Article

Effects of Saffron and its Active Constituents, Crocin and Safranal, on Prevention of Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcers in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Rats

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Abstract

Background: Saffron is the dried stigmata of the flowers of saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae). Saffron is well known for the treatment of gastric disorders in traditional medicine. Objectives: In the search for new potential antiulcer agents, the effects of the ethanol extract of saffron and its active constituents crocin and safranal as compared with omeprazole against gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin in non-diabetic and streptozocin diabetic rats were studied. Methods: The effects of pretreatment with saffron extract ( 25, 100 or 250 mg/kg, p.o.) , crocin ( 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and safranal ( 0.25, 2, 5 ml/kg, p.o.) and omeprazole (30 mg/kg, p.o.) 30 min before administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg, p.o. in non-diabetic rats and 15 mg/kg, p.o. in diabetic rats) on gastric lesions, increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease of glutathione levels induced by indomethacin in non-diabetic and diabetic rats were evaluated. Results: Saffron extract, crocin, safranal and omeprazol prevented the gastric lesions, increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease of glutathione levels induced by indomethacin in non-diabetic and diabetic rats as compared with the control group (P < 0.01). The effects of saffron extract, crocin and safranal on the gastric ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels were comparable to omeprazole. Conclusions: Saffron, crocin and safranal may prevent the gastric mucosa damage due to their antioxidant properties by increasing the gluthatione levels and diminishing the lipid peroxidation in the rat gastric mucosa.

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... Thereby, the saffron can also concerned to be a prophylactic and therapeutic agent prevent gastrointestinal tract disorders ( Table 2). [77][78][79][80] Specifically, Kianbakht et al 80 conducted the studies on rats with gastric ulcers basing on the use of saffron alcoholic extract, crocin, and safranal, leading to being all useful and effective in ulcer recovery. Besides, it has also indicated that the above compounds of saffron could inhibit gastric ulcer formation basing on dosage and their antioxidant properties. ...
... Thereby, the saffron can also concerned to be a prophylactic and therapeutic agent prevent gastrointestinal tract disorders ( Table 2). [77][78][79][80] Specifically, Kianbakht et al 80 conducted the studies on rats with gastric ulcers basing on the use of saffron alcoholic extract, crocin, and safranal, leading to being all useful and effective in ulcer recovery. Besides, it has also indicated that the above compounds of saffron could inhibit gastric ulcer formation basing on dosage and their antioxidant properties. ...
Article
With the current technological development, finding and exploring novel chemical compounds from the natural material sources can be one of the significant purposes for researchers. Especially, saffron is known to be the highest-cost medicinal plant, a high-grade spice, and an outstanding dye. Concomitantly, the final saffron products truly affect much their quality to protect the rights for the consumer, as well as its available healthy benefits can be utilized for treating or preventing various diseases. Herein, the chemical characterization and health effects of saffron are shortly introduced and summarized through treatment and prevention of different diseases (i.e.: cancer, liver, ocular, diabetes, antidepressant, Alzheimer, and gastrointestinal diseases), which can favor readers understanding clearly the saffron advantages through this short review. Moreover, it can provide relatively for choosing an effective drying method to maintain the product qualities and facilitate the industrial production of saffron.
... Various pharmacological actions of safranal like antidiabetic [24] antiulcer [25], antiasthamatic [26] anticonvulsant [27,28], antidepressant [29], cardioprotective [30], anticancer [31] and UV protective properties [32] have been reported by different research groups. Most of these therapeutic actions are said to be due to its potential to quench ROS and reduce oxidative stress in the body. ...
... The antioxidant property of safranal makes it a good palliative agent for gastric lesions. Safranal claimed to be a novel natural antiulcer agent in a research carried out by S. Kianbakht and K. Mozaffari [25]. It increased glutathione level and reduced lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa of rats when ulcers were induced by indomethacin. ...
Article
Safranal, a monoterpene aldehyde, is present as one of the main volatile constituents of Crocus sativus Linn. (saffron flowers). This volatile constituent not only contributes to the aroma of saffron but has been reported to possess antidiabetic, antiulcer, antiasthamatic, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, cardioprotective, anticancer and UV protective properties. Most of these therapeutic actions are contributed by its potential to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant properties of phytoconstituents are now being explored for developing photoprotective skin formulations. These bioactives have the potential to protect the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin which mainly comprises of elastin and collagen. When UV rays penetrate the dermal layers, there is an increased production of elastase, collagenase and hyaluronidase leading to degradation of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid respectively. These dermal components are responsible to provide strength, elasticity and moisture to the skin. Due to frequent exposure to sunlight, these conditions tend to augment leading to wrinkle formation and sagging of skin. Although antioxidant properties of safranal have been established on various cell lines but till date no studies have been reported regarding the dermal enzyme inhibition activities. In the current research work, a comprehensive in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, anti-elastase, anti-collagenase, anti-hyaluronidase activities of safranal along with determination of sun protection factor (SPF) was carried out. The in vitro antioxidant activity was carried out by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and its IC50 value was found to be 22.7 μg/ml. The enzyme inhibition IC50 values of safranal for anti elastase activity were found to be 43.6 μg/ml, 70 μg/ml for antihyaluronidase activity and 9.4 μg/ml for anticollagenase activity. Photoprotective activity of safranal was determined by UV absorbance method and SPF calculated by Mansur equation which was found to be 6.6. The significant inhibitory activity of safranal on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) responsible for aging and a higher SPF established that this bioorganic molecule is a strong photoprotective agent. Its established free radical scavenging capability along with above characteristics make it a valuable component to be incorporated into herbal antiaging formulations.
... Crocetin decreased the expression of TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and induced iNOS in the liver of the hemorrhagic shock model [265]. Crocetin also decreased the indomethacin-induced rise in glutathione in nondiabetic and diabetic rats [266] and reduced ROS generated by BαP in mice [204] and angiotensin II-induced ROS [126]. ...
Article
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Crocus species are mainly distributed in North Africa, Southern and Central Europe, and Western Asia, used in gardens and parks as ornamental plants, while Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is the only species that is cultivated for edible purpose. The use of saffron is very ancient; besides the use as a spice, saffron has long been known also for its medical and coloring qualities. Due to its distinctive flavor and color, it is used as a spice, which imparts food preservative activity owing to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. This updated review discusses the biological properties of Crocus sativus L. and its phytoconstituents, their pharmacological activities, signaling pathways, and molecular targets, therefore highlighting it as a potential herbal medicine. Clinical studies regarding its pharmacologic potential in clinical therapeutics and toxicity studies were also reviewed. For this updated review, a search was performed in the PubMed, Science, and Google Scholar databases using keywords related to Crocus sativus L. and the biological properties of its phytoconstituents. From this search, only the relevant works were selected. The phytochemistry of the most important bioactive compounds in Crocus sativus L. such as crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin, and safranal and also dozens of other compounds was studied and identified by various physicochemical methods. Isolated compounds and various extracts have proven their pharmacological efficacy at the molecular level and signaling pathways both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, toxicity studies and clinical trials were analyzed. The research results highlighted the various pharmacological potentials such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidepressant, hypolipidemic, and antihyperglycemic properties and protector of retinal lesions. Due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, saffron has proven effective as a natural food preservative. Starting from the traditional uses for the treatment of several diseases, the bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. have proven their effectiveness in modern pharmacological research. However, pharmacological studies are needed in the future to identify new mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetic studies, new pharmaceutical formulations for target transport, and possible interaction with allopathic drugs.
... Pharmacological studies and clinical trials support the protective effects of saffron and its constituents on gastrointestinal system. In an animal model, saffron and its active components including crocin and safranal have shown inhibitory activity against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in diabetic, and non-diabetic rats [43]. Administration of saffron extract (25, 100 or 250 mg/kg, p.o.), crocin (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.), and safranal (0.25, 2, 5 ml/kg, p.o.) 30 min before administration of indomethacin (40 mg/kg, p.o. in non-diabetic rats, and 15 mg/kg, p.o. in diabetic rats) have had significant (P < 0.01) effects against gastric lesions. ...
Chapter
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Saffron, as one of the most expensive spices in the world, is obtained from the stigma of Crocus sativus. Crocus sativus L. belongs to the Iridaceae family, and has been widely used as an herbal medicine, spice, food coloring, and a flavoring agent since ancient times. Saffron is one of the most famous plants cultivated in Iran, and this country now accounts for approximately 90% of the world production of saffron. Saffron has a long history in Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM). It has been used for the treatment of several diseases such as urogenital, ocular, and respiratory disorders. Moreover, it has oxytocic, anti-depressant, aphrodisiac, cardioprotective, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. There are several studies on pharmacological activities of saffron in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials which not only confirm the application of saffron in traditional medicine, but also introduce some new medicinal aspects. In this chapter, we aim to present a comprehensive review on traditional and ethnomedicinal uses of saffron in different systems of traditional medicine, especially ITM. Then, we will discuss pharmacological activities reported for saffron in modern medicine as in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trial studies. Finally, we will compare the properties reported for saffron in traditional medicine with the activities in modern medicine to reveal the potential of this valuable herb for treatment of various diseases.
... Saffron apocarotenoids also exhibit multiple biological actions including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities (Kaefer and Milner 2008). The most noteworthy health benefits relate to its activity against various types of cancers (Gutheil et al. 2012;Zhang et al. 2013), gastric disorders (Kianbakht and Mozaffari 2009), cardiovascular diseases (Zheng et al. 2006), alzheimer disease Abstract Crocus sativus belongs to Iridaceae family and is the only plant species which produces apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal in significant quantities. Besides their organoleptic properties, Crocus apocarotenoids have been found to possess remarkable pharmacological potential. ...
Article
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Crocus sativus belongs to Iridaceae family and is the only plant species which produces apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal in significant quantities. Besides their organoleptic properties, Crocus apocarotenoids have been found to possess remarkable pharmacological potential. Although apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway has been worked out to a great degree, but the mechanism that regulates the tissue and developmental stage-specific production of Crocus apocarotenoids is not known. To identify the genes regulating apocarotenoid biosynthesis in Crocus, transcriptome wide identification of zinc-finger transcription factors was undertaken. 81 zinc-finger transcription factors were identified which grouped into eight subfamilies. C2H2, C3H, and AN20/AN1 were the major subfamilies with 29, 20, and 14 members, respectively. Expression profiling revealed CsSAP09 as a potential candidate for regulation of apocarotenoid biosynthesis. CsSAP09 was found to be highly expressed in stigma at anthesis stage corroborating with the accumulation pattern of apocarotenoids. CsSAP09 was nuclear localized and activated reporter gene transcription in yeast. It was highly induced in response to oxidative, salt and dehydration stresses, ABA and methyl jasmonate. Furthermore, upstream region of CsSAP09 was found to contain stress and light responsive elements. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the study of a gene family in C. sativus and may provide basic insights into the putative role of zinc finger genes. It may also serve as a valuable resource for functional characterization of these genes aimed towards unraveling their role in regulation of apocarotenoid biosynthesis.
... Hashemi). sidered one of the major bioactive constituents and has a wide spectrum of biological activities including antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects, antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-diabetic, hypotensive, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycemic and antidepressant [2][3][4]. ...
Article
Crocin, a water-soluble carotenoid in saffron, is a highly bioactive compound with limited use due to instability to pH variations, heat and oxidative stress, rapid absorption and low bioavailability. In this study, chitosan-alginate nanoparticles, considered as a new vehicle for crocin to improve properties in terms of antioxidant activity, bioavailability and anticancer activity. The swelling of crocin loaded nanoparticles was pH-dependent so that the highest swelling ratio (16 g/g) was observed in acidic condition (pH = 1.2) after 24 h. The antioxidant activity of the crocin loaded nanoparticles was the same effective as pure crocin on DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). In vitro crocin release profile from composite nanoparticles was investigated under simulated physiological conditions during incubation time. The experimental reports collected in this study strongly indicate that nanoparticles loaded with crocin could be the prospective candidates for the future anti-cancer therapeutics that deserve additional investigations.
... saffron extract100 mg/kg wistar rats, basal and stimulated acid and pepsin secretions were more than control group [37]/ P.O. saffron extract(25, 100 or 250 mg/kg), crocin (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg) and safranal (0.25, 2, 5 ml/kg) prevented the gastric lesion formation by indomethacin in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease of glutathione levels induced by indomethacin compared with omeprazole [38]. ...
Article
Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common diseases in society, affecting up to 40% of the population. It has major impact on the quality of life and a high burden on medical expenditure. In this work, herbs used by ancient Iranians to treat GERD have been introduced. Methods: Different well-known Persian textbooks and recent electronic databases were searched to explore the treatment of GERD and the pharmacological mechanisms of the identified medicinal plants. Results: GERD has been known for many centuries, and many herbal remedies for its treatment have been elucidated in traditional medical literature. We found 25 medicinal herbs in Persian medicine books and searched for evidence to support them in the current literature. Conclusion: Although their active components or the mechanism of action were not known by the ancient Persians at that time, their persistent use during different centuries might indicate their effectiveness. Owing to their potential, medicinal herbs are a viable option for the treatment of diseases like GERD even today.
... Saffron is recognized as an adaptogen in Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Regular consumption of saffron powder along with ghee or milk act as memory booster and improves the immunity (Kianbakht and Mozaffari, 2009). Besides the ethnomedicinal calim of this plant, pharmacological studies of crocin have demonstrated antiepileptic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, neuroprotective, and memory improvement ( Assimopolou et al., 2005;Nam et al., 2010;Gadrdoost et al., 2011;Tamaddonfard et al., 2013a, b, c). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a deleterious neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory, cognitive functions and may lead to dementia in late stage of life. The pathogenic cause of AD remains incompletely understood and FDA approved drugs are partial inhibitors rather than curative. Most of drugs are synthetic or natural products as galanthamine is an alkaloid obtained from Galanthus spp. Huperzine A, an alkaloid found in Huperzia spp., gingkolides a diterpenoids from Gingko biloba and many ethnobotanicals like Withania somnifera, Physostigma venenosum, Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica have been used by traditional Indian, Chinese, and European system of medicines in AD. Clinical significance opioid alkaloid in Papaver somniferum has shown another dimension to this study. Over exploitation of medicinal plants with limited bioactive principles has provided templates to design synthetic drugs in AD e.g. rivastigmine, phenserine, eptastigmine based on chemical structure of physostigmine of P. venenosum. Even ZT-1 a prodrug of Hup A and memogain a prodrug of galantamine has achieved new direction in drug development in AD. All these first-line cholinesterase-inhibitors are used as symptomatic treatments in AD. Single modality of "One-molecule-one-target" strategy for treating AD has failed and so future therapies on "Combination-drugs-multi-targets" strategy (CDMT) will need to address multiple aspects to block the progression of pathogenesis of AD. Besides, cholinergic and amyloid drugs, in this article we summarize proteinopathy-based drugs as AD therapeutics from a variety of biological sources. In this review, an attempt has been made to elucidate the molecular mode of action of various plant products, and synthetic drugs investigated in various preclinical and clinical tests in AD. It also discusses current attempts to formulate a comprehensive CDMT strategy to counter complex pathogenesis in AD. Materials and methods: Information were collected from classical books on medicinal plants, pharmacopoeias and scientific databases like PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar, Web of Science and electronic searches were performed using Cochrane Library, Medline and EMBASE. Also published scientific literatures from Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, Springer, ACS, Wiley publishers and reports by government bodies and documentations were assessed. Results: 60 no. of natural and synthetic drugs have been studied with their significant bioactivities. A decision matrix designed for evaluation of drugs for considering to the hypothetic "CDMT" strategy in AD. We have introduced the scoring pattern of individual drugs and based on scoring pattern, drugs that fall within the scoring range of 18 to 25 are considered in the proposed CDMT. It also highlights the importance of available natural products and in future those drugs may be considered in CDMT along with the qualified synthetic drugs. Conclusion: A successful validation of the CDMT strategy may open up a debate on health care reform to explore other possibilities of combination therapy. In doing so, it should focus on clinical and molecular relationships between AD and CDMT. A better understanding of these relationships could inform and impact future development of AD-directed treatment strategies. This strategy also involves in reducing costs in treatment phases which will be affordable to a common man suffering from AD.
... Ali Javandoost (1) , Asma Afshari (2) , Irandokht Nikbakht-Jam (1) , Mohammad Khademi (3) , Saied Eslami (4) , Mina Nosrati (1) , Mojtaba Foroutan-Tanha (5) , Amirhossein Sahebkar (6) , Shima Tavalaie (1) , Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan (7) , Gordon Ferns (8) , Farzin Hadizadeh (9) , Abolghasem Tabassi (10) , Ahmad Mohajeri (11) ...
Article
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Background: Metabolic syndrome is defined by insulin resistance and a clustering of other cardiovascular risk factors. Crocin is a carotenoid derived from the stigmas of the saffron flower and had previously been shown to affect lipid profile. However, the mechanism for this function is not well understood. The present trial aimed to investigate the possible effect of crocin on plasma levels of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and lipid profile in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial consisting of an 8-week treatment with crocin, or placebo tablets between April and June 2014, in the Nutrition Clinic of Ghaem Teaching Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Participants were randomly assigned to take a 30 mg/day crocin (n = 22) in the intervention group or placebo (n = 22) in the control group. Anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were measured and recorded during pre and post-treatment periods. Results: Whilst plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein was increased in the group taking the crocin tablet by 27.81% during the trial period (P = 0.013), the difference between the crocin and placebo groups was not significant (P = 0.116). Moreover, the percent changes in cholesterol (P = 0.702), triglyceride (P = 0.080), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P = 0.986), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.687) and fasting blood glucose (P = 0.614) did not differ significantly between intervention and control groups. Conclusion: Although crocin supplements increased the serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein in patients with metabolic syndrome, this change was not significant between treatment and placebo groups.
... It has been demonstrated that crocin exert antioxidant activity in different models of experimentally induced gastric ulcer models such as pylorus ligated and water immersion restraint stress [88]. Moreover, this agent has gastroprotective effects against indomethacin-gastric injury, both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats, by increasing glutathione level, and diminishing the lipid peroxidation [90]. ...
... It has been demonstrated that crocin exert antioxidant activity in different models of experimentally induced gastric ulcer models such as pylorus ligated and water immersion restraint stress [88]. Moreover, this agent has gastroprotective effects against indomethacin-gastric injury, both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats, by increasing glutathione level, and diminishing the lipid peroxidation [90]. ...
... The differential response of the studied cancerous cell line to CSE, crocin, and safranal could be possibly because of the difference in the expression of receptors and due to the existence of distinct cell surface receptors, intracellular retention transport, and differences in the uptake of certain drugs in conclusion in these cell lines. [29][30][31][32] In addition to the above, the other possible mechanisms via which saffron and its components impart its antiproliferative effect involves interaction with nucleic acids to protect from harmful damages, [33] through inhibition of DNA adduct formation [34] and through exerting inhibitory effect on cellular DNA and RNA synthesis. Other possible mechanisms include apoptotic modulation by selectively promoting pro-apoptotic effect in tumoural cells [35,36] and inhibition of free-radical chain reactions that could lead to oxidative damage and DNA alterations and changes in the level of enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase, protein kinase C, and reduction in the expression of proto-oncogenes. ...
Article
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Background: Use of herbs as medicinal plants to treat various clinical ailments has grown for the last two decades. Cancer is one of the most dreadful disease and extracts of various medicinal herbs have been subjected for the analysis to elucidate their possible role in the prevention of proliferation of cancer cells. Crocus sativus is an autumnally flowering plant rich in active ingredients apocarotenoids such as crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal which have been reported to have antiproliferative potential due to their strong antioxidant potential. Objective: To elucidate the antiproliferative potential of C. sativus extract (CSE) and its major constituents crocin and safranal on four different malignant cell lines (Alveolar lung epithelial cancerous cell line [A549], breast epithelial cancerous cell line [T47D], colon colorectal cell line [HCT-116], and prostrate cancerous cell line [PC3]) and nonmalignant cell line (L929). Materials and Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the content of crocin and safranal in saffron extract and antiproliferative effects of CSE, crocin, and safranal were evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All cells were incubated with different concentrations of CSE, crocin, and safranal for 48 h. In a concentration-dependent manner, both safranal and crocin reduced cell proliferation in all malignant cell lines. Results: The IC50 values ranged between 0.32 and 0.42 mM for safranal, 0.31 and 0.92 mM for crocin, and 0.58 and 0.98 mg/ml for saffron extract. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be concluded that saffron and its components can inhibit cell proliferation in cancerous cells. Consequently, these agents could potentially be used as a chemopreventive agent for cancer management in the near future.. © 2018 Pharmacognosy Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.
... Lo zafferano viene utilizzato principalmente in cucina per le sue proprietà coloranti, gustative e aromatiche. Inoltre, da molti studi scientifici, ad esso sono state attribuite molte proprietà medicinali quali: azione antiulcera (Kianbakht & Mozaffari, 2009), eupeptica (Nabavizadeh et al., 2009), ruolo anti-cancerogeno (Abdullaev, 2002, anti-arteriosclerotico (He et al., 2005;He et al., 2007;Zheng et al., 2005) ed utilizzato come anti-depressivo nella medicina tradizionale (Akhondzadeh et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
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Lo zafferano (Crocus sativus) viene coltivato con tecniche diverse a seconda del luogo di coltivazione. Il clima, le temperature, le caratteristiche dei suoli e l'altitudine influiscono sui metodi utilizzati. Nella relazione vengono approfonditi gli argomenti relativi alle caratteristiche botaniche, la modalità di propagazione tramite il bulbo e il ciclo biologico. Gli stigmi di C. sativus vengono solitamente analizzati tramite spettrofotometria, al fine di comprendere quali sono le molecole che li caratterizzano. I tre composti principali rilevati sono: la picrocrocina, il safranale e la crocina. Le norme ISO 3632 1,2:2010-2011, definiscono tre categorie di zafferano in base alle quantità presenti delle tre componenti. Le modalità di coltivazione in campo si suddividono in annuali e poliennali ed indicano per quanto tempo vengono lasciati i bulbi nel terreno. Con la tecnica annuale, i bulbi vengono dissotterrati dal terreno ogni estate, nel periodo di riposo vegetativo della pianta, selezionati e reinterrati prima della ripresa vegetativa. Con la tecnica poliennale, i bulbi vengono, al contrario, lasciati da tre a dodici anni nel terreno. In serra, le tecniche di coltivazione sperimentali dello zafferano sono l'aeroponica e l'idroponica. Entrambe hanno dato risultati soddisfacenti, con rese produttive medio - elevate e buona qualità della spezia. I principali paesi produttori di zafferano sono l'Iran, la Grecia, l'India, la Spagna e l'Italia. Relativamente alle coltivazioni italiane, sono state descritte le tecniche di produzione della Sardegna, della provincia dell'Aquila, di San Gimignano e di alcune zone del Nord Italia. In Italia esistono differenti tecniche di coltivazione e di lavorazione della pianta e lo zafferano che ne deriva, presenta caratteristiche organolettiche diverse. Nell'ultimo periodo, l'interesse per la coltivazione di Crocus sativus in Italia è tornato ad aumentare, dopo il periodo di abbandono degli anni '90 - 2000. Nelle zone montane e pedemontane del Nord Italia, sono in corso valutazioni relative alle tecniche da adottare ed alle superfici da coltivare per avere uno zafferano di qualità.
... With its anti-oxidant properties, saffron has the potential to act as a preventive agent of gastric mucosa damage through enriching glutathione levels and reducing lipid peroxidation [22]. Inoue et al. reported that saffron can inhibit ulcers that are induced by stress and histamines [23]. ...
Article
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Saffron is a natural compound that has been used for centuries in many parts of the world as a food colorant and additive. It was shown to have the ability to mitigate various disorders through its known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Several studies have shown the effectiveness of saffron in the treatment of various chronic diseases like inflammatory bowel diseases, Alzheimer’s, rheumatoid arthritis as well as common malignancies of the colon, stomach, lung, breast, and skin. Modern day drugs generally have unwanted side effects, which led to the current trend to use naturally occurring products with therapeutic properties. In the present review, the objective is to systematically analyze the wealth of information regarding the potential mechanisms of action and the medical use of saffron, the “golden spice”, especially in digestive diseases. We summarized saffron influence on microbiome, molecular pathways, and inflammation in gastric, colon, liver cancers, and associated inflammations.
... It was reported that safranal modulates antioxidant gene expression and regulates mitochondrial antioxidant genes, creating a lower mitochondrial oxygen radical potential ( Kanakis et al. 2007, Assimopoulou et al. 2005). In another study, it was observed that safranal promoted the antioxidant system by increasing gastric mucosal damage, increasing GSH levels and reducing lipid peroxidation in rat gastric mucosa (Kianbakht and Mozaffari 2009). ...
Article
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The present study aimed to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of safranal on damage induced by CCl4. Experimental animals were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group and no treatment was conducted. Second group rats were administered 1 mL/kg-day CCI4 during the experiment. Rats in Groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered 1 mL/kg-day CCI4 and 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg; 100 mg/kg safranal, respectively via gavage. Oxidative-antioxidant parameters, liver function enzymes and inflammatory cytokine levels were determined in liver samples obtained from the rats. Data analysis demonstrated that oxidative stress and inflammation markers were significantly higher in CCI4 administered groups (p
... In traditional Indian medicine, saffron is used as diaphoretic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and tranquilizer as well as for the treatment of liver disorders, flatulence, spasm, vomiting, insomnia, depression, cognitive impairments, asthma, cough, bronchitis, influenza, fever, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. Saffron is recognized as an adaptogen in Indian Ayurvedic medicine (Khare, 2007;Kianbakht and Mozaffari, 2009). The medicinal value of saffron was recorded in "Yi-Lin-Ji-Yao" a traditional Chinese medical book composed during the 16th century (Abdullaev and Frenkel, 1999) and it is used as a stimulant affecting the psyche. ...
Article
The present article is the first comprehensive review on the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the raw materials of Crocus species. In the present review, data on chemical constituents and pharmacological profile of Crocus sativus stigmas, as well as of other plant parts (perianth, stamens, leaves, corms) of different Crocus spp. are given. This review discusses all the classes of compounds (carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, terpenoids, phenol carboxylic acids, etc.) detected in raw materials of Crocus plants providing information on the current state of knowledge on phytochemicals of Crocus species. Almost all structural formulas of the compounds identified and isolated from Crocus species are given; all compounds are presented in accordance with the types of the studied raw materials. The latest hypotheses relating to the biosynthesis pathways of the main biologically active compounds of saffron (crocin, picrocrocin, safranal), as well as chemotaxonomy of Crocus genus are briefly summarized. The present review discusses the most thoroughly studied pharmacological activities (namely, antioxidant, antiparasitic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, cytotoxic, antidepressant) of saffron stigmas extracts, of its individual phytochemicals (safranal, crocin, crocetin), as well as pharmacological activities of raw materials of other Crocus species. This comprehensive review will be informative for scientists searching for new properties of saffron stigmas, as well as for saffron producers, since the present review highlights the prospects for the use of waste products in the production of the expensive spice. In addition, the present review provides information on pharmacological properties and composition of other Crocus species as promising medicinal and food plants. In the present review the emphasis will be put on the chemical constituents of Crocus species and the intraspecies variation in phytochemicals and pharmacological activities.
... Saffron contains a rich source of carotenoids (crocin), glycoside (picrocrocin), and a volatile oil component (safranal; Fernández, 2004;Winterhalter & Straubinger, 2000). Crocin is one of the major bioactive constituents and has a plethora of biological activities, including antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects (Abdullaev, 2006;G Gutheil, Reed, Ray, Anant, & Dhar, 2012), antioxidant (Charles, 2013;Chen et al., 2008), antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory (Poma, Fontecchio, Carlucci, & Chichiricco, 2012), antiatherosclerotic (Kamalipour & Akhondzadeh, 2011), antidiabetic (Shirali, Zahra Bathaie, & Nakhjavani, 2013), hypotensive (Imenshahidi, Hosseinzadeh, & Javadpour, 2010), hypolipidemic (Sheng, Qian, Zheng, & Xi, 2006), hypoglycemic (Kianbakht & Mozaffari, 2009;Mohajeri, Mousavi, & Doustar, 2009), antidepressant (Gout, Bourges, & Paineau-Dubreuil, 2010;Sahraian, Jelodar, Javid, Mowla, & Ahmadzadeh, 2016), and satiety enhancing (Gout et al., 2010). ...
Article
Plant derivatives such as carotenoids and phytosterols enrich foods have been shown to reduce plasma triglyceride (TG), low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and cholesterol concentrations. The aim of this systematic review and meta‐analyses study was to investigate the effects of saffron on lipid profiles, reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a systematic electronic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, and SCOPUS to identify RCTs and screening of relevant articles references up to October 12, 2018. There were no language restrictions. We performed this systematic review and meta‐analysis according to the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses guidelines. We identified and analyzed 14 eligible studies in this meta‐analysis. Our study found a significant reduction in cholesterol and TG following saffron intervention (weighted mean difference [WMD]: −6.36 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval, CI, [−10.58, −2.18] and WMD: −5.37 mg/dl, 95% CI [−10.25, −0.48], respectively). There was no significant effect on weight and LDL concentration. A meta‐regression analysis showed that long‐term saffron intervention can increase the high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. In conclusions, our study findings indicate some benefits of saffron on cholesterol, HDL, and TG compared with placebo. However, we recommend the conduct of adequately powered, high‐quality RCTs with short‐ and long‐term follow‐up, evaluating relevant clinical outcomes to allow for making definitive recommendations.
... In addition, various medicinal properties have been attributed to saffron. Several scientific studies have reported that saffron and its chemical components are potential anti-ulcer agents (Kianbakht S. & Mozaffari K., 2009), they improve digestion (Nabavizadeh F. et al., 2009), they play a role as anticancerogenic (Abdullaev F.I., 2002 ...
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Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a perennial herbaceous geophyte in the Iridaceae family. It propagates vegetatively by corm. All saffron production processes are generally conducted by hand: from bulb implantation, harvesting of flowers to stigma separation. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world because of the intensive hand labour required for production. The increasing interest in Crocus sativus cultivation and production in the Italian Alpine area could increase revenues for the rural farming economy. Twenty eight dried saffron samples were collected from different farmers of the Italian Alpine area (Lombardia, Trentino Alto Adige, Piemonte and Veneto) between November 2015 and March 2016. Each sample was processed to determine their moisture content and amount of picrocrocin, crocins and safranal using the methods established by the International Organization for Standardization for saffron (ISO 3632 1,2:2010-2011). Over 82.1 % of the samples analyzed were ranked in the highest quality category of the ISO 3632. A high quality saffron product can be produced in the Italian Alpine area suggesting that this crop could serve as a sustainable source of economic revenues to diversified farms in the Alps.
... Saffron has been used in traditional medicine as an appetizer, stomach acid regulator, tranquilizer, expectorant, aphrodisiac, abortifacient, for treatment of liver diseases, gas, and spasm relief, tooth and gum ailments, insomnia, cough, bronchitis, colds, fever, heart diseases, and cancer (1)(2)(3). Modern biomedical findings showed that saffron and its components may be useful in the treatment of neuro-degenerative diseases and resultant memory problems, ischemic neuropathy, age-related macular degeneration, coronary artery disease, blood pressure abnormalities, acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, mild-moderate depression, seizure, and Parkinson's disease (4,5). In addition, anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-genotoxic and tumoricidal effects have been found saffron to have (6,7). ...
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Study Objectives: Saffron and its main components have been shown to have anti-tumor and anti-cancer effects in animal studies and human cancer cell cultures. This study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effects of saffron on human ovarian cancer cells. Methods: Powder of saffron was applied to the HO–8910 cell lines. Cell viability was determined. ELISA test is used to examine the activity of caspase-3 and expression of AIF, gadd153, grp78, caspase 3, bax, bcl-2, wee 1, which are apoptotic pathway’s mediators. Active ERK (p-ERK), active JNK (p-JNK) active AKT (p-AKT), and active mTOR (p-mTOR) were also analyzed by ELISA. Results: Saffron treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer cells. Saffron treatment increased activity of caspase 3 and expression of bax, wee 1, gadd153, grp78, and AIF and decreased bcl-2 which is anti-apoptotic protein. Saffron also decreased the activity of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-AKT, and p-mTOR in ovarian cancer cells. Conclusion: This study revealed that saffron has a beneficial effect on cancer treatment. Saffron may show a synergistic effect with various chemotherapeutics while directing the cancer cell to death. Crocetin, one of its active components, has shown a synergistic anti-cancer effect combined with cisplatin. Saffron induced apoptosis via ER stress, AKT/mTOR, and MAPK pathways in the ovarian cancer cell line.Keywords: Saffron, ovarian cancer, apoptosis, MAPK, AKT/mTORIntroductionAlthough great improvement in the medical and pharmaceutical field, cancer has remained as an incur-able disease. This led the researchers to seek alternative treatments. Traditional medicine knowledge has been revised all over the world and therapeutic effects began to be studied in depth. Crocus Sativus is the raw mate-rial of saffron, the most expensive spice in the world, and has been used in traditional medicine for centuries.Saffron has been used in traditional medicine as an appetizer, stomach acid regulator, tranquilizer, expectorant, aphrodisiac, abortifacient, for treatment of liver diseases, gas, and spasm relief, tooth and gum ailments, insomnia, cough, bronchitis, colds, fever, heart diseases, and cancer (1-3). Modern biomedical findings showed that saffron and its components may be useful in the treatment of neuro-degenerative dis-eases and resultant memory problems, ischemic neu-ropathy, age-related macular degeneration, coronary artery disease, blood pressure abnormalities, acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, mild-moderate depres-sion, seizure, and Parkinson’s disease (4,5). In addition, anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-genotoxic and tu-moricidal effects have been found saffron to have (6,7).As a result of the chemical analysis of saffron flow-ers (Figure 1), it has been determined that it has more than 150 components. It is known that the strongest
... Indomethacin-induced ulcer Gastric ulcer was induced by intragastric gavage of 40 mg/kg of indomethacin. Drugs were given to animals 1 hour before indomethacin administration [19]. Five hours after the administration of indomethacin, they were sacrificed as described previously. ...
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Background/Aim: Gastric mucosal injury induced by several agents such as ethanol, stress or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is a common severe disorder. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) are gaseous autacoids that are endogenously produced in mammalian tissues. Recently, several studies confirmed that H2S, CO and NO play a role in gastroprotection. Our work aimed to evaluate and compared the gastroprotective effects of H2S, CO and NO on ethanol-, indomethacin- and stress-induced rat ulcer models. Methods: The effects of NaHS (5 mg/kg), CORM-2 (5 mg/kg) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg) were investigated on gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol (1 ml 96% i.g.), stress (cold+immobility) and indomethacin (40 mg/kg i.g.). The ulcer index, gastric mucus secretion, free and total acidity, and levels of TNF-α, PGE2, MDA GSH, COX-1, COX-2 were measured. Results: NaHS and CORM-2 decreased the increased TNF-α and MDA levels in ethanol-induced ulcer. Larginine reduced mucin secretion, TNF-α and GSH levels in stress-induced gastric ulcer. Conclusion: The present study showed that H2S and CO may have gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced ulcers and NO may be gastroprotective against stress-induced ulcers.
... • Showing anti-depressant and mood improving effects. [256,257,258,259,260,261,262] Garcinia • Use as a medicine for inflammatory ailments, bowel complaints and rheumatic pains. ...
... A study by Kianbakht et.al. has shown that saffron and its active components namely safranal and crocin could prevent indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers by reducing lipid peroxidation and enhancing glutathione (GSH) levels (Kianbakht and Mozaffari, 2009). The aqueous suspension of saffron has shown similar results in indomethacin-treated rats by decreasing basal gastric secretion and ulcer index and elevating gastric wall mucus (Al-Mofleh et al., 2006). ...
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Crocus L. is a genus of perennial plants in the family Iridaceae. Numerous research regarding healing effects of Crocus spp. on human diseases are being published worldwide. Crocus sativus L. is the most studied species of this taxa, however, other Crocus species are also being used traditionally in different countries. The most commonly used plant part of C. sativus is the stigma, known as saffron. Traditional practitioners were using saffron for treating depression, inflammations and gastrointestinal, liver, respiratory, urogenital, eye and skin diseases. In modern studies, saffron and its constituents have been used for treating cancer, liver fibrosis, fatty liver, metabolic diseases, retinal damage, asthma, depression, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Inflammation and oxidative damage are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases and Crocus spp. has been used for treating inflammatory diseases in both traditional and modern research. This may result from the presence of anthocyanins and flavonoids as anti-oxidant components and safranal (monoterpenoid), crocin and crocetin (carotenoid) as anti-inflammatory components. These compounds can be considered as potential drug candidates for treating different respiratory, retinal, metabolic and neural ailments. In this review, general information regarding botany, ethnobotany, chemical profile, and pharmacological effects of different Crocus species and their constituents have been summarized.
... Major active chemicals in saffron are crocetin, crocin (Cr) and safranal possessing free radicals defeating property. 7 These chemicals may be used to treat diseases associated with nervous degenerations and memory losses. 8 Saffron extract shows pharmacological activities including anti-tumors, 9,10 blood fat levels reduction, antiinflammatory, 11 anti-convulsion 12 and anti-depressant effects in animals 13 and 14 antitussive and expectorant effects in human. ...
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One of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) is low fertility. In this study, we investigated the protective role of crocin (Cr) against CP chemotherapy-induced changes in ovarian tissue. In the current study, we treated 15 female mice aged 6-8 weeks old for 21 days. The mice were distributed into three groups including control received normal saline (0.10 mL; IP), CP or sham-control group (CP once a week, 15.00 mg kg-1; IP) and experimental (CP + Cr) group received CP along with Cr (200 mg kg-1 daily; IP). After completing the procedure, levels of total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and sex hormones in serum as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the left ovarian tissue were measured. The right ovaries were used for histological and morphological tests. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey follow-up studies. Results showed that in the CP group a significant decrease was observed in ovarian follicles, the number of corpus luteum, levels of TAC, SOD and sex hormones; while, there was a significant increase in the number of atretic follicles and mast cells and level of MDA compared to control group. Administration of Cr along with CP caused a significant ameliorative effect on the studied parameters. In conclusion, the Cr could significantly decrease the side effects caused by CP chemotherapy in mice ovarian tissue.
... This is due to inhibitory effect of safranal on free radical generation. Thus, safranal prevented gastric mucosa and claims to be a good antiulcer agent (Kianbakht and Mozafari, 2009). ...
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a result of various environmental factors and cellular metabolism reactions creating oxidative stress. The reversible oxidative modification on proteins such as cysteine oxidation may be useful and can play positive role. ROS generated offer some benefits such as cellular signalling and tissue repair when present in low concentration. However, most of the times, these reactive species cause detrimental effects to cell components which leads to various pathological conditions which causes or aggravates diseases due to oxidative stress. The degenerative diseases due to oxidative stress are diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy , cancer and aging. Antioxidants are the compounds which scavenge these free radicals and hence neutralize their effects. Research has enabled the use of natural antioxidants as therapeutic agent in the treatment of diseases. Safranal is one such natural agent which is a major volatile component of saffron. Saffron, Red gold is the most expensive spice found in limited region of the planet and is also reported to be used in traditional systems of medicine. Chemically, safranal is a monoterpene aldehyde possessing a sweet fragrance. While exploring for the photoprotective properties of safranal, we learnt about the immense antioxidant potential of safranal. Investigation by various research groups established safranal as an anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-asthamatic, antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, anticancer and antitussive and antigenotoxic agent. It has brought researchers over the world to explore the antioxidant benefits of saffron for human health. In the present paper, potential of safranal and its related molecules as radical scavenger in combating oxidative stress, diseased conditions is collated and the underlying mechanisms have been explained. Various cell lines and animal models used for study of Safranal have been discussed.
... Safranal decreased the gastric ulcer index (by dividing total number of ulcer spots by the number of animals), and the lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa, and increased GSH levels of gastric tissue in the treated group, compared to the control group (physiological saline). Safranal, like omeprazole, may be a potential antiulcer agent to prevent the gastric mucosa damage in rats (Kianbakht and Mozaffari 2009). Regarding antioxidant effects of safranal against oxidative damage in other pathologies, Bukhari et al. (2015) presented that safranal ameliorated asthma in BALB/c mice. ...
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Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is used as a spice for its organoleptic characteristics related to its coloring and flavoring properties, and it has been also used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. The main chemical components responsible for these properties are crocin, crocetin and safranal. These compounds have been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological activities, including several properties as antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, hypotensive, hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antidegenerative and antidepressant, among others. This review article highlights the antioxidant effects of these bioactive compounds to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mechanisms of action involved, since there are a multitude of diseases related to oxidative stress and the generation of free radicals (FRs). Recent studies have shown that the effects of crocin, crocetin and safranal against oxidative stress include the reduction in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] levels) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and the increase in the levels of glutathione, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) and thiol content. Therefore, due to the great antioxidant effects of these saffron compounds, it makes saffron a potential source of bioactive extracts for the development of bioactive ingredients, which can be used to produce functional foods.
... Due to its peculiar aromatic properties and color, it was used since ancient times in the food sector as a coloring and flavoring additive. In addition, several bioactive and pharmacologically active properties such as anti-diabetic [1], anticancer [2], immunomodulatory [3], analgesic [4], antimicrobial [5], antiatherogenic [6], cardioprotective [7], antioxidant [8], and anti-inflammatory [9] have been ascribed to saffron consumption. Iran, Greece, Morocco, Spain, and Italy are the largest saffron producers in the world, and beginning in 2015, the neighboring countries of Iran, such as Afghanistan, entered this market [10]. ...
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Saffron is one of the most expensive agricultural products in the world and as such, the most commonly adulterated spice, with undeclared plant-based surrogates or synthetic components simulating color and morphology. Currently, saffron quality is certificated in the international trade market according to specific ISO guidelines, which test aroma, flavor, and color strength. However, it has been demonstrated that specific adulterants such as safflower, marigold, or turmeric up to 20% (w/w) cannot be detected under the prescribed approach; therefore, there is still a need for advanced and sensitive screening methods to cope with this open issue. The current investigation aims to develop a rapid and sensitive untargeted method based on an ambient mass spectrometry ionization source (DART) and an Orbitrap™high-resolution mass analyzer to discriminate pure and adulterated saffron samples with either safflower or turmeric. The metabolic profiles of pure and adulterated model samples prepared at different inclusion levels were acquired. Unsupervised multivariate analysis was carried out based on hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis as first confirmation of the discriminating potential of the metabolic profile acquired under optimized DART-HRMS conditions. In addition, a preliminary selection of potential markers for saffron authenticity was accomplished, identifying compounds able to discriminate the type of adulteration down to a concentration level of 5%.
... The The effects of the ethanol extract of saffron and its active constituents crocin and safranal are compared with omeprazole against gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin in non-diabetic and streptozocin diabetic rats were studied. The effects of saffron extract, crocin and safranal on the gastric ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels were comparable to omeprazole 39 . ...
Chapter
The exponential rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus worldwide is driving the current search for antidiabetic phyto-therapeutics as cheaper and safer alternative/adjunct to existing chemical/synthetic drugs. Based on folk and traditional medicine, a number of target plants have been identified. Amongst these, saffron has been established as a plant with potential ‘antidiabetic’ properties. Its bioactive compounds, namely, crocin, crocetin and safranal have the capacity to improve the sensitivity as well as the production of insulin for maintenance of hypoglycemic levels via the AMPK/ACC and AKT kinase-mediated pathways. These bioactive compounds can also overcome oxidative stress-mediated tissue damages and ameliorate patho-physiological conditions associated with diabetes. The different studies that have demonstrated these antidiabetic properties of saffron, its extracts and bioactive compounds in in-vivo and in-vitro models have been reviewed in this chapter. The aim is to collate available information for the future development of safe and efficacious nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and therapeutics for use against diabetes.
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Introduction One of the challenges confronting the coaches and sport scientist is to understand the physical factors contributing to successful performance. One common method to identify the appropriate training program for improving fitness level is the analysis of the effect of these practices on various factors of training exercises. The initial testing session can give the athletes and coach an information of current functional capability at the start of a program and can allow them to compare that capacity with reference values from appropriate peer group, so that future testing can be compared to this and any changes can be noted .Also the assessment of current status reveals strengths and relative weaknesses and can be the basis for development of an optimal training program(1) .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an eight-weeks general preparation exercise on some selected biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters of the Iranian national women Taekwondo team. Methodology Nine elite member of Iranian national women Taekwondo team (age 23.22±1.98 years old, and weight 61.88±8.44 kg) participated in this study. All participants read and signed an approved informed consent form. The exercise program consist of 72 sessions (3 session reviewing and practicing techniques ,2 sessions of combat (live) taekwondo ,2 sessions strength training, ,1 session interval running and 1 session of endurance training each week). The testing was conducted twice, before and after the 8-week training period. The biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters included; body weight, cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, speed, agility, visual reaction time, anaerobic power and body composition. body composition analyzer (in body 220) was used to assess the body fat percentage, reaction time was measured with visual reaction time apparatus(Satrap company, Iran), Bruce protocol was used to estimate vo2 max, a 40-yard sprint test was used to assess the speed, 4×9 m shuttle run test was required to assess agility , 1-min bilateral jump was used for assess the lower extremities endurance and 15 second ergo- jump and Sargent test was required to assess the anaerobic power of the subjects. And inferential statistics Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality distribution, using a paired t- test tests to compare variables before and after training, with a significant level of (p≤0.05) Result The results of functional test are presented in table 1. The bf % of the subjects significantly decreased .The result of body weight, agility, visual reaction time and anaerobic power (ergo jump test) test were slightly lower in after training. The result of anaerobic power, aerobic test and muscle endurance significantly increased. Table 1. P-value t(8) post-test pre-test Variable 0.347 1 61.55±8.30 81.88±8.44 Weight (kg) *0.000 5.888 15.05±5.04 16.78±5.38 BF (%) 0.128 -1.7 6.29±0.255 6.19±0.288 Speed (m/s) *0.001 -5.406 146.44±8.38 141.55±9.51 Muscle endurance( rep∙min-1) 0.176 1.486 9.24±0.241 9.35±0.352 Agility (s) 0.127 1.705 0.416±0.048 0.438±0.352 Visual reaction time(ms) *0.01 -3.344 909.01±136.46 878.66±121.40 Aneorobic power sargent (w) 0.787 0.279 35.33±5.97 35.55±7.95 aneorobic power ergo-jump (w∙kg-1) *0.000 -8.083 55.55±5.57 48.55±5.12 VO2max (ml∙kg-1∙min-1) * Differences are significant at the 0.05 level. Discussion and Conclusion In previous studies cited that having good anaerobic and aerobic capacity, power, agility are most important factors needed to achieve good result in taekwondo(2, 3). In this regard, the main emphasize of general preparation phase is enhance the cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength, significant reduction in bf% and significant increase in aerobic and anaerobic factors following exercise was similar to the other investigation(4, 5). Finally, these results can be use as a feedback to the coaches to review the applied training protocols.
Chapter
Among the fatal diseases, cancer is considered on the top of the line worldwide. Surgery and radiation therapy are mainly used for its treatment, but seldom lead to cure, except in cases where the cancer is detected at the very initial phase. Chemotherapy is chosen for most late metastatic state of tumors; however, these drugs have an intense form of side effects as well as drug resistance development, new choice of drugs are required to overcome these side effects. Traditional medicines offer cure for cancer with low toxicity and minimal side effects. Contemporary study indicates that several vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbs have ingredients that can prevent the occurrence of cancer. Mother nature is laced with many pharmacological spices, which promises to cure cancer, and one such spice is saffron. Safran is used in traditional medicine as a medication in the society of the Middle East as a spice in the kitchen. Crocus sativus extract (CSE) is well established in various cancer treatment including melanoma metastasis, for its anticancer characteristics. As a successful source of novel anticancer medicines, CSE is a significant spice to look for novel causes because of its varied behavior. This chapter reviews the remarkable pharmacological efficacy of saffron investigated in recent years by our group and others.
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INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research was to analyze the effects of an 8-week morning training program on physical fitness factors of urban and rural students. METHOD In the 92-93 school year, samples were chosen from elementary female students of the city of Astara (fourth, fifth and six grade) out of 2 urban schools and 2 rural schools. Before starting the training program, in the same condition physical fitness tests were taken from both groups. Then, students participated in a special training program; at the end, physical fitness tests were repeated.RESULTS The results of the correlated t-test showed that effectiveness of morning programs on a number of physical fitness factors (cardio-respiratory endurance, muscles of the shoulder girdle endurance, agility, speed, explosive power, flexibility) were significant (p>0.05), but the influence of other factors (abdominal muscle endurance, B.M.I) were not significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Morning training for 8 weeks is effective on some of students’ physical fitness factors.
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Background & Purpose: Disturbances in the lipid metabolism cause cardiovascular disease.Reduced physical activity and removing some food-drugs have accelerated the development of these complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of circuit resistance training and saffron supplementation on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile in young college men. Material and Method: 44 healthy male subjects with average age 21.63±2.04year and body mass index22.30±2.61kg/m2were divided into four groups including: water-training, sweat petals-training, style saffron-training and stigma-training. Resistance training consisted of 12 stations (each station lasts for 30 seconds at 40% of one repetition maximum) for 2 weeks (5 sessions per week).Saffron was used daily, 500 mg twice a day, in the morning and immediately after exercise. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last session and were used for analysis of total cholesterol,triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, lipoprotein a and high density lipoprotein. One-way ANOVA and suitable post hoc test at the significant level P<0.05 were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed, there is significant difference between groups in mean of Lp(a) levels (P<0/001, F=9.126). A significant decrease in the style saffron-training with water-training (P=0.006) and sweat petals-training (P=0.016) groups and also stigma-training with water-training (P=0.002) and sweat petals-training (P=0.004) groups in the post test. Conclusion: The results in this study indicated that the administration of saffron as a supplementation plus circuit resistance training was more effective on plasma lipoprotein a ( La) concentrations. Keywords: Circuit Resistance Training, Saffron, Lipid, Lipoprotein, Young Men
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The Effect of Short-Term Circuit Resistance Training on plasma lipids and lipoproteins profile on Young College male with and without Saffron (Crocus Sativus) Supplementation Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki1*, Mehdi Aliakbari-Bidokhti1, Ayoub Saiedi1, Sadegh Aredeshiri 1, Mehran Naghizadeh-Qomi 2 1 Exercise Biochemistry Division , Faculty of Sports Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran. ghanbara@umz.ac.ir 2 Department of Statistic, Faculty of Basic Sciences , University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran. ABSTRACT Background & Purpose: Disturbances in the lipid metabolism cause cardiovascular disease. Reduced physical activity and removing some food-drugs have accelerated the development of these complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of circuit resistance training and saffron supplementation on plasma lipid and lipoproteins profile in young college men. Material and Method:44 healthy male subjects with average age 21.63±2.04year and body mass index22.30±2.61kg/m2were divided into four groups including: water-training, sweat petals-training, style saffron-training and stigma-training. Resistance training consisted of 12 stations (each station lasts for 30 seconds at 40% of one repetition maximum) for 2 weeks (5 sessions per week).Saffron was used daily, 500 mg twice a day, in the morning and immediately after exercise. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last session and were used for analysis of total cholesterol,triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, lipoprotein a and high density lipoprotein. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test at the significant level P<0.05 were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed, there is significant difference between groups in mean of Lp (a) levels (P<0/001, F=9.126). A significant decrease in the style saffron-training with water-training (P=0.006) and sweat petals-training (P=0.016) groups and also stigma-training with water-training (P=0.002) and sweat petals-training (P=0.004) groups in the post test. Conclusion: The results in this study indicated that the usage of saffron supplementation in combination with circuit resistance training cause improve Lp (a) plasma concentration. Keywords: Circuit Resistance Training, Saffron, Lipid, Lipoprotein, Young Men
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Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease with a prevalent T helper (Th2)-mediated immune reaction. Crocin, the major bioactive constituent of saffron, has been reported in multiple studies to have numerous pharmacological activities, including prominent anti-oxidant activities. In the current study, the anti-asthmatic potential of crocin was evaluated. Adult male Swiss Albino mice were administered 10 mg of ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide intraperitoneally on days 0 and 7 and were administered crocin (25 mg/kg) orally daily for 16 days. Asthma progression was associated with significant increase in the lung/body weight index, inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung total protein content, and serious index of lung permeability, indicating pulmonary edema with accumulation of serous fluids within the lungs. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lung malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly increased, while lung superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and serum and lung catalase activities were significantly decreased. These changes reflect significant pulmonary inflammation with concomitant disturbance of oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-13 contents in the lung were also significantly high after OVA sensitization. Crocin treatment significantly alleviated the OVA-induced allergic asthma-associated alterations in inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. Crocin enhanced anti-oxidant defenses, reduced the incidence of oxidative stress, and restored pro-inflammatory cytokines to normal levels. Histopathological analysis showed significant lung improvement in crocin-treated mice. In conclusion, crocin showed a significant protective effect against allergic asthma progression, which was associated with down-regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression and restoration of oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis.
Article
Introduction in wrestling the ankle is most frequent site for joint sprains. That involved approximately 38 percent of all wrestling injuries(1).during wrestling exercise or competition following the collision or performs various actions, uncontrolled pressure may be applied to the ankle of the wrestlers, which in some cases require medical treatment, in such situations, a common treatment technique is the use of cooling method. However, in most cases, the athlete should immediately return to practice or competition after applying the cold. Although cryotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of acute and chronic athletic injuries, the deleterious effects of limb cooling, such as decreased nerve and muscle function, slowed sensation and inhibition of normal relaxes, may put an athlete at increased risk of additional injury(2). Reduction of proprioception receptors pulses and postural reflex responses may lead to cause abnormal situation of body and finally, increase the risk of ankle joint injury, especially during athletic activities(3). The purpose of this study is the effect of a short period of Cryotherapy on ankle position sense in professional wrestlers. Methodology 14 Professional wrestler (age 24+3 years old, and weight 74.1+19.2 kg) participated in this study. They all had at least 5 years training experience with provincial and national championships. All participants read and signed an approved informed consent form. Electrogoniometer (J-TECH Made in America) was used To measure the accuracy of the reproduce of the ankle joint angle and dominant limb was used for the same conditions of participant. In present study aims reproduce the angle of ankle joint, movement and angles plntar and dorsi flexion, respectively, 20 and 10 ° were considered. Initially, each subject was asked to move his ankle to the target angle with open eyes three times and remain for three seconds in that situation and maintaining this position in his short-term memory. Then, to eliminate visual interference during measurement of the test the eyes of participant was closed by blindfold and he was asked to move his ankle in two condition first in active and then with the move of examiner to the target angle in passive form. Error angel defines as the difference between the target angle and the angle created by the participants reproduced, regardless of whether the error was a positive or negative. Each movement was repeated three times and then average of error angles for each movement was taken as the main record. After that, the subjects medal-lateral of ankle, with distance 30 cm for 5 seconds under cold applied by using spray cooling (COLD SPRAY product of manufacturing HAGER company, made in Germany) And the test was repeated again. Inferential statistics Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality distribution, using a paired t- test tests to compare variables before and after cooling, with a significant level of (p≤0.05) Results Test results are presented In Table 1. Results show that the Regeneration error after using the spray increased 0.23 and 0.29 degree respectively In active and passive dorsiflexion and it was 0.8 and 0.1 degree respectively In active and passive plantar flexion, but this increases was not statistically significant. P-value t(13) post-test pre-test variable name 0.599 -0.538 2.59+1.45 2.36+1.29 Regeneration error of active dorsi Flexion 0.863 -0.176 3.85+1.14 3.77+1.11 Regeneration error of active plantar Flexion 0.492 -0.707 2.66+1.05 2.37+0.95 Regeneration error of passive dorsi Flexion 0.863 -0.176 3.03+1.032 2.93+0.954 Regeneration error of active plantar Flexion Conclusions: The results showed that short-term local cooling by using cold spray on ankle joint position sense of professional wrestlers is not significantly change It appears that the use of cold spray for a short time only has an immediate effect on the skin receptors. But the muscle spindles and joint receptors as deeper receptors, which have a key role in joint position sense, are not affected that this results are corresponded with Beyranvand et al research(4).
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Introduction: Boxing is a physically and mentally demanding contact sport. Boxers are required to possess a combination of endurance, strength, stamina, agility, coordination, and speed. During punching, it seems that boxers have different execution Depending on the type of target. So far analyze of kinematics and kinetics variable of punch against punching bag is done. However the study that show difference in kinematics of elbow articulation during punch against punching bag and shadow boxing wasn't found. So purpose of this study was comparison between range of motion of elbow articulation in Elite Boxers during punch while deal with the punching bag and shadow boxing.
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In the current era, the consumption and utilization of fruits and vegetables is gaining significant importance as an effective tool to maintain human health. In this context, phytochemicals and bioactive molecules from fruits and vegetables are also becoming chemo-preventive agent against various maladies. Among these, persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruit belongs to the family Ebenaceae and is used as a medicinal plant since many years to cure different human disorders, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, obesity, and so on. Persimmon fruit has significant protective effects against various types of human syndromes. Their effectual role is mainly owing to the presence of significant amounts of antioxidants such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, and other phenolic 268compounds. These bioactive compounds have the potential to scavenge and neutralize the free radical chain reaction before causing any deleterious effects to the body. Research-based evidences strongly assert that application of persimmon ingredients provides protection against hyper-lipidemia and hyperglycemia. Conclusively, persimmon and its components have potential as one of the effective modules in diet-based therapy.
Article
Crocus sativus is an herbaceous plant that belongs to family Iridaceae. It is commonly known as saffron and has been used for medicinal purposes since many centuries in India and other parts of the world. Saffron of commercial importance comprises of dried stigmas of the plant and is rich in flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids. Carotenoids represent the main components of saffron and their cleavage results in the formation of apocarotenoids such as crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal. Studies conducted during the past two decades have revealed the immense therapeutic potential of saffron. Most of the therapeutic properties are due to the presence of unique apocarotenoids having strong free radical scavenging activity. The mode of action of these apocarotenoids could be: modulatory effects on detoxifying enzymes involved in combating oxidative stress, decreasing telomerase activity, increased the proapoptotic effect, inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, and by a strong binding capacity of crocetin with tRNA. The present review focuses on the therapeutic role of saffron and its bio oxidative cleavage products and also highlights the possible molecular mechanism of action. The findings reported in this review describes the wide range of applications of saffron and attributes its free radical scavenging nature the main property which makes this spice a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various diseases.
Article
In the current study, the influence of ultrasound pretreatment followed by far-infrared drying on the drying rate, color difference and microstructure of saffron was investigated. The effect of pretreatment duration (30 and 60 s) and drying temperature (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on the main chemical composition, total flavonoid, antioxidant activity and volatile flavor compounds in saffron was also evaluated. The results indicated that the total drying time decreased with the increase of pretreatment duration. Especially at 50 °C, the drying time was reduced by 21.05% after 60 s pretreatment. It could also be found that 30 s ultrasound pretreatment with far-infrared drying at 50 °C was the best combination to obtain a good quality of the dried saffron. Under this condition, the samples had the highest chemical properties and volatile compounds, including crocin Ⅰ (20.78%), crocin Ⅱ (10.41%), flavonoid content (10.84 mg/g), antioxidant scavenging activity (58.92%), and major volatile flavor components (54.52%), as well as the acceptable drying time (35 min) and low color difference (26.32). The results of this study confirmed that ultrasound pretreatment had obvious effects and could be recommended for far-infrared drying of saffron.
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Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, has many medicinal and nutritional uses. Traditionally, it has been used as a drug alternative in the treatment of different diseases. Several studies confirm the medicinal effects of the plant as well as indicate its mechanisms of action. Producing antioxidant, inflammatory and immune effects, C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity, acts as a free radical scavenger, and modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity responses. This chapter highlights the experimental and clinical evidence of the antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of saffron and its derivatives, including safranal, crocin and crocetin. Due to their beneficial effects, saffron and these derivatives could be used to increase the effectiveness of therapy treatment for multiple diseases.
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Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that is related to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and liver dysfunction and has detrimental effects on a patient's mental health. Hence, the current study investigated the effects of saffron supplementation on dietary intake, anthropometric measures, mood, sleep quality, and metabolic biomarkers in overweight/obese patients with T2D. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 70 overweight/obese patients with T2D were randomly allocated to two groups and received 100 mg/day saffron or placebo for eight weeks. Participants completed the Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II), Hurlbert index of sexual desire (HISD), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Diabetes-specific Quality-of-Life Brief Clinical Inventory questionnaires (DQOL-BCI). Dietary intake, anthropometric measures, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), insulin, lipid profile and liver enzymes were determined at baseline and the end of the study. Results: At the end of the eighth week, saffron supplementation significantly decreased FPG, triglyceride (TG), insulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001). Moreover, significant improvements in BDI-II scores and total quality of life were observed in the intervention group (p<0.001). The saffron group showed more significant improvements in PSQI scores than the placebo group, such that at the post-intervention analysis, only the saffron group achieved a "good" sleep band. At this relatively high dose, saffron supplementation improved glycemic status, lipid profile, and liver enzyme measures in patients with T2D while also improving sleep and overall quality of life. Conclusion: Our results indicate that saffron notably reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and improved liver function in patients with T2D in an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Saffron also significantly improved depression, sleep quality, and overall quality of life in diabetic patients. However, further investigation is necessary to confirm whether saffron is an effective complementary therapy for T2D.
Article
The research progress of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has yet lead to the development of some clinical approaches intended to treat cognitive and behavioral symptoms, such as memory and perception disorders. Despite the major advances in different genetic causes and risk factors for PD, which share common pathways to cell dysfunction and death, there is not yet a complete model of PD that can be used to accurately predict the effect of drugs on disease progression. Clinical trials are also important to test any novel neuro-protective agent, and recently there have been great advances in the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and plant flavonoid antioxidants to protect against specific neuronal degeneration and its interference with lipid and cholesterol metabolism. The increasing knowledge of the molecular events underlying the degenerative process of PD has stimulated research to identify natural compounds capable of halting or slowing the progress of neural deterioration. Polyphenols and flavonoids, which play a neuroprotective role in a wide array of in vitro and in vivo models of neurological disorders, emerged from among the multi-target bio-agents found mainly in plants and microorganisms. This review presents a detailed overview of the multimodal activities of neuroprotective bio-agents tested so far, emphasizing their neurorescue/neuroregenerative activity. The brain-penetrating property of bio-agents may make these compounds an important class of natural drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Although there are numerous studies demonstrating beneficial effects in the laboratory by identifying critical molecular targets, the clinical efficacy of these neuroprotective treatments remains to be proven accurately.
Article
Aims Type 1 diabetes is a high-prevalent endocrine disease and causes oxidative stress in the testis tissue. In the treatment of diabetes, the tendency toward herbal medicines use is increasing. This study aimed to investigate the crocin effect on the Bax, Bcl2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), and anti-oxidant levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods & Materials This experimental study was performed at Payam Noor University. In total, 24 rats were divided into 4 groups, as follows: control, untreated diabetic, and 2 crocin-treated (50, 100 mg/mL, 25 days intraperitoneal injection) diabetic groups. The diabetic groups were diabetic rats receiving the Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). On day 25, the testicles were dissected to evaluate antioxidant enzymes, Bax and Bcl2. The obtained results were analyzed in SPSS using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) test. Findings The pro-apoptotic Bax and malondialdehyde levels in the treated group with a concentration of 100 mg/mL of crocin was significantly reduced, compared to the treated group with a concentration of 50 mg/mL of crocin and the control group. However, the level of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 and glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase enzymes in the treated group with a concentration of 100 mg/mL of crocin significantly increased, compared to the treated group with a concentration of 50 mg/mL of crocin, and the control group (P
Article
Aims Several natural products have been evaluated for management of gastric ulcer induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Safranal, a plant-derived chemical, has a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate possible gastro-protective effects of safranal against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) was used as a reference drug. Materials and methods Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 received vehicle. Groups 3, 4 and 5 treated with 0.063, 0.25 and 1 mg/kg safranal. Group 6 received 30 mg/kg lansoprazole. All groups except of group 1 received indomethacin (50 mg/kg) ingestion. Six hours later, animals were euthanized and their stomachs were removed. Gastric contents volume and pH were measured. Gastric ulcer area and protective index were evaluated using image J software. Histological changes were evaluated by light microscope. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) content, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Caspase-3 levels were determined in the gastric tissue. Key findings Safranal and lansoprazole normalized gastric volume and pH, reduced gastric ulcer area and produced gastric protection. Indomethacin-induced histological changes and tissue biochemical alterations were ameliorated by the above-mentioned treatments. Significance The results of the present study suggest the involvement of anti-secretory, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in gastro-protective effect of safranal. In addition, gastro-protective effect of safranal was comparable to lansoprazole.
Chapter
Metabolic disorders are among the most common causes of terminal conditions, such as cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological studies have confirmed the effectiveness of certain medicinal plants in managing metabolic disorders including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In this chapter, the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its derivatives on obesity and diabetes are summarized based on evaluations from multiple experimental and clinical studies. In obesity, saffron derivatives may directly or indirectly inhibit pathophysiology by decreasing food intake, weight gain, inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and reversing alterations in adipocytokines levels. In diabetes, saffron derivatives have antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic properties that are able to prevent or treat complications associated with diabetes such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, liver damage, and cardiovascular disorders. The mechanisms involved in the antihyperglycemic property of saffron are discussed in this chapter, as are its protective effects against diabetic complications.
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Background-Crocus sativus L. stigma (CSS) has sedative properties and is used in traditional medicine for its anticonvulsant property. Objective-We studied the anticonvulsant activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of CSS in mice in order to evaluate the traditional use of this plant. Methods-The pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests were used for assessing the anticonvulsive effects of this plant. Results-In the PTZ test, CSS delayed the onset of tonic convulsions, but failed to produce complete protection against mortality. In the MES test, both extracts decreased the duration of tonic seizures. Conclusion-The results of this study indicate that the extracts of CSS may be beneficial in both absence and tonic clonic seizures.
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Saffron and its constituents have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney or brain tissues. In this study, the effects of saffron ethanolic extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, were evaluated in skeletal muscle during I/R injury. Hind limb ischemia was induced using clamping the common femoral artery and vein. After 2 h ischemia, the clamp of the femoral vessels of animals was taken off and the animal underwent 1h reperfusion. Muscle injuries were evaluated by recording of the electromyographic (EMG) potentials and performing some biochemical analysis including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay). The ethanolic extract of saffron (5, 20 and 80 mg kg(-1)), crocin (50, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1)), safranal (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 ml kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 ml kg(-1)) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. The average peak-to-peak amplitude during I/R was significantly increased in extract, crocin and safranal groups in comparison with control-ischemic group. Following saffron, crocin and safranal administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was declined significantly in test groups. It is concluded that saffron extract and its constituents show a protective effect against lower limb I/R in rat.
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Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is used in folk medicine, for example as an antiedematogenic agent. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of saffron extracts in mice. We used aqueous and ethanolic maceration extracts of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petals. Antinociceptive activity was examined using the hot plate and writhing tests. The effect of extracts against acute inflammation was studied using xylene induced ear edema in mice. The activity of the extracts against chronic inflammation was assessed by formalin-induced edema in the rat paw. In the hot plate tests, intraperitoneal injection of both extracts showed no significant antinociceptive activity in mice. The extracts exhibited antinociceptive activity against acetic acid induced writhing. Naloxone partially blocked only the antinociceptive activity of the stigma aqueous extract. Only the stigma extracts showed weak to moderate effect against acute inflammation. In chronic inflammation, both aqueous and ethanolic stigma extracts, as well as ethanolic petal extract, exerted anti-inflammatory effects. We conclude that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron stigma and petal have an antinociceptive effect, as well as acute and/or chronic anti-inflammatory activity.
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Increased oxidative stress has been implicated in the mechanisms of delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemic insult. In this study, we investigated whether safranal, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. stigmas, may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. Male NMRI rats were divided into six groups, namely, sham, control, ischemia and ischemia treated with safranal (four groups). The transient global cerebral ischemia was induced using four-vessel-occlusion method for 20 min. Safranal was injected intraperitoneally (727.5 mg/kg, 363.75 mg/kg, 145.5 mg/kg, and 72.75 mg/kg body weight) 5 min. prior to reperfusion and the administration was continued every 24 hours for 72 hours after induction of ischemia. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of hippocampus (using FRAP assay) were measured. The transient global cerebral ischemia induced a significant increase in TBARS levels (p<0.001), decrement in both antioxidant power (FRAP value) (p<0.05) and total sulfhydryl (SH) concentrations (p<0.001) in comparison with sham-operated animals. Following safranal administration the total SH contents (3.2 vs. 0.7micromol/g, p<0.001, safranal 727.5 mg/kg) and antioxidant capacity (4.12 vs. 1.16 micromol/g, p<0.001; 727.5 mg/kg) were elevated in hippocampus in comparison with ischemic group. The MDA level was declined significantly in hippocampus (52.31 vs. 159.70 nmol/g, p<0.001; 727.5 mg/kg). It is concluded that safranal have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in hippocampal tissue from ischemic rats.
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The genotoxic potential of anti-tumor drugs limits their efficacy in the treatment of cancers. Since ancient times, saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) has been used as a spice and medicinal herb. Saffron is a rich source of carotenoids and is known for its anti-cancer and anti-tumor properties. The present study was designed to ascertain the chemoprotective potential of saffron against the genotoxicity of three well-known anti-tumor drugs-cisplatin (CIS), cyclophosphamide (CPH) and mitomycin-C (MMC)--using comet assay. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.w.) were orally administered to mice for five consecutive days prior to the administration of anti-tumor drugs under investigation. Pre-treatment with saffron significantly inhibited anti-tumor drugs induced cellular DNA damage (strand breaks) as revealed by decreased comet tail length, tail moment and percent DNA in the tail. These findings, together with our previous results, suggest a potential role for saffron as an anti-genotoxic, anti-oxidant and chemopreventive agent and could be used as an adjuvant in chemotherapeutic applications.
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To test whether the saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) given as a dietary supplement counteracts the effects of continuous light exposure in the albino rat retina. Three experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Experimental animals were prefed either saffron or beta-carotene (1 mg extract/kg/d) before they were exposed to bright continuous light (BCL) for 24 hours. Flash electroretinograms (fERGs) were recorded in control and treated rats the day before and 1 week after light exposure. At the end of the second recording session, the animals were killed and the retinas were quickly removed, fixed, cryosectioned, and labeled so that the thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) could be analyzed. Changes in protein level and cellular localization of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 were determined by Western blot analysis and retinal immunohistochemistry, respectively. In a second series of experiments, rats were killed at the end of light exposure, and the amount of apoptotic figures in the ONL was assessed by terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (d-UTP)-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL). BCL induced DNA fragmentation, characteristic of dying cells, almost exclusively in the photoreceptor layer. The rate of photoreceptor death induced by BCL is expressed as the frequency of TUNEL-positive profiles per millimeter. The photoreceptor layer was largely preserved in saffron-treated animals because it was the fERG response. In addition, the rate of photoreceptor death induced by BCL appeared drastically reduced in treated animals. In beta-carotene prefeeding experiments, morphologic analysis showed preservation of the ONL similar to that obtained with saffron prefeeding, whereas the fERG response was unrecordable. Western blot analysis showed that exposure to light induced a strong upregulation of FGF2 in control and beta-carotene-treated rats, but s no change was noted in saffron-treated rats. These results show that saffron may protect photoreceptors from retinal stress, maintaining both morphology and function and probably acting as a regulator of programmed cell death.
Article
Saffron is the dried stigmata of the flowers of saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae). Saffron has various pharmacological effects and is regarded as a potent drug. Thus research on the biological activities of saffron and its active constituents may have clinical and public health applications. To evaluate the basic and clinical pharmacology of saffron and its active constituents, the English papers in the data bases EMBASE, SCOPUS, MEDLINE, SCIENCE DIRECT, CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, English and Persian papers in the data base SID and proceedings of the Iranian physiology and pharmacology congresses and Iranian congresses concerning saffron were retrieved by using keywords comprising Crocus sativus, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic, memory, neuroprotective, analgesic, anticonvulsant, opioid dependence, antidepressant, cardiovascular, lipids, respiratory, gastric ulcer, immune system, ocular, antimicrobial and toxicity and their Persian equivalents from 1975 until November 2008. The investigations demonstrate that saffron and its active constituents have anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-genotoxic, memory and learning enhancing, neuroprotective, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, opioid abstinence syndrome alleviating, antidepressant, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, insulin resistance reducing, tissues oxygenation enhancing, bronchodilator, antitussive, gastric ulcer preventive, Immune-stimulator, retina protective and antibacterial effects. In view of the existing deficiencies in the conducted researches, further clinical trials, pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies concerning saffron are recommended.
Article
The recent advances in separation and characterization of the volatile and non-volatile components of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus (saffron) are presented. The volatiles with a very strong odor are consistent of more than 34 components that are mainly terpenes, terpene alcohols and their esters. Non-volatiles include crocins 1,2,3 and 4 that are responsible for the red or reddish brown colorof stigmas together with carotenes, crocetin, picrocrocin (a glycosidic precursor of safranal) the bitter substance and safranal the majororganoleptic principle of the stigmas. The methodology and techniques developed for the analysis of saffron metabolites including various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (TLC, HPLC, GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR.) are described.An extended study of the biological effects of either extracts or specific constituents of saffron (crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal) or extracts from its roots, from experiments in vivo and in vitro are discussed. A growing body of evidence indicates that carotenoids possess anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic and immunomodulating effects. Othereffects such as lowering of blood pressure, stimulation of respiration, sedative effects, inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitroand the dietary effects are reported as well. In addition the use of its coloring agents (crocins and carotenes) in dying cotton and wool fabrics and/or other uses in industry as well as attempts for biotechnological production of saffron and its metabolites are mentioned.
Article
Crocins are water-soluble carotenoids responsible for the colour of saffron and gardenia. In this study, we isolated and identified three major crocins from gardenia, and then evaluated their antioxidant potential using four in vitro antioxidant tests in comparison with saffron ethanol extract (SE), gardenia ethanol extract (GE) and gardenia resin fraction (GRF). The relationship between total crocin contents and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of two herbs was investigated and the antioxidant potentials of three different polar crocins were compared. The crocins appeared to possess antioxidant activity when tested by four in vitro antioxidant models. However, in anti-hemolysis, DPPH radical-scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays, GRF exhibited significantly stronger antioxidant activity than crocins and no correlation between total crocin contents and antioxidative function was revealed, which implied that ingredients other than crocins in gardenia gave markedly strong antioxidant activity. In the phosphomolybdenum assay, antioxidant capacities of fractions and extracts correlated with total crocin contents (R = 0.93). Moreover, comparison of results indicated that sugars attached to the crocetin moiety seemed to be beneficial for the antioxidant activity of these water-soluble pigments.
Article
Saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) has been used as a spice, food colorant and medicinal plant for millennia. In this study cytotoxic effect of saffron extract was evaluated in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. Meanwhile role of apoptosis and ROS were explored. Malignant and non-malignant cells (L929) were cultured in DMEM medium and incubated with different concentrations of ethanolic saffron extract. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using PI staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). ROS was measured using DCF-DA by flow cytometry analysis. Saffron could decrease cell viability in malignant cells as a concentration and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values against HeLa and HepG2 were determined 800 and 950 microg/ml after 48 h, respectively. Saffron induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control indicating apoptotic cell death is involved in saffron toxicity. This toxicity was also independent of ROS production. It might be concluded that saffron could cause cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells, in which apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an important role. Saffron could be also considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment in future.
Article
Crocus sativus L. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. Crocins are among the active components of Crocus sativus L. The present study was designed to investigate in the rat whether or not crocins possess anxiolytic properties. For this aim, the light/dark test was selected. Either crocins, at a dose which did not influence animals' motor activity (50mg/kg), or diazepam (1.5 mg/kg), significantly increased the latency to enter the dark compartment and prolonged the time spent in the lit chamber in the rats. Conversely, lower doses of crocins (15-30 mg/kg) did not substantially modify animals' behaviour. The present results indicate that treatment with these active constituents of Crocus sativus L. induce anxiolytic-like effects in the rat.
Article
There is a reduction in oxygen consumption during hemorrhagic shock, and it has been suggested that this correlates with mortality. Recent data indicate that the consumption of oxygen may depend on its diffusion from the erythrocytes to the mitochondria; thus, enhancing this rate might increase tissue oxygen extraction during hypovolemia. Crocetin, a carotenoid compound which has been shown to increase oxygen diffusivity, was used in rats bled 40% of their blood volumes, and resulted in increased whole-body oxygen consumption and survival rates. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy data also indicate that crocetin increased oxygen uptake by muscle. Other factors which might account for these results, such as possible effects of crocetin on red cell deformability and mitochondrial respiration rates, were also investigated, but the mechanism of action seems to be related to the increased diffusion of oxygen through plasma.
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in cancer, yet they are also responsible for many, often serious, adverse effects. This review examines the various mechanisms through which NSAIDs work. It looks at the experience built up in using NSAIDs in cancer pain in general, but then particularly examines whether the evidence available supports the claim often made that these drugs have a specific role in relief of pain from bony metastases. Criteria for choosing one NSAID over another, including adverse effect profiles, efficacy and tolerability, are considered, as are methods for improving the safe use of these drugs.
Article
Potential antioxidant properties of therapeutically achievable concentrations of the protonated, active form of omeprazole (OM) were investigated in vitro at specific acidic pH values to mimic intragastric conditions in the clinical setting. We found that OM is a powerful scavenger of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) even at a drug concentration of 10 microM at pH 5.3 or 3.5. This effect is also evident in the presence of the physiological HOCl scavenger ascorbate. Moreover, 10 and 50 microM OM inhibit significantly both iron- and copper-driven oxidant damage at pH 5.3 and 3.5, respectively. Since oxidative stress is involved the gastric injury of peptic ulcer and gastritis, it may be hypothesized that some therapeutical effects of OM could also be related to its antioxidant properties.
Article
The mechanism of the antiulcer effect of omeprazole was studied placing emphasis on its role to block oxidative damage and apoptosis during ulceration. Dose-response studies on gastroprotection in stress and indomethacin-induced ulcer and inhibition of pylorus ligation-induced acid secretion indicate that omeprazole significantly blocks gastric lesions at lower dose (2.5 mg/kg) without inhibiting acid secretion, suggesting an independent mechanism for its antiulcer effect. Time course studies on gastroprotection and acid reduction also indicate that omeprazole almost completely blocks lesions at 1 h when acid inhibition is partial. The severity of lesions correlates well with the increased level of endogenous hydroxyl radical (*OH), which when scavenged by dimethyl sulfoxide causes around 90% reduction of the lesions, indicating that *OH plays a major role in gastric damage. Omeprazole blocks stress-induced increased generation of *OH and associated lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, indicating that its antioxidant role plays a major part in preventing oxidative damage. Omeprazole also prevents stress-induced DNA fragmentation, suggesting its antiapoptotic role to block cell death during ulceration. The oxidative damage of DNA by *OH generated in vitro is also protected by omeprazole or its analogue, lansoprazole. Lansoprazole when incubated in a *OH-generating system scavenges *OH to produce four oxidation products of which the major one in mass spectroscopy shows a molecular ion peak at m/z 385, which is 16 mass units higher than that of lansoprazole (m/z 369). The product shows no additional aromatic proton signal for aromatic hydroxylation in (1)H NMR. The product absorbing at 278 nm shows no alkaline shift for phenols, thereby excluding the formation of hydroxylansoprazole. The product is assigned to lansoprazole sulfone formed by the addition of one oxygen atom at the sulfur center following attack by the *OH. Thus, omeprazole plays a significant role in gastroprotection by acting as a potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic molecule.
Article
The modifying effects of the aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn.) on cisplatin (CIS), cyclophosphamide (CPH), mitomycin-C (MMC) and urethane (URE) induced alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days prior to administration of genotoxins. A significant reduction in the extent of lipid peroxidation with a concomitant increase in the liver enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione) were observed in saffron pretreated animals compared with the genotoxins alone treated animals. However, the modulatory effects were not always dose dependent. Our data suggest that saffron may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulation of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxification systems.
Article
Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillary blood vessels, is a fundamental process essential for reproduction and embryonic development. It is crucial to the healing of tissue injury because it provides essential oxygen and nutrients to the healing site. Angiogenesis is also required for cancer growth and progression since tumor growth requires an increased nutrient and oxygen supply. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most widely used drugs worldwide for treating pain, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and more recently for colon cancer prevention. However, NSAIDs produce gastrointestinal ulcers and delay ulcer healing. Recently NSAIDs have been demonstrated to inhibit angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are only beginning to be elucidated. The inhibition of angiogenesis by NSAIDs is a causal factor in the delay of ulcer healing, and it is becoming clear that this is also likely to be one of the mechanisms by which NSAIDs can reduce or prevent cancer growth. Based on the experimental data and the literature, the mechanisms by which NSAIDs inhibit angiogenesis appear to be multifactorial and likely include local changes in angiogenic growth factor expression, alteration in key regulators and mediators of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), increased endothelial cell apoptosis, inhibition of endothelial cell migration, recruitment of inflammatory cells and platelets, and/or thromboxane A2 mediated effects. Some of these mechanisms include: inhibition of mitogen-activated protein (Erk2) kinase activity; suppression of cell cycle proteins; inhibition of early growth response (Egr-1) gene activation; interference with hypoxia inducible factor 1 and VEGF gene activation; increased production of the angiogenesis inhibitor, endostatin; inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and spreading; and induction of endothelial apoptosis.
Article
Crocin is a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) used in traditional Chinese medicine. We report here the effects of crocin on neuronally differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells deprived of serum/glucose. Depriving the PC-12 cells of serum/glucose caused peroxidation of their cell membrane lipids and decreased intercellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Treating the PC-12 cells with 10 microM crocin inhibited the formation of peroxidized lipids, partly restored the SOD activity, and maintained the neuron's morphology. These antioxidant effects of crocin were more effective than those of alpha-tocopherol at the same concentration. Crocin also suppressed the activation of caspase-8 caused by serum/glucose deprivation. These results together with our previous data suggest that crocin is a unique and potent antioxidant that combats oxidative stress in neurons.
Article
Previous studies have demonstrated that the gastric mucosa of diabetic rats is highly vulnerable to acute injury but the influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and their new nitric oxide (NO) releasing derivatives of aspirin (NO-ASA) on the ulcer healing under diabetic conditions has been little studied. In this study streptozocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally) was used to induce diabetes mellitus in rats. Four weeks after STZ injection, gastric ulcers were induced using the acetic acid method and rats with gastric ulcers received the treatment with 1) aspirin (ASA, 30 mg/kg-d i.g.), 2) NO-ASA applied in equimolar dose of 50 mg/kg-d i.g., 3) rofecoxib (5 mg/kg-d i.g.), the selective cyclooxygenase-(COX)-2 inhibitor and 4) SNAP (5 mg/kg-d i.g.), a donor of NO, combined with ASA (30 mg/kg-d i.g.). Ten days after the induction of the ulcers, the healing rate and the gastric blood flow (GBF) were measured by planimetry and hydrogen (H(2))-gas clearance method, respectively and the plasma cytokine such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were determined. In addition, the effect of insulin (4 IU/day/rat i.p.) with or without the blockade of NO-synthase by L-NNA (20 mg/kg-d i.p.) on the ulcer healing and the GBF in non-diabetic and diabetic rats was determined. In the diabetic rats, a significant delay in ulcer healing (approximately by 300%) was observed with an accompanied decrease in the GBF at ulcer margin. The prolongation of the healing in diabetic animals was associated with an increase in the plasma cytokine (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-10) levels. ASA and rofecoxib, that significantly suppressed the mucosal prostaglandin (PG) E(2) generation in ulcer area, delayed significantly the rate of ulcer healing and decreased the GBF at ulcer margin, while elevating plasma IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-10 concentrations in non-diabetic rats and these alterations were significantly augmented in diabetic animals. In contrast to ASA, the treatment with NO-ASA failed to influence both, the ulcer healing and GBF at ulcer margin and significantly attenuated the plasma levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-10 as compared to those recorded in ASA- or rofecoxib-treated animals. Co-treatment of SNAP with native ASA abolished the deleterious effect of ASA on ulcer healing, GBF at ulcer margin and luminal NO release in diabetic rats. Administration of insulin in rats with diabetes, opposed the delay in ulcer healing, and the fall in the GBF at ulcer margin and these effects were counteracted by the concurrent treatment with L-NNA. We conclude that: 1) ulcer healing is dramatically impaired in experimental diabetes and this effect involves the fall in the gastric microcirculation at the ulcer margin and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines; 2) classic NSAID such as ASA and selective COX-2 inhibitors such as rofecoxib, prolong ulcer healing under diabetic conditions probably due to suppression of endogenous PG and the fall in the GBF at the ulcer margin suggesting that both COX isoforms, namely, COX-1 and COX-2, are important sources of PG during ulcer healing in diabetes; and 3) NO-ASA counteracts the impairment of ulcer healing in diabetic rats induced by ASA, mainly due to the release of NO that compensates for PG deficiency resulting in enhancement in the GBF at ulcer margin and suppression of cytokine release in the ulcer area.
Article
In developed countries at least, ulcers related to Helicobacter pylori infection are becoming rarer. However, ulcers associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remain a major clinical problem, which has not been solved through the introduction of selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Recent studies suggest that NSAID-induced ulcers can be prevented largely through co-administration of a proton pump inhibitor to block acid secretion in the stomach. In patients requiring aspirin therapy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, co-administration of aspirin plus a proton pump inhibitor was found to be safer than using another anti-platelet therapy that does not block gastric prostaglandin production (e.g. clopidogrel). Several recent papers have clarified further the contribution of COX-2 to gastric mucosal defence and to the healing of ulcers. In some circumstances, COX-2 produces a highly potent gastroprotective substance (15-R-lipoxin A(4)), and analogues of this substance could have therapeutic value for preventing gastric ulceration. Nitric oxide-releasing NSAIDs continue to show promise in terms of limiting damage to the gastrointestinal tract, even when given in combination with aspirin. Recent studies support the notion that platelets make a major contribution to ulcer healing, and the release of several key growth factors from platelets appears to be regulated by proteinase-activated receptors.
Article
The main objective of the study was to examine whether crocetin, a natural product from Gardenia jaminoides Ellis, has beneficial effects on the state of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone in a rat model. Measured using the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), male Wistar rats treated with subcutaneous dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks exhibited reduced insulin sensitivity at weeks 2 and 4 and impaired glucose tolerance at week 4. In the dexamethasone-treated group, serum insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), triglyceride (TG) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly increased at the end of the study. In addition, the hepatic glycogen content was reduced as indicated by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and pancreatic islet β cells showed compensatory hyperactivity suggested by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using an antibody against insulin. Treatment with crocetin (40 mg/kg/d) significantly attenuated all the described effects of dexamethasone. These results suggest that crocetin might prevent the development of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance and related abnormalities in rats. Abbreviations AUC:area under the curve CON:control CRO(H):high-dose crocetin CRO(L):low-dose crocetin CRO:crocetin DEX:dexamethasone FFA:free fatty acids GAUC:area under the glucose curve HE:hematoxylin-eosin IAUC:area under the insulin curve IHC:immunohistochemical ISI:insulin sensitivity index MET:metformin OGTT:oral glucose tolerance test PAS:periodic acid-Schiff TG:triglyceride TNF:tumor necrosis factor
Article
Radical scavenging activity is involved in aging processes, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. Hence, in the present study the DPPH radical scavenging activity of a natural product that possesses biological properties, an extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron), grown in Crocos, Kozani (Greece), and some of its bioactive constituents (crocin, safranal) was studied. It was shown that a methanol extract of Crocus sativus exhibited high antioxidant activity, although it contains several active and inactive constituents. In trying to approximate a structure-activity relationship, two bioactive constituents of saffron extract were tested, namely crocin and safranal. Crocin showed high radical scavenging activity (50% and 65% for 500 and 1000 ppm solution in methanol, respectively), followed by safranal (34% for 500 ppm solution). All the tested samples showed high radical scavenging activity, probably due to the ability to donate a hydrogen atom to the DPPH radical. Thus, saffron grown in Greece can be used promisingly in functional foods, drinks with antioxidant activity, in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations for their antioxidant activity and probably for their antiaging activity. Saffron can also be used internally in the form of powder or other pharmacotechnical formulae as a food supplement with antioxidant properties. Copyright
Article
In addition to the established control of acid secretion of the class of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) reactivity from the pyridyl methyl sulphinyl benzimidazole type a second independent anti-inflammatory reactivity was observed in vitro. This inhibitory reactivity was clearly noticed using three different assays where the aggressive hydroxyl radicals were successfully trapped in a concentration dependent manner. There is unequivocal evidence that the proton pump inhibitors having the sulphoxide group are able to scavenge hydroxyl radicals which are generated during a Fenton reaction. By way of contrast, the corresponding thioethers were substantially less active. No detectable effect was seen in the superoxide radical scavenging system. In conclusion, pantoprazole as well as the other proton pump inhibitors have a pronounced inhibitory reactivity towards hydroxyl radicals.
Article
We have investigated the mechanism of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the gastroprotective effect of curcumin thereon. Curcumin dose-dependently blocks indomethacin-induced gastric lesions, showing 82% protection at 25 mg/kg. Indomethacin-induced oxidative damage by ROS as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and thiol depletion is almost completely blocked by curcumin. Indomethacin causes nearly fivefold increase in hydroxyl radical (()OH) and significant inactivation of gastric mucosal peroxidase to elevate endogenous H(2)O(2) and H(2)O(2)-derived ()OH, which is prevented by curcumin. In vitro studies indicate that indomethacin inactivates peroxidase irreversibly only in presence of H(2)O(2) by acting as a suicidal substrate. 5,5-Dimethyl-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) protects the peroxidase, indicating involvement of indomethacin radical in the inactivation. Indomethacin radical was also detected in the peroxidase-indomethacin-H(2)O(2) system as DMPO adduct (a(N) = 15 G, a(beta)(H) = 16 G) by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Curcumin protects the peroxidase in a concentration-dependent manner and consumes H(2)O(2) for its oxidation as a suitable substrate of the peroxidase, thereby blocking indomethacin oxidation. Curcumin can also scavenge ()OH in vitro. We suggest that curcumin protects gastric damage by efficient removal of H(2)O(2) and H(2)O(2) -derived ()OH by preventing peroxidase inactivation by indomethacin.
Article
Crocetin, a unique carotenoid with potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, is a major ingredient of saffron which is used as an important spice and food colorant in various parts of the world. In the present study, the effect of crocetin on insulin resistance and its related abnormalities induced by high-fructose diet were investigated in male Wistar rats. Compared to the control rats fed on normal laboratory diet, fructose-fed rats developed a series of pathological changes including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Although having no evident effect on the body weight, fructose feeding caused a marked increase in the weight of epididymal white adipose tissue. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the expression of both protein and mRNA of adiponectin (an insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine) was observed, whereas those of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and leptin were enhanced in epididymal white adipose tissue in fructose-fed rats. These disorders were effectively normalized in crocetin-treated rats. Crocetin was also demonstrated here to alleviate free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin insensitivity and dysregulated mRNA expression of adiponectin, TNF-alpha and leptin in primary cultured rat adipocytes. These findings suggest the possibility of crocetin treatment as a preventive strategy of insulin resistance and related diseases. The favorable impact on adiponectin, TNF-alpha and leptin expression in white adipose tissue may be involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity observed in crocetin-treated rats.
Article
The antitussive activity of Crocus sativus stigma and petal extracts and its components, safranal and crocin, was evaluated using the nebolized solution of citric acid 20% in guinea pigs. The extract and agents were injected intraperitoneally. The ethanolic extract of C. sativus (100-800 mg/kg) and safranal (0.25-0.75 ml/kg) reduced the number of cough. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of petal and crocin did not show antitussive activity.
Article
The hypolipidemic mechanism of crocin, an active ingredient in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Crocus sativus L, was examined in rats. In diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats, a 10-day treatment with crocin significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol level in the daily dose range of 25 to 100 mg/kg. Results of the modified fat-loading method indicated that crocin inhibited the absorption of fat and cholesterol and this inhibition is closely related to the hydrolysis of fat. In addition, the modified fat-balance method demonstrated that crocin increased the fecal excretion of fat and cholesterol in rats, but had no influence on the elimination of bile acids. The results of the in situ loop method and enzyme assay indicated that crocin could not directly block the absorption of cholesterol from rat jejunum but could selectively inhibit the activity of pancreatic lipase as a competitive inhibitor. These findings suggest that crocin yielded its hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, leading to the malabsorption of fat and cholesterol.
Article
As indicated in ancient Iranian medical books, Crocus sativus has therapeutic effects on respiratory diseases. The relaxant effect of this plant has been observed also on smooth muscles in previous studies. Therefore, in this study the relaxant effects of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of C. sativus and one of its main constituents, safranal, were examined on guinea-pig tracheal chains. The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract (0.15, 0.3, 0.45, and 0.60 g %) and safranal (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 mL 0.2 mg mL(-1) solution) in comparison with saline, as negative control, and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 mM), as positive control, were examined using guinea-pig precontracted tracheal chains. The tracheal chains had been precontracted by three different methods. Group 1 had been precontracted using 10 microM methacholine. The other two groups had been precontracted using 60 mM KCl at two different conditions: non-incubated tissues (group 2) and tissues incubated with 1 microM propranolol, 1 microM chlorpheniramine and 1 microM atropine (group 3) (for each group, n = 6). In group 1 all concentrations of theophylline, extract and safranal showed significant relaxant effects compared with saline (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In group 2 theophylline, extract and safranal showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects also compared with saline (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001 for different concentrations except two low concentrations of safranal). However, in group 3 the extracts of C. sativus showed a weak relaxant effect (P < 0.05 only for the highest concentration). The effects of the last concentration of safranal (0.60 mL 0.2 mg mL(-1) solution) in group 1, and all its concentrations in group 2 were significantly lower than those of theophylline (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). In addition, the effects of safranal 0.45 and 0.60 mL 0.2 mg mL(-1) solution in groups 1 and 2 were significantly lower than that of C. sativus extract. There were significant correlations between the relaxant effects and concentrations for extract, safranal and theophylline in all experimental groups (P < 0.001 for all cases). These results showed a potent relaxant effect of C. sativus on tracheal chains of guinea-pigs that was comparable to or even higher than that of theophylline at the concentrations used. The results indicated that safranal was, at least in part, responsible for the relaxant effect of C. sativus.
Article
Crocetin (CRT) and dimethylcrocetin (DMCRT) are derived from crocins which are found in the stigmas of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), while safranal is the main component of saffron's essential oil. The aim of the present study was to examine their interaction with human serum albumin in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using constant protein concentration and various ligand contents. FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligands' binding mode, the binding constant, and the effects of ligand complexation on protein secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind nonspecifically (H-bonding) via protein polar groups with binding constants of Kcrt =2.05 (+/-0.30) x 103 M-1, Kdmcrt = 9.60 (+/-0.35) x 104 M-1, and Ksaf = 2.11 (+/-0.35) x 103 M-1. The protein secondary structure showed no major alterations at low ligand concentrations (1 microM), whereas at higher content (1 mM), decrease of alpha-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 43-45% and increase of beta-sheet from 17% (free HSA) to 18-22% and random coil 7% (free HSA) to 10-14% occurred in the ligand-HSA complexes. The results point to a partial unfolding of protein secondary structure at high ligand content. The antioxidant activity of CRT, DMCRT, and safranal was also tested by the DPPH* antioxidant activity assay, and their IC50 values were compared to that of well-known antioxidants such as Trolox and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). The IC50 values of CRT and safranal were 17.8 +/- 1 microg/mL and 95 +/- 1 microg/mL, respectively, while the inhibition of DMCRT reached a point of 38.8%, which corresponds to a concentration of 40 microg/mL, and then started to decrease. The IC50 values of Trolox and BHT were 5.2 +/- 1 microg/mL and 5.3 +/- 1 microg/mL, respectively.
Article
This paper studied the effects of crocin, a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus L., on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice cerebral microvessels. Transient global cerebral ischemia (20 min), followed by 24 h of reperfusion, significantly promoted the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in cortical microvascular homogenates, as well as markedly reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and promoted the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOs). Reperfusion for 24 h led to serous edema with substantial microvilli loss, vacuolation, membrane damage and mitochondrial injuries in cortical microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC). Furthermore, enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were detected in cortical microvessels after I (20 min)/R (24 h). Reperfusion for 24 h also induced membrane (functional) G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) expression, while it reduced cytosol GRK2 expression. Pretreatment with crocin markedly inhibited oxidizing reactions and modulated the ultrastructure of CMEC in mice with 20 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) followed by 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. Furthermore, crocin inhibited GRK2 translocation from the cytosol to the membrane and reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-9 expression in cortical microvessels. We propose that crocin protects the brain against excessive oxidative stress and constitutes a potential therapeutic candidate in transient global cerebral ischemia.
Article
Crocus sativus L. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. Its involvement in learning and memory processes has been proposed. Crocins are water-soluble carotenoids and are among the active components of C. sativus L. The present study was designed to investigate in the rat the effects of crocins on recognition and spatial memory. For this aim, the object recognition task which evaluates non-spatial working memory and a novel version of the radial water maze which assesses spatial reference and spatial working memory were chosen. In a first study, crocins (15 and 30mg/kg) counteracted delay-dependent recognition memory deficits in the normal rat, suggesting that these carotenoids modulate storage and/or retrieval of information. In a subsequent study, treatment with crocins (30mg/kg and to a lesser extent also 15mg/kg) attenuated scopolamine (0.2mg/kg)-induced performance deficits in the radial water maze test. The present results support and extend the enhancing effects of crocins on memory and, then, to our knowledge, for the first time, demonstrate its implication in the mechanisms underlying recognition and spatial memory.
Article
Saffron (stigmata of Crocus sativus L.) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Throughout history, uses against cancer and depressive mood can regularly be identified. These applications have also been in the focus of modern research. Promising and selective anti-cancer effects have been observed in vitro and in vivo, but not yet in clinical trials. Antidepressant effects were found in vivo and in clinical pilot studies. Saffron extracts thus have the potential to make a major contribution to rational phytotherapy.