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Tracking users' visual attention and responses to personalized advertising based on task cognitive demand

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... Personalized advertising, defined as advertising that incorporates information about the individual consumer, such as demographic data, personally identifying information (e.g., name, location, and job), and shopping-related information (e.g., purchasing habits or history and brand preference), is not a new development. However, in recent years, empirical interest in this phenomena has seen a resurgence due to the explosive growth of personalized online advertising driven by insights into various aspects of the consumer (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;De Keyzer, Dens, and De Pelsmacker, 2015;Winter, Maslowska, and Vos, 2021). ...
... For example, a user who searches for a stroller will receive more online adverts for baby gear while browsing unrelated websites. The same user is also more likely to receive unsolicited email promotions due to software that keeps track of users' browsing behavior and past product selection (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016). Research has also shown that personalized adverts can benefit marketers through enhancing a user's visual attention to the content of an advert (Pfiffelmann, Dens, and Soulez, 2020). ...
... Advert Type. Personalization manipulation levels were adapted from previous research examining the effectiveness of advert personalization on consumers' consumption behavior (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016). Specifically, in our first study, we addressed personalization through taste. ...
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Due to its immense popularity amongst marketing practitioners, online personalized advertising is increasingly becoming the subject of academic research. Although advertisers need to collect a large amount of customer information to develop customized online adverts, the effect of how this information is collected on advert effectiveness has been surprisingly understudied. Equally overlooked is the interplay between consumer’s emotions and the process of consumer data collection. Two studies were conducted with the aim of closing these important gaps in the literature. Our findings revealed that overt user data collection techniques produced more favourable cognitive, attitudinal and behavioral responses than covert techniques. Moreover, consistent with the self-validation hypothesis, our data revealed that the effects of these data collection techniques can be enhanced (e.g., via happiness and pride), attenuated (e.g., via sadness), or even eliminated (e.g., via guilt), depending on the emotion experienced by the consumer while viewing an advert.
... Both scholars and practitioners consider A ad and A b desirable ad outcomes (MacKenzie and Lutz, 1989). Many researchers have used them as dependent variables, which measure variation in responses to ad stimuli (e.g., Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Kim and Kim, 2018). To increase favorable A ad and A b , advertisers and marketers use a variety of data acquired from online activity monitors (e.g., cookies) or purchased from third parties to tailor ad messages to specific targets based on demographic information, preferences, interest, and location (Salonen and Karjaluoto, 2016). ...
... To increase favorable A ad and A b , advertisers and marketers use a variety of data acquired from online activity monitors (e.g., cookies) or purchased from third parties to tailor ad messages to specific targets based on demographic information, preferences, interest, and location (Salonen and Karjaluoto, 2016). Previous findings about the benefits of personalized advertising show that a tailored ad leads to greater visual attention than a non-tailored ad, enhancing ad effectiveness (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Li, 2016). ...
... Ad personalization uses data points (i.e., insights into the identity of a target audience) to increase message relevance and make promotional messages feel appealing and persuasive to each customer. These data points include demographic information (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016), preferences (Li, 2016), and online behavior (Boerman et al., 2017). ...
Article
Given the increasing number of personalized ads and the prevalence of media multitasking, understanding the impact of online privacy concern on ad outcomes is important. However, the interaction effects between media multitasking and ad personalization on ad evaluation remain unexplored, including whether multitasking might lower privacy concern (i.e., cognitive performance) and improve ad evaluation and persuasion (i.e., attitudinal performance). Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the interplay between (a) level of ad personalization and (b) media multitasking and the effects of both on level of privacy concern and evaluation of the ad. We used a between-subjects experiment (N = 219) to test the effects of non-personalized and personalized advertising on online news readers, half of whom also attended to a podcast or a movie trailer while reading. Results show that the negative effect of personalized advertising on attitude toward the ad (Aad) and attitude toward the brand (Ab) emerged. Participants exposed to the more personalized ad showed less favorable Aad and Ab than those exposed to the less personalized ad. Moreover, privacy concern mediated the negative impact of the personalized ad message on ad evaluation. The results also revealed that the moderated mediation effect of multitasking on personalized advertising effectiveness through privacy concern was not significant. However, media tasking type significantly moderated the direct relationships between ad personalization and ad effectiveness (i.e., Aad and Ab). Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986), persuasive messages influence customers that interact with the website, by diverting attention, responses, and subsequent behaviors (Tam and Ho, 2005) such as item selection (Ho and Bodoff, 2014). When exposed to personalized content, customers are expected to pay closer attention to it and to use it for making decisions (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Rimer and Kreuter, 2006;Tam and Ho, 2006). In their study, Bang and Wojdynski (2016) observed that customers paid relatively longer and more attention to the personalized advertised content compared to non-personalized content. ...
... When exposed to personalized content, customers are expected to pay closer attention to it and to use it for making decisions (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Rimer and Kreuter, 2006;Tam and Ho, 2006). In their study, Bang and Wojdynski (2016) observed that customers paid relatively longer and more attention to the personalized advertised content compared to non-personalized content. Tam and Ho (2006) also found that customers click more on personalized offers than on non-personalized offers and tend to select recommended offers more in shopping carts. ...
... Based on prior research (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Ho and Bodoff, 2014;Ho & Tam, 2005;Tam & Ho, 2005 and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (ELM) (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986), we therefore assume that actual personalization will influence objective H4. Objective playfulness is higher when content is personalized than when content is not personalized In addition, we assume that customers are more likely to select their favorite products for purchase when they focus their attention on their favorite products (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Rimer and Kreuter, 2006;Tam and Ho, 2006), which is measured by objective playfulness. ...
Retailers develop personalized websites with the aim of improving customer experience. However, we still have limited knowledge about the effect of personalization on customer experience and the underlying processes. With a lab experiment, this research specifically examines the effect of actual personalization and perceived personalization on playful customer experience using both subjective and objective measures, with the support of eye-tracking techniques. We show that personalization, regardless of whether it is perceived or not, enhance the playful customer experience of a retailing website. In addition, we highlight the presence of two concomitant processes. Content needs to be perceived as personalized to influence the subjective playful customer experience, but actual personalization does influence objective playful customer experience. Although customers spend the same time on the website, they focus more of their attention on their favorite products when content is personalized. Such focused attention leads them to select their favorite products for purchase.
... Kişiselleştirme kavramı ile ilgili yapılan literatür çalışmaları incelendiğinde, bu kavramın ilk önce e-posta ve mobile pazarlama alanında denendiği daha sonra ise websitelerinin tanıtımlarında kullanıldığı görülmektedir (Awad ve Krishnan, 2006;Xu, 2006;Yu ve Cude, 2009;Maslowska, vd., 2011;Baek ve Morimoto, 2012;Ho ve Bodoff, 2014;Kim ve Han, 2014;Li, 2016;Bleier ve Eisenbeiss, 2015;Bang ve Wojdynski, 2016;Huang, 2018;Winter, vd., 2021). Günümüzde ise, bu alanlara ek olarak özellikle e-ticaret sitelerinde (Zanker, vd., 2010) ve Facebook gibi sosyal medya platformlarında (Tucker, 2014;Keyzer, vd., 2015;Tran, 2017;Walrave, vd., 2018;Shanahan, vd., 2019;Tran, vd., 2020) kişiselleştirilmiş tanıtımların sıklıkla tercih edildiği görülmektedir. ...
... Kişiselleştirme değişkeninin, tanıtım aracı olarak kullanımasının ve tüketicilerin tekrar satın alma davranışlarına etkisinin boyutlarını inceleyen çalışmalara bakıldığında ise; kullanıcıların dijital platformlardaki kişiselleştirilmiş tanıtımlara daha sık odaklandıkları, bu tanıtımları incelemek için daha fazla zaman harcadıklarısonuçlarına ulaşılmaktadır (Bang ve Wojdynski, 2016;Li, 2016;Pfiffelmann, vd., 2020;Tran, vd., 2020). Ayrıca bu tanıtımlarda, kullanıcı adlarının mesaja dâhil edilmesinin tekrar satın alma davranışı üzerinde olumlu bir etkiye sahip olduğu ortaya çıkmaktadır (Xu, 2006;Yu ve Cude, 2009;Ho ve Bodoff, 2014;Tucker, 2014;Keyzer, vd., 2015;Li ve Liu, 2017;Walrave, vd., 2018;Shanahan, vd., 2019;Dastane, 2020;Rhee ve Choi, 2020). ...
... Zaman geçirme değişkenin, yeniden üyelik satın alma niyeti üzerinde negatif bir etkiye sahip olması literatürde yapılan çalışmalarla paralellik göstermektedir (Brailovskaia, vd., 2020;Fabris, vd., 2020;Ponnusamy, vd., 2020;Dalvi-Esfahani, vd., 2021;Ort, vd., 2021;Sun ve Zhang, 2021). Kişiselleştirme (Keyzer, vd., 2015;Bang ve Wojdynski, 2016;Li, 2016;Li ve Liu, 2017;Walrave, vd., 2018;Shanahan, vd., 2019;Dastane, 2020;Pfiffelmann, vd.,2020;Rhee ve Choi, 2020;Tran, vd., 2020), eğlence (Koufaris, 2002;Bart, vd., 2005;Cyr, vd., 2006;Chiu, vd., 2009;Engberg, vd., 2019;Vijayalakshmi, vd., 2019;Singh, vd., 2021) ve fiyat adaleti (Bolton ve Alba, 2006;Herrmann, vd., 2007;Bolton, vd., 2010;Xia ve Monroe, 2010;Luo, vd., 2012;Homburg, vd., 2014;Graciola, vd., 2018Fennell, vd., 2020Hakim, vd., 2020;Liao, vd., 2020;Lu, vd., 2020;Mori, 2021) değişkenlerinin yeniden üyelik satın alma niyeti üzerinde pozitif bir etkiye sahip olması ise literatürde yapılan çalışmaların sonuçlarıyla benzerlikler taşımaktadır. Önerilerin kullanımı değişkenin ise, yeniden üyelik satın alma niyeti üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisi olmaması literatürde yapılan çalışmaların aksine farklı sonuçlar ortaya koymaktadır (Hasan, vd., 2018;Bhattacharyya ve Bose, 2020;Boisvert ve Khan, 2020;Dastane, 2020;Jakomin, vd., 2020;Yasri, vd., 2020;Kim, 2021). ...
... Personalization can result in longer and more visual attention (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Pfiffelmann et al., 2020), more careful processing (Rimer and Kreuter, 2006), and a more positive brand attitude and higher behavioral intentions because it benefits perceptions of relevance (De Keyzer et al., 2015), entertainment (De Keyzer et al., 2021;Kim and Han, 2014) and credibility (Tran, 2017). At the same time, there is evidence that personalized advertising also leads to increased feelings of intrusiveness (Pfiffelmann et al., 2020) and creepiness (De Keyzer et al., 2022), which in turn could result in less positive consumer responses (Gironda and Korgaonkar, 2018). ...
... Other studies using location to manipulate personalization have used location concurrently with other personalization elements. Some of these studies do not report a manipulation check of perceived personalization (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Brinson and Eastin, 2016;Kaspar et al., 2019;Walrave et al., 2016). For example, Bang and Wojdynski (2016) include the respondent's name and the nearest location of the advertised coffee shop (by showing the coffee shop on a map in the advertisement). ...
... Some of these studies do not report a manipulation check of perceived personalization (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016;Brinson and Eastin, 2016;Kaspar et al., 2019;Walrave et al., 2016). For example, Bang and Wojdynski (2016) include the respondent's name and the nearest location of the advertised coffee shop (by showing the coffee shop on a map in the advertisement). Their eye-tracking study shows that a personalized (continued on next page) advertisement receives significantly more attention (total duration of fixations) than a non-personalized advertisement and increases the number of visits to the advertisement. ...
Article
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On social networking sites, consumers disclose information about themselves that advertisers use to personalize advertisements. The underlying assumption is that personalized advertisements are more persuasive. However, it is not clear to what extent actual personalization elements (as intended by advertisers) determine consumers’ perceptions of the extent to which an ad is personalized, and it is the latter that drives responses. The current study investigates the relative weight of different actual personalization elements (age, gender, location, life events, interests, and friend referrals) in Facebook ads in eliciting perceived advertising personalization. We conduct conjoint analyses for six products (a bank, a smartphone, tableware, furniture, a restaurant, a fashion retailer) with 595 consumers from the United States. The findings show that the most important elements in eliciting perceived personalization are (in order of importance) a person’s interests, location, and age. This result remains stable across different product perceptions (product category involvement, product qualities, and buying motivations) and across different socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, and education). In sum, to evoke the perception of personalization, advertisers should primarily target consumers based on their interests.
... The term individual signals that we widely accept that two persons are not two copies of the same, but that they differ from one another in many regards. Understanding individuals, predicting their individual behavior, and finding the matching treatment for the right person at the right time is currently a defining trend in many disciplines, including the fields of personalized learning (e.g., Dumont, 2019;Bulger, 2016), personalized medicine (e.g., Senn, 2016;2018), personalized advertisement (Zhu & Chang, 2016;Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), and many more. These goals of understanding, predicting, and treating individuals all require statistical methods that make it possible to describe how experiences develop, and how they interact within individuals (i.e., within-person methods). ...
... In personalized medicine -including personalized psychiatry -the patient's individual needs are assessed for instance by sequencing their genome to identify individually matching treatments that would not necessarily work for other patients displaying similar symptoms (e.g., Jain, 2002;Senn, 2016;2018). In personalized advertisement, people's individual preferences are mapped to target them with advertisement fitting their individual personality and preferences (e.g., Zhu & Chang, 2016;Bang & Wojdynski, 2016). In real-life settings, large online sellers, such as Amazon or Netflix, employ individual predictions to target individuals with the offers of products that best fit their individual person characteristics. ...
... The following main reasons suggest that a new credibility crisis might dawn upon psychological science: (1) the limitations and frequent misinterpretations of betweenperson methods that have been described here; (2) the widespread and often predominant use of these betweenperson methods in psychology; (3) the fact that these limitations have been criticized for many years by various authors in combination with the fact that these method critiques are often ignored in current psychological research (e.g., Molenaar, 2004;Simpson, 1951;Reitzle, 2013;Rogosa, 1980;Hamaker et al., 2015); (4) the fact that many people, including practitioners interested in personalized solutions, turn to psychology with questions about individuals that cannot be answered by the between-person methods that are applied to study these questions; (5) the fact that diverse within-person methods have been available for a long time, solve some of the limitations of within-personmethods, but are not yet embraced fully in many psychological research fields; and (6) the fact that within-person methods and personalized descriptions and predictions are not only needed but frequently used in applied fields that take a pragmatic data science approach and are interested in making trustworthy decisions about how to treat individuals, including banking (e.g., Galal et al., 2016;Hernández-Nieves et al., 2020;), advertisement (Zhu & Chang, 2016;Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), medicine (Senn, 2016;2018), law enforcement (e.g., Tayebi et al., 2016), personalized content recommendation tailored to customer's preferences in for example Amazon or Netflix (e.g., Gomez-Uribe & Hunt, 2015;Smith & Linden, 2017), and many more. ...
Article
Full-text available
Personalizing assessments, predictions, and treatments of individuals is currently a defining trend in psychological research and applied fields, including personalized learning, personalized medicine, and personalized advertisement. For instance, the recent pandemic has reminded parents and educators of how challenging yet crucial it is to get the right learning task to the right student at the right time. Increasingly, psychologists and social scientists are realizing that the between- person methods that we have long relied upon to describe, predict, and treat individuals may fail to live up to these tasks (e.g., Molenaar, 2004). Consequently, there is a risk of a credibility loss, possibly similar to the one seen during the replicability crisis (Ioannides, 2005), because we have only started to understand how many of the conclusions that we tend to draw based on between-person methods are based on a misunderstanding of what these methods can tell us and what they cannot. An imminent methodological revolution will likely lead to a change of even well-established psychological theories (Barbot et al., 2020). Fortunately, methodological solutions for personalized descriptions and predictions, such as many within-person analyses, are available and undergo rapid development, although they are not yet embraced in all areas of psychology, and some come with their own limitations. This article first discusses the extent of the theory-method gap, consisting of theories about within-person patterns being studied with between-person methods in psychology, and the potential loss of trust that might follow from this theory-method gap. Second, this article addresses advantages and limitations of available within- person methods. Third, this article discusses how within-person methods may help improving the individual descriptions and predictions that are needed in many applied fields that aim for tailored individual solutions, including personalized learning and personalized medicine.
... Notwithstanding the prevalence of personalized advertising, theoretical insights regarding its influence on consumer responses and decision-making is still embryonic (Bang & Wojdynski, 2016). Besides, extant prior studies have reported ambivalent findings concerning the effectiveness of personalized ads. ...
... Although people have diverse reasons for using the internet, prior studies have not examined the effects of personalization in different media usage situations. One plausible reason identified as accounting for this limitation is that, recent relevant studies that have inquired into online ad personalization with the exception of a few (Bleier & Eisenbess, 2015a;Bang & Wojdynski, 2016) have focused on social networking sites or social media platforms (e.g. De Keyzer et al., 2015;Tran, 2017;Dhanya and Jaidev, 2019) and mobile advertising (e.g., Kim & Han, 2014;Feng et al., 2016). ...
... The literature on personalization makes a distinction between actual ad personalization and perceived ad personalization. Personalized advertisements are ads that match promotional messages to individual consumers on the basis of their unique preferences (Li et al., 2019) as well as demographics and browsing/shopping-related information (Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), self-identifying information (Tucker, 2014) and location-based information. Perceived ad personalization, however, describes whether consumers perceive the ad message as matching their interest and preferences etc. ...
Article
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Personalized ads are increasingly used by marketers to promote product and service brands; however, the effect of ad personalization on consumer perceptions and online purchase intention has received limited research attention, particularly in different media usage situations. To address this gap, data were collected in four sub-Saharan African countries through an online survey to test the hypothesized model using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that perceived ad personalization influences online purchase intention, and this relationship is partially mediated by perceived relevance and fully mediated by perceived intrusiveness. No effects were found for privacy concern. Notably, internet use motivation moderated the relationships between the predictor and the outcomes. Specifically, the effect of ad personalization on perceived intrusiveness was only significant among paratelic users; its effect on purchase intention was also stronger among paratelic users, and its effect on perceived relevance was more pronounced among telic users.
... The studies in this cluster have found that personalization effectiveness is enhanced by customer data, though several researchers observed that target customers hesitate to share their personal information, as the sharing of personal information increased the sense of vulnerability and risk perception among target customers. One of the solutions proposed is to overtly seek information to reduce the uncanny effect of personalization(Aguirre et al., 2015;Xu et al., 2011), as well as to seek out strategies to promote personalization in ways that motivate target customers to share their information with marketers(Guo et al., 2016;Ho & Bodoff, 2014;Shareef et al., 2017).Upon detailed scrutinity, this study finds that the most prolific publications in this cluster concentrate on the issue of privacy as a barrier to personalization and how to navigate the personalization-privacy paradox through the decision-making process(Xu et al., 2011), trust-building strategies(Aguirre et al., 2015), elaboration likelihood model(Ho & Bodoff, 2014), content design(Shareef et al., 2017), visual attention and response tracking(Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), and user experience design(Pappas, 2018) across various contexts such as location-aware marketing(Xu et al., 2011), online advertising(Aguirre et al., 2015), value co-creation(Zhang & Chen, 2008), web personalization(Ho & Bodoff, 2014), mHealth(Guo et al., 2016), short messaging service(Shareef et al., 2017), personalized advertising(Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), online shopping(Pappas, 2018), chatbot e-service (M.Chung et al., 2020), and online viral marketing campaigns (Koch & Benlian, 2015;Table 10). Major bibliographic (thematic) clusters on personalized marketing. ...
... The studies in this cluster have found that personalization effectiveness is enhanced by customer data, though several researchers observed that target customers hesitate to share their personal information, as the sharing of personal information increased the sense of vulnerability and risk perception among target customers. One of the solutions proposed is to overtly seek information to reduce the uncanny effect of personalization(Aguirre et al., 2015;Xu et al., 2011), as well as to seek out strategies to promote personalization in ways that motivate target customers to share their information with marketers(Guo et al., 2016;Ho & Bodoff, 2014;Shareef et al., 2017).Upon detailed scrutinity, this study finds that the most prolific publications in this cluster concentrate on the issue of privacy as a barrier to personalization and how to navigate the personalization-privacy paradox through the decision-making process(Xu et al., 2011), trust-building strategies(Aguirre et al., 2015), elaboration likelihood model(Ho & Bodoff, 2014), content design(Shareef et al., 2017), visual attention and response tracking(Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), and user experience design(Pappas, 2018) across various contexts such as location-aware marketing(Xu et al., 2011), online advertising(Aguirre et al., 2015), value co-creation(Zhang & Chen, 2008), web personalization(Ho & Bodoff, 2014), mHealth(Guo et al., 2016), short messaging service(Shareef et al., 2017), personalized advertising(Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), online shopping(Pappas, 2018), chatbot e-service (M.Chung et al., 2020), and online viral marketing campaigns (Koch & Benlian, 2015;Table 10). Major bibliographic (thematic) clusters on personalized marketing. ...
Article
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In marketing, personalization is the action of designing and producing in ways that resonate with customer preferences. Content and products that are personalized according to customer preferences can reduce customer fatigue and time in making choices, thereby decreasing their cognitive load. Despite its importance, the literature on personalized marketing remains fragmented due to the absence of a comprehensive review that consolidates the intellectual structure of the field. This study bridges this knowledge gap through a bibliometric review using performance analysis and science mapping. Through a comprehensive review of 383 publications, this study reveals the publication and citation trends, the most prolific authors, journals, and publications, and six major themes (i.e., personalized recommendation, personalized relationship, personalization–privacy paradox, personalized advertising, personalization concept and discourse in marketing, and customer insights in personalized marketing) that characterize the body of knowledge on personalized marketing. The study concludes with future research directions as ways forward for personalized marketing, wherein a focus on new-age technologies involving artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, internet of things, and wearables is encouraged to explore for new ways to curate personalized experiences across online and offline channels.
... In personalized Medicine -including personalized Psychiatry-, patient's individual needs are assessed for instance by sequencing their genome to identify individually matching treatments that would not necessarily work for other patients displaying similar symptoms (e.g., Jain, 2002;Senn, 2016;2018). In personalized advertisement, people's individual preferences are mapped to target them with advertisement fitting their individual personality and preferences (e.g., Zhu & Chang, 2016;Bang & Wojdynski, 2016). In real-life settings, large online sellers, such as Amazon or Netflix, employ individual predictions to target individuals with the offers of products that best fit to their individual person characteristics. ...
... the fact that within-person methods and personalized descriptions and predictions are not only needed but frequently applied in all the applied fields that take a pragmatic data science approach and are interested in making trustworthy decisions about how to treat individuals, including banking (e.g.,Galal, Hassan, & Aref, 2016; Hernández-Nieves, Hernández, Gil-González, Rodríguez-González, & Corchado, 2020;), advertisement(Zhu & Chang, 2016;Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), medicine(Senn, 2016;2018), law enforcement (e.g.,Tayebi, Glässer, Ester, & Brantingham, 2016), personalized content recommendation tailored to customer's preferences in e.g., Amazon or Netflix (e.g.,Gomez-Uribe & Hunt, 2015;Smith & Linden, 2017), and many more.Together, these considerations imply that we Psychologists draw possibly false conclusions about our discipline's main research object -persons -, that we (could) have known about that fact for years, that we chose to not use the more appropriate, available methods that would prevent us from drawing such false conclusions, and that other disciplines do this job better than us. Many psychological studies and entire research fields have chosen to turn a blind eye to the question whether and under which circumstances the pre-dominant between-person methods properly describe the individuals in their samples and whether the nomothetic one-size-fits-all effects identified on the group level translated to the experiences of actual people. ...
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Personalizing assessments, predictions, and treatments of individuals is currently a defining trend in psychological research and applied fields, including personalized learning, personalized medicine, and personalized advertisement. For instance, the recent pandemic has reminded parents and educators of how challenging yet crucial it is to get the right learning task to the right student at the right time. Increasingly, psychologists and social scientists are realizing that the between-person methods that we have long been using in the hope to describe, predict, and treat individuals may fail to live up to these tasks (e.g., Molenaar, 2004). Consequently, there is a risk of a credibility loss, possibly similar to the one seen during the replicability crisis (Ioannides, 2005), because we have only started to understand how many of the conclusions that we tend to draw based on between-person methods misunderstand what these methods can tell us and what they cannot. An imminent methodological revolution will likely change even very established psychological theories (Barbot et al., 2020). Fortunately, methodological solutions for personalized descriptions and predictions, such as many within-person analyses, are available and rapidly being developed, although they are not yet embraced in all areas of Psychology, and some come with their own limitations. This article first discusses the extent of the theory-method gap between theories about within-person patterns versus methods examining only between-person patterns in Psychology, and the potential loss of trust that might follow from these limitations of the commonly used between-person methods. Second, this article addresses advantages and limitations of available within-person methods. Third, this article discusses how within-person analytical methods may help improving the individual descriptions and predictions that are needed in many applied fields aiming for tailored individual solutions, including personalized learning with educational technology and personalized medicine.
... Third, in line with other information salience prime research (e.g., Bang and Wojdynski 2016;Wu 2019), this study showed that STD information cues could prime individuals to process advertising differently. Having a greater impact on the lower-knowledge individuals, STD information changed how humor information was perceived. ...
Article
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In this research, we seek to provide effective message strategies to communicate stigma associated health issues such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), by exploring the roles of humor, STD information, and objective HPV knowledge. Conducted with a 2 (Humor: no vs. yes) x 2 (STD information: no vs. yes) between-subjects experiment with objective HPV knowledge as a measured moderator, findings suggested that for the lower HPV knowledge subjects, the humor ads produced higher attention to the ad, more favorable ad attitudes (Aad), and greater behavioral intention to seek HPV prevention and treatment than the no-humor ads when there is no STD information. However, when STD information was present, for the lower HPV knowledge individuals, the no-humor ads produced greater attention and more positive Aad than the humor ads. Humor and STD information in the ads did not affect higher HPV knowledge individuals. Implications for theory as well as practice are discussed.
... Considering that both fMRI and VBM studies are mainly based on correlational evidence, we adopted the eye-tracking method in the present study, a powerful tool in research on consumers' perception, attention, expectations, and behavior (Bang & Wojdynski, 2016;Jacob & Karn, 2003;Yang, 2015). Specifically, the present study was designed to investigate the visual search process for a packaging with a certain flavor label, and to provide direct empirical evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms of the color-flavor incongruency effect. ...
Article
Consumers tend to associate stimuli across different senses, such as the color and flavor of foods or drinks. After repeated exposure to the packaging of mainstream food products, consumers can even associate a certain packaging color and a given flavor label. Previous research has demonstrated the influence of these packaging color-flavor label associations on the visual search for a certain flavor label. Here we report an eye-tracking study designed to investigate the mechanisms of this behavioral effect. The participants were cued by a flavor word before they searched for a food packaging with this flavor label. The behavioral results revealed that they were slower to find a color-flavor incongruent target than a color-flavor congruent one, indicative of a color-flavor incongruency effect. The eye-movement results suggested that the participants might rely on color when searching for a packaging labeled with a certain flavor, and switch back to word-based search if the target was not found via color-based search. These findings demonstrate the importance of color-flavor congruency in packaging design, and shed some light on how to use color-flavor incongruency in packaging design for new flavors to attract consumers’ attention in-store or online.
... Prior research in online advertising has shown that customized ad messages attract significantly more attention than non-customized ads (Pfiffelmann et al., 2020), and consumers spend more time processing the former than the latter (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016). Customized ad messages positively affect consumer responses via personal relevance (Walrave et al., 2018); thus, broadcast (i.e., non-customized) ad messages (which are typically intended for a more general/broad audience) can be perceived as less personally relevant. ...
Thesis
The rise of social media has dramatically impacted how individuals experience the digital world. They interact, express, share and create content about anything on social media, including brands. Social media are used by brands to engage consumers through several activities. Drawing on the consumers’ online brand-related activities (COBRAs) typology, a vast stream of research has examined the drivers of consumption, contribution, and creation of brand-related content in social media. Nevertheless, it is necessary to further examine why people use different social media and how these motivations affect the way users interact with brands. We study this influence of motivations on brand-related outcomes across different social media types. Based on the uses and gratifications (U&G) theory, this dissertation connects motivations for social media use -as crucial antecedents of differential media selection- to effects on various brand outcomes. Across five empirical chapters, this work focuses on two different aspects of how individuals’ use of different social media can affect brand outcomes: (1) the drivers of COBRAs across different social media platforms and (2) the role of social media content and style, along with the cultural context, on the studied brand outcomes. Overall, this dissertation finds relevant evidence supporting the crucial role of motivations as critical antecedents of consumer brand engagement. Further, we find this evidence for different brand outcomes, social media platforms, and cultural contexts. Consistent with more recent views in the U&G theory, individuals’ motivations should be understood as essential ingredients of brand management, considering they determine (social) media exposure, directly impacting the effectiveness of brand communication. Moreover, Remuneration and Empowerment represent the two most critical motivations influencing brand outcomes at all COBRAs levels, viral behavioral intentions, click intention, and brand purchase intentions. These findings contrast with a more limited influence found in prior research. Further, we highlight the relevant role of the social media content and style, along with the cultural context, affecting how customer engagement is produced across different social media platforms. Brands using social media for their marketing activities can benefit from a better understanding of individuals’ motivations to use these platforms and how they differ and affect brand outcomes across different social media types. Managers are advised to identify which motivations for social media use to tap into for specific social media types. Their facilitation and encouragement will likely lead to increased performance of brand outcomes. Depending on the goals for each campaign, managers are advised to select the best platform fitting those particular objectives, as each platform can produce specific user experiences and, thus, engagement.
... In online advertising, personalization may include targeted communication of customized opportunities and recommendations Schreiner et al., 2019) -or in other words, sending the right message to the right consumer at the right time in the right format (Gardé, 2018;Tam & Ho, 2006). Existing studies have reported significant effects in the personalizationengagement relationship in online advertising (Behera et al., 2020;Noor et al., 2019), whereby consumers are more likely to pay attention to personalized as opposed to generic advertisements (Bang & Wojdynski, 2016), as personalization curates an emotional bond between message senders and receivers (Bleier & Eisenbeiss, 2015;Van Noort et al., 2015). Many companies are also leveraging on data to inform the personalization of advertisements (Boerman et al., 2017;Deng et al., 2019), though its effects in recent times remain uncertain given increasing concerns of data privacy and security that may be accentuated when over-personalization occurs (Aguirre et al., 2015;Bandara et al., 2020;Bleier & Eisenbeiss, 2015). ...
Article
Advertising was once touted as a 'big boys' marketing tool, but the advent of the Internet has led to the emergence of online advertising , which has benefitted marketing organizations of all sizes, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs), for 20 years since the new millennium. However, the emergence and proliferation of digital natives as a new generation of consumers necessitate further research to ensure the continued attractiveness, effectiveness, and relevance of online advertising. Furthermore, there is a need to consolidate the multifaceted nature of technology and media in online advertising and the corresponding behavior enacted by consumers, particularly digital natives, today. In this regard, this paper endeavors to examine the perceptions and reactions of digital natives toward online advertising using the theory of planned behavior, technology acceptance model, and uses and gratifications theory as an integrated theoretical lens to guide this examination. Using covariance structural equation modeling on a sample of 380 digital natives, this paper finds that the ease of use, usefulness, entertainment gratification, credibility, design, and personalization of online advertisement positively influence the attitude of digital natives toward online advertisement. However, assurance from online advertisement did not produce any significant effect, a unique finding that exemplifies the confidence that digital natives exhibit in digital environments as a self-assured generation. Finally, this paper finds that the attitude and subjective norms among digital natives toward online advertisement and the security and responsiveness of the website of the online advertised product positively influence the intention of digital natives to purchase the online advertised product. The implications of these findings for theory and practice as well as its limitations and future research directions conclude the paper. ARTICLE HISTORY
... (Baack et al., 2008;Bang & Wojdynski, 2016;Jensen & Jepsen, 2007; ...
Article
The present study aimed to examine the influence of advertising creativity on the effectiveness of commercial and noncommercial advertisements in a situation involving attention competitions. Consequently, a dual-task paradigm in which an additional task of time production was completed while viewing advertisements that were creative or common was used. Both memory performance and self-rated purchase intent were assessed. The results showed that advertising creativity has an impact on recognition and purchase intent, with greater accuracy and more favorable purchase intent with creative advertisements, and that the interaction between the advertisement type and creativity categories is significant, with the standard, noncommercial advertisements triggering the lowest purchase intent. These findings provide further evidence suggesting that creative advertising is a useful strategy for improving advertising effectiveness. This study also presents a novel finding resembling anchoring effects with regard to the potential difference in perceived effectiveness between commercial and noncommercial advertisements across two levels of advertising creativity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... neglect those ads. This finding is in conformity with past studies conducted by (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016, Cho and John Cheon, 2004, Hossain, 2018, Li and Huang, 2016). The above findings let market practitioners be more cautious in displaying advertisements without causing distraction towards the user's task. ...
Article
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This study helps determine factors behind customer rejections on online behavioural advertisements. Five key factors such as privacy concern, goal impediment, perceived personalization, ad skepticism, and negative experience have been identified as influencing factors. The impact of these factors on behavioural advertising avoidance have been tested using the 430 responses. The data was collected using an online survey and analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results indicate that the personalization of advertisements could reduce ad avoidance behaviour. On the other hand, privacy concern, goal impediment, ad skepticism and negative experience increase the tendency to avoid behavioural advertisements.
... By comparison with people who undertake easy tasks (involving less complex decisions), those with difficult tasks (more complex decisions) grapple with the problems and endeavor to come up with a creative idea that leads ultimately to a better outcome. Drawing on the study of Bang and Wojdynski (2016), people have a propensity to attend more and longer when they engage in tasks with high cognitive demand, while they attend relatively less to a simple task that requires little cognitive effort. At the individual level, exploitation is defined as behavior that is related to the selection and improvement of existing ideas designed to optimize the performance of a current task. ...
Article
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Modern consumers face a dramatic rise in web-based technological advancements and have trouble making rational and proper decisions when they shop online. When they try to make decisions about products and services, they also feel pressured against time when sorting among all of the unnecessary items in the flood of information available on the web. In this sense, they need to use consumer decision-making creativity (CDMC) to make rational decisions. However, unexplored research questions on this subject remain. First, in what ways do task difficulty and time constraints affect visual attention on exploitative and exploratory activities differently? Second, how does the location of the reference (i.e., hints) influence the level of visual attention to exploitative and exploratory activities depending on affordance theory? Third, how do exploratory and exploitative activities affect CDMC? Eye-tracking experiments were conducted with 70 participants to obtain relevant metrics such as total fixation duration (TFD), fixation count (FC), and visit count (VC) to answer these research questions. Our findings suggest that task difficulty influences exploitative activity, whereas time constraint is related to the exploratory activity. The result of the location of hints aligns with the affordance theory for the exploitative activity. Besides, exploratory activity positively affected CDMC, but exploitative activity did not show any effect.
... Eye-tracking studies are now common in decision research (Glaholt andReingold 2011), advertising (eg Bang andWojdynski 2016;Matukin et al. 2016), media use (Segijn et al. 2017), human-computer interaction and usability research (see eg Jacob and Karn 2003;King et al. 2019 for discussions). An application of eye-tracking that is particularly relevant for this study pertains to the consumer interactions with marketing stimuli, specifically the evaluation of product pages in order to understand the focal points of attention and browsing patterns (Zurawicki 2010). ...
Article
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Online reviews can play a significant role in consumer decision-making processes. Previous research has focused on investigating the effects of different review elements, such as valence or volume, on sales rank and perceived helpfulness. However, very little is known about how consumers actually attend to and process reviews. Moreover, reviews exist in the context of other elements on product pages, but previous studies have not investigated the combined effects of the different product page elements. This study uses eye tracking to investigate how consumers attend to product pages. Participants (N = 74) were asked to review product pages of five different brands of either a search or an experience product. The results show that although product-related information is most important for consumers, consumers also spend time on review-related information, particularly the review text and reviewer information. Also, we observe differences in attention paid to different page elements for search versus experience products.
... Prior research has identified three types of factors influencing consumers' attention to ads: (1) ad content factors; (2) context factors; and (3) consumer factors. Most of the extant research falls into the first group and has identified ad personalization (e.g., Bang and Wojdynski 2016) and various attention-eliciting message design and structural features (e.g., novel stimuli, music, loud noises, sudden movement) as significant influences on attention to ads (e.g., Lang 2000; Pieters and Wedel 2004). Some studies have also suggested that ad content inducing negative affect (e.g., fear or anxiety) can increase consumers' further involvement and attention to ads (Bradley, Angelini, and Lee 2007;Lang 1990). ...
Article
This study examined the influence of consumers’ temporary affective states during ad exposure on their engagement with different types of ads that are categorized based on theoretically derived attention-grabbing characteristics. A computational research approach was used, cross-analyzing proxy measures of real-time affective fluctuation of viewers during the 2019 Super Bowl broadcast and their tweets regarding the ads aired during the Super Bowl. The results demonstrated significant impact of consumers’ temporary affective states, induced by the performance of the team they cheer for, on their engagement with different types of ads, even when they were exposed to the same set of ads during commercial breaks. Specifically, consumers in the positive affective state showed greater tendency to be drawn to engage with high semantic-affinity ads than those in the negative affective state. Consumers in the negative affective state showed greater tendency to be drawn to engage with more positively valenced ads than those in the positive affective state. This study provides theoretical contributions regarding the role of consumers’ affect in their engagement with ads and practical implications for ad targeting and ad placement strategies based on consumers’ temporary affect.
... Personalized ads have the task of focusing on what customers are interested in and what will provoke a certain reaction in them (Bleier and Eisenbeiss, 2015). Meeting this goal depends on the ability to collect and analyse large amounts of customer data and information (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016). The benefits of personalized ads are clear; however, customers may experience some discomfort related to their constant monitoring resulting in avoiding this type of ad. ...
Article
Ad personalization is becoming the dominant promotional tactic, further enhanced by new technologies applications. Greater efficiency is the main goal of such an advertising approach, but it can cause the appearance of the so-called “privacy paradox” that can induce negative consumer reactions in terms of avoiding such ads. This paper investigates the factors influencing the avoidance of personalized ads communicated through the social network Facebook. Part of the research model deals with the impact of perceived personalization, perceived irritation, and perceived privacy concerns on skepticism towards advertising and advertising avoidance. Furthermore, the empirical research was conducted on data collected through the Facebook and WhatsApp mobile applications. Following the obtained results, there is no negative effect of perceived personalization to skepticism towards advertising while it exists toward advertising avoidance. Furthermore, a positive effect of perceived irritation to skepticism towards advertising does not exist, but positive effects to ad avoidance do. The direct positive effect of perceived privacy concerns to skepticism and ad avoidance was not found. Also, skepticism about personalized ads was found not to be positively associated with avoiding personalized ads. In addition to new insights, the results can help design and implement promotional campaigns through social media technologies.
... Their results also highlight that the degree of ad avoidance is greater for medium and heavy users. In addition, Bang and Wojdynski (2016) found that for online news article readers the perceived goal impediment increases when they are exposed to non-personalized ads. ...
Article
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In recent years, due to the extensive use of social media advertisement and the development of social commerce tools, scholars and practitioners pay more attention to interaction with the digital channel, shopping intention, satisfaction, and retention. The objective of this study is to understand the shopping cart abandonment behavior as an outcome condition of ad avoidance on social media platforms. This research takes into consideration of cognitive, affective, and behavioral ad avoidance; alongside its antecedent conditions of perceived goal impediment, perceived add clutter, and prior negative experiences on social media. The research is conducted in Germany and Fuzzy sets/Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fs/QCA) is applied to understand the outcome condition of shopping cart abandonment. The findings imply that ad avoidance can create a learning mechanism for consumers about shopping cart abandonment of a brand or product if interrupted by a futile message or content. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... The emerging source is online advertisement or digital advertisement (Hof, 2014). These digital advertisements have shifted advertisers from massive advertisement to personalized contents in advertisement (Bang and Wojdynski, 2016). The consumer centric advertisement is effective for better response. ...
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With the advent and integration of technology in business, marketers started investing in numerous media platforms to influence the consumer's sentiments. Artificial intelligence has been proved as one of the innovative tools of digitalization to change consumer's media habits. Owing to the growing trends of e-commerce, the traditional advertising model is insufficient. Therefore, advertisers are taking advantage of artificial intelligence technology to meet current requirements. Thus, a deeper understanding of product advertisement with reference to consumer sentiments and its implications need to be established. The current research depicts the contribution of artificial intelligence to analyze the consumers' attention, cognition, and emotion. The target product was Samsung Galaxy. Researcher of the current study has employed Think-aloud procedure for data analysis. Tweets dataset was divided into 2 categories. For international consumers' sentiments 30,877 tweets whereas for Pakistani consumers' sentiments tweets dataset was 26,834. For data analysis, authors used Nvivo for generating theme. The Nvivo produced word cloud. The word cloud generated with Pakistani tweets revealed that consumer attachment with Samsung product is based on emotional and attention and the preferred features of Samsung products are linked with emotional and attention. In contrary to that rest of the world tweets unfolded that emotion, attention, and cognition make consumer preferences while selecting Samsung products. This study is useful to the cellular companies for targeting across the world population. The consumer preference varies while selecting cell phones. This study will provide a better idea to cell phone companies for manufacturing consumer oriented cell phones to get better results. Moreover, future research should add more countries separate data and generate a comparative study between developed countries consumer and developing countries consumer preferences. In addition to companies with better insights of consumer can highlight the most attractive features of cell phone in their advertisements.
... By comparison with people who undertake easy tasks (involving less complex decisions), those with difficult tasks (more complex decisions) grapple with the problems and endeavor to come up with a creative idea that leads ultimately to a better outcome. Drawing on the study of Bang and Wojdynski (2016), people have a propensity to attend more and longer when they engage in tasks with high cognitive demand, while they attend relatively less to a simple task that requires little cognitive effort. At the individual level, exploitation is defined as behavior that is related to the selection and improvement of existing ideas designed to optimize the performance of a current task. ...
Book
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Experimental setups that probe consumers’ underlying feelings, purchase intentions, and choices. The Topic Editors are honoured to present 14 multidisciplinary contributions that focus on successful implementations of physiological and neuroscientific measures in the field of cognitive psychology, marketing, design, and psychiatry. Keywords: preference formation, neuroscience, physiology, evaluative processing, consumer behavior
... The presented advertising should contain aspects of demographic information, brand history, habits, and information about individuals. These aspects are captured thanks to the perception of sensations in the individuals who observes a web page or a product [23]. In our work, we measure the attention and emotions a website causes in a customer and compare their reaction when this website has multimedia tools such as visual effects. ...
Article
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User experience (UX) is key in the immediate and future relationship between the client and business. Achieving a satisfying UX can only be achieved by understanding the wishes and user needs. The following study is carried out as an improvement tool for a Mexican coffee company. The objective is to achieve greater efficiency, attraction, and engagement on the part of the user. The main question is whether the new dynamic website design can directly increase the valence of user emotions compared to the static website design. To answer this question, 39 participants were exposed to the two different web page designs and elicited the following emotions using eye tracking and facial expression analysis (FEA) techniques: joy, anger, surprise, fear, contempt, disgust, sadness, neutral, positive, and negative. Through a Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the results showed a significant increase for the new dynamic design in the following emotions; joy, anger, surprise, disgust, fear and neutral. Thus, five of the seven basic emotions had a significant change that could lead to greater attraction and commitment on the part of the user and also influence, either consciously or unconsciously, their decision when interacting with the company.
... With increasingly cluttered digital space and shortening attention spans, personalization has emerged as an important advertising and marketing strategy to attract consumer attention (Bang et al. 2019). Findings from previous research suggest that targeting consumers based on their personal profiles and preference data can increase message efficiency, leading to positive attitude and behavioral intentions (Bang and Wojdynski 2016). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to figure out the factors (i.e. ad type and ad personalization) that diminish the detrimental advertising clutter effects in terms of ad attention and ad clicks. Design/methodology/approach To fulfill the purpose, an eye-tracking study using real-time Facebook accounts of the participants was conducted. Findings The findings suggest that not all types of ad format face attentional competition. Consumers have a tendency to selectively care of native advertising area, where clutter becomes a significant issue. Additionally, personalized advertising is beneficial for attracting consumer attention regardless of the clutter level. Originality/value This less-artificial study setting with an eye-tracker makes up for the findings from previous ad clutter studies based on self-reported data; this study was able to observe real-life interaction between consumers and social media. The personalized native format may benefit advertisers in grabbing more attention. However, the careful use of native ads is recommended, because excessive ads could increase the attentional competition among native ads.
Purpose Impact of the digitalization on the production and service sector is a highly popular topic in these days and especially, new business models receive increasingly more attention. Under the light of digitalization, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, so-called Industry 4.0, and its impacts on all kinds of process is a promising topic in the academia and also beneficial for the practitioners. Since there are arguments from scholars that Industry 4.0 has an important and shaping effect on marketing, the concept of 7P's in marketing should be incorporated in Industry 4.0 elements. From this point of view, this study focuses on developing the understanding of 7P's based on contemporary perspectives of Industry 4.0. Design/methodology/approach In order to do that, different criteria related to integration of Industry 4.0 and marketing practices under each marketing-mix element are presented and one of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, the best–worst method (BWM) is used to prioritize the criteria for future implications. Findings Results indicated that product, process and physical evidence are the most affected marketing-mix factors by considering Industry 4.0. managerial implications which were also presented based on the numerical results. Originality/value An in-depth analysis of literature review related to Industry 4.0 revealed that changing and developing technologies are examined in detail mostly around a production perspective. In order to fulfill the gap in the knowledge, this study focuses on the examination of impacts of Industry 4.0 on the marketing-mix strategy. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study which merges Industry 4.0 with the marketing mix.
Advances in IT have enabled some firms to offer personalized products according to the private information disclosed by consumers, while others are still offering standardized products, which brings about asymmetric competition. For consumers, disclosing private information for personalized products leads to reduced misfit cost as well as privacy loss. To illuminate the impact of consumers' trade-off between the benefit of information disclosure and the associated privacy concerns on firms' asymmetric price competition, we consider a setting where only one firm is capable of product personalization based on consumers' personal information. The capable firm makes a profit from selling the product and monetizing consumers' information. We demonstrate that as the capable firm becomes more adept at personalization, he may raise or lower the price depending on his profit foci, and an improvement in his capability does not always guarantee a higher profit. Counterintuitively, an increase in the unit misfit cost (i.e., greater product differentiation) can, under certain circumstances, intensity price competition, making both firms worse off and leading to higher consumer surplus. We also show that when consumers are more privacy-concerned, there exists an indirect effect that weakens the impact of an increase in price on the monetization of consumers’ information, and hence price competition can be mitigated and both firms can be better off. Furthermore, we demonstrate that product personalization with misfit-reducing effect always increases consumer surplus under the asymmetric competition. Our findings provide firms and policy-makers with great managerial insights.
Article
User attentional analyses on web elements help in synthesis and rendering of webpages. However, majority of the existing analyses are limited in incorporating the intrinsic visual features of text and images. This study aimed to analyze the influence of elements’ visual features (font-size, font-family, color, etc., for text; and brightness, color, intensity, etc., for images) besides their position on users’ free-viewing visual attention. The investigation includes: (i) user’s position-based attention allocation on text and image web elements, (ii) identification of informative visual features with respect to the attention, (iii) performance of informative visual features in predicting the ordinal visual attention (fixation-indices). Towards the study, an eye-tracking experiment was conducted with 42 participants on 36 real-world webpages. The analyses revealed: (i) Though users predominantly allocate the initial attention to MiddleCenter}, MiddleLeft, TopCenter, TopLeft regions, the elements in Right and Bottom regions are not completely ignored; (ii) Space -related (column-gap, line-height, padding) and font Size -related (font-size, font-weight) intrinsic text features, and Mid-level Color Histogram intrinsic image features are informative, while position and size are informative for both the types; (iii) the informative visual features predict the ordinal visual attention on an element with 90% average accuracy and 70% micro-F1 score. Our approach finds applications in element-granular web-designing and user attention prediction.
Article
en While targeting job postings is a common practice for recruiters, they can now personalize their ads by embedding the recipients' names and photographs in the advertisement. Research shows divergent results on the effects of personalization. This experiment, conducted among 236 participants, assesses the combined effect of recruitment advertisement personalization and job targeting on attitudinal reactions. Our results show that personalization and targeting help increase self‐referencing, which in turn positively influences the attitude about the advertisement, click intention, and job‐pursuit intention. However, personalization has a negative main effect on these attitudinal reactions. Résumé fr Alors que le ciblage d'une offre d'emploi est une pratique courante pour les recruteurs, ils peuvent désormais personnaliser leurs publicités en y intégrant le prénom et la photographie des destinataires. La recherche présentant des résultats contrastés sur les effets de la personnalisation, une expérimentation réalisée auprès de 236 participants évalue l’effet combiné de la personnalisation d’une publicité de recrutement et du ciblage de l’offre d’emploi sur leurs réponses attitudinales. Les résultats montrent que la personnalisation et le ciblage contribuent à générer de la référence à soi qui influence à son tour positivement l’attitude vis‐à‐vis de la publicité, l’intention de cliquer et l’intention de poursuivre le processus de recrutement. En revanche, la personnalisation exerce un effet négatif sur ces réponses attitudinales. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
en While targeting job postings is a common practice for recruiters, they can now personalize their ads by embedding the recipients' names and photographs in the advertisement. Research shows divergent results on the effects of personalization. This experiment, conducted among 236 participants, assesses the combined effect of recruitment advertisement personalization and job targeting on attitudinal reactions. Our results show that personalization and targeting help increase self‐referencing, which in turn positively influences the attitude about the advertisement, click intention, and job‐pursuit intention. However, personalization has a negative main effect on these attitudinal reactions. Résumé fr Alors que le ciblage d'une offre d'emploi est une pratique courante pour les recruteurs, ils peuvent désormais personnaliser leurs publicités en y intégrant le prénom et la photographie des destinataires. La recherche présentant des résultats contrastés sur les effets de la personnalisation, une expérimentation réalisée auprès de 236 participants évalue l'effet combiné de la personnalisation d'une publicité de recrutement et du ciblage de l'offre d'emploi sur leurs réponses attitudinales. Les résultats montrent que la personnalisation et le ciblage contribuent à générer de la référence à soi qui influence à son tour positivement l'attitude vis‐à‐vis de la publicité, l'intention de cliquer et l'intention de poursuivre le processus de recrutement. En revanche, la personnalisation exerce un effet négatif sur ces réponses attitudinales.
Article
Online native advertising is increasingly targeted based on people's online behavior. This study examines the effects of online behaviorally targeted native advertising on ad and brand responses. In addition, it tests two competing explanatory mechanisms that are suggested in the literature on online behavioral advertising that may result in opposing persuasion outcomes: perceived personal relevance of the advertisement and understanding of online behavioral advertising as a persuasive tactic. An experiment showed that behaviorally targeted native advertising resulted in higher perceived personal relevance than native advertising, which consequently had a positive effect on persuasion (i.e., ad and brand responses). Although behaviorally targeted native advertising (versus native advertising) induced persuasion knowledge of online behavioral advertising as a persuasion tactic, this did not negatively affect persuasion. This study provides new insights into the theoretical mechanisms that explain behaviorally targeted native advertising effects and has implications for the advertising practice.
Chapter
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Social advertising, ads in social media platforms, have become popular in recent years because of the evolution of internet technologies such as web analytics and big data mining. The content of the social advertisement is tailored in order to personalize the message to the target consumer groups. In an effort to reach the prospects, marketers should focus on the social leads on social networking sites (SNS) to promote and to sell their brands/products. Drawing on, online personalized advertising literature, e-WOM recommendations and increasing privacy concerns and perceived ad personalization (conceptualized as functions of psychological reactance) on SNS leads to avoid such advertisements. The goal of the study is to investigate the impact of perceived personalization, privacy concern, and e-WOM to consumers' behavioral click through intentions towards social ads. This study contributed to the theory of psychological reactance by indicating that the individuals with less privacy concern and personalized recommendations from their contacts on SNS have a smaller amount of reactance towards social advertisements than commercial advertisements by marketers. Suggestions for advertisers, social media marketing practitioners conclude the paper.
Article
Drawing from evolutionary psychology of anthropomorphism and social phobia, two between-subjects experiments examined the effects of different types of customer service chatbots. Experiment 1 supports the interaction effects between chatbots’ anthropomorphism and consumers’ social phobia on continuance use intention and willingness to recommend the chatbot. Consumers with high social phobia prefer anthropomorphic chatbots to less anthropomorphic chatbots. Experiment 2 confirms the moderating role of social phobia in determining the effects of consumer-chatbot personality matching (similarity attraction) vs. mismatching (complementarity attraction) on the outcome variables only for competent chatbots. For the consumer-chatbot personality mismatching condition, developing competent chatbots for less conscientious consumers with high social phobia will help alleviate socially isolated consumers’ social pain, while developing too smart chatbots for less conscientious consumers with low social phobia can have detrimental effects. Evolutionary psychological mechanisms and managerial implications for chatbot developers and creative directors are explained.
Article
Samenvatting Dit experiment bij 171 Vlaamse jongeren (11-15 jaar) onderzoekt door middel van eyetracking-technologie hoeveel aandacht zij besteden aan sociale advertenties die worden aanbevolen door hun beste vrienden. Daarnaast wordt onderzocht in welke mate dit hun reclameverwerking en merkattitudes beïnvloedt, rekening houdend met de rol van positieve en negatieve reacties op de advertenties in het proces van attitudevorming.
Chapter
Video represents the most shared type of online content. The ability of this media to capture and convey a message in an interactive and informationally rich format has captivated both users and advertisers. Advertising platforms are trying to expand the offer of the tools that would help the advertisers to reach their potential customers. Therefore, many new video-based advertising formats are being introduced including ads with experimental length or dimensions. However, the increasing quantity of online advertisements the users have to face is raising questions about their actual marketing effectiveness. To provide relevant answers, authors examined the performance of 13 types of video ads that were implemented for a 30-day period and that generated 1 155 EUR overall profit. The advertising results are analyzed from three perspectives: financial, behavioral, and reactional. The main emphasis is put on the study of the video effectiveness depending on different viewing contexts with respect to the potential phenomenon of advertising blindness.
Chapter
Dynamic Product Ads (DPAs) and Dynamic Search Ads (DSAs) represent a type of online advertising primarily used for remarketing purposes. However, more and more advertisers can use DPA for acquisition campaigns as well. Dynamic ads are an integral part of the marketing strategies of all large e-shops and companies that have a product or service catalog. Dynamic advertising reduces the time and effort put into the creation of online advertisements and provides the highest level of personalized targeting possible. With a product catalog and a properly set pixel or tracking code, it is possible to create individually customized ads within seconds. This chapter tests the effectiveness of DPAs and DSAs within the context of the two greatest advertising platforms, Facebook and Google ads, and compares their performance against the manually optimized ad sets.
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Background/ Purpose: Global economies are on the verge of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, in which social media platforms, artificial intelligence, and cutting-edge technology, among other things, will alter how we experience and interact with the world around us. As a result, this article aims to present a comprehensive assessment of the literature and a bibliometric summary of research on the advertising efficacy of social networking sites. Design/methodology/approach: This study examines the most prolific authors, nations, and most cited keywords, theoretical frameworks, factors and publication trends of articles using the Scopus database and reputed publishers: Sage, Springer, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, Elsevier and Inderscience. The investigation used the PRISMA technique and bibliometric indices to describe bibliographic data from 2010 to 2020, including the total number of publications and citations. Furthermore, the paper creates a graphical picture of the bibliographic material by mapping keywords, countries and authors with bibliographic coupling and co-citation analysis utilising the visualisation of similarities viewer software. Findings: The U.S.A, China and U.K are the most collaborative contributors. American authors are most cited closely, followed by South Korean and Spanish authors. The USA is the most prominent contributor to the SNS advertising field, followed by India and South Korea. Despite being on the list with a specific publication number, developing nations confront difficulties in publishing and attracting academic citations. Along with this, the results also present an invaluable compendium of elements that influence SNS advertising effectiveness and their antecedents and consequences. Practical implications: This article is helpful to any researcher in the field of social media advertising to understand questions such as the vital factors of understanding the effectiveness of advertising on SNS and contribution to Scopus in terms of, for example, authors/ contributors nations, theoretical frameworks and keywords.
Article
This research quantifies how privacy concerns and consumer characteristics are associated with e-commerce participation and consumer response to social media advertising by accounting for both individual-level and country-level covariates. This study uniquely analyzes a rich micro-level data set that includes responses of 153,053 individuals from 29 European countries. Through multilevel logit modelling, authors account for the country nested structure of consumer behavior and report odds ratios for relations between privacy measures and e-commerce activities of consumers in Europe. Privacy risk knowledge and online information sharing levels are positively correlated with probability of e-commerce participation. Odds of e-commerce participation are negatively associated with level of concern on online activity recordings. Consumers who take more protective actions against online privacy risks are more likely to participate in e-commerce and make purchase in response to social media advertisements. Firms that offer credible tools to help consumers protect their online privacy can benefit from increased e-commerce participation and higher effectiveness in social media advertising. Representative sampling in data collection offers external validity and generalizability of findings to the European market, which is unique for this study and an empirical contribution.
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We examine the boundary conditions of online personalized advertising by investigating when it is perceived as acceptable and when negative feelings predominate. We conducted a 4 (type of information) x 2 (sharing of information) x 3 (personalized pricing) scenario-based experiment among a representative sample of the Dutch population (N = 1244). Results suggest that, in general, people hold quite negative attitudes towards personalized advertising. Furthermore, ads that use individual-specific and private information (i.e., email content and name), when personal information is shared with other parties, and a higher personalized price all led to lower perceptions of personalized advertising and more resistance to the context (the website), message (the ad), and source (the advertiser). In addition, we find a tipping point: ads that present a higher price based on personal information led to even stronger negative perceptions. For advertisers, our findings imply that boundaries can be crossed in personalizing advertising.
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By means of a meta-analysis, we synthesize the findings of over two decades of research from 88 empirical studies regarding four well established and theoretically rooted determinants on consumers’ attitude towards digital advertising: informativeness, entertainment, irritation, and credibility. Among other findings, we show that the effects of these determinants have changed over the past 20 years as the internet has developed. We also find that the effects differ depending on which type of online touchpoint was considered. In particular, we differentiate between the most prominent online touchpoints: email advertising, social media advertising, search engine advertising, web display banner advertising, electronic word-of-mouth communication, and corporate website advertising. Additionally, we extend the well-established determinants by more recent ones accounting for the ongoing digitalization and advances in online touchpoints (i.e. personalization, privacy concerns and interactivity). We also we derive important managerial implications and several fundamental directions for future research.
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Purpose Digital advertising enables retailers to rely on large volumes of data on consumers and even leverage artificial intelligence (AI) to target consumers online with personalised and context-aware advertisements. One recent example of such advertisements is programmatic advertising (PA), which is facilitated by automatic bidding systems. Given that retailers are expected to increase their use of PA in the future, further insights on the pros and cons of PA are required. This paper aims to enhance the understanding of the implications of PA use for retailers. Design/methodology/approach A theoretical overview is conducted that compares PA to traditional advertising, with an empirical investigation into consumer attitudes towards PA (an online survey of 189 consumers using an experimental design) and a research agenda. Findings Consumer attitudes towards PA are positively related to attitudes towards the retailer. Further, perceived ad relevance is positively related to attitudes towards PA, which is moderated by (1) consumer perceptions of risks related to sharing their data with retailers online and (2) consumer perceptions of AI's positive potential. Surprisingly, the disclosed use of AI for PA does not significantly influence consumer attitudes towards PA. Originality/value This paper contributes to the literature on technology-enabled services by empirically demonstrating that ad relevance drives consumer attitudes towards PA. This paper further examines two contingencies: risk beliefs related to data (i.e. the source of PA) and perceptions of AI (i.e. the somewhat nebulous technology associated with PA) as beneficial. A research agenda illuminates central topics to guide future research on PA in retailing.
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Along with the improvement of eye-tracking technology, more and more distinct field of researches have introduced movements of the eye in relation to the head to understand user behavior. Most of current researches focus on the perception process of single 2-dimensional images by fixed eye-tracking devices or the head-mount devices. A method of applying eye-tracking on the analysis of the interaction between users and objects in 3D navigational space is proposed in this article. It aims to understand the visual stimulation of 3D objects and the user’s spatial navigational reactions while receiving the stimulation, and proposes the concept of 3D object attention heat map. It also proposes to construct a computational visual attention model for different geometric featured 3D objects by applying the method of feature curves. The VR results of this study also provide future assistance in the incoming immersive world. This study sets to promote eye-tracking from the mainstream of 2D field to 3D spaces and points to a deeper understanding between human and artificial product or natural objects. It would also serve an important role in the field of human-computer interaction, product usability, aids devices for cognition degenerative individuals, and even the field of visual recognition of daily human behavior.
Chapter
In the new VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous) world that consumers live in, there are new rules that will reshape all elements of advertising. Many shifts need to be studied and analyzed. These include issues such as consumer migration to the new on-line digital platforms, the changing consumer viewing behaviors, and interaction with content. Advertisers as well as advertising agencies are reshaping their business models and their understanding of the industry future. This chapter will explore the impact of technology, data proliferation, and omni-channel customer touchpoints on how organizations will manage advertising and consumer communication strategies. The author will review the opportunities provided by technology for advertisers to get insights about the digital-age consumer and the threats due to the control tools that consumers can use such as ad-blockers. This chapter will review the impact of ad-blockers on digital ad ecosystem and measures taken by advertisers to fight against them.
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Background/ Purpose: Global economies are on the verge of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, in which social media platforms, artificial intelligence, and cutting-edge technology, among other things, will alter how we experience and interact with the world around us. As a result, this article aims to present a comprehensive assessment of the literature and a bibliometric summary of research on the advertising efficacy of social networking sites. Design/methodology/approach: This study examines the most prolific authors, nations, and most cited keywords, theoretical frameworks, factors and publication trends of articles using the Scopus database and reputed publishers: Sage, Springer, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, Elsevier and Inderscience. The investigation used the PRISMA technique and bibliometric indices to describe bibliographic data from 2010 to 2020, including the total number of publications and citations. Furthermore, the paper creates a graphical picture of the bibliographic material by mapping keywords, countries and authors with bibliographic coupling and co-citation analysis utilising the visualisation of similarities viewer software. Findings: The U.S.A, China and U.K are the most collaborative contributors. American authors are most cited closely, followed by South Korean and Spanish authors. The USA is the most prominent contributor to the SNS advertising field, followed by India and South Korea. Despite being on the list with a specific publication number, developing nations confront difficulties in publishing and attracting academic citations. Along with this, the results also present an invaluable compendium of elements that influence SNS advertising effectiveness and their antecedents and consequences. Practical implications: This article is helpful to any researcher in the field of social media advertising to understand questions such as the vital factors of understanding the effectiveness of advertising on SNS and contribution to Scopus in terms of, for example, authors/ contributors nations, theoretical frameworks and keywords.
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Analýza se pokouší přispět k porozumění danému tématu, které je v domácím poli málo probádané. Proto tvoří východiska studie širší mezinárodní výzkum uživatelského chování v prostředí internetu. Přesněji řečeno, speciální teorie a výzkum modelů uživatelského chování ve vztahu k personalizovaným obsahům na internetu (např. Liu, Mulholland, Song, Uren a Rüger, 2010; White a Drucker, 2007). Vzhledem k explorativní povaze dané studie, která má za úkol připravit půdu pro širší kvantitativní, reprezentativní výzkum domácí majoritní populace, jsme využili analytické techniky vycházející ze zakotvené teorie – tj. otevřené a axiální kódování (Corbin a Strauss, 2015). Tyto postupy nám umožnily systematicky představit empirická data jako soubor vzájemně souvisejících abstraktních kategorií, které sytí dílčí empirické znaky konkrétního jednání a prožívání. Takto popsané pole nám poskytlo nástroje pro zodpovězení čtyř teoreticky zakotvených výzkumných otázek. I. VO: Rozumí respondenti pravidlům a mechanismům algoritmizované personalizace obsahů a podmínkám jejich technické i zákonné regulace? II.VO: Jak respondenti v roli uživatelů algoritmizované personalizace obsahů pohlížejí na její přínosy a ohrožení? III.VO: Jaké uživatelské taktiky užívají respondenti k naplnění svobodné volby pod omezujícím tlakem struktury a jaké změny považují za prospěšné k posílení důvěryhodnosti algoritmizované personalizace obsahu?
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In today’s online environment, children inevitably encounter personalized advertising. However, research suggests that children are not yet able to cope with this advertising type. This study therefore investigates whether literacy training helps children recognize personalized advertising. The 2 (personalized versus nonpersonalized ad) × 2 (literacy training versus no training) between-subjects design experiment (N = 166) suggests that personalized advertising decreased children’s (9 to 13 years) brand attitude but increased their purchase intentions. Moreover, training helped children to better recognize personalized ads. Contrary to the expectations, this targeting recognition positively affected brand attitude and purchase intentions.
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Purpose – This paper aims to examine the effect of privacy concern, irritation and personalization on Millennials’ perceptions of personalized smartphone advertising avoidance in a restaurant context. The hospitality industry has witnessed a huge surge in mobile activity over the past few years. Mobility opens up a new communication channel and allows industry to connect with their guests in a more personalized way. However, not all customers welcome the personalized advertisements. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 159 Millennials enrolled in a large state university in the Eastern USA using an online self-administered survey. These Millennials were asked to use a restaurant’s smartphone application for 30 days and then complete a survey based on their perceptions of personalized advertising. Descriptive analysis, reliability, factor analysis and regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationships among the four constructs: privacy concern, irritation, personalization and advertising avoidance, with the first three variables as predictors and advertising avoidance as an outcome. Findings – The results suggest that advertising irritation is positively related to advertising avoidance, perceived personalization is related with less advertising avoidance, while privacy concern is not related to advertising avoidance. Originality/value – Although advertising avoidance has previously been studied for the past few decades, little research has explored the underlying mechanisms of the Millennials’ avoidance of personalized smartphone advertising in a restaurant context. The current research suggests information pertinent to strategies for marketing personalized smartphone advertisement for restaurant companies.
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This eye tracking experiment (N = 149) investigates the influence of different ways of disclosing brand placement on viewers’ visual attention, the use of persuasion knowledge, and brand responses. The results showed that (1) a combination of text (“This program contains product placement”) and a product placement (PP) logo was most effective in enhancing the recognition of advertising and that a logo alone was least effective; (2) this effect was mediated by viewers’ visual attention to the disclosure and brand placement; and (3) the recognition of advertising consequently increased brand memory and led to more negative brand attitudes.
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Previous research suggests that the same ad can have different effects depending upon the media context in which the ad appears. This experiment investigated how the semantic relation between the content of advertisements and editorial texts, and the ad location on newspaper pages affect attention and memory for advertisements. We recorded participants' eye movements while they read newspaper articles to rate how interesting the texts were. Recognition for ads, logos, and editorial headlines was measured on the following day. Results revealed a discrepancy between attention and memory results, suggesting that incongruency increased attention to ads, whereas congruency improved recognition of ads. In addition, ads presented on the right attracted more attention and were recognized better than ads on the left. The results have implications for pretesting of advertisements, because attention and memory for ads were associated with higher preference for brands, and purchase intention was enhanced for the brands that were recognized. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The authors provide an integrative processing model of Internet advertising, which incorporates the functional and structural schools of thought. The model begins with the functional perspective, which attempts to identify reasons for Internet use. Since most individuals enter cyberspace with some goal, or agenda, in mind, the authors argue that a model of online processing should begin with consideration of Internet functions. These functions, according to the authors, operate conjointly with the user’s mode--ranging from highly goal-directed to playful--to influence the types of ads web users will attend to and process. A number of mediating variables, such as skill level, are offered as reasons to switch motives. These variables are conceptualized as having either a deleterious effect, as in the case of low skill and high anxiety, or beneficial effect, as in the case of high skill and low anxiety, on ad processing. Last, the authors incorporate a structural perspective, which seeks to identify and classify Internet ads. The authors offer a broad scheme in which to classify most Internet ads, as well as a number of common features unique to these ads. The authors conclude by offering a number of hypotheses suggested by the model.
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The high penetration rate of mobile phones has resulted in the increasing use of handheld devices to conduct mobile commerce. Mobile advertising, a very important class of mobile commerce applications, is a very promising direct marketing channel empowered by the Web's interactive and quick-response capabilities. Short Messaging Services, in particular, have been very successful. The present research investigates the factors that will affect consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising in China with particular emphasis on personalization. The results of a survey indicate that (1) there is a direct relationship between consumer attitudes and consumer intentions and (2) personalization is one of the most important factors in affecting consumers' attitude toward mobile advertising, particularly for female users. Thus the designers and marketers should effectively strategize their advertising designs by considering the personalization factor
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This paper explores forced viewing of “pop-up ads” on the Internet to understand better how viewers come to define ads as irritating and decide to avoid them. Perceived intrusiveness was suggested as the underlying mechanism by which the process occurs. Antecedents of intrusiveness were identified that affect perceptions of ads as interruptions, including congruence of the advertisement content with the current task and intensity of cognition at the moment the ad pops up. The consequences of intrusiveness were shown to be caused by feelings of irritation and ad avoidance. The results provide an understanding of how consumers experience forced exposure situations in interactive environments and highlight implications for advertisers seeking to increase the effectiveness of on-line advertising.
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Many small businesses in the 1990s are compelled to compete beyond their comfort zone (local markets) due to the globalization and internationalization of the marketplace. At the same time, the commercialization of the Internet has created unprecedented opportunities for small businesses to engage in national and international marketing campaigns which could have been unaffordable due to the huge amount of resources required. This paper discusses why the Internet is particularly important for small business international marketing. It then investigates how small business network exchange can be initiated and supported using the Internet, which in turn provides a platform for international marketing. It abo explores strategies for carrying out marketing activities on the Internet, considering the different kinds of inter‐organizational relationships that exist within small business networks. Finally, it is argued that marketing is only one aspect of how small business networks can gain strategic advantage in using the Internet. The fundamental issue is to build useful inter‐organizational systems to support not only marketing activities among small businesses on the Internet but also to transform activities on different parts of the small business value chain.
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Online display advertising is predicted to make $29.53 billion this year. Advertisers believe targeted and personalized ads to be more effective, but many users are concerned about their privacy. We conducted a study where 30 participants completed a simulated holiday booking task; each page showing ads with different degrees of personalization. Participants fixated twice as long when ads contained their photo. Participants reported being more likely to notice ads with their photo, holiday destination, and name, but also increasing levels of discomfort with increasing personalization. We conclude that greater personalization in ad content may achieve higher levels of attention, but that the most personalized ads are also the least acceptable. The noticeability benefit in using someone's photo to make them look at an ad may be offset by the privacy cost. As more personal data becomes available to advertisers, it becomes important that these trade-offs are considered.
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The current study examines consumers'perceptions of the intrusiveness of advertisements. A scale is developed to tap an underlying construct that has not previously been measured. Following traditional methods of scale development, the study uses expert-generated adjective lists, expands possible measures using a thesaurus, and finally reduces the number of items statistically to derive a new measure of advertising intrusiveness. The scale is validated using samples in different experimental conditions and is found to be valid, reliable, and parsimonious. The importance of such a scale for the field of advertising is discussed.
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SMS text messaging shows promise for delivering smoking cessation support. However, little is known about smokers' feelings towards receiving behavioural advice and support on their mobile phones. This article explores the attitudes of women with experience of prenatal smoking towards receiving pregnancy-related smoking cessation support by text message. Data collected by semi-structured interviews and focus group from women who received either tailored smoking cessation texts or no text support (N = 33) were analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged: convenience, high expectations and perceived source. Texting was regarded as a highly convenient mode of support delivery leading to high levels of attention to messages, although high convenience sometimes resulted in the value of a text being short-lived. Many who did not receive texts had high expectations for text support to intervene with routine smoking behaviour in real time. Those who received texts (with no real-time intervention element), however, felt they were helpful and supportive. Participants discussed how factors relating to perceived source, including personalization, personal relevance and salience of text automatization, could affect message attention and impact. Our findings provide insight into how maximizing personalization and personal relevance can increase the value of text message support and reduce the risk of disengagement.
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Recent research has identified attitude toward the ad (AAd) as an important construct mediating the effects of advertising on brand attitude and purchase intention. To date, however, little attention has been directed toward explaining the origins of AAd. The authors present the latest version of a theory of AAd formation, report the results of an empirical test of a portion of that theory, and offer further refinements to the theory based on the observed results. Implications of the findings for advertising practice are discussed.
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In shadowing one of two simultaneous messages presented dichotically, subjects are unable to report any of the content of the rejected message. Even if the rejected message consists of a short list of simple words repeated many times, a recognition test fails to reveal any trace of the list. If numbers are interpolated in prose passages presented for dichotic shadowing, no more are recalled from the rejected messages if the instructions are specifically to remember numbers than if the instructions are general: a specific set for numbers will not break through the attentional barrier set up in this task. The only stimulus so far found that will break through this barrier is the subject's own name. It is probably only material “important” to the subject that will break through the barrier.
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Person perception includes three sequential processes: categorization (what is the actor doing?), characterization (what trait does the action imply?), and correction (what situational constraints may have caused the action?). We argue that correction is less automatic (i.e., more easily disrupted) than either categorization or characterization. In Experiment 1, subjects observed a target behave anxiously in an anxiety-provoking situation. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to a target read a political speech that he had been constrained to write. In both experiments, control subjects used information about situational constraints when drawing inferences about the target, but cognitively busy subjects (who performed an additional cognitive task during encoding) did not. The results (a) suggest that person perception is a combination of lower and higher order processes that differ in their susceptibility to disruption and (b) highlight the fundamental differences between active and passive perceivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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As new technologies (e.g. online, mobile and interactive TV) develop worldwide, numerous types of personalized advertising, in which companies use an individual's name and/or other types of personal information, have become more popular in many countries. Using many types of information about specific individuals, personalized advertising is designed to convey a customized message at the right time to the right person using diverse media. However, despite its universally increased use, few academic studies have explored the effectiveness of personalized advertising and consumers' response to it. This exploratory study focused on consumers' perceptions of personalized advertising delivered online (e-mail) and offline (letter and telephone call). The results show that consumers generally have negative perceptions of personalized advertising, regardless of how it is delivered, with the strongest negative reaction to telephone calls.
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Although interactive advertising is not new, its scale, scope and immediacy has increased substantially with the diffusion of new technologies such as the Internet. The growth of interactive advertising highlights the role of the consumer in the determining the effects and effectiveness of advertising, while challenging traditional assumptions about how advertising works. The active role of the consumer in determining the effects of advertising has important implications for how the effects and effectiveness of advertising are measured and how various measures are interpreted. The present paper offers a discussion of these issues and compares and contrasts traditional notions regarding the measurement of advertising effects with notions that recognize the active role of the consumer in interacting with advertising and the advertiser. Implications for future research are discussed.
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A mixed-design experiment was conducted to explore differences between searching and surfing on cognitive and emotional responses to online news. Ninety-two participants read three unpleasant news stories from a website. Half of the participants acquired their stories by searching, meaning they had a previous information need in mind. The other half of the participants acquired their stories by surfing, with no previous information need in mind. Heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator activation were collected as measures of resource allocation, motivational activation, and unpleasantness, respectively, while participants read each story. Self-report valence and recognition accuracy were also measured. Stories acquired by searching elicited greater heart rate acceleration, skin conductance level, and corrugator activation during reading. These stories were rated as more unpleasant, and their details were recognized more accurately than similar stories that were acquired by surfing. Implications of these results for understanding how people process online media are discussed.
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The present study examines the interrelationships among antecedents and consequences of privacy concerns. The results indicate, among other things, that a consumer's attitude toward direct marketing and his/her desire for information control act as antecedents to privacy concerns. Privacy concerns, in turn, are negatively related to purchase behavior and the purchase decision process. Understanding the antecedents of privacy concerns provides a foundation for developing effective policies and practices to reduce such concerns while understanding the consequences of privacy concerns is essential to gauging just how important dealing with these concerns really are for marketers. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and Direct Marketing Educational Foundation, Inc.
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With advances in tracking and database technologies, firms are increasingly able to understand their customers and translate this understanding into products and services that appeal to them. Technologies such as collaborative filtering, data mining, and click-stream analysis enable firms to customize their offerings at the individual level. While there has been a lot of hype about web personalization recently, our understanding of its effectiveness is far from conclusive. Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) literature, this research takes the view that the interaction between a firm and its customers is one of communicating a persuasive message to the customers driven by business objectives. In particular, we examine three major elements of a web personalization strategy: level of preference matching, recommendation set size, and sorting cue. These elements can be manipulated by a firm in implementing its personalization strategy. This research also investigates a personal disposition, need for cognition, which plays a role in assessing the effectiveness of web personalization. Research hypotheses are tested using 1,000 subjects in three field experiments based on a ring-tone download website. Our findings indicate the saliency of these variables in different stages of the persuasion process. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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Abstract Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance. The theory assumes a limited capacity working memory that includes partially independent subcomponents to deal with auditory/verbal material and visual/2- or 3-dimensional information as well as an effectively unlimited long-term memory, holding schemas that vary in their degree of automation. These structures and functions of human cognitive architecture have been used to design a variety of novel instructional procedures based on the assumption that working memory load should be reduced and schema construction encouraged. This paper reviews the theory and the instructional designs generated by it.
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Distinct complex brain systems support selective attention and emotion, but connections between them suggest that human behavior should reflect reciprocal interactions of these systems. Although there is ample evidence that emotional stimuli modulate attentional processes, it is not known whether attention influences emotional behavior. Here we show that evaluation of the emotional tone (cheery/dreary) of complex but meaningless visual patterns can be modulated by the prior attentional state (attending vs. ignoring) used to process each pattern in a visual selection task. Previously ignored patterns were evaluated more negatively than either previously attended or novel patterns. Furthermore, this emotional devaluation of distracting stimuli was robust across different emotional contexts and response scales. Finding that negative affective responses are specifically generated for ignored stimuli points to a new functional role for attention and elaborates the link between attention and emotion. This finding also casts doubt on the conventional marketing wisdom that any exposure is good exposure.
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To discuss tailored messages in the broader context of communication strategies designed to enhance the relevance of health information to a given audience. Describe specific mechanisms through which tailored health communication can enhance message relevance and identify situations in which the use of tailoring is most appropriate. Overall, tailored messages appear to stimulate greater cognitive activity than do messages that are not tailored. However, non-tailored messages that happen to be a good fit for a given individual also have similar effects. Health communication programs and materials that succeed in making information relevant to their intended audience will be more effective than those that do not. Tailoring is a proven approach to enhancing message relevance, but not the only approach to do so, and under many circumstances may not be the preferred choice.
Conference Paper
Online display advertising is predicted to make $29.53 billion this year. Advertisers believe targeted and personalized ads to be more effective, but many users are concerned about their privacy. We conducted a study where 30 participants completed a simulated holiday booking task; each page showing ads with different degrees of personalization. Participants fixated twice as long when ads contained their photo. Participants reported being more likely to notice ads with their photo, holiday destination, and name, but also increasing levels of discomfort with increasing personalization. We conclude that greater personalization in ad content may achieve higher levels of attention, but that the most personalized ads are also the least acceptable. The noticeability benefit in using someone‟s photo to make them look at an ad may be offset by the privacy cost. As more personal data becomes available to advertisers, it becomes important that these trade-offs are considered.
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Empowered by the Web's interactive and quick-response capabilities, mobile marketing is a very promising direct marketing channel. The present research investigates consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising in China. The results of a survey indicate that (1) consumers in China generally have slightly negative attitudes toward receiving mobile advertising (2) there is a direct relationship between consumer attitudes and consumer intention in receiving mobile advertising. (3) Personalization plays an important role in affecting consumers' attitude toward receiving mobile advertising. Thus the designers and marketers should better strategize their advertising designs by considering the personalization factor.
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Abstract A number of prior studies have suggested that personalization is more efficacious than non-personalization. However, the existing literature is somewhat ambiguous on whether the test of personalization effects should be based on a message sender's actual personalization process or a message recipient's perception of the message. It is argued in this article that an actual personalization process does not automatically yield more favorable effects because people's perceptions of personalized messages tend to be biased. Through three experiments, it is demonstrated that testing personalization effects based on a message sender's actual personalization process can be problematic and produce misleading results. Specifically, a personalized message can be perceived as non-personalized and a non-personalized message can be perceived as personalized. The key finding is that perceived personalization, instead of actual personalization, is the underlying psychological mechanism of message effectiveness. A message will show superior effects when it is perceived to be personalized by a message recipient, regardless of whether it is actually personalized or not.
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This study explores the psychological effects of information tailoring, locational congruity, and product involvement on user attitudes toward location-based advertising (LBA) on mobile devices. Results from a 2 (type of information tailoring: personalization vs. customization) × 2 (level of locational congruity: high vs. low) × 2 (level of product involvement: high vs. low involvement) between-subjects experiment (N = 115) showed that customization and locational congruity were effective strategies for inducing positive attitudes about LBA and its service quality. In addition, the ad’s perceived intrusiveness was found to mediate the effects of product involvement on participants’ attitudes toward LBA. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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Retailers gather data about customers’ online behavior to develop personalized service offers. Greater personalization typically increases service relevance and customer adoption, but paradoxically, it also may increase customers’ sense of vulnerability and lower adoption rates. To demonstrate this contradiction, an exploratory field study on Facebook and secondary data about a personalized advertising campaign indicate sharp drops in click-through rates when customers realize their personal information has been collected without their consent. To investigate the personalization paradox, this study uses three experiments that confirm a firm's strategy for collecting information from social media websites is a crucial determinant of how customers react to online personalized advertising. When firms engage in overt information collection, participants exhibit greater click-through intentions in response to more personalized advertisements, in contrast with their reactions when firms collect information covertly. This effect reflects the feelings of vulnerability that consumers experience when firms undertake covert information collection strategies. Trust-building marketing strategies that transfer trust from another website or signal trust with informational cues can offset this negative effect. These studies help unravel the personalization paradox by explicating the role of information collection and its impact on vulnerability and click-through rates.
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This study attempts to identify the potential determinants of advertising avoidance in the context of personalized advertising media, including unsolicited commercial e-mail, postal direct mail, telemarketing, and text messaging. Using a self-administered survey (n = 442), the proposed model is tested with structural equation modeling analysis. The findings indicate that while ad skepticism partially mediates the relationship between ad avoidance and its three determinants (perceived personalization, privacy concerns, and ad irritation), both privacy concerns and ad irritation have a direct positive effect on ad avoidance. However, increased perceived personalization leads directly to decreased ad avoidance.
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Online behavioural advertising (OBA) is a special form of targeted advertising. For OBA, it is necessary to collect data about online surfing behaviour, which is usually undertaken by installing ‘cookies’. The use of cookies is heavily debated by policy makers in the US and Europe. Central to this discussion is whether users should provide informed consent prior to the installation of cookies. However, to provide informed consent, it is vital that website users understand the mechanisms of OBA and cookies. This study investigates whether the existing knowledge is sufficient, whether website users are concerned about their privacy, and how they cope with OBA, cookies and the requested informed consent. An online questionnaire (N = 2022) was fielded briefly after new European cookie regulations were enacted. The results confirmed that the knowledge is still insufficient to obtain good understanding of this new advertising technique. In addition, the results showed that groups of Internet users did not differ in terms of knowledge, although they did differ in terms of privacy concerns. A comparison of privacy-concerned groups showed that a dual approach is needed in communicating about OBA, not only to inform but also to reduce worries, especially in older and less-educated groups.
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Attitudes and opinions about online advertising practices and consumer privacy concerns have been studied in both the academic and popular press. However, online consumers' response to privacy concerns have not been studied. This study examines this relationship using a national sample of individuals with personal e-mail accounts. Respondents' concerns with a series of situations which effect privacy online were assessed. This overall level of concern was subsequently correlated with the frequency that respondents adopted seven different online behaviors. Analysis demonstrates that the frequency of adopting five of the seven behaviors increased as respondents' privacy concern increased. Specifically, as privacy concern increased, respondents reported that they were more likely to provide incomplete information to web sites, to notify Internet Service Providers (ISPs) about unsolicited e-mail, to request removal from mailing lists, and to send a “flame” to online entities sending unsolicited e-mail. Additionally, as privacy concern increased, respondents reported that they were less likely to register for web sites requesting information. Implications for online advertisers are provided as a part of this study.
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Web designers attempt to draw attention to important links by making them distinctive. However, when users are asked to find specific items, they often overlook these distinctive banners. The irony of “banner blindness” is that the user who really wants to find the information the designer has highlighted is not likely to do so. In the experiments reported here, banner blindness is reproduced under controlled conditions. Banners located higher on the page and therefore further from the other page links were missed more often than banners located lower on the page and closer to the other links. Banners were missed more often when located on pages containing links to categories than when located on pages with links to specific items. Users saw banners hardly at all when clicking a banner was not required to accomplish a task.
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