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Urban regeneration in the digital era: How to develop Smart City strategies in large european cities

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The study documented in this paper has been carried out in order to acquire new knowledge concerning the development processes of smart city strategies. This aim has been achieved through the analysis of the initiatives proposed by the municipal administrations of Amsterdam and Barcelona. Two successful cases that have allowed to outline a step-by-step roadmap in which a possible approach for developing smart city strategies in large European cities is described. Despite its early stage of development, this procedure provides new knowledge, innovative research perspectives, and a conceptual framework for supporting future comparative research and theory-building. Activities that are fundamental to ensure its continuous growth and the refinement of its structure.
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110 TECHNE 10 2015
La rigenerazione urbana nell’era digitale:
come sviluppare strategie Smart City in città europee
di grandi dimensioni
roberto.bolici@polimi.it
luca.mora@polimi.it
Abstract. La ricerca documentata in questo articolo è stata svolta allo scopo di
approfondire la conoscenza relativa ai processi di sviluppo delle strategie che con-
sentono alle città di diventare Smart. Per raggiungere questo obiettivo sono state
analizzate le strategie proposte dalle amministrazioni comunali di Amsterdam e
Barcellona. Due casi di successo che hanno permesso di delineare una step-by
step roadmap in cui è stato descritto un possibile approccio per costruire strategie
Smart City in città Europee di grandi dimensioni. Nonostante il suo stadio di sviluppo
iniziale, questa procedura fornisce nuova conoscenza, prospettive di ricerca inno-
vative, e un modello concettuale per sostenere lo svolgimento di ulteriori ricerche
comparative. Un’attività indispensabile per garantire la sua continua crescita e il
perfezionamento della sua struttura.
Parole chiave: Smart City, Strategia, Roadmap, Processo di sviluppo, Pianificazione
strategica urbana
I contesti urbani vivono un pe-
riodo di profonda crisi generato
dall’applicazione di modelli di sviluppo e crescita insostenibili, pre-
valentemente associati all’era industriale e a uneconomia del consu-
mo che ormai da tempo ha iniziato a mostrare forti segni di cedi-
mento (Riin, 2002). Questa situazione ha ridotto notevolmente il
livello di qualità della vita oerto da città e territori urbanizzati, ed
è collegata alla presenza di problematiche complesse e di natura dif-
ferente. Ad esempio, come segnalato dalla Commissione Europea:
l’elevato livello di disoccupazione; l’aumento del numero di persone
a rischio di povertà; l’esclusione sociale; gli scarsi investimenti in ri-
cerca e sviluppo che limitano la capacità di innovare; l’elevato livel-
lo di abbandoni scolastici (European Commission, 2010). Inoltre,
a tutto questo è possibile aggiungere la questione ambientale, dato
che le città sono responsabili della produzione del 70% dell’anidride
carbonica presente nell’atmosfera terrestre e del consumo di circa il
75% dell’energia globale (American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science, 2001; Ratti, 2010; UN-Habitat, 2011) (Fig. 1).
Urban regeneration
in the digital era:
how to develop
Smart City strategies
in large european cities
Abstract. The study documented in this
paper has been carried out in order to
acquire new knowledge concerning the
development processes of smart city
strategies. This aim has been achieved
through the analysis of the initiatives pro-
posed by the municipal administrations of
Amsterdam and Barcelona. Two success-
ful cases that have allowed to outline a
step-by-step roadmap in which a possible
approach for developing smart city strate-
gies in large European cities is described.
Despite its early stage of development,
this procedure provides new knowledge,
innovative research perspectives, and
a conceptual framework for supporting
future comparative research and theory-
building. Activities that are fundamental
to ensure its continuous growth and the
refinement of its structure.
Keywords: Smart City, Strategy, Road-
map, Development process, Strategic
urban planning
Introduction
Urban areas are facing a period of deep
crisis generated by the application of
unsustainable models of urban devel-
opment and growth. Models that are
associated with the industrial age and a
consumption economy which has been
showing signs of decline for many years
(Riin, 2002). is situation has con-
siderably decreased the quality of life
oered by cities and urban territories
and is connected with complex issues
of a dierent nature. For example, as
pointed out by the European Commis-
sion (2010): high unemployment levels;
an increase in the number of people at
risk of poverty; social exclusion; a lack
of investments in research and develop-
ment which limits the capacity to inno-
vate; and the high share of early school
leavers. In addition, there are also the
environmental concerns, consider-
ing that cities and their communities
produce over 70% of the total carbon
dioxide which is present in the Earth’s
atmosphere and consume about 75%
of the global energy (American Asso-
ciation for the Advancement of Science,
2001; Ratti, 2010; UN-Habitat, 2011)
(Fig. 1).
In this context, the belief that digital
technologies can supply valuable help in
the resolution of urban issues has spread
quickly. National and local govern-
ments, the academic world, businesses
and many other organizations started
to observe and study this perspective
with great interest. Over a brief period
of time, this exploration has led to ex-
perimentation as numerous municipal
administrations around the world have
launched specic strategies aimed at
transforming ordinary cities in smart
cities: urban areas in which Informa-
tion and Communication Technologies
(ICTs) are used to support their sustain-
119
Introduzione
Roberto Bolici, Luca Mora,
Dipartimento ABC, Politecnico di Milano, Italia
ISSN online: 2239-0243 | © 2015 Firenze University Press | http://www.fupress.com/techne
DOI: 10.13128/Techne-17507
01 |
01 | Il contributo dei contesti urbanizzati al cambiamento climatico
The role of urban areas in climate change
All’interno di questo scenario, la percezione che le tecnologie dell’e-
ra digitale possano fornire un valido aiuto nella risoluzione di pro-
blematiche che aiggono i contesti urbani ha cominciato a dion-
dersi con grande rapidità. Governi locali, governi nazionali, mondo
della ricerca accademica, industria e molte altre organizzazioni
hanno iniziato a studiare con grande interesse questa prospettiva.
saggi e
punti di vista/
essays and
points of view
111 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
able development and the regeneration
of their infrastructures1.
ese initiatives have led to the birth
and continuous expansion of the smart
city phenomenon. e rapid diusion
of cases can be observed by consider-
ing the data published in recent stud-
ies. e starting point is 2010, the year
in which the consulting rm Frost &
Sullivan identied 40 cities involved
in the development of strategies for
becoming smart (Fig. 2) (Singh, 2010).
A limited number of cases that signi-
cantly changed two years later. In 2012,
more than 140 strategies were under-
way or completed worldwide (Lee and
Hancock, 2012) (Fig. 3). Moreover, by
focusing the attention on Europe, the
data published by the European Parlia-
ment show further growth in the period
between 2012 and 2014. Indeed, 240 of
the 486 cities with a population above
100.000 inhabitants and belonging to
one of the 28 EU Member States were
already working in the eld of smart
cities (Manville et al., 2014) (Fig. 4).
Unfortunately, despite the continuous
growth in the number of cities that are
trying to become smart, the level of
knowledge concerning this subject is
yet underdeveloped. Several questions
remain open and numerous aspects
require a more detailed examination. In
particular, there is an evident lack of ex-
plicit and holistic methodologies based
on empirical knowledge for guiding the
actors involved in the construction and
management of smart city strategies
towards successful results (Angelidou,
2014; Chourabi et al., 2012; Frei et al.,
2012; GSMA et al., 2011; Hollands,
2008; Komninos, 2011; 2014; Manville
et al., 2014). A consideration which is
valid for any type of city, whether small,
medium or large in size (Kitchin, 2014).
e study documented in the following
Unesplorazione che in breve tempo è diventata sperimentazione,
dato che numerose pubbliche amministrazioni sparse in tutto il
mondo hanno deciso di avviare speciche strategie nel tentativo di
trasformare città ordinarie in Smart City: ambienti urbani in cui le
TIC (Tecnologie dell’Informazione e della Comunicazione) ven-
gono utilizzate ecacemente come strumento per sostenere il loro
sviluppo e la rigenerazione delle loro infrastrutture1.
Tutte queste iniziative hanno portato alla nascita del fenomeno
Smart City e alla sua continua espansione. La rapida diusione di
casi può essere osservata attraverso le stime proposte in alcuni stu-
di di recente pubblicazione. Il punto di partenza è il 2010, anno in
cui l’azienda di consulenza Frost & Sullivan ha identicato 40 città
impegnate nello sviluppo di strategie per diventare Smart City (Fig.
2) (Singh, 2010). Una cifra molto limitata di casi che soltanto due
anni dopo è notevolmente cambiata. Infatti, nel 2012 le strategie to-
tali avviate o completate a livello mondiale erano addirittura 143
(Lee and Hancock, 2012) (Fig. 3). Inoltre, focalizzando l’attenzione
solo sull’Europa, i dati pubblicati dal Parlamento Europeo mostra-
no un’ulteriore crescita nel periodo compreso fra il 2012 e il 2014.
Fra le 486 città con una popolazione superiore a 100.000 abitanti e
appartenenti ai 28 Stati Membri dell’Unione, erano addirittura 240
quelle già attive in ambito Smart City (Manville et al., 2014) (Fig. 4).
Ma nonostante la continua crescita del numero di città che lavora
per diventare Smart, il livello di conoscenza associato a questo tema
è ancora molto limitato e caratterizzato da molteplici aspetti da ap-
profondire. In particolare, è evidente la mancanza di linee guida che
possano essere utilizzate per guidare i diversi attori coinvolti nella
costruzione e nella gestione di strategie Smart City verso risultati di
successo (Angelidou, 2014; Chourabi et al., 2012; Frei et al., 2012;
GSMA et al., 2011; Hollands, 2008; Komninos, 2011; 2014; Manville
02 | Estensione del fenomeno Smart City prima del 2011
Extent of the smart city phenomenon before 2011
03 | Estensione del fenomeno Smart City prima del 2013
Extent of the smart city phenomenon before 2013
04 | Estensione del fenomeno Smart City in Europa prima del 2014
Extent of the smart city phenomenon in Europe before 2014
pages has been developed to start ll-
ing this knowledge gap2. Specically, a
step-by-step roadmap which identify a
possible approach for developing smart
city strategies in large European cities
has been built3. An aim achieved by
mapping and cataloguing the activi-
ties undertaken by the City Councils of
Amsterdam and Barcelona during the
implementation of their strategies. is
procedure is characterized by an early
stage of development. However, it pro-
vides innovative research perspectives
and a conceptual framework for sup-
porting future comparative research
which will ensure its progressive rene-
ment.
e results achieved lay the founda-
tions for building a holistic and empiri-
cally valid procedure linked to a type of
urban area which is particularly active
in the development of smart city strat-
egies. In Europe, almost all large cities
are trying to become smart, and 5 of
the 6 most successful European cases
fall within this category (Manville et
al., 2014). Considering the high interest
showed by these cities and the quality of
their approach, they have been selected
as the reference target of the study.
02 |
03 |
04 |
112 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
et al., 2014). Una considerazione valida per qualsiasi tipologia di cit-
tà, siano esse di piccole, medie o grandi dimensioni (Kitchin, 2014).
La ricerca esplorativa documentata nelle pagine successive è stata
sviluppata nel tentativo di iniziare a colmare questa lacuna cono-
scitiva2. A questo proposito, la schedatura e l’analisi delle attività
che caratterizzano le strategie proposte dalle città di Amsterdam e
Barcellona ha permesso di costruire una step-by-step roadmap che
delinea un possibile approccio per sviluppare strategie Smart City
in città Europee di grandi dimensioni3. Questa procedura è caratte-
rizza da uno stadio di sviluppo iniziale, ma fornisce prospettive di
ricerca innovative e un modello concettuale per sostenere lo svol-
gimento di ulteriori ricerche comparative che garantiranno il suo
progressivo perfezionamento.
Un importante risultato che ha permesso di gettare le basi per la
costruzione di una procedura olistica ed empiricamente valida, as-
sociata a una tipologia di area urbana estremamente attiva nello svi-
luppo di strategie Smart City. In Europa, quasi tutte le città di grandi
dimensioni stanno già lavorando nel tentativo di diventare Smart, e
fra queste rientrano 5 dei 6 casi di maggior successo a livello Euro-
peo: Barcellona, Amsterdam, Copenaghen, Helsinki, e Manchester
(Manville et al., 2014). Questo signica che l’interesse manifestato
da questa tipologia di città è molto alto, così come la qualità dell’ap-
proccio utilizzato. Due fattori che hanno spinto alla sua scelta in
qualità di target di riferimento della ricerca.
Lo studio di caso con approc-
cio induttivo è stato identicato
come metodo di ricerca più appropriato per raggiungere gli obiettivi
pressati. Come principale riferimento e guida è stata considerata la
procedura descritta da Eisenhardt (1989), insieme alle raccomanda-
zioni riportate all’interno di vari manuali e in altri studi in cui è stato
applicato questo metodo. In questo modo è stato possibile garantire
la qualità della ricerca svolta in termini di attendibilità, validità di
formulazione e validità esterna (Yin, 2009).
Esplicitare in modo chiaro e preciso la domanda di ricerca rappre-
senta la prima attività che è stata svolta: quali sono e come sono orga-
nizzate le tappe fondamentali da considerare per sviluppare strategie
Smart City in città Europee di grandi dimensioni? Per poter fornire
una risposta adeguata è stato necessario focalizzare l’attenzione solo
su casi di successo, ovvero, strategie che hanno eettivamente con-
sentito a città Europee di grandi dimensioni di utilizzare le TIC per
sostenere il loro sviluppo e la risoluzione dei loro problemi. Inoltre,
la scelta di una specica tipologia di città ha permesso di denire i
limiti per la generalizzazione dei risultati conseguiti e il gruppo di
entità in cui eettuare la ricerca dei campioni da analizzare.
La selezione di Amsterdam e Barcellona rappresenta il risultato di
un campionamento teorico (Eisenhardt, 1989; Miles and Huber-
man, 1994). Infatti, oltre a rientrare nel target di riferimento dello
studio, entrambi i casi hanno acquisito numerosi riconoscimenti
internazionali in ambito Smart City che testimoniano il loro succes-
so (Achaerandio et al., 2011; European Commission, 2014; Cohen,
2012a; 2012b; 2014; Jander, 2013; I amsterdam, 2011; Manville et al.,
2014). La loro analisi è stata eettuata considerando i dati qualitativi
estratti da fonti di prova multiple individuate con una serie di ricer-
che eettuate in varie banche dati digitali nel periodo compreso fra
Giugno e Luglio 2014. In totale, le fonti di prova utilizzate nell’analisi
di ciascun caso sono state 198 per la strategia di Amsterdam e 262
per Barcellona.
La coding analysis è stata utilizzata per facilitare la gestione dell’in-
gente quantità di dati che sono stati recuperati. Questa fase della ri-
Methodological notes
Case study with an inductive approach
has been identied as the most suit-
able research method. e procedure
set out by Eisenhardt (1989) has been
used as the main reference and guide,
together with the recommendations
included within some studies in which
this method has been applied. is
made it possibile to guarantee the qual-
ity of research in terms of reliability,
construct validity and external validity
(Yin, 2009).
Dening the research questions in a
clear and precise manner is the rst
activity that has been carried out: what
are the essential steps to consider for
developing smart city strategies in large
European cities? How are they organ-
ized? To provide suitable answers, it
has been necessary to focalize the atten-
tion only on successful cases. Strategies
that have allowed large European cities
to eectively use ICTs for supporting
their development in social, economic
and/or environmental terms, and the
resolution of their problems. Moreover,
the choice of a specic type of urban
area has enabled to dene the limit for
generalizing the results and the group
of entities in which to search possible
samples to analyze.
Amsterdam and Barcelona have been
selected using a theoretical sampling
approach (Eisenhardt, 1989; Miles and
Huberman, 1994). In addition to fall
within the category of large European
cities, both cases have been identi-
ed as examples of excellence by the
European Parliament (Manville et al.,
2014). Moreover, they have received
multiple international awards in the
eld of smart cities during recent years
(Achaerandio et al., 2011; European
Commission, 2014; Cohen, 2012a;
2012b; 2014; Jander, 2013; I amsterdam,
2011). eir analysis has been imple-
mented considering the qualitative
data extracted from multiple sources
of evidence identied with a series of
searches performed in various online
databases during the period between
June and July 2014. In total, the sources
of evidence used in the analysis of cases
are 198 for Amsterdam and 262 for Bar-
celona.
Coding analysis has been used to facili-
tate the management of the vast amount
of qualitative data that have been col-
lected from the sources. is phase of
the study has been developed consider-
ing the procedure described by Voss et
al. (2002). rough the coding process,
raw data have been reorganized and the
activities which characterize the devel-
opment process of each smart city strat-
egy have been listed in a chronological
order. Aer this activity, two detailed
reports have been produced in which
the data linked to each case have been
summarized and presented in a narra-
tive form (within-case analysis)4 (Miles
and Huberman, 1994). In this way, it
has been possibile to enable the cross-
case analysis (Patton, 1990) and the
construction of the roadmap.
Results
e knowledge accumulated with the
analysis has allowed to build a roadmap
split in 5 phases and 16 dierent activi-
ties (Fig. 5), which has been presented
in the following pages. e description
of each phase has been connected to
the contents of scholarly literature that
deals with the process for transforming
ordinary cities in smart cities.
Phase 1: Starting
Both cases conrm that smart city
strategies start when one or more or-
ganizations working in the city mature
the idea to use ICTs as a tool for sup-
Note metodologiche
113 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
cerca è stata sviluppata seguendo la procedura descritta da Voss et
al. (2002). Attraverso il processo di codica i dati grezzi sono stati
riorganizzati e tutte le attività che hanno caratterizzato il processo
di sviluppo di ciascuna strategia Smart City sono state schedate in
ordine cronologico. Successivamente sono stati prodotti due report
dettagliati in cui tutti i dati relativi a ciascun caso sono stati rias-
sunti (within-case analysis)4 (Miles and Huberman, 1994). In questo
modo è stato possibile strutturare una base conoscitiva per abilitare
l’analisi incrociata dei casi (cross-case analysis) (Patton, 1990) e svi-
luppare la roadmap nale.
La conoscenza acquisita con l’a-
nalisi dei due casi ha permesso di
costruire una roadmap articolata in 5 macro-fasi e 16 diverse azioni
(Fig. 5), che è stata presentata nelle pagine successive.
La descrizione di ogni fase è stata collegata con i contenuti della let-
teratura in cui viene trattato il tema dei processi di trasformazione
delle città ordinarie in città Smart.
05 |
Fase 1: Avvio
Entrambi i casi confermano che l’avvio di una strategia Smart City
coincide con la maturazione dell’idea di utilizzare le TIC per soste-
nere lo sviluppo urbano da parte di una o più organizzazioni che
possono essere identicate come promotori. Generalmente questo
ruolo viene acquisito dalle amministrazioni comunali, che possono
decidere di lavorare in modo indipendente, o di collaborare con altri
partner esterni. Soggetti pubblici o privati che hanno manifestato la
stessa volontà di trasformare la città in una Smart City e che possono
fornire un valido aiuto fornendo risorse umane ed economiche, co-
noscenza, così come collaborazione e impegno nel raggiungimento
degli obiettivi stabiliti (Anderson et al., 2012) (Fig. 6).
Questi soggetti dovranno diventare il motore principale dell’intero
processo di sviluppo della strategia, e nella fase di avvio avranno il
compito di stabilire una motivazione iniziale che identichi la riso-
luzione di quali problemi verrà supportata con l’utilizzo delle tec-
nologie informatiche. Dato che ogni città è diversa, la motivazione
dipenderà dalla natura dei suoi problemi e dalle sue priorità strate-
giche, che possono essere di natura sociale, economia e/o ambienta-
05 | Roadmap per sviluppare strategie
Smart City in città Europee di grandi
dimensioni: una teoria in costruzione
Roadmap for developing smart city
strategies in large European cities: a
theory under construction
porting urban development. ese
organizations can be identied as ini-
tiators. is role is usually acquired by
municipal administrations, which may
decide to work alone or collaborate
with other external partners. Public
or private entities with a similar desire
to transform the city into a smart city,
which can oer valuable assistance pro-
viding human and nancial resources,
know-how, as well as collaboration and
committing to results (Anderson et al.,
2012) (Fig. 6).
ese organizations and their depart-
ments will become the main engine of
the strategy. During the initial phase,
they should dene an initial motivation
which has to identify what problems
will be resolved with the support of
information technologies. Motivations
should be developed considering the
specic problems and strategic priori-
ties of the city, which can be of social,
Risultati conseguiti
114 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
le (Berthon and Guittat, 2011; Zygiaris, 2012). Inoltre, i promotori
dovranno garantire una leadership forte (Alawadhi et al., 2012; Pa-
skaleva, 2009). Nei casi di Barcellona e Amsterdam è evidente che
esercitare la leadership non signica essere l’unico ad agire, ma con-
vincere altri soggetti pubblici e privati a collaborare e guidarli nel
raggiungimento di un obiettivo comune, massimizzando il loro im-
pegno. Il passaggio alla fase successiva avviene nel momento in cui
i promotori nominano un dipartimento di una delle organizzazioni
coinvolte come responsabile del processo, e lo incaricano di formare
un team che avrà il compito di pianicare la strategia. I membri del
team dovranno possedere competenze provenienti da più aree, con
particolare riferimento ai settori della pianicazione e progettazio-
ne urbana, ma anche delle TIC e dello sviluppo di strategie Smart
City. Nel caso in cui queste competenze siano mancanti, è necessa-
rio acquisire il supporto di partner strategici in qualità di consulenti
esterni. Ad esempio, a Barcellona sono state coinvolte due aziende
di consulenza con evidente esperienza in ambito Smart City: Cisco
System e Doxa Consulting (Ajuntament de Barcelona and Doxa
Consulting, 2012).
Fase 2: Pianicazione
La strategia Smart City deve essere correttamente allineata con il
quadro strategico della città. Uno scenario complesso che nasce
dalla convergenza delle strategie, degli obiettivi e delle direttive pro-
poste a livello locale e sovra-locale per contrastare le problemati-
che segnalate nella motivazione iniziale. L’analisi di questo scena-
rio rappresenta la prima attività che il team di pianicazione dovrà
svolgere, per poi procedere «con la costruzione di una visione e la
denizione degli obiettivi generali, seguiti dall’identicazione degli
ambiti di intervento»(Huber and Mayer, 2012).
Proprio come suggerito da Bach et al. (2010) e da Singh et al. (2009),
la visione di lungo periodo e gli obiettivi verranno raggiunti pro-
gressivamente, attraverso lo sviluppo di un’unica linea di azione
basata sulla continua e costante implementazione di progetti da svi-
luppare nel medio-breve termine. I progetti possono avere livelli di
estensione dierenti e generare ricadute sulla città intera o su parti
di essa. Ma in ogni caso, tutti permetteranno di introdurre all’inter-
no della città nuovi servizi, dispositivi e infrastrutture appartenenti
al settore delle TIC, e di avviare la sua progressiva trasformazione in
06 |
06 | I promotori della strategia Smar t City di Amsterdam
The initiators of the Amsterdam smart city strategy
economic and/or environmental nature
(Berthon and Guittat, 2011; Zygiaris,
2012). Moreover, the initiators should
also provide strong leadership from the
very beginning of the process (Alawa-
dhi et al., 2012; Paskaleva, 2009). In the
cases of Amsterdam and Barcelona, it is
evident that exercising leadership does
not mean being the only one to act.
More to the point, it means convincing
other public and private actors to collab-
orate, maximizing their eorts towards
the achievement of a common goal.
e transition from the initial phase
to the planning phase occurs when
the initiators nominate a department
of one of the organizations involved as
responsible for the process and instruct
it to form a team. is team will have
the task of planning the strategy, and
its members should have competences
linked to dierent elds of knowledge.
Particularly from areas such as urban
and regional planning, urban design,
ICT and smart cities. If this expertise is
lacking, support can be acquired from
strategic partners that will act as exter-
nal consultants. As in the case of Bar-
celona, in which two consulting rms
experienced in the smart city eld have
been involved: Cisco System and Doxa
Consulting (Ajuntament de Barcelona
and Doxa Consulting, 2012).
Phase 2: Planning
e smart city strategy has to be aligned
with the strategic framework of the city.
A complex scenario that arises from the
convergence of the strategies, objec-
tives and directives proposed at the lo-
cal and supra-local level to address the
problems reported in the initial motiva-
tion. e analysis of this framework is
the rst activity that the planning team
has to conduct. Subsequently, it can
proceed «with vision-building and goal
setting, followed by the identication of
corresponding elds of action» (Huber
and Mayer, 2012). As suggested by Bach
et al. (2010) and Singh et al. (2009),
long-term vision and objectives will be
progressively achieved through a single
line of action based on the continuous
and constant implementation of local
ICT-based projects and initiatives to
be completed in the short and medium
term. ese projects can have dierent
levels of extension and can have eects
on the entire city or on parts of it. In any
case, they will allow to introduce new
services, devices and infrastructures be-
longing to the ICT sector within the city
and facilitate its gradual transformation
into a smart city. Each project should be
linked to one or more elds of action.
eir selection depends on the needs of
the city and the nature of the problems
for which the smart city strategy has
been started. For example, Amsterdam
has decided to act on the elds with
the greater impact in terms of carbon
dioxide production in order to achieve
its ambitious environmental goals: liv-
ing; working; mobility; and public space
(Amsterdam Smart City, 2011).
To ensure the proper development of
projects, it is important to provide for
the establishment of an implementa-
tion team (Manville et al., 2014), which
can be part of an existing organization
(the Project Management Oce set up
by Barcelona City Council) (Ajunta-
ment de Barcelona and Doxa Consult-
ing, 2012) or can acquire its own legal
personality (the Amsterdam Smart
City foundation) (Reviglio et al., 2013)
(Fig. 7). is team will be composed
of representatives of the organizations
that launched the process and sup-
ported by eventual external consultants.
Moreover, its activities shall be subject
to the supervision and guidance of the
department responsible for the devel-
115 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
una Smart City. Ogni singolo progetto dovrà essere collegato a uno o
più ambiti di intervento, selezionati in base alle esigenze della città e
alla natura dei problemi per cui viene avviata la strategia Smart City.
Ad esempio, per raggiungere i propri obiettivi di sostenibilità am-
bientale, Amsterdam ha deciso di agire sui quattro ambiti maggior-
mente impattanti in termini di produzione di anidride carbonica:
mobilità, residenza, luoghi di lavoro e spazi pubblici (Amsterdam
Smart City, 2011).
Per garantire il corretto svolgimento di tutti i progetti è necessario
prevedere la costituzione di un apposito team che si occuperà della
fase di implementazione (Manville et al., 2014). Questo team può
essere incluso in unorganizzazione esistente (il Project Management
Oce del Comune di Barcellona) (Ajuntament de Barcelona and
Doxa Consulting, 2012), oppure può assumere una personalità giu-
ridica propria (la Fondazione Amsterdam Smart City) (Reviglio et
al., 2013) (Fig. 7). Inoltre, dovrà essere costituito da referenti delle
organizzazioni che hanno avviato il processo e da eventuali consu-
lenti esterni, e il suo operato verrà sottoposto alla supervisione del
dipartimento responsabile dello sviluppo della strategia. Inne, du-
rante la fase di pianicazione sarà necessario stabilire una metodo-
logia per il monitoraggio dei progressi e la valutazione dei risultati
conseguiti con i singoli progetti, e in che modo verranno prodotte,
valutate e selezionate le idee progettuali da sviluppare.
Fase 3: Implementazione progetti
Con l’avvio della fase di sviluppo dei progetti, tutto ciò che è stato
stabilito durante la fase di pianicazione viene tradotto in azioni. La
più importante è sicuramente l’attivazione del team di implementa-
zione e dei gruppi di lavoro che lo costituiscono. Questo team avrà
il compito di trasformare la città in un vero e proprio laboratorio
(Townsend et al., 2011), e assicurare la continua e costante attuazio-
opment of the strategy. Finally, during
the planning phase, a methodology for
monitoring progress and evaluating the
results achieved with each project need
to be dened, together with a specic
process for producing, evaluating and
selecting project ideas to develop.
Phase 3: Development of projects
When the development phase for pro-
jects starts, the implementation team
and the working groups of which it is
composed have to be establish. is
team must be able to transform the city
in a laboratory, «a place where technol-
ogy is adapted […] to meet local needs»
(Townsend et al., 2011). e aim is to
ensure the continuous and constant im-
plementation of ICT-based projects and
initiatives that contribute to both the re-
alization of the vision and the achieve-
ment of the overall objectives.
To fulll this task, the implementation
team will carry out dierent activities:
stimulating the continuous produc-
tion of project ideas by entities within
and outside the team, avoiding the risk
of a top-down approach (Ratti and
Townsend, 2011); evaluating and se-
lecting best ideas; providing an overall
organization of the selected projects
according to intervention priorities
and funding possibilities; creating new
partnerships with public and private
actors; acquiring resources for develop-
ing projects by using a nancial strategy
based on the combined use of public
and private resources (Schaers et al.,
2012; Singh et al., 2009); providing
support during the implementation of
projects; conducting the general moni-
toring of ongoing activities; measuring
results and monitoring progress; com-
municating activities and promoting
the strategy to facilitate the creation of
new partnerships and the acquisition of
new resources.
Phase 4: Monitoring and evaluation
By applying the methodology dened
during the planning phase, the imple-
mentation team has to undertake the
activities for monitoring progress and
evaluating the results achieved with
projects. Moreover, considering that the
implementation of the strategy repre-
sents a long-term initiative, the various
phases are never denitively closed. On
the contrary, they will remain subject
to a continuous process of review and
modication aimed at the constant
improvement of their structure and
functioning, and their adaptation to a
changing environment. As suggested by
Webb et al. (2011): «cities will continu-
ally learn from projects, discover new op-
portunities for investment, develop new
relationships with stakeholders and have
to respond to evolving priorities».
Phase 5: Communication
e implementation team should also
ensure the continuous diusion of data
and information concerning the strate-
gy and its promotion all over the world,
allowing the city to acquire visibility
and recognition in the smart city eld.
erefore, it will be necessary to sup-
port: the constant production of infor-
mation documents (e.g., press releases,
news and newsletters) and their wide-
spread distribution through existing
and expressly created web platforms;
the organization of national and inter-
national conferences; the participation
in conferences organized by other enti-
ties; the organization of seminars, meet-
ings and workshops involving the local
community, and bilateral meetings with
potential project partners.
Concluding remarks
is study has made it possible to get a
rst procedure to improve with addi-
tional comparative research. An activity
07 | 07 | La struttura organizzativa della fondazione Amsterdam Smart City
The organizational structure of the Amsterdam Smart City foundation
ne di progetti che contribuiscano alla realizzazione della visione e al
raggiungimento degli obiettivi generali.
Per poter svolgere questa compito i referenti del team dovran-
no: stimolare la continua produzione di idee di progetto da parte
di soggetti interni o esterni all’organizzazione, evitando i rischi di
una visione eccessivamente top-down (Ratti and Townsend, 2011);
valutare e selezionare le idee migliori; organizzare le progettualità
selezionate in base alle priorità di intervento e alle disponibilità di
116 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
nanziamento; attivare continuamente nuove partnership con sog-
getti pubblici e privati; acquisire le risorse necessarie per lo sviluppo
dei progetti utilizzando una strategia nanziaria basata principal-
mente sull’utilizzo combinato di risorse pubbliche e private (Schaf-
fers et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2009); fornire supporto a tutti i gruppi
di lavoro impegnati nell’attuazione dei singoli progetti e coordinare
le loro attività; eseguire un monitoraggio generale delle attività in
corso; valutare i risultati conseguiti e monitorare i progressi; svolge-
re attività di comunicazione continuativa e promuovere la strategia
al ne di favorire l’attivazione di nuove partnership e l’acquisizione
di nuove risorse.
Fase 4: Monitoraggio e valutazione
Utilizzando la metodologia denita durante la fase di pianicazione,
il team di implementazione avvierà le attività legate al monitoraggio
dei progressi e alla valutazione dei risultati conseguiti con i vari pro-
getti. Inoltre, considerando che durante lo svolgimento della strate-
gia il contesto di intervento continuerà a cambiare nel tempo (Webb
et al., 2011), le fasi che la compongono non potranno mai essere
denitivamente chiuse. Al contrario, dovranno essere sottoposte a
un continuo processo di revisione e modica nalizzato a garantire
un costante miglioramento della strategia, e il suo adattamento a un
contesto in evoluzione.
Fase 5: Comunicazione
Inne, il team di implementazione dovrà garantire una continua dif-
fusione di dati e informazioni che descrivono la strategia, e promuo-
vere l’iniziativa in tutto il mondo, permettendo alla città di acquisire
visibilità e riconoscibilità in ambito Smart City. Pertanto sarà ne-
cessario sostenere: la costante produzione di documenti informativi
(ad esempio, comunicati stampa, news, newsletter) e la loro diu-
sione capillare attraverso l’utilizzo di piattaforme digitali apposita-
mente costruite o esistenti; lorganizzazione di eventi congressuali
di rilevanza nazionale o internazionale; la partecipazione a eventi
congressuali organizzati da altri soggetti; lo svolgimento di semina-
ri, meeting e workshop per avvicinare la comunità locale, e incontri
bilaterali con potenziali partner di progetto.
Grazie a questo studio è stato
possibile ottenere una prima pro-
cedura da perfezionare con ulteriori ricerche comparative. Un’atti-
vità indispensabile per eliminare i limiti indotti dall’utilizzo di un
numero esiguo di casi e garantire la sua progressiva trasformazione
in un approccio olistico da applicare in contesti di vita reale. Tutta-
via, questo non è l’unico risultato che è stato conseguito. Lanalisi ha
anche permesso di confermare che l’integrazione delle TIC nei con-
testi urbani è molto più di una questione tecnologica (Aurigi, 2005;
2006; Graham and Marvin, 1999; Graham, 2000). Considerando le
strategie proposte in entrambi i casi, è possibile aermare che le città
intenzionate a lavorare in ambito Smart City devono procedere con
cautela e adottare un approccio che guarda oltre la tecnologia e ri-
volge la propria attenzione anche ad altri fattori di diversa natura ma
di uguale importanza. Fattori umani meno discussi nella letteratura
scientica, come ad esempio: la leadership e il sostegno politico; la
collaborazione fra organizzazioni provenienti da settori dierenti e
cittadini (Public-Private-People Partnership); una visione di lungo
periodo e obiettivi specici; la comunicazione e la promozione; il
modello di governance; la disponibilità di risorse nanziarie; la ca-
pacità di selezionare la giusta combinazione di progetti da sviluppa-
re nel medio-breve termine (Fig. 8).
Per poter gestire questo scenario estremamente complesso, le cit-
tà di Barcellona e Amsterdam hanno adottato un approccio forte-
which is indispensable to remove the
limits incurred by using a small num-
ber of cases and ensure the progressive
construction of an explicit and holistic
approach which can be applied in real-
life contexts. Furthermore, the analysis
has also conrmed that the integration
of information and communication
technologies in urban areas is much
more than a technological matter (Au-
rigi, 2005; 2006; Graham and Marvin,
1999; Graham, 2000). Considering the
strategies of Amsterdam and Barcelona,
it is evident that cities aspiring to be-
come smart should proceed with cau-
tion and adopt an approach that looks
beyond technology to consider other
non-technical but yet crucial factors.
Human factors that are less discussed
in scholarly literature, such as: leader-
ship and political commitment; col-
laboration between organizations from
various sectors and citizens (Public-Pri-
vate-People Partnership); a long-term
general overview and specic objec-
tives; communication and promotion;
the availability of nancial resources;
and the capability to select the right
combination of projects to develop in
the short and medium term (Fig. 8).
An extremely complex scenario that
both cities have managed with an ap-
proach strongly geared towards strate-
gic urban planning principles. Strategic
planning is a systematic and iterative
decision-making process with which
a community organizes itself in the
present to achieve a desired future
(Albrechts, 2005; Fera, 2005). It al-
lows «to govern urban and territorial
transformations in the current context
of rapid changes» (Blecic et al., 2011).
is approach is used to tackle chal-
lenges of a very diverse nature and has
demonstrated its eectiveness either in
the business context or in managing cit-
Riessioni conclusive
08 | Effetto iceberg: il rischio di considerare la tecnologia come fattore dominante nello
sviluppo di strategie Smart City
Iceberg effect: the risk to consider technology as the most important factor in the
development of smart city strategies
08 |
117 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
mente orientato ai principi della pianicazione strategica urbana.
La pianicazione strategica è un processo iterativo e sistemico di
supporto alle decisioni con cui una comunità si organizza al pre-
sente per raggiungere un futuro desiderato (Albrechts, 2005; Fera,
2005), e permette di governare trasformazioni urbane e territoriali
complesse in un contesto caratterizzato da continui e rapidi cam-
biamenti (Blecic et al., 2011). Questo approccio viene già utilizza-
to per arontare sde di diverso tipo, sia in ambito aziendale che
urbano, e ha dimostrato ormai da tempo la sua ecacia (Bryson,
1988; Clark et al., 2010; Santucci et al., 2011). Tuttavia, se associato
al tema della gestione delle tecnologie digitali in contesti urbanizza-
ti, rappresenta un tema relativamente nuovo e poco discusso. Una
grave lacuna considerando che la pianicazione strategica sembra
essere uno strumento estremamente adatto per governare lo svi-
luppo di strategie Smart City. Un’ipotesi supportata non solo dai
risultati appena conseguiti, ma anche delle ricerche svolte da Kom-
ninos (2014), che dopo aver studiato questo specico ambito della
conoscenza per più di vent’anni, può essere considerato senza alcun
dubbio uno dei maggiori esperti a livello internazionale.
Per questo motivo, l’analisi del rapporto che lega pianicazione stra-
tegica urbana e Smart City dovrà essere considerata con maggiore
attenzione nel prossimo futuro. Dall’esplorazione di questa nuova
area di ricerca potrebbe emergere la conoscenza necessaria per ca-
pire come arontare la rigenerazione di aree urbane utilizzando gli
strumenti oerti dall’era digitale. Una conoscenza utile ad aprire un
mercato molto promettente associato alla progettazione di strategie
Smart City, dove un crescente numero di amministrazioni comu-
nali sta aspettando una nuova generazione di processi, protocolli e
linee guida. Ma soprattutto, un mercato di notevole interesse per
l’Area della Tecnologia dell’Architettura, che può fornire un con-
tributo determinante alla sua nascita e crescita. Con particolare
riferimento alla disciplina della progettazione ambientale, in cui è
evidente una forte propensione per lo sviluppo e la sperimentazio-
ne di modelli e approcci innovativi che permettano di governare
processi decisionali e trasformazioni complesse sia a livello urbano
che territoriale (Schiaonati et al., 2011).
In questo specico contesto, alcune importanti esperienze che pos-
sono essere citate sono: la costruzione dei piani strategici per l’area
vasta novarese (Gambaro; 2010; Mussinelli, 2008) e per i Comuni
di Marsala e Mazara del Vallo (Mussinelli and Tartaglia, 2012; Tar-
taglia et al., 2012); le attività che hanno consentito di denire le pro-
poste progettuali necessarie per sostenere lo sviluppo del Distretto
Culturale DOMInUS (Oltrepò Mantovano per l’Innovazione l’Uni-
cità e lo Sviluppo) e del Distretto Culturale Le Regge dei Gonzaga,
entrambi nanziati da Fondazione Cariplo (Fanzini and Nicolis,
2012; Fanzini et al., 2014); l’elaborazione dei piani di marketing
territoriale sia per l’Area Morenica Mantovana (Schiaonati et al.,
2005) che per l’Area dell’Oltrepò Mantovano (Casoni et al., 2008);
e inne, le ricerche associate alla gestione strategica del processo di
sviluppo dell’ecomuseo (Riva, 2008). Tutte queste esperienze hanno
permesso di riettere in modo critico e di maturare una ingente
conoscenza a proposito di metodi e dispositivi pianicatori, pro-
grammatici e operativi che garantiscono una corretta gestione delle
problematiche e delle trasformazioni del territorio. Inoltre, sono di-
ventate «realtà sperimentali e innovative alle quali la ricerca d’Area
Tecnologica ha apportato e apporta contributi di indubbia rilevan-
za e originalità» (Schiaonati et al., 2011). Considerando il tema
Smart City, la sda da arontare sarà trasferire questa conoscenza e
questo approccio alla ricerca all’interno di un nuovo ed emergente
ambito tematico.
ies and urban territories (Bryson, 1988;
Clark et al., 2010; Santucci et al., 2011).
However, if linked to the eld of smart
cities, it represents a relatively new topic
that has received little attention. A se-
rious knowledge gap considering that
strategic planning seems to be a suitable
tool when used in the development of
smart city strategies. An assertion sup-
ported by the results achieved and re-
search carried out by Komninos (2014).
For this reason, the analysis of the re-
lationship between strategic urban
planning and smart cities will require
further attention in the near future. e
exploration of this research area can
provide the knowledge necessary for
understanding how to face the regener-
ation of urban areas using the resources
oered by the digital era. A knowledge
useful to open a promising market as-
sociated with the design of smart city
strategies, where an increasing number
of municipal administrations are wait-
ing for a new generation of processes,
procedures and guidelines. But above
all, a market of signicant interest for
the area of architectural technology,
which can have a crucial role to play in
its birth and growth. With particular
reference to the discipline of environ-
mental design, in which it is evident a
strong interest in the development and
experimentation of new approaches
and methods for governing complex
decision-making processes and trans-
formations in urban environments
(Schiaonati et al., 2011).
In this specic context, some signi-
cant research activities that can be cited
are: the construction of the strategic
plans for the broader region of Novara
(Gambaro; 2010; Mussinelli, 2008) and
the towns of Marsala and Mazara del
Vallo (Mussinelli and Tartaglia, 2012;
Tartaglia et al., 2012); the denition of
the project proposals for supporting the
development of the Cultural Districts
DOMInUS” and the Cultural District
Le Regge dei Gonzaga, both founded
by the Italian bank foundation called
Cariplo (Fanzini and Nicolis, 2012;
Fanzini et al., 2014); the production of
two territorial marketing plans (Schiaf-
fonati et al., 2005; Casoni et al., 2008);
and nally, research concerning the
development processes of ecomuse-
ums (Riva, 2008). ese activities have
enabled to reect critically and acquire
in-depth knowledge on methods, tools
and processes used for ensuring the
correct management of urban issues
and transformations. Moreover, they
represent innovative and experimental
realities in which research conducted
in the eld of architectural technology
has made and will make original and
creative contributions (Schiaonati et
al., 2011).
Considering the eld of smart cities, the
challenge will be to transfer this knowl-
edge and this approach to research
within a new and emergent thematic
area.
NOTES
1 e smart city concept appeared for
the rst time in a scientic document
in 1992 (Komninos, 2011), but a shared
denition able to explain its meaning is
still missing. e interpretation provid-
ed in this study results from a compara-
tive analysis of the many denitions
which have been proposed over the
years. is activity has made it possible
to obtain a common orientation. e
denitions considered are collected in
the publications produced by Chourabi
et al. (2012), Nam and Pardo (2011a;
2011b) and Reviglio et al. (2013).«e
idea that ICT is central to the operation
of the future city» remains constant in
118 TECHNE 10 2015
R. Bolici, L. Mora
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1 La comparsa del concetto di Smart City in un testo scientico risale al
1992 (Komninos, 2011), ma continua a mancare una denizione comune
e condivisa in grado di spiegare il suo signicato. L’interpretazione fornita
in questo studio deriva da una lettura comparativa delle tante denizioni
che sono state proposte nel tempo. Un’attività che ha permesso di ricavare
un possibile orientamento comune. Le denizioni considerate sono state
schedate nelle pubblicazioni prodotte da Chourabi et al. (2012), Nam and
Pardo (2011a; 2011b), e Reviglio et al. (2013). Il confronto dimostra che il
ruolo centrale delle tecnologie informatiche nella costruzione della città fu-
tura viene esplicitato in tutti i casi (Batty et al., 2012). Nello specico, le TIC
vengono identicate come potenziale strumento per risolvere problemi che
limitano lo sviluppo di territori urbanizzati e migliorare le loro condizioni
siche, socio-economiche e ambientali (Alawadhi et al., 2012; Manville et
al., 2014).
2 Questo studio nasce dalla volontà dell’Unità di Ricerca “Governance, pro-
getto e valorizzazione dell’ambiente costruito” del Politecnico di Milano di
esplorare una nuova ed emergente area di ricerca, e capire i possibili colle-
gamenti con l’Area Tecnologica.
3 In questo studio vengono considerate città di grandi dimensioni tutte le
aree urbane con una popolazione compresa fra 500.000 e 1,5 milioni di abi-
tanti. Una denizione in linea con il sistema di classicazione delle aree ur-
banizzate proposto dall’OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development) (Brezzi et al., 2012).
4 Nonostante le dierenze di contesto, i dati dimostrano che le due città
hanno utilizzato un approccio analogo in termini strategici. Per maggiori
informazioni sui singoli processi di sviluppo è possibile consultare gli atti
dei convegni internazionali a cui sono stati presentati. Il 1st International
City Regeneration Congress (Re-City 2015) per il caso di Barcellona (Mora
and Bolici, 2015a), e l’International Conference on Smart and Sustainable
Planning for Cities and Regions 2015 di Bolzano per il caso di Amsterdam
(Mora and Bolici, 2015b).
Angelidou, M. (2014), “Smart city policies: a spatial approach, in Cities, Vo l .
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2 is study results from the desire
of the Research Group «Governance,
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4 Despite the dierent characteristics of
the two urban contexts, data show that
both cites have applied the same strate-
gic approach. Additional information
about each development process can be
found in two papers produced by Mora
and Bolici (2015a; 2015b), and present-
ed at the 1st International City Regen-
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during the International Conference on
Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cit-
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... This is unfortunate, because such a line of inquiry would allow us to identify the conditions that may enable or inhibit the success of smart city development. Scholars have identified that the gap between theoretical contributions and the sector-wide implementation of governance has to be bridged, and they therefore call for exploratory empirical research (e.g. Lee et al. 2014;Bolici and Mora 2015;Fernandez-Anez et al. 2018). ...
... A possible reason for this change in the governance element over the evolution of the system may be that in an early phase more creativity and innovation is required to start up and design the smart city, whilst during the growth phase governance becomes more and more complex, as additional partners join and want to create and capture benefits for themselves. Interestingly, this finding contradicts findings of other smart city studies, which claim that initiators should exercise strong leadership, via goalsetting and performance measurement, from the start (Paskaleva 2009;Bolici and Mora 2015). Yet these studies also pose that leadership at the start is needed mostly to promote the initiative and to convince parties to collaborate (Paskaleva 2009;Bolici and Mora 2015), which corroborates with our findings. ...
... Interestingly, this finding contradicts findings of other smart city studies, which claim that initiators should exercise strong leadership, via goalsetting and performance measurement, from the start (Paskaleva 2009;Bolici and Mora 2015). Yet these studies also pose that leadership at the start is needed mostly to promote the initiative and to convince parties to collaborate (Paskaleva 2009;Bolici and Mora 2015), which corroborates with our findings. Transformational leadership is likely to be most suited for activities such as strengthening internal relationships. ...
Article
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... ii. Smart city strategy As suggested by Bolici and Mora (2015), long-term vision and objectives in smart city strategic plans are progressively achieved through the ongoing implementation of local projects and initiatives. The location, scale and approach of the smart city as discussed in Section 4.1 relates to a spectrum of development from large precinct planning to small area-based projects (Angelidou, 2014). ...
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The smart city concept has emerged as an attractive label to address pressing issues of global urbanization and combat the critical challenges to attain sustainable development. Sustainability is still often conceived through a green environmental lens, but any change in the built environment also has implications for the social environment. Social sustainability is a dynamic concept that combines design of the physical realm with design of the social world and promotes infrastructure to support social needs and concerns. While smart cities primarily aim at enhancing performance through innovative use of digital data and technology, a social sustainability perspective stresses the critical interconnections between people and place. Through a critical systematic literature review, this paper establishes a dialogue between the smart city and social sustainability. It evaluates the smart city concept through a social sustainability lens within a built environment paradigm. A multi-stage conceptual framework is advanced around notions of place, identification of core social sustainability themes and related factors, and sensitivity to broader policy and detailed implementation scales. The framework provides guidance for further studying both the social objectives and outcomes of smart city policies.
... Sejak awal 1990-an, Amsterdam telah dikenal pasti menuju ke arah pembangunan pintar (Bolici & Mora 2015). Amsterdam adalah manifestasi peralihan daripada pemikiran TDM kepada pemikiran HDM, dengan mengambil pendekatan bottom-up, strategi holistik dan melalui model quadruple-helix pemegang taruh bandar (Starke 2017). ...
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Buku ini ditulis berasaskan epistemologi pasca materialis dengan hakikat (ontologi) bahawa landasan kemunculan bandar pintar bertitik tolak daripada budaya kebendaan teknologi termaju seperti teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi (ICT). Namun begitu sebagai pemikir pasca materialis metode pemahaman terhadap pembangunan bandar pintar lebih jauh daripada itu. Pembangunan bandar pintar tidak semestinya dilihat dari sudut perancangan ICT semata-mata, tetapi juga dilihat kepada yang lebih inklusif, komprehensif, kolaboratif dan simbiosis dengan kehidupan manusia yang sebenar. Justeru, Pembangunan bandar pintar berpusatkan rakyat (citizen-centrict Smart City) perlu diketengahkan dalam kerancakan budaya material bandar pintar di peringkat global, serantau dan lokal. Perkembangan mutakhir, pembangunan bandar pintar (smart city) semakin popular dan didominasi oleh teknologi termaju di bawah Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) seperti kecerdasan pintar dan IoT. Di bawah arus perbandaran pintar tekno-utopianisme 4IR tersebut, pihak berkepentingan dan berkuasa nampaknya lebih cenderung mengadakan usaha sama dengan sektor korporat teknologi termaju demi mencapai visi dan misi pentadbiran mereka. Namun, di pihak rakyat dan pihak awam seperti diabaikan malah penglibatan, kerjasama dan peranan mereka tidak begitu menonjol. Demi menyedarkan pihak berkepentingan tentang perlunya peranan rakyat dan pihak awam dalam kemajuan bandar pintar, buku ini mengemukakan satu alternatif nilai (axiologi) pemikiran humanisme yang menekan konsep ‘berpusatkan rakyat’ dalam pembangunan bandar pintar. Konsep berpusatkan rakyat ini adalah bertepatan dengan visi Wawasan Kemakmuran Bersama 2030 dalam menekankan aspek keterangkuman, iaitu kefahaman, jenis dan proses penglibatan, serta peranan dan sikap rakyat berkenaan. Model bandar pintar berpusatkan rakyat yang dikemukakan dalam buku ini menekankan elemen pintar insan, tadbir urus yang wajar dan unik. Berbeza dengan model bandar pintar yang bertunjang teknologi termaju. Selain itu, buku ini dapat membuka minda awam kepada pemikiran ‘bersama rakyat’ demi merealisasikan budaya muafakat dalam hal membangunkan bandar pintar.
... In recent years, scholars and professionals have been publishing large number of literature on various aspects of Smart Cities. While some (Albino et al. 2015;Hollands 2008;Mora and Bolici 2017) worked on basic concepts and definition of Smart City, others (Angelidou 2014(Angelidou , 2016Bolici and Mora 2015) concentrated on policies and strategies. Angelidou (2017), Van Winden and Van den Buuse (2017) did a detailed study on characteristics, dimensions and conditions of a Smart City. ...
Chapter
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... In recent years, scholars and professionals have been publishing large number of literature on various aspects of Smart Cities. While some (Albino et al. 2015;Hollands 2008;Mora and Bolici 2017) worked on basic concepts and definition of Smart City, others (Angelidou 2014(Angelidou , 2016Bolici and Mora 2015) concentrated on policies and strategies. Angelidou (2017), Van Winden and Van den Buuse (2017) did a detailed study on characteristics, dimensions and conditions of a Smart City. ...
Chapter
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... Many studies such as [6,7,[13][14][15][26][27][28][29] discuss the differences in the top-down/bottom-up smart city planning. ...
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... Significantly, both smart city planning theory and practice have failed -to a certain extent -to integrate the smart city vision into a sustainable urban development framework. Such a framework would adopt longterm, strategic, and visionary goals about future development under the influence of advanced technologies ( Bolici and Mora, 2015;Papa et al., 2013). Current smart cities are characterised by one-size-fits-all visions and approaches, failing to consider the unique spatial, social, economic, environmental, and cultural context in which they take place (Kitchin, 2015). ...
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