serious longer-term consequences for mental health and quality of life.
... The result was also in accordance with the aroma profiling as the sweet and spicy taste were dominant, while the rancid taste was the least intensive taste. About 75-95% of what we taste actually comes from the sense of smell [97]. ...
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Food waste, such as eggshell, can be an environmental problem if it is not properly managed. One of the ways to solve this is by using the eggshell as the cheap calcium source in food products. Polish gingerbread fortified with chicken eggshell powder (ESP) calcium was developed to solve the eggshell waste problem and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. This study focused on the effect of ESP addition on basic composition, sensory evaluation, and antioxidative activity of gingerbread. Two samples of gingerbread without and with 3% (w/w of wheat flour) ESP, with controlled green tea powder (4% w/w of white chocolate) were analyzed. Results of the research showed that the addition of 3% ESP significantly increased the ash and calcium content (p < 0.05) without changing the appearance, aroma, texture, taste profiles, and the hedonic score of gingerbread. The gingerbread samples were then stored for 2 months and were analyzed every month. The hedonic evaluation of the aroma of both gingerbread samples decreased significantly (p < 0.05) during storage. During 2 months of storage, the antioxidative activity of gingerbread fortified with 3% ESP was not significantly different compared to the control (p > 0.05), particularly in ABTS and ORACFL assay. The ABTS, DPPH, and ORACFL assays showed decreasing antioxidative activity during storage, which was also in accordance with decreasing total phenolic content of both gingerbread samples. In PCL assay, the lipid-soluble antioxidant activity in gingerbread with 3% ESP was significantly higher during 2 months of storage, compared to the control (p < 0.05). The developed product might be a potential alternative to improve the calcium (26% daily value (DV) recommendation per 100 g) and antioxidant intake in order to prevent calcium deficiency. Gingerbread enriched with an organic source of calcium may become an innovative product to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis in the elderly population, having potential health and economic significance, given the incidence of osteoporosis and the costs of treating this disease.
Article
While the growing global obesity crisis in humans has attracted a great deal of attention from the media and healthcare professionals alike, the rapid increase in weight problems reported amongst pets is now attracting widespread recognition too. In humans, the emerging science of gastrophysics offers a number of concrete suggestions as to how people can be nudged into eating less by means of the enhanced multisensory design of both foods and the environments in which they choose to eat. In this narrative review, the potential relevance of gastrophysics to helping tackle the growing problem of overweight and obese domestic dogs is reviewed. This involves discussion of both the important similarities and difference in the way in which people and their pets perceive food, and the likely role of various product-extrinsic factors on consumption in the two cases. Nevertheless, despite the differences, a number of suggestions for future research are forwarded that may help to address the growing problem of overweight pets, and the behaviours that give rise to it.
Chapter
Brain the most powerful organ of a human being, manages the central nervous system, interprets and processes the information received from the five sense organs. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an electrophysiological method to supervise and read the electrical movement of the brain signals especially from the scalp. Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms an impression of smell, through the sensory olfactory system. This paper aims at analyzing the behavior of the human olfactory system towards natural and artificial flavors through a sequence of preprocessing and estimation of power spectral density (PSD) by Welch’s method. Power plot analysis was performed to understand the activation of various frequency bands under the influence of odorants. Multiscale Entropy and Fractal Dimension approaches were applied on the preprocessed data to study and compare the nonlinear dynamics of the EEG stimulated by various odorants.
Article
Contemporary food scientists may find inspiration, just as, over the centuries, various writers and painters have, in the delicious, multisensory complexity of a ripe peach.
Article
Flavor, comprising taste, smell and somatosensory inputs, is commonly altered in patients undergoing chemotherapy resulting in malnutrition leading to cachexia.. A narrative review considered taste and smell alterations associated with malignancies treated using chemotherapy and the various interventions proffered to lessen alterations. Many of the currently used interventions directed towards enhancing intrinsic factors of food appeared ineffective in encouraging intake of adequate nutrition to ward off complications of malnutrition. Counselling is used in some cases with positive results. The use of extrinsic influences commensurate with the principles of food behavior and gastronomy are considered as a means of providing purpose to patients to accommodate flavor loss which when integrated with counseling and appropriate intrinsic factors are potentially a means of curtailing malnutrition and enhancing the psychological status of the patient. The close association between the cephalic phase responses (CPRs) and the control of eating and digestive behaviors is multifaceted, and when the influences of taste and smell are diminished, other contributing factors guiding CPRs may compensate a deficit. The need for the application of a consistent lexicon is essential when describing taste and smell alterations.
Article
In this paper, we demonstrate that aromatic oil capsules, produced by dripping droplets, can offer a simple, yet effective, testing tool to aid in the diagnosis of various diseases, in which the loss of smell is a key symptom. These include chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and acute respiratory infections such as that caused by COVID-19. The capsules were fabricated by concentrically dripping oil/alginate droplets, from a coaxial nozzle, into an oppositely charged ionic liquid. This fabrication technique enables full control over the capsule size, the shell thickness and the volume of the encapsulated oil. After formation, liquid capsules were left to dry and form a solid crust surrounding the oil. The prototype test consists of placing a standardized number of capsules between adhesive strips that users crush and pull apart to release the smell. In addition to the fabrication method, a simple mathematical model was developed to predict the volume of encapsulated oil within the capsule in terms of the flow rate ratio and the nozzle size. Tensile tests show that capsule strength is inversely proportional to its size owing to an increase in the shell thickness. By increasing the alginate concentration, the load required to rupture the capsule increases, to the point where capsules are too stiff to be broken by a fingertip grip. Results from a preliminary screening test, within a group of patients with Parkinson's disease, found that smells were detectable using a 'forced choice' paradigm.
Article
A sensory perspective in archaeology provides insight into a range of past cultural practices, including foodways. An ongoing examination of the role of maize, a New World domesticate, in the diet of 17th-century New Englanders highlights the importance of a sensory approach to understanding colonial encounters with cultural “Other.” By foregrounding sensory experience to consider the tastes, flavors, and textures of maize dishes, but also the physical labor of growing and preparing maize for consumption, this study demonstrates that maize, though a novel foodstuff, was for many colonists good to grow and eat. For others, this cereal was laborious to produce and, even if sustaining, neither good to eat nor, as Levi-Strauss (1983) said, good to think. By considering the physical and sensorial implications of growing, processing, preparing, and consuming maize, archaeologists may gain insight into a broader transformation in cultural understandings and perceptions about the New World. The incorporation of maize into colonial households suggests that daily encounters with this food were integral to the formation and negotiation of identity in colonial society.
Chapter
This chapter introduces and details the concept of ‘learning as becoming’ as the overarching framework informing the many approaches and recommendations proposed. Learning as becoming or the realisation of specific forms of occupational identity, with its inherent advantages and disadvantages, is argued to be an important objective of vocational education and training (VET). How occupational identity is realised through learning how to do, feel, think, and be, are then proposed as central objectives of VET. The chapter begins with a summary of the ways learning as becoming are realised. The pedagogical implications to inform the ways people come to ‘learn to become’ is then presented. Learning to become occurs through engagement with the processes of mimesis and mimetic learning. The supporters of mimesis and mimetic learning, sociocultural and sociomaterial factors are then detailed. The chapter closes with a discussion on how technology-enhanced learning (TEL) may assist by affording timely and effective sociocultural feedback and providing opportunities to harness the sociomaterial aspects of occupational identity.
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Odors are often difficult to describe verbally, and little is known about the association of odors with the words that describe them. Following the literature on crossmodal correspondences between odors and sounds/haptics, this study aimed to reveal how odors are associated with the words describing textures and haptics in the Japanese language. Fifty participants smelled 17 food-related odors (e.g., lemon, pepper) and matched the odors with words related to texture (e.g., sakusaku), haptics (e.g., soft, dry), and emotion (e.g., positive). The experiment was conducted with and without the verbal description of odor names. The results demonstrated that each odor was mainly categorized into words related to the concepts of (a) juicy/cool/jiggly/positive, (b) smooth/moist/soft, or (c) hard/rough/dry, regardless of whether participants smelled the odors with or without the verbal description. Our findings reveal novel odor-sound/haptic associations and demonstrate how odors can be described verbally. Practical applications People find it difficult to verbalize or communicate various odors. This study contributes to the literature on odor-sound/haptic correspondences by showing that the odors are associated with texture-related ideophones and haptic words. Specifically, the results demonstrated that each odor was mainly categorized into words related to the concepts of (a) juicy/cool/jiggly/positive, (b) smooth/moist/soft, or (c) hard/rough/dry. These findings are relevant to marketing communications involving odors and emphasize the potential importance of the texture-related ideophones and haptic words when marketers want to effectively communicate odors with consumers.
Chapter
The tongue, the principal taste organ, is located in the oral cavity. Therefore, determinants of oral health have the potential to affect taste perception. The two most common oral diseases—dental caries and periodontitis—have been shown to affect taste perception. Both dental caries and periodontitis are multifactorial diseases, and the underlying factors that contribute to the etiopathogenesis of these diseases, such as genetics and the oral microbiome, have also been shown to affect taste perception potentially. The oral microbiome has been shown to alter taste perception even in the absence of these diseases. Distinct bacterial composition with taste-specific shifts in the oral microbiome has been reported. Changes in the end-stage breakdown products in the oral environment (metabolites) could be potentially mediating the microbiome’s role in taste perception. However, these mechanisms need to be proven in the future. In addition to the common dental diseases, conditions that affect the salivary quality and quantity and lead to xerostomia also affect taste perception. The extent of the dental prosthetic rehabilitation (complete denture vs. partial dentures), sensory nerve injuries during a dental procedure, and nicotine and/or tobacco use also alter taste perception.
Chapter
In the latter half of the 19th Century, the chemist and perfumer Septimus Piesse drew attention to the close association (or similarity) that he felt existed between fragrance and music/sound. But what, one might be tempted to ask, is the value of knowing about such audio-olfactory associations (or crossmodal correspondences)? Here, we highlight a number of the ways in which such crossmodal correspondences have been incorporated in the context of multisensory experience design, in both the commercial and artistic spheres. We discuss how both academic researchers and practitioners are now increasingly starting to incorporate such audio-olfactory associations into the design of multisensory experiences and highlight some of the exciting opportunities that lie ahead. It is important to stress how the correspondences, unlike the synaesthetic relations with which they have long been confused, are consensually shared across populations, thus meaning that they provide a more robust basis for multisensory experience design. While Piesse may well have been the first to highlight the existence of these correspondences, only now are we coming to realize how they can be used to systematically influence human experience. As an illustration of the latter, we describe a small study demonstrating how the sounds that people hear influence their ratings of a qualities of fragrances, thus hinting at their value for those wanting to modulate consumer/audience experience.
Book
This book will serve as a first-stop, academic resource for every scholar of experiential marketing, aspiring marketing and consumer behavior student, agency executive, professor, and experiential marketing practitioner. It is as rigorous as it is informative and can be used as an introductory reading for experiential marketing courses and seminars, and as a playbook for future research development in the experiential marketing domain. This book will help readers learn the state of customer experience and experiential marketing, understand the use of experiential marketing in specific contexts such as fashion or e-retail, and how to reach and expand a firm’s customer base using experiential promotional products. It includes cutting-edge sensory marketing developments that can be used in a firm’s customer experience strategy to create hedonic experiences. Overall, this book captures the essence of experiential marketing, the newest marketing paradigm.
Article
The change in consumer behaviour towards healthier lifestyles since the Covid-19 pandemic has seen a steep rise in popularity of low-calorie, low-sugar food and beverage alternatives, like flavoured hard seltzers. In this study, a fully automated, high-capacity sorptive extraction (HiSorb) technique, coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), was developed to investigate volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) used for flavouring of hard seltzers. As part of methos optimisation we trialled various sample preparation protocols and compared extraction via direct immersion vs. extraction from the headspace. The best headspace and immersive techniques were then further analysed in a ‘stacked’ extraction, whereby extracts from both were collected onto a focusing trap and fired to the GC to produce a single chromatogram. HiSorb probes with 4 alternate phases were compared: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), divinylbenzene/PDMS (DVB/PDMS), carbon wide range/ PDMS (CWR/PDMS) and a triple phase (DVB/CWR/PDMS), with the DVB/PDMS phase proving to extract the highest number of compounds. The DVB/PDMS probe was further applied to a study of four berry/cherry flavour hard seltzer drinks, produced by 4 different leading commercial brands, with 64 compounds extracted and identified. Chemometrics were able to distinguish each brand's flavour profile by detection of unique compounds, these having potential for use as quality and authenticity markers.
Article
Objectives: Food neophobia is a rejection or avoidance of novel food products. Despite the adaptive importance of this behavior, it exerts a negative influence on dietary habits and preferences. Sensory sensitivity relates to food neophobia and among specific sensory modalities, olfaction seems to be an obvious candidate for a correlate of this behavior as odor perception largely affects food intake and enjoyment. However, research on olfactory perception and food neophobia is scarce, and despite some promising results, the full picture of their association still awaits discovery. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between food neophobia and olfaction in adolescents, a group that has not been included in the previous studies investigating this association. Methods: We tested the olfactory perception-food neophobia relationship in 510 adolescents 15 to 17 y of age using a food neophobia questionnaire, a psychophysical odor identification test, a self-assessment of odor sensitivity, an odor significance questionnaire, and through odor pleasantness assessments. Results: We observed significant correlations between food neophobia and all included measures of olfactory perception. Conclusion: The overall regression model suggested that self-assessed sensitivity and odor awareness were the most influential, olfaction-related predictors of food neophobia in adolescents.
Article
How a food, or a dish, is named and how its components and attributes are described can all influence the perception and the enjoyment of the food. Therefore, tracing patterns in food descriptions and determining their role can be of value. The aims of this study were the following: (1) to describe the multisensory food experience as represented in microblog entries concerning food and drink on Twitter, (2) to provide an overview of the changes in the above-mentioned food representations during the period 2011–20, and (3) to contribute to a broader understanding of the human–food relationship as reflected on social media – in this case Twitter – and outline its potential utility for the research field of gastrophysics. The combinations of various multisensory attributes co-occurring in a tweet (which we term ‘collocations’) found in the Twitter corpus were examined through the categories of texture, colour, taste, smell/odour, shape and sound. We mapped the collocations of the 20–25 most frequently mentioned food items and their multisensory experience pairings over time. Such time-based knowledge led to a better understanding of the multisensory experience triggers as reflected on Twitter. By analysing the multisensory experience’s frequency of occurrence, we could conclude that the category of colour is the dominant one, while textural, olfactory and auditory collocations with food are rare. In most of the cases, food tweets appear to render a food experience ‘tasty’, ‘good’ and ‘interesting’.
Article
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Recently, psychologists and neuroscientists have provided a great deal of evidence showing that perceptual experiences are mostly multimodal. as perceivers, We don’t usually recognize them as such. We think of the experiences we are having as either visual, or auditory or tactile, not realising that they often arise from the fusion of different sensory inputs. The experience of tasting something is one such case. What we call ‘taste’ is the result of the multisensory integration of touch taste and smell. These unified flavour experiences provide a challenge when trying to reconcile the underlying processing story with the conscious experience of subjects, but they also challenge assumptions about our access to our own experiences and whether how we conceive of those experiences plays any in role in accounting for their ultimate nature.
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We report two experiments, based on a novel variant of the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI), in which tactile stimulation is referred to an artificial (out-of-body) tongue. In the experiments reported here the participant’s tongue was stimulated while they looked at a mirrored dummy tongue. On average, the participants agreed with the statement that they felt as if they had been touched in the location where they saw the rubber tongue being touched (experiment 1), thus demonstrating visual capture. When the external tongue was illuminated with a laser pointer (experiment 2), a significant proportion of the participants reported feeling either tactile or thermal stimulation on their own tongue. These results therefore demonstrate that the multisensory integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information that gives rise to the RHI can be extended to the tongue (a body part that is rarely seen directly).
Article
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Humans can discriminate several million different colors and almost half a million different tones, but the number of discriminable olfactory stimuli remains unknown. The lay and scientific literature typically claims that humans can discriminate 10,000 odors, but this number has never been empirically validated. We determined the resolution of the human sense of smell by testing the capacity of humans to discriminate odor mixtures with varying numbers of shared components. On the basis of the results of psychophysical testing, we calculated that humans can discriminate at least 1 trillion olfactory stimuli. This is far more than previous estimates of distinguishable olfactory stimuli. It demonstrates that the human olfactory system, with its hundreds of different olfactory receptors, far outperforms the other senses in the number of physically different stimuli it can discriminate.
Article
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Flavour results primarily from the combination of three discrete senses: taste, somatosensation and olfaction. In contrast to this scientific description, most people seem unaware that olfaction is involved in flavour perception. They also appear poorer at detecting the olfactory components of a flavour relative to the taste and somatosensory parts. These and other findings suggest that flavour may in part be treated as a unitary experience. In this article, I examine the mechanisms that may contribute to this unification, in particular the role of attention. Drawing on recent work, the evidence suggests that concurrent gustatory and somatosensory stimulation capture attention at the expense of the olfactory channel. Not only does this make it hard to voluntarily attend to the olfactory channel, but it also can explain why olfaction goes largely unnoticed in our day-to-day experience of flavour. It also provides a useful framework for conceptualizing how the unitary experience of flavour may arise from three anatomically discrete sensory systems.
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Is flavour an intrinsic objective property, or a subjective experience that varies from person to person? Barry Smith sorts out the implications.
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Food is evaluated for various attributes. One of the key food evaluation domains is hedonicity. As food is consumed, its hedonic valence decreases (due to prolonged sensory stimulation) and hedonic habituation results. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in food pleasantness ratings during consumption of a simple food by individuals without olfactory experience with food as compared to normosmics. 15 congenital anosmics and 15 normosmic controls were each presented with ten 10 g banana slices. Each was visually inspected, then smelled and chewed for ten seconds and subsequently rated for hedonicity on a 21-point scale. There was a significant difference in pleasantness ratings between congenital anosmics and controls (F(1, 26) = 6.71, p = .02) with the anosmics exhibiting higher ratings than the controls, a significant main repeated-measures effect on the ratings (F(1.85, 48) = 12.15, p<.001), which showed a decreasing trend over the course of consumption, as well as a significant portion*group interaction (F(1.85, 48) = 3.54, p = .04), with the anosmic participants experiencing a less pronounced decline. The results of the present explorative study suggest that over the course of consumption of a simple food, congenitally anosmic individuals experience differential patterns of appreciation of food as compared to normosmics. In this particular case, the decrease of hedonic valence was less pronounced in congenital anosmics.
Article
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The olfactory system provides numerous functions to humans, influencing ingestive behavior, awareness of environmental hazards and social communication. Approximately 1/5 of the general population exhibit an impaired sense of smell. However, in contrast to the many affected, only few patients complain of their impairment. So how important is it for humans to have an intact sense of smell? Or is it even dispensable, at least in the Western world? To investigate this, we compared 32 patients, who were born without a sense of smell (isolated congenital anosmia--ICA) with 36 age-matched controls. A broad questionnaire was used, containing domains relevant to olfaction in daily life, along with a questionnaire about social relationships and the BDI-questionnaire. ICA-patients differed only slightly from controls in functions of daily life related to olfaction. These differences included enhanced social insecurity, increased risk for depressive symptoms and increased risk for household accidents. In these domains the sense of olfaction seems to play a key role.
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This paper reviews neurophysiological and psychological studies of oral irritation elicited by chemicals in spicy foods and carbonated drinks. Oral irritant, thermal and textural sensations are conveyed to the brain by the trigeminal pathway, which is separate from the gustatory and olfactory systems. In humans, repetitive application of capsaicin, citric acid, or concentrated NaCl elicits oral irritation that grows in intensity across trials (“sensitization”). After a rest period, reapplication elicits less irritation (“self-desensitization”), but if given recurrently will eventually evoke a progressive rise in irritation (“stimulus-induced recovery”=SIR). In neurophysiological recordings from neurons in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), the first relay in the pathway for oral somatosensation, these irritants elicit a similar pattern of progressively increasing firing, followed after a rest by self-desensitization and SIR. In contrast, nicotine, menthol or mustard oil elicit irritation that decreases across trials (“desensitization”), a pattern also observed in Vc neuronal responses to these irritants. Carbonated water elicits an oral tingling sensation and excites Vc neurons largely through its conversion to carbonic acid. The good correspondence in temporal profiles for perception and neuronal activity supports a role for Vc neurons in the mediation of oral irritation. Finally, the development of preference for foods containing aversive chemicals is addressed. This may involve mere exposure, social reinforcement, the “thrill” of the strong sensation, or physiological reinforcement associated with satiety or release of endorphins by the painful stimulus.
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Referral of retronasal odors to the mouth is a fundamental phenomenon of flavor perception. A previous study from this laboratory provided evidence that, contrary to prior speculation, taste rather than touch was the primary factor in retronasal odor referral. The present study further investigated this question by studying the role of congruency between taste and odor on retronasal odor referral under conditions that mimicked natural food consumption. Subjects performed odor localization tasks after sampling gelatin stimuli that contained various congruent and incongruent tastes-odor combinations. The results showed that when a congruent taste was added, referral to the oral cavity and tongue were significantly enhanced. In addition, the data also indicate that the degree of congruency between taste and odor may modulate the degree of odor referral to the mouth. These findings suggest that odor referral is maximized when congruent flavor dimensions are combined to trigger perceptual "flavor objects" that represent known or potential foods. The results are discussed in terms of the factors that play a role in the retronasal odor referral as well as the potential neural mechanisms that may underlie it.
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Taste is a discriminative sense involving specialized receptor cells of the oral cavity (taste buds) and at least two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptor molecules that detect nutritionally important substances or potential toxins. Yet the receptor mechanisms that drive taste also are utilized by numerous systems throughout the body. How and why these so-called taste receptors are used to regulate digestion and respiration is now a matter of intense study. In this article we provide a historical perspective and an overview of these systems, leading to speculations on directions for further research.
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The current study took a first step toward elucidating the sensory input that drives retronasal odor referral to the mouth. In 2 experiments, subjects performed odor localization tasks under various oral–nasal stimulation conditions that allowed us to assess the effects of direction of airflow, taste, and tactile stimulation on retronasal odor referral. Subjects reported the locations of perceived odors when food odorants were inhaled through the mouth alone or in the presence of water or various tastants in the mouth. The results indicated that when perceived alone, vanilla and soy sauce odor were localized 54.7%: 26.4%: 18.9% and 60.0%: 21.7%: 18.3% in the nose, oral cavity, and on the tongue, respectively. The localization of odors alone was not significantly different from when water was presented simultaneously in the mouth, indicating that tactile stimulation itself is not sufficient to enhance odor referral. However, the presence of sucrose, but not other tastes, significantly increased localization of vanilla to the tongue. Likewise, only NaCl significantly augmented referral of soy sauce odor to the tongue. These data indicate that referral of retronasal odors to the mouth can occur in the absence of a either taste or touch but that referral to the tongue depends strongly on the presence of a congruent taste.
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Odor stimuli play an important role in the perception of food flavor. Olfactory dysfunction is thus likely to affect eating behavior. In the present study, we hypothesized that dysfunctional olfactory perception promotes sensory-specific satiety, a decrease in pleasure derived from a certain test food during and shortly after its consumption relative to other unconsumed control foods. A total of 34 hyposmic/anosmic participants were compared with 29 normosmic control participants. All participants repeatedly consumed a fixed portion of one and the same food item, a procedure known to induce sensory satiation. We found evidence for sensory-specific satiety (SSS) regardless of olfactory function. It thus appears that olfactory deficits have no major effect on SSS.
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Carbonated beverages are commonly available and immensely popular, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of carbonation in the mouth. In mammals, carbonation elicits both somatosensory and chemosensory responses, including activation of taste neurons. We have identified the cellular and molecular substrates for the taste of carbonation. By targeted genetic ablation and the silencing of synapses in defined populations of taste receptor cells, we demonstrated that the sour-sensing cells act as the taste sensors for carbonation, and showed that carbonic anhydrase 4, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme, functions as the principal CO2 taste sensor. Together, these studies reveal the basis of the taste of carbonation as well as the contribution of taste cells in the orosensory response to CO2.
Book
Taxation: Philosophical Perspectives is the first edited collection devoted to addressing philosophical issues relating to tax. The tax system is central to the operation of states and to the ways in which states interact with individual citizens. Taxes are used by states to fund the provision of public goods and public services, to engage in direct or indirect forms of redistribution, and to mould the behaviour of individual citizens. As the chapters in this volume show, there are a number of pressing and significant philosophical issues relating to the tax system, and these issues often connect in fascinating ways with foundational questions regarding property rights, democracy, public justification, state neutrality, stability, political psychology, and a range of other issues. Many of these deep and challenging philosophical questions about tax have not always received as much sustained attention as they clearly merit. Our hope is that this book will advance the debate along a number of these philosophical fronts, and be a welcome spur to further work. The book’s aim of advancing the debate about tax in political philosophy has both general and more specific aspects, involving both overarching issues regarding the tax system as a whole and more specific issues relating to particular forms of tax policy. Serious philosophical work on the tax system requires an interdisciplinary approach, and this volume therefore includes contributions from a number of scholars whose expertise spans neighbouring disciplines, including political science, economics, public policy, and law.
Article
Odor stimuli play a major role in perception of food flavor. Food-related odors have also been shown to increase rated appetite, and induce salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. However, our ability to identify all odor as food-related, and our liking for food-related odors, are both learned responses. In conditioning studies, repeated experience of odors with sweet and sour tastes result in enhanced ratings of sensory quality of the paired taste for the odor on its own. More recent studies also report increased pleasantness ratings for odors paired with sucrose for participants who like sweet tastes, and conversely decreased liking and increased bitterness for quinine-paired odors. When odors were experienced in combination with sucrose when hungry, liking was not increased if tested sated, suggesting that expression of acquired liking for odors depends on current motivational state. Other studies report sensory-specific satiety is seen with food-related odors. Overall, these studies suggest that once an odor is experienced in a food-related context, that odor acquires the ability to modify both preparatory and satiety-related components of ingestion. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Flavour is arguably the most fascinating aspect of eating and drinking. It utilises a complex variety of senses and processes, that incredibly work together to generate a unified, and hopefully pleasurable, experience. The processes involved are not just those involved in tasting at the time of eating, but also memory and learning processes - we obviously shun those foods of which we have a negative memory, and favour those we enjoy. Our understanding of the science of flavour has improved in recent years, benefiting psychology, cuisine, food science, oenology, and dietetics. This book describes what is known about the psychology and biology of flavour. The book is divided into two parts. The first explores what we know about the flavour system; including the role of learning and memory in flavour perception and hedonics; the way in which all the senses that contribute to flavour interact, and our ability to perceive flavour as a whole and as a series of parts. The later chapters examine a range of theoretical issues concerning the flavour system. This includes a look at multisensory processing, and the way in which the mind and brain bind information from discrete sensory systems. It also examines the broader implications of studying flavour for societal problems such as obesity.
Article
The majority of researchers agree that olfactory cues play a dominant role in our perception and enjoyment of the taste (or rather flavour) of food and drink. It is no surprise then that in recent years, a variety of modern (or dare we say it, modernist) solutions have been developed with the explicit aim of delivering an enhanced olfactory input to the diners/dishes served in the restaurant, and occasionally also in the home setting too. Such innovations include everything from aromatic cutlery and plateware through to the use of atomizers and dry ice. A few augmented reality (AR; i.e. an experience of a physical, real-world environment whose elements have been augmented, or supplemented, by computer-generated sensory input) solutions have also made their way out from well-funded technology labs, and scent-enabled plug-ins for mobile devices are slowly being commercialized. The latter could potentially be used to enhance the orthonasal olfactory component of our multisensory food experiences in the years to come. Ultimately, though, there is an important question here as to the authenticity of those food and flavour experiences that have been augmented/enhanced by aroma and fragrance cues that are not integral to the food or drink itself. It is this lack of authenticity that may, at least in your authors’ humble opinion, limit the more widespread uptake of such a sense-by-sense approach to the contemporary construction of multisensory gastronomic experiences. The challenge, as always, remains to find the unique selling point (USP) of such approaches to olfactory stimulation, over and above their mere feasibility and inherent theatricality.
Article
This study investigated the relationship between perception of an odour when smelled and the taste of a solution to which the odour is added as a flavorant. In Experiment 1 (E1) sweetness, sourness, liking and intensity ratings were obtained for 20 odours. Taste ratings were then obtained for sucrose solutions to which the odours had been added as flavorants. Certain odours were found to enhance tasted sweetness while others suppressed it. The degree to which an odour smelled sweet was the best predictor of the taste ratings. These findings were extended in Experiment 2 (E2), which included a second tastant, citric acid, and employed four odours from E1. The most sweet smelling odour, caramel, was found to suppress the sourness of citric acid and, as in E1, to enhance the sweetness of sucrose. Again, odours with low sweetness suppressed the sweetness of tasted sucrose. The study demonstrated that the effects of odours on taste perception are not limited to sweetness enhancement and apply to sour as well as sweet tastes. The overall pattern of results is consistent with an explanation of the taste properties of odours in terms of prior flavour‐taste associations.
Book
Have you ever wondered whether the atmosphere of a restaurant can influence the taste of the food that you eat? The music, the lighting, the aroma/fragrance and even the temperature all contribute to establishing the feel of a restaurant. However, while many people intuitively believe that the environment in which they eat has little direct influence on their perception of the food, the evidence reviewed in this chapter shows unequivocally that this is not the case. Here we review the large body of empirical research into how the atmosphere and context affect the overall dining experience, not to mention the taste and flavour of the food itself. We will look at those studies that have investigated what impact the visual, the auditory, the olfactory and even the tactile aspects of the environment have on the experience of dining. We will review both laboratory-based research and real-world studies of the effects of the multisensory atmospherics on people's food and drink-related behaviours, investigating whether there are certain obesogenic environments that result in us eating more. The research that has been published to date unequivocally demonstrates that the atmosphere in a restaurant, or wherever else we choose to eat, really does have a dramatic effect on our perception of food and drink. It can profoundly influence our food behaviours and can even influence how much we end up eating.
Article
We review our recent behavioural and imaging studies testing the consequences of congenital blindness on the chemical senses in comparison with the condition of anosmia. We found that congenitally blind (CB) subjects have increased sensitivity for orthonasal odorants and recruit their visually deprived occipital cortex to process orthonasal olfactory stimuli. In sharp contrast, CB perform less well than sighted controls in taste and retronasal olfaction, i.e. when processing chemicals inside the mouth. Interestingly, CB do not recruit their occipital cortex to process taste stimuli. In contrast to these findings in blindness, congenital anosmia is associated with lower taste and trigeminal sensitivity, accompanied by weaker activations within the ‘flavour network’ upon exposure to such stimuli. We conclude that functional adaptations to congenital anosmia or blindness are quite distinct, such that CB can train their exteroceptive chemical senses and recruit normally visual cortical areas to process chemical information from the surrounding environment.
Article
This article constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the literature on the effects of expectations on the sensory perception of food and drink by humans. In the ‘Introduction’, we summarize the theoretical models of expectations that have been put forward. In the ‘Empirical research utilizing direct methods’ section, we describe the influence that expectations created by a variety of product extrinsic cues have on sensory perception, hedonic appraisal, and intake/consumption. We critically evaluate the evidence that has emerged from both laboratory studies and real-world research conducted in the setting of the restaurant, canteen, and bar. This literature review is focused primarily on those studies that have demonstrated an effect on tasting. Crucially, this review goes beyond previous work in the area by highlighting the relevant cognitive neuroscience literature (see the section ‘Applied research through the lens of cognitive neuroscience methods’) and the postulated psychological mechanisms of expectation in terms of recent accounts of predictive coding and Bayesian decision theory (see the ‘Predictive coding and expectations’ section).
Article
This article aims to describe what is it like to perceive reality when suffering from congenital anosmia. Nevertheless, this objective entails a fundamental difficulty. Since I have never had the experience of olfaction, it seems natural to me to live in a world lacking the olfactory dimension; this subjective perception is the only one I know and in consequence it is difficult to describe. For this reason, in recent years I have begun to develop long conversations with other people suffering from congenital anosmia, people who have lost their sense of olfaction in adulthood and also people with a good sense of smell. My goal is to draw a map showing the principal differences that might allow us to develop a systematic comparison. Obviously, this is not an experimental or quantitative scientific procedure, but only a modest attempt to compare personal stories about subjective experiences. It is a philosophical-literary exercise, and does not aim to be anything other than that. But I hope it will help to formulate meaningful questions, which would then need a properly scientific approach. In the first part of this article I want to try to describe how I became aware that other people could smell; and in a second part, I will try to examine the consequences of anosmia in different areas of everyday life: nourishment, relationships with people, own body perception, natural or urban environments perception, time perception, and finally aesthetic appreciation and the implications of living in a world without stench. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The brain binds inputs from multiple senses to enhance our ability to identify key events in the environment. Understanding this process is based mainly on data from the major senses (vision and audition), yet compelling examples of binding occur in other domains. When we eat, in fact taste, smell, and touch combine to form flavor. This process can be so complete that most people fail to recognize that smell contributes to flavor. The flavor percept has other features: (a) it feels located in the mouth, even though smell is detected in the nose and taste on the tongue, and (b) it feels continuous, yet smell is delivered in pulses to the nose during eating. Furthermore, tastes can modify smell perception and vice versa. Current explanations of these binding-related phenomena are explored. Preattentive processing provides a well-supported account of taste-to-tongue binding. Learning between taste and smell can explain perceptual interactions between these senses and perhaps localization of smell to the mouth. Attentional processes may also be important, especially given their role in binding the major senses. Two are specifically examined. One claims that the failure to recognize smell's role in flavor stems from the role of involuntary attention's "defaulting" to the mouth and taste (i.e., binding by ignoring). Another claims that taste and smell form a common attentional channel in the mouth, in effect becoming one sense. Except for preattentive processing, the mechanisms involved in flavor binding differ markedly from those proposed for the major senses. This distinction may result from functional differences, with flavor supporting future food choice but not current identification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Little is known about how CO2 affects neural processing of taste. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of carbonation on brain processing of sweet stimuli, which has relevance to studies of food selection and satiety. The presence of carbonation produced an overall decrease in the neural processing of sweetness-related signals, especially from sucrose. CO2 reduced the neural processing of sucrose more than of artificial sweeteners. These findings might be relevant to dietary interventions that include non-caloric beverages, whereas the combination of CO2 and sucrose might increase sucrose consumption.
Article
As this brief tour of the burgeoning cognitive neuroscience literature on multisensory flavour perception has hopefully made clear, there is far more to flavour perception than merely what happens on the tongue. By applying the cognitive neuroscience insights from the study of multisensory integration of the spatial senses (of vision, hearing, and touch), researchers, not to mention food companies and flavour houses, are currently furthering their understanding of many of the key factors underlying the multisensory perception of flavour. But what should hopefully also be apparent from this Primer is that, in order to really understand the experience of flavour, one needs to move beyond the traditional definitions of flavour (as captured by the International Standards Organization (ISO 5492, 1992, 2008) definition of flavour as a “Complex combination of the olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal sensations perceived during tasting. The flavour may be influenced by tactile, thermal, painful and/or kinaesthetic effects.”). One needs to incorporate the latest findings concerning flavour expectancy, and a whole host of contextual/atmospheric effects that have traditionally been ignored by food scientists, but which the latest research suggests can end up having a very dramatic impact on the flavour experiences of real consumers under ecologically-valid testing conditions.To conclude, it is worth noting that, even if one is not interested specifically in flavour perception, one cannot avoid the fact that, as the eminent biologist J.Z. Young (1968, p. 21) noted some years ago: “No animal can live without food. Let us then pursue the corollary of this: Namely, food is about the most important influence in determining the organization of the brain and the behavior that the brain organization dictates.” Indeed, some of the most dramatic changes in brain activity can be seen when a hungry participant is presented with appetizing food images and aromas while lying passively in the brain scanner.In the years to come, we will need to do everything we can to help preserve the enjoyment in food and drink of the growing elderly population suffering from a loss of their gustatory and olfactory perception, two senses which are critical to flavour perception, but for which there are no prosthesis (akin to hearing aids and glasses used to compensate for auditory and visual loss). There is also hope that our growing cognitive neuroscience understanding of multisensory flavour perception may help the food companies to deliver healthier foods to the marketplace, that taste just like they always did, but which contain less of the unhealthy ingredients (such as sugar, salt, fat and carbonic acid). One development that would likely help further our understanding would be to develop a predictive mathematical account of the relative contribution of each of the senses to multisensory flavour perception in terms of Bayesian decision theory.Eating and drinking are among life’s most enjoyable experiences. It is about time that cognitive neuroscientists took the study of multisensory flavour perception more seriously.
Article
Describes a unified experimental approach to the study of the mind based on experiments in the time course of human information processing. New studies on the role of intensity in information processing, on vigilance, and on orienting and detecting are presented. A historical introduction to mental chronometry together with an integration of performance and physiological techniques for its study are provided. (15 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To be perceived, flavour molecules need to reach the olfactory epithelium, located in the nasal cavity. This can be achieved through orthonasal (sniff) or retronasal (mouth) airways. The intensity perceived will depend on the number of molecules that reach the receptor cells. The aim of this study is to compare the dose–response behaviour of flavour molecules, depending on whether the flavours were sniffed or tasted. Six flavour compounds were studied, including a homologous series of esters, and the differences on dose–response curves (intensity vs. concentration) correlated to the physicochemical characteristics of the flavour molecules. In addition, the matching concentration in water to get the same intensity by sniff as a reference tasted by mouth for some flavour compounds was determined. It was shown that the differences in orthonasal and retronasal perception depend strongly on the physical characteristics of the aroma chemicals. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Research into human taste receptors extends beyond the tongue to some unexpected places.
Article
Our perception of food draws on a combination of taste, smell, feel, sight and sound.
Article
The definition of “flavor” is a term that appears to vary from one area to the next. A survey was conducted on 140 individuals in various areas of specialization (agriculture, food science, sensory evaluation, and the chemical senses) to see what sensations are thought to be involved in “flavor,” as well as whether there were any differences in definitions across groups. The results demonstrate that while a fairly stable definition of the term does exist, there is some difference in what different groups of expertise mean when they refer to “flavor.”
Article
Research on attention is concerned with selective processing of incoming sensory information. To some extent, our awareness of the world depends on what we choose to attend, not merely on the stimulation entering our senses. British psychologists have made substantial contributions to this topic in the past century. Celebrated examples include Donald Broadbent's filter theory of attention, which set the agenda for most subsequent work; and Anne Treisman's revisions of this account, and her later feature-integration theory. More recent contributions include Alan Allport's prescient emphasis on the relevance of neuroscience data, and John Duncan's integration of such data with psychological theory. An idiosyncratic but roughly chronological review of developments is presented, some practical and clinical implications are briefly sketched, and future directions suggested. One of the biggest changes in the field has been the increasing interplay between psychology and neuroscience, which promises much for the future. A related change has been the realization that selection attention is best thought of as a broad topic, encompassing a range of selective issues, rather than as a single explanatory process.
Article
In this paper, we review the empirical literature concerning the important question of whether or not food color influences taste and flavor perception in humans. Although a superficial reading of the literature on this topic would appear to give a somewhat mixed answer, we argue that this is, at least in part, due to the fact that many researchers have failed to distinguish between two qualitatively distinct research questions. The first concerns the role that food coloring plays in the perception of the intensity of a particular flavor (e.g., strawberry, banana, etc.) or taste attribute (e.g., sweetness, saltiness, etc.). The second concerns the role that food coloring plays in the perception of flavor identity. The empirical evidence regarding the first question is currently rather ambiguous. While some researchers have reported a significant crossmodal effect of changing the intensity of a food or drink’s coloring on people’s judgments of taste or flavor intensity, many others have failed to demonstrate any such effect. By contrast, the research findings concerning the second question clearly support the view that people’s judgments of flavor identity are often affected by the changing of a food or drink’s color (be it appropriate, inappropriate, or absent). We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying these crossmodal effects and suggest some of the key directions for future research in order to move our understanding in this area forward. KeywordsFlavor-Taste-Color-Perception-Crossmodal-Multisensory-Expectancy-Attention
Article
This article reviews the research that has looked at the role of audition in both flavour perception and feeding behaviour in humans. The article starts by looking at early research that focused on the effect of background noise on the sensory-discriminative aspects of taste/flavour perception and on people's hedonic responses to food and beverage items. Next, I move on to look at the role of the sound made by the food (or beverage) itself. Additionally, recent studies that have started to assess the impact of food and beverage packaging sounds, not to mention food preparation sounds, on people's sensory-discriminative and hedonic responses to a variety of food and beverage products are discussed. Finally, the literature on the effect of background music and/or soundscapes on food and beverage perception/consumption are reviewed briefly. Taken together, this body of research, spanning both highly-controlled laboratory experiments and more ecologically-valid field studies, clearly demonstrates that what the consumer hears, be it the sound of the food, the sound of the packaging, the sound of the machine used to prepare that food or beverage (e.g., as in the case of the sound of a coffee machine), and even the sound of the environment in which the consumer happens to be eating and drinking can all exert a profound, if often unacknowledged, role in our feeding behaviours not to mention on our flavour perception.
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Twenty persons sipped and judged overall perceived magnitude, odor magnitude, and taste magnitude of various concentrations of the odorant citral, the tastants sodium chloride and sucrose, and odorant-tastant combinations. In a second experiment, the same twenty persons sniffed and judged perceived odor magnitude for the same set of stimuli. The investigation probed two primary questions: Does the apparent harmony of an olfactory-taste mixture dictate the degree of additivity in that mixture? Does harmony of the components influence the production of any taste-smell confusion? The data from both the harmonious mixture (citral and sucrose) and the dissonant mixture (citral and NaCl) imply absence of sensory inhibition or facilitation between taste and olfaction. Nevertheless, both types of mixtures led to substantial taste-smell confusion whereby olfactory stimulation evoked sensations of taste.
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In two experiments the smelled sweetness of odors was increased by using them as flavorants of sucrose solution. Experiment 1 used blind experimenters to compare a target odor mixed with sucrose with a control odor mixed with water during masked training trials. The increased sweetness of the target odor was unaffected by whether or not subjects revealed some explicit knowledge of the contingencies in a post-conditioning recognition test. Experiment 2 found that such a conditioned increase in odor sweetness occurred whether training solutions were sipped from a cup or sucked through a straw. Using a frequency test designed to provide a sensitive assay of contingency awareness, there was still no indication that this affected conditioning. It was concluded that such modification of the taste-properties of odors results from implicit simultaneous associative learning and provides an example of learned synesthesia, (C) 1998 Academic Press.
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We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, an area typically associated with visceral perception, especially of negative valence (disgust, pain, etc.). We argue that aesthetic processing is, at its core, the appraisal of the valence of perceived objects. This appraisal is in no way limited to artworks but is instead applicable to all types of perceived objects. Therefore, one way to naturalize aesthetics is to argue that such a system evolved first for the appraisal of objects of survival advantage, such as food sources, and was later co-opted in humans for the experience of artworks for the satisfaction of social needs.
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How reliable are all those stories about the number of Eskimo words for snow? How can lamps, flags, and parrots be libelous? How might Star Trek's Commander Spock react to Noam Chomsky's theories of language? These and many other odd questions are typical topics in this collection of essays that present an occasionally zany, often wry, but always fascinating look at language and the people who study it. Geoffrey K. Pullum's writings began as columns in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory in 1983. For six years, in almost every issue, under the banner "TOPIC. . .COMMENT," he published a captivating mélange of commentary, criticism, satire, whimsy, and fiction. Those columns are reproduced here—almost exactly as his friends and colleagues originally warned him not to publish them—along with new material including a foreword by James D. McCawley, a prologue, and a new introduction to each of these clever pieces. Whether making a sneak attack on some sacred cow, delivering a tongue-in-cheek protest against current standards, or supplying a caustic review of some recent development, Pullum remains in touch with serious concerns about language and society. At the same time, he reminds the reader not to take linguistics too seriously all of the time. Pullum will take you on an excursion into the wild and untamed fringes of linguistics. Among the unusual encounters in store are a conversation between Star Trek's Commander Spock and three real earth linguists, the strange tale of the author's imprisonment for embezzling funds from the Campaign for Typographical Freedom, a harrowing account of a day in the research life of four unhappy grammarians, and the true story of how a monograph on syntax was suppressed because the examples were judged to be libelous. You will also find a volley of humorous broadsides aimed at dishonest attributional practices, meddlesome copy editors, mathematical incompetence, and "cracker-barrel philosophy of science." These learned and witty pieces will delight anyone who is fascinated by the quirks of language and linguists.
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Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of olfactory dysfunction on behavior during sensory evaluation and self-preparation, as well as on sensory perception and pleasantness of green tea and coffee. We compared the intensities of overall odor, flavor, and bitter taste, respectively, and the pleasantness ratings for three different concentrations of green teas and coffees between three groups: young (n=30) and elderly (n=30) with normal olfactory function and elderly (n=30) with olfactory dysfunction. In addition, we compared the subject groups' behavior during sensory testing and preparation of green tea or coffee. As expected, elderly subjects with olfactory dysfunction rated the overall odor intensity less intense than subjects with normal olfactory function. Also, elderly subjects with olfactory dysfunction rated the intensities of overall flavor and bitter taste significantly lower rather than subjects with normal olfactory function in green tea, whereas this result was not obtained in coffee. Compared to young subjects with normal olfactory function, elderly with olfactory dysfunction used more green tea powder to optimize their own green tea. Moreover, olfactory function scores assessed by the "Sniffin' Sticks" test were positively related with sniffing frequency for green tea and with sniffing time for coffee during sensory evaluation. During preparation of the green tea, compared to elderly subjects, young healthy subjects tried to adjust the green tea more frequently by adding green tea powder or water. Such behavioral differences were not present during coffee preparation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that olfactory dysfunction affects odor perception and sniffing behavior. However, under the current conditions, it appeared to have no effect on hedonic ratings and self-preparation behaviors.
Article
Subjects estimated the intensity of various concentrations of an odorant (ethyl butyrate), a tastant (sodium saccharin), and mixtures of the two. The question of primary interest was whether the perceived intensity of the odor-tast mixtures would be equal to, greater than , or less than the intensities of the unmixed components. The outcome approximated simple additivity: The intensity of the mixtures was only slightly less than the sum of the perceived intensities of the unmixed components. An examination of how subjects apportioned their judgments into the categories odor and taste revealed the existence of taste-smell confusions. Subjects ascribed little odor magnitude to solutions containing only sodium saccharin, but ascribed considerable taste magnitude to solutions containing only ethyl butyrate. The taste ascribed to ethyl butyrate was not due exclusively to its action on gustation since, when the nostrils were closed, as much as 80% of the "taste" disappeared. Subjects seem to resolve ambiguity regarding the locus of mutual olfactory-taste stimulation in favor of taste.