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Sports Nutrition Advice for Adolescent Athletes: A Time to Focus on Food



Adolescents participating in sport have high demands for nutritional adequacy to meet their needs for growth, development, wellness and athletics. Nutritional risk can be quite high in this population due to their unique needs, low access to credible information and nutrition professionals, and misinformation in the media and marketplace specifically targeting athletes. Physicians and other health professionals have an opportunity to communicate nutrition facts and make evidence-based recommendations about healthy eating in the setting of their ongoing interactions with adolescent athletes and their families. The purpose of this review is to describe the nutritional needs of adolescents participating in sport and highlight the potential for nutritional risk. Endorsed by professional organizations, our recommendations emphasize a balanced eating pattern that includes a wide variety of fresh, minimally processed whole foods. Our approach is to empower and teach adolescents to take responsibility for planning, preparing, and providing themselves consistent access to foods and fluids that deliver nutrients needed for proper fueling and recovery. Specific talking points that health professionals can use in brief interactions with patients and families are provided to endorse key behavioral strategies that young athletes can adopt to achieve peak athletic performance and optimal nutritional status.
Nov Dec 2015American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Mary Ellen Bingham, MS, RD, CSSD, Mimi E. Borkan,
and Paula A. Quatromoni, DSc, RD
Abstract: Adolescents participating
in sport have high demands for
nutritional adequacy to meet their
needs for growth, development, wellness
and athletics. Nutritional risk can
be quite high in this population due
to their unique needs, low access to
credible information and nutrition
professionals, and misinformation in
the media and marketplace specifically
targeting athletes. Physicians and other
health professionals have an opportunity
to communicate nutrition facts and
make evidence-based recommendations
about healthy eating in the setting
of their ongoing interactions with
adolescent athletes and their families.
The purpose of this review is to describe
the nutritional needs of adolescents
participating in sport and highlight
the potential for nutritional risk.
Endorsed by professional organizations,
our recommendations emphasize a
balanced eating pattern that includes
a wide variety of fresh, minimally
processed whole foods. Our approach
is to empower and teach adolescents
to take responsibility for planning,
preparing, and providing themselves
consistent access to foods and fluids
that deliver nutrients needed for proper
fueling and recovery. Specific talking
points that health professionals can use
in brief interactions with patients and
families are provided to endorse key
behavioral strategies that young athletes
can adopt to achieve peak athletic
performance and optimal nutritional
Keywords: nutrition; adolescent;
sports; RED-S; disordered eating
Sports Nutrition for
Nutrition advice for adolescent athletes
has, at its foundation, the principles of
sound nutrition focused on adequacy to
support the adolescent’s needs for
growth and development in addition to
increased needs for training and
performance in sport. This advice is
built on the US Dietary Guidelines,1
which promote a nutritionally balanced
eating pattern containing a daily variety
of nutrient-dense foods. Before bringing
sport-specific advice into the
conversation, the building blocks of
healthy eating and nutritional adequacy
must be in place. Although athletes
certainly have enhanced and often
unique nutritional needs that are
specific to their sport and their training
regimens, proper nutrition to support
adolescent growth is necessary at the
core of any strategy to improve sports
performance. Because of their distinct
needs and transitional life stage,
adolescent athletes are vulnerable to
nutritional risk, fad diets, disordered
598530AJLXXX10.1177/1559827615598530American Journal of Lifestyle MedicineAmerican Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Sports Nutrition Advice for
Adolescent Athletes: A Time to
Focus on Food
Before bringing sport-specific advice
into the conversation, the building
blocks of healthy eating and
nutritional adequacy must be in
DOI: 10.1177/1559827615598530. Manuscript received July 1, 2015; accepted July 6, 2015. From Miami Dolphins, Miami, Florida (MEB); University of New Hampshire,
Durham, New Hampshire (ME Borkan); and the Department of Health Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (PAQ). Address correspondence to: Paula A.
Quatromoni, DSc, RD, Department of Health Sciences, Boston University, 635 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215; e-mail:
For reprints and permissions queries, please visit SAGE’s Web site at
Copyright © 2015 The Author(s)
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vol. 9 no. 6 American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
eating, and marketing scams for
nutritional products that promise fast
results or improved performance despite
the lack of an evidence base behind
most claims.
For athletes, there are no shortcuts or
substitutes for proper nutrition for
optimal performance in sport.
Supplements and functional foods will
never overcome the deficits of poor
nutrition for an athlete. The needs of
adolescent athletes are different from the
needs of adults and professional athletes,
and the needs of competitive athletes are
different from those of recreational
athletes. Athletes in power sports have
needs that are different from those in
endurance sports and from those of
sprinters. Even within a sport, field
players have different needs from
goalies, and swimmers have different
needs from divers.2,3 Delving into these
sport-specific nuances is beyond the
scope of this review, but there are
several books written by registered
dietitians (RDs) to guide athletes and
practitioners more specifically.4-8
Nonetheless, the common goal for every
athlete is to achieve healthy eating
behaviors centered on nutrient-dense
and varied food choices, adequate
hydration, dietary patterns that feature
balanced meals and snacks to properly
fuel training and competition and to
enhance recovery, and intuitive eating
behaviors that connect mind, body, and
performance for the most successful
Whereas functional foods or
nutritional supplements may be
indicated for certain individuals under
certain circumstances and under the
supervision of a RD and/or physician,
they do not form the basis of sports
nutrition, and they are not generally
recommended for adolescent athletes.9-13
A diet based on fresh and minimally
processed whole foods is what is
advocated by professional organizations,
including the Academy of Nutrition and
Dietetics and the American College of
Sports Medicine.10-12 For athletes whose
goals include weight management or
altering body composition to either
build muscle mass or lose body fat or
for athletes who have developed
disordered eating or clinical eating
disorders, referral to an RD is
recommended. In all cases, we
specifically recommend a nondiet
approach to sports nutrition14 that is
weight neutral and centered on
respecting body shape and size
diversity,15 promoting a holistic
approach to achieve wellness and
athletic goals, and that is grounded in
eating competence16 and intuitive,
mindful eating.17,18
Healthy Eating Advice
for Adolescent Athletes
The nutritional well-being of athletes
depends on knowledgeable food
choices. In fact, because of their special
needs for proper fueling and hydration,
athletes are faced with several
opportunities demanding well-informed
food choices every day, at every meal.
Yet many adolescent athletes pay little
attention to nutrition and largely
underappreciate their protein and
calorie needs, whereas others are
influenced by dieting advice, functional
foods/supplements marketed to athletes,
and the desire to achieve either a
competitive edge or an idealized athletic
body type. With the help of a qualified
sports nutritionist, athletes can learn to
meet their nutritional needs with a
flexible eating style that balances
favorite foods with nutrient-rich foods to
satisfy hunger, fuel workouts, maximize
performance, and promote both
physical health and emotional wellness.
Athletes need a varied and balanced
eating plan that is adequate in energy,
macronutrients, essential fatty acids, fiber,
vitamins, and minerals. Although there are
professional recommendations that guide
the appropriate selection of foods and
fluids for athletes, the timing of nutrient
and fluid intake relative to exercise and
competition, and supplement choices for
optimal health and sports
performance,10-12 the underlying principles
of sound nutrition for health promotion in
the general adolescent population form
the foundation of dietary advice for those
who participate in sports. The eating
pattern that is recommended is one that
allows growth, development, and
maturation of youths and adolescents19,20
and maintenance of a healthy body
weight.10-12 These nutritional goals can be
met by including a predominance of plant
foods in the daily diet, specifically fruits,
vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts,
seeds and unsaturated vegetable oils;
inclusion of lean animal proteins,
specifically low-fat dairy foods that
provide vitamin D and calcium, fish,
poultry, and iron-rich lean meats; and
moderation of foods high in saturated or
trans fats, sodium, and added sugars. In
general, no vitamin and mineral
supplements are required if an athlete is
meeting energy needs by eating a
balanced diet containing a variety of
whole foods and is maintaining body
To meet such high nutritional needs,
athletes need to fuel their bodies
frequently throughout the day. This
involves a daily commitment to 3 meals
and frequent snacks strategically
placed before and after workouts,
practice, and competition. This level of
commitment requires adolescent
athletes to prioritize nutrition and
feeding themselves, taking personal
responsibility for ensuring ready access
to nutritious foods, snacks, and fluids.
Selection of foods that are nutrient
dense, easily digested, and well
tolerated are equally high priorities.
Nutritional Risk in
Adolescent Athletes
Athletes participating in different sports
have unique nutritional needs because of
differences in energy expenditure,
hydration, and the demands of the sport.
Challenges and obstacles to good
nutrition are also distinct within
subgroups of athletes. Eating behavior is
highly personal, yet heavily influenced
by environment and important others,
including peers, teammates, professional
athletes, coaches, celebrities, and the
media. As such, unhealthy behaviors and
nutrition misinformation can set an
athlete on a path that could undermine
athletic performance, contribute to sports
injuries, and have serious health
consequences. These circumstances
introduce vulnerability to nutritional risk
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Nov Dec 2015American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
that spans a spectrum and can include
dieting, restrictive eating, disordered
eating (anorexia nervosa, bulimia
nervosa, binge eating disorder, anorexia
athletica, and orthorexia nervosa),
misuse of nutritional supplements,
“uninformed” vegetarianism, and a
variety of unhealthy weight-cutting
practices that can sabotage athletic
Adolescent athletes are quite vulnerable
to the ill effects of suboptimal nutrition.
Not only is their performance in sport
threatened, but their growth,
development, and maturation can be
impaired by poor nutrition. Among the
special issues that physicians caring for
adolescent athletes are urged to address
are nutritional needs and supplement
use. While focusing on achieving healthy
body weights and avoiding use of
supplements and ergogenic aids, a 2008
consensus statement for team physicians
made a clear recommendation to
emphasize health and performance over
weight goals and to understand the
impact of pathological weight behaviors
on adolescent growth and development.13
Three major concerns are iron
deficiency anemia, compromised bone
health, and disordered eating/eating
disorders. A well-described combination
of risk factors known as the female
athlete triad consists of inadequate food
intake, amenorrhea, and reduced bone
mineral density.21,22 This triad poses a
specific threat to athletes in both the
short and long term because the
opportunity to reach peak bone mass
can be negatively affected by poor
nutrition during adolescence. In an
updated definition acknowledging that
male athletes are similarly affected, the
triad was described as one piece of a
more comprehensive syndrome called
RED-S (Relative Energy Deficiency in
Sport). RED-S consists of “impaired
physiological function including, but not
limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual
function (in females), bone health,
immunity, protein synthesis, and
cardiovascular health caused by relative
energy deficiency” (p. 491) where an
imbalance occurs between dietary
energy intake and energy expenditure
required to sustain homeostasis, health
and activities of daily living, growth,
and supporting activities.23 The resulting
package of low energy availability,
disordered eating behavior, and
pathological weight control measures
that may include starvation, excessive
exercising, purging, or laxative abuse,
often driven by body image
dysmorphia, results in hormonal and
metabolic imbalances, serious medical
complications, sports injuries, and
impaired athletic performance.24
Adolescent athletes are vulnerable to
the pressures of competitive sports and
the demands of physical training on
their still-developing bodies as well as
the influence of coaches, teammates,
peers, parents, society, culture, and the
media. There is tremendous pressure,
for example, exerted by society and the
media that idolizes thinness and an
ideal body image—one that is far
different from the average adolescent
athlete’s body size or shape. This is not
only an issue for female athletes who
perceive the need to diet, but also for
male athletes who are faced with the
challenge of developing “abs of steel.”
Adolescents do not necessarily have
the nutrition knowledge to practice
sports nutrition, nor do coaches who
most typically coach at the middle
school or high school level. Taken
together, there is tremendous potential
for misinformation and pressure for
dieting behavior or supplement use.
The risk for disordered eating and
eating disorders is high in the
adolescent athlete population.25,26
Role of Physicians
and Other Health
For nutrition advice to be adopted and
sustained by adolescents, it must be food
based, practical, achievable, and
personally relevant. Yet sports nutrition
guidelines are oftentimes nutrient based,
framed in technical terms involving
mathematical equations, and highly sport
specific, leaving athletes confused and
misinformed, unable to translate the
advice to their own personal needs and
vulnerable to adverse outcomes. The role
of the nutrition professional in sport is to
successfully translate these guidelines
from nutrients to foods, and from science
to practice.
Recognizing nutritional risk and
making referrals to RDs is essential for
those in need of nutrition assessment
and counseling. This task is a priority for
physicians and other health
professionals who work with adolescent
athletes. In addition, having proactive
conversations with youths and families
to share evidence-based advice about
healthy eating is a strategy that can
promote wellness, prevent injury, and
help athletes achieve their goals in sport.
Appropriate messages that physicians
and other health professionals can
convey in brief interactions to endorse
healthy habits for adolescent athletes are
summarized below. In general, strategies
that promote positive and empowering
messages that encourage adolescents to
take responsibility for feeding
themselves and to focus on foods to
include to maximize nutrition, rather
than focusing on foods to restrict or
avoid, are recommended.
Fill your plate with fresh food:
Reflect on your food choices and
consider how many of the things
you eat come from packages that
you simply tear open and eat, or
heat and eat. For good health
and sports performance, it is time
to shift the balance to include
real foods like fresh fruits, fresh
vegetables, nuts, beans, dairy,
lean meats, chicken and fish, and
minimally processed whole grain
foods in your daily diet. Fuel
your body with food, not with
supplements and energy drinks
or other sports products that
masquerade as food.
Eat to compete: Athletes need to eat
breakfast, lunch, and dinner with
snacks in between to be properly
fueled for performance. Skipping
meals is not a strategy for success.
Break your overnight fast
(“breakfast”) with a balanced
meal. Follow this simple meal-
building strategy to create
balanced meals including these
key components:
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Reload for rapid recovery: Exercise
creates muscle breakdown, so it is
important to refuel your body
within 30 minutes after practice or
a competition to promote muscle
repair. Best choices for recovery
nutrition are those that provide a
combination of fluid, electrolytes,
carbohydrates, and protein. Try
chocolate milk or yogurt, a mini
bagel with peanut butter and an
apple, or homemade trail mix of
nuts, dried fruit, and whole grain
cereal along with recovery fluids.
Hydrate: Under most circumstances,
water is the only sports hydration
you need, especially if you are
fueling yourself by eating a variety
of healthy foods throughout the
Color your plate: Different-colored
foods have different nutrients.
Getting several colors onto your
plate at every meal or snack
delivers more nutrition to your
body. Do not just “eat white” by
loading your plate with white rice,
chicken, and cheese. Add color by
adding tomato salsa, black or
brown beans, and grilled
vegetables like peppers and
Plan ahead: Good nutrition does not
just happen. It involves some
work and advance planning. It
requires access to healthy choices
and hydration. Just like you pack
up your sports gear, pack snacks
like fruit, string cheese, whole
grain crackers, nuts, or granola
bars into your bag for long bus
rides so you do not miss the
recovery nutrition window
needed to fuel your body after
the game.
Change it up: Peak performance
requires athletes to be well
nourished, uninjured, fit, focused,
and ready to compete. Sports
nutrition is not just about calories
to achieve weight or body
composition goals; nor is it all
about protein for muscles or
carbohydrates for fuel. It is also
about micronutrients like iron to
avoid anemia, calcium and vitamin
D for bone health, and other
vitamins, minerals, and
antioxidants for wellness,
immunity, and recovery from
injury or surgery. Eating an
adequate variety of nutritious
whole foods is your best strategy
to achieve these goals.
Ask for help: Disordered eating and
eating disorders are more common
than you might think.
Furthermore, amenorrhea in
female athletes is not normal and
is one of several clues, along with
weight loss or underweight status,
that food intake is insufficient
compared to the energy demands
of training for sport on top of
adolescent growth needs. It is
important to address these
warning signs of nutritional risk,
and help is available to get you
back on track. If you are having
difficulty feeding yourself or
maintaining weight in a healthy
range, seek help from a physician,
qualified health professional, and/
or registered dietitian.
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... Organized sports provide many physical, mental and cognitive benefits to young people, however adolescent athletes have very high nutritional requirements, as a result of intensive daily training in addition to their energy and nutrients needs for growth and development [4]. Adolescents who participate in sports have higher nutritional demands than their non-athletes peers of the same age, in order to meet at the same time their needs for growth and wellness, as well as for optimal sports performance [4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... Adolescent athletes are more vulnerable than adult athletes to the physical consequences of disordered eating attitudes, due to their high energy and nutrient requirements [4,5]. Their sport performance is compromised, but also normal growth, development and maturation may be impaired [5,40,42]. ...
... Adolescent athletes are more vulnerable than adult athletes to the physical consequences of disordered eating attitudes, due to their high energy and nutrient requirements [4,5]. Their sport performance is compromised, but also normal growth, development and maturation may be impaired [5,40,42]. ...
Full-text available
In their attempt to achieve the optimum weight or body shape for their activity, athletes frequently use harmful weight-control practices that may lead to the development of disordered eating or eating disorders. These practices are linked to several medical and mental consequences that may be more serious in adolescent athletes, as their bodies must meet both intensive growth demands and training requirements at the same time. Among other consequences, adolescent ath- letes may be at nutritional risk, due to their high nutrient needs and unhealthy eating behaviors. A literature review was conducted to examine the main nutritional risks and malnutrition issues faced by adolescent athletes that present disordered eating attitudes or eating disorders. Most studies re- fer to adult elite athletes, however research on adolescent athletes also indicates that the most com- mon nutritional risks that may arise due to disordered eating include energy, dehydration and electrolyte imbalances and Educational pro- grams and early detection of disordered eating and eating disorders are crucial to avoid the emer- gence and ensure timely management of nutrition-related problems in the vulnerable group of ad- olescent athletes.
... It is possible to observe performance enhancement (e.g., ergogenic aids) and injury prevention technologies and paradigms being promoted and acclaimed in the media and digital channels, with or without proper scientific support. Although modern players are more aware of the different dimensions of performance support, they are also more vulnerable to "noise" (disseminated primarily via unqualified social media) around performance optimization, with greater susceptibility in young and adult players [100][101][102]. This deliberate or inadvertent dis/misinformation in a fast-moving, result-dependent environment can make less informed players and practitioners open to persuasion by the advertisement of those who gain a commercial benefit (e.g., social media influencers and manufacturers resulting in inappropriate or inadequate Situational Awareness transactions) [28,102,103]. ...
... limited interpretation of automated feedbacks) to the player concerning input from other human sources? Furthermore, we should not exclude the possibility of someone from the players' staff acting outside his scope of practice (e.g., nutritional and/or sleep advice provided by a non-nutritionist or a non-sleep specialist) [100]. Significantly, supplementation, without a nutrient deficiency, may negatively impact a player's performance and health [103,107]. ...
Full-text available
The increase in the economic value of soccer occurred in parallel with an increase in competing demands. Therefore, clubs and federations evolved to greater specialization (e.g., state-of-the-art facilities and high-profile expertise staff) to support players’ performance and health. Currently, player preparation is far from exclusively club or national team centered, and the lack of control in each player’s environment can be more prevalent than expected. For example, an elite group of professional players faces disruptions in the season club-oriented planification due to involvement in national teams. Moreover, as elite players’ financial resources grow, it is common for them to employ specialized personal staff (e.g., strength and conditioning, nutritionist, and sports psychologist) to assist in their preparation, resulting in complex three-fold relationships (i.e., club, player’s staff, national team). Although efforts have been made to improve communication with and transition from the club to the national team supervision, this new reality (club-players’ staff) may generate serious compound role-related problems and difficulties in monitoring load and training adaptation and having a unified message. Therefore, efforts must be implemented to ensure a more informed management of the players’ performance environment, where the existence and impact of these various personal staff are considered to avoid a long-term non-zero sum for all intervening parties. If left unchecked, current professional thinking may collide or overlap, potentially triggering conflict escalation and impairing athletic performance or health, especially if effective communication routes are not adequately established. Moreover, diluted personal responsibility regarding performance may ensue, resulting in decreased productivity from all involved, which may cause more harm than benefits for the player’s overall health and performance. This emerging reality calls for developing a joint working framework (i.e., between the player’s personalized support team and the clubs’ team) and better managing of a player-centered process.
... Ethical issues arise with regard to supplement use in young athletes. Before considering supplements, the building blocks of a healthy, sport-specific nutrition should be in place (Bingham et al., 2015). Supplements may distort young athletes' focus and displace priorities (Burke & Cato, 2015). ...
... Furthermore, dietary supplements' effectiveness and potential long-term safety have not been rigorously studied in adolescent athletes (Desbrow et al., 2014;Guimarães et al., 2021). As a consequence, experts and sports organizations generally discourage dietary supplement use in young athletes, apart from the clinical use of medical supplements to treat deficiencies (Bingham et al., 2015;Burke & Cato, 2015;Desbrow et al., 2014;IOC, 2011;Maughan et al., 2007). ...
Compared with adult athletes, rather little is known about supplementation behavior in adolescent athletes. This study’s aim was to determine elite adolescent athletes’ supplement use and sources of information relating thereto. A total of 430 (87%) of 496 questioned athletes returned the anonymized questionnaire. Thereof, 84% consumed at least one weekly supplement and 97% indicated some supplement intake during the previous 4 weeks. On average, 13.3 supplement servings were consumed per week. The 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile was 4.5, 10.5, and 20.0 servings per week, with a maximum of 67. The most prevalent supplements in use were multimineral products (41% of all athletes), multivitamins (34%), Vitamin C (34%), and Vitamin D (33%). Male athletes consumed significantly more Vitamin C and D, sports drinks, protein powder, and recovery products compared with female athletes; whereas, women consumed more iron supplements. The three most important motives for supplement use were recovery support (40%), health maintenance (39%), and performance enhancement (30%). The most frequent answers to the question “who recommended that you use supplements” were family/friends (36%), a physician (27%), and a trainer/coach (25%). The main three information sources about the supplements in use were the persons who recommended the supplementation (56%), the internet (25%), and information provided by supplement suppliers (11%). A positive doping attitude was associated with the consumption of performance enhancing supplements ( p = .017). In conclusion, this study among elite adolescent Swiss athletes indicates a widespread and large-scale use of dietary supplements, which was associated with a low level of information quality.
... Despite having higher nutritional needs, adolescent athletes are vulnerable to dietary risks, including skipped meals, fad diets, eating disorders, and marketing claims for sports supplements that promise improved performance 18 . Effective nutritional education and counseling can help adolescent athletes choose varied nutrition-dense foods, help them to maintain proper hydration, and eat balanced meals and snacks 19 . ...
... Nutritional education for adolescent athletes should be based on principles of sound nutrition, including guidelines for appropriate nutrition in training and sports performance as well as nutrition for proper growth and development during adolescence 19 . Nutritional education programs for athletes should also be designed to enhance exercise performance, improve nutrient intake, and increase nutritional knowledge 33 . ...
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Purpose: Effective nutritional intervention can help reduce the risk of nutritional problems and improve athletic performance in adolescents. The five A's (assess, advise, agree, assist, and arrange) model is widely used as the theoretical framework for advice on nutrition, smoking, drinking, and physical activity and it recommends that practitioners in primary health care promote behavior change to facilitate positive outcomes. This model has also been useful in understanding the underlying processes of behavior change. This study aimed to develop both a novel evidence-based nutritional intervention protocol, rooted in sound nutritional theory, and a customizable nutritional intervention program to support sustainable healthy eating, enhance nutrient intake, and improve athletic performance in adolescent athletes. Methods: In this study, we adapted the 5 A's behavioral change model and motivational interview to develop a theoretical framework to help adolescent athletes change their behavior and achieve their goals. Results: During each step of the 5 A's protocol, a customized nutritional intervention protocol was developed by nutrition experts for each of adolescent athletes. Each plan was developed to improve the eating habits of adolescent athletes through group education and counseling. All nutritional counseling sessions were designed to enable participants to apply nutritional knowledge and practical action plans to their training and competition conditions to enable each of them to achieve individual athletic goals and facilitate self-management. Conclusion: A theoretical and evidence-based nutritional intervention protocol was developed to identify and address obstacles to healthy dietary habits in adolescent athletes. This could be used as the basis for further studies aimed at improving nutrient intake and athletic performance in adolescent athletes.
... Referral to dietitians for individualized nutritional counseling for every athlete that needs it is suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine [83]. Moreover, the need for nutritional counseling for adolescent athletes has been thoroughly mentioned, as this population group is considered nutritionally vulnerable due to both growth and training demands [40,84]. A registered dietitian could also diagnose disordered eating attitudes at an early stage and could advise athletes on how to maintain a healthy weight while avoiding the negative consequences of unhealthy dieting practices. ...
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This study examined the weight pressures within the gymnastics environment and explored associations between these pressures and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in adolescent female gymnasts. One hundred and forty-seven competitive gymnasts and 122 recreational-level gymnasts (11–17 years old) completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Weight-Pressures in Sport-Females (WPS-F), the Social Desirability Scale (SDS) and provided information on their training. It was found that 16.3% of competitive gymnasts and 7.4% of non-competitive gymnasts scored ≥20 in EAT-26, indicating disordered eating behavior. Competitive gymnasts scored higher than non-competitive in the total score of EAT-26 (p = 0.027), as well as in the total score of WPS-F, the sport and coaches weight pressures sub-scale and the appearance and performance weight pressures sub-scale (p < 0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated that sport and coaches weight pressures, appearance and performance weight pressures and body mass index accounted for 30.3% of the variance of EAT-26 in competitive gymnasts, while the appearance and performance weight pressures sub-scale accounted for 16.3% of the variance of EAT-26 in non-competitive gymnasts. Sport and coaches weight pressures are associated with ED in competitive gymnasts, while body appearance and performance demands correlate with ED in female gymnasts irrespective of competitive level.
... Meski memiliki kebutuhan gizi yang lebih tinggi, atlet remaja juga rentan mengalami masalah gizi, termasuk melewatkan waktu makan, fad diet, mengalami gangguan makan, dan mengkonsumsi suplemen olahraga yang menjanjikan peningkatan performa (Carl, Johnson, Martin, & AAP COUNCIL ON SPORTS MEDICINE AND FITNESS., 2017). Oleh karena itu, diperlukan edukasi dan konseling gizi yang efektif untuk dapat membantu atlet remaja memilih makanan padat gizi yang bervariasi, membantu atlet remaja menjaga hidrasi yang tepat dan membantu atlet remaja memilih makanan serta snack yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan gizinya (Bingham, Borkan, & Quatromoni, 2016). Hasil survey awal pada kelompok sepatu roda Kairos ditemukan 80% atlet memiliki asupan energi, zat gizi makro dan mikro yang kurang. ...
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Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh pemberian intervensi gizi berupa edukasi dan konseling gizi pada atlet sepatu roda remaja terhadap status gizi, status hidrasi, status biokimia, dan asupan gizi. Penelitian one group pre and post test design yang melibatkan 11 atlet di Klub Sepatu Roda Kairos Semarang. Variabel terikat adalah profil antropometri (berat badan, tinggi badan, fat mass, massa otot, body water), status hidrasi, status biokimia (kadar gula darah puasa, asam urat, kolesterol, hemoglobin), dan asupan makan. Uji Wilcoxon digunakan untuk menganalisis perbedaan profi antropometri, status hidrasi, status biokimia, dan asupan makan subjek antara sebelum dan sesudah intervensi. Terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada berat badan (p=0,029), fat mass (p=0,003), status hidrasi subjek sebelum latihan (p=0,026), kadar gula darah (p=0,005), kadar hemoglobin (p=0,007), asupan karbohidrat (p=0,029) dan asupan seng (p=0,049) sebelum dan setelah intervensi. Program Asuhan Gizi Olahraga (PAGO) pada atlet sepatu roda terbukti berdampak pada perbaikan beberapa profil antropometri, status biokimia, dan asupan makan. Program for inline skating athletes as strategies to improve the profile of nutritional status, biochemistry and quality of food intakeAbstract: This study aims to determine the effect of nutrition intervention in the form of nutrition education and counseling for adolescent inline skating athletes on nutritional status, hydration status, biochemical status, and nutritional intake. Methods: One group pre and post test design research on 11 athletes at the Kairos Wheeled Shoes Club Semarang. The dependent variables were anthropometric profiles (body weight, height, fat mass, muscle mass, body water), hydration status, biochemical status (fasting blood sugar levels, uric acid, cholesterol, hemoglobin), and food intake. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze differences in anthropometric profile, hydration status, biochemical status, and food intake of subjects between before and after the intervention, Results: There was a significant difference in body weight (p = 0.029), fat mass (p = 0.003), hydration status subjects before exercise (p = 0.026), blood sugar levels (p = 0.005), hemoglobin levels (p = 0.007), carbohydrate intake (p = 0.029) and zinc intake (p = 0.049) before and after the intervention. Sports Nutrition Care Programme to inline skates athletes is proven to have an impact on anthropometric profile, biochemical status, and intake.
... In addition, they do not meet specific energy and nutrient recommendations that optimize their athletic performance. Adolescent athletes are more vulnerable to nutritional inadequacies as their needs sum their training and growth demands 2,3 . ...
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Aims: To understand how participating in a Nutrition & Health Education program (NHEP) affected the way rhythm gymnasts and their coaches perceive their food practices. Methods: Qualitative study portraying a case study of a NHEP specifically designed for a rhythm gymnastic team. The NHEP was conducted at the training facilities. Fourteen rhythm gymnasts, consisting of the team that represents a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and their two coaches participated in the study. Athletes and coaches were interviewed about their perceptions and food practices before and after a 9-month NHEP designed specifically for them. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Two categories emerged from the discourses and were analyzed using the content analysis: “beliefs and feeding practices” and “construction of a positive relationship with food”. Results: Athletes reported changes in their food practices related to the themes discussed with them in the NHEP, such as daily breakfast intake, higher intake of fruits, vegetables, milk products, and wholegrain foods. Conclusion: The NHEP allowed specific demands of the athletes to be identified and addressed, generating awareness and motivation to positive changes in eating practices.
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Physical exercise is becoming more prevalent in today’s lifestyle and makes physically fit, and promotes different types of development or skills. Athletes rely on sports nutrition supplements: ergogenic and dietary supplements; these supplements fulfill the nutritional requirements, save time and achieve health goals. Many athletes don't have sufficient knowledge related to the safety of using ergogenic supplements. There are various ergogenic supplements used by athletes but excess of these supplements has been linked to major health problems. Dietary supplements are more nutritious and safer than ergogenic supplements. They are not a prescription medicine and to cure illnesses of the athletes.
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Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well muscled and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exist, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may negatively impact their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. There is increasing evidence that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. Based on daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3500 kcal and 2650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3-8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2 to 1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30g amounts and timed appropriately following training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e. calcium and iron) may be advisable. While sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multi-disciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.
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Swimming is a sport that requires considerable training commitment to reach individual performance goals. Nutrition requirements are specific to the macro-cycle, micro-cycle and individual session. Swimmers should ensure suitable energy availability to support training while maintaining long term health. Carbohydrate intake, both over the day and in relation to a workout should be manipulated (3-10g/kg BM/d) according to the fuel demands of training and the varying importance of undertaking these sessions with high carbohydrate availability. Swimmers should aim to consume 0.3g/kg BM of high biological value protein immediately after key sessions and at regular intervals throughout the day to promote tissue adaptation. A mixed diet consisting of a variety of nutrient-dense food choices should be sufficient to meet the micronutrient requirements of most swimmers. Specific dietary supplements may prove beneficial to swimmers in unique situations, but should only be trialled with the support of trained professionals. All swimmers, particularly adolescent and youth swimmers, are encouraged to focus on a well-planned diet to maximise training performance, ensuring sufficient energy availability especially during periods of growth and development. Swimmers are encouraged to avoid rapid weight fluctuations; rather optimal body composition should be achieved over longer periods by modest dietary modifications that improve their food choices. During periods of reduced energy expenditure (taper, injury, off season) swimmers are encouraged to match energy intake to requirement. Swimmers undertaking demanding competition programs should ensure suitable recovery practices are employed to maintain adequate glycogen stores over the entirety of the competition period.
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It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. In order to maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that use of nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasises their ability to manipulate performance in comparison to other training and dietary strategies.
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Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations.
Endurance Sports Nutrition will guide you in selecting the optimal foods, drinks, and supplements so you can train longer, recover more quickly, avoid injuries, and achieve your performance goals in any endurance endeavor. Sports dietitian and former elite runner Suzanne Girard Eberle presents a fueling program that addresses the unique concerns of endurance athletes: Road and trail running, from 5K to 100+ miles Cycling and mountain biking, from time trials to multiday rides Duathlon and triathlon, from sprint to Ironman Winter sports, from Nordic ski races to mountain ascents Water sports, including rowing and open-water swimming Environmental conditions, including extreme temperatures and high altitude The third edition includes meal planning recommendations for vegetarian athletes and those with food allergies and intolerances as well as profiles, advice from elite endurance athletes, and strategies for avoiding the most common pitfalls of training. Endurance Sports Nutrition will fuel your best performance.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the onset of eating disorders in female athletes. Participants were 17 collegiate female athletes (mean age of 20.7) who experienced eating disorders. Participants were interviewed individually and responses were coded thematically. Results revealed internal and external factors related to the onset of eating disorders. Internal factors included: Negative Mood States, Low Self Esteem, Perfectionism/Drive for Achievement, and Desire for Control. External factors included: Negative Influences on Self-Esteem, Hurtful Relationships, Hurtful Role Models, and Sport Performance. Findings suggest that many triggers for onset among athletes are similar to those reported among nonathletes. However, results demonstrate that the sport environment has a unique impact on athletes' eating disorder development. In particular, negative comments by coaches, modeling of eating disordered behaviors by other athletes, and sport performance pressure all contributed to eating pathology. Implications and recommendations for the sport community are discussed.
To determine the overall effect of non-diet, weight-neutral interventions on factors such as weight, biochemical measures, food and activity behavior, body image, and mental health. Systematic review of intervention literature. Group classes in community and worksite settings (14 studies), and individual counseling (1) and online education (1) in college settings. Eighteen research articles (representing 16 studies) evaluating non-diet interventions using quasi-experimental and randomized study designs with either a comparison or control group. Anthropometric, physiological, psychological, and dietary intake. Systematic search of 168 articles and review of 18 articles meeting inclusionary criteria. Non-diet interventions resulted in statistically significant improvements in disordered eating patterns, self-esteem, and depression. None of the interventions resulted in significant weight gain or worsening of blood pressure, blood glucose, or cholesterol, and in 2 studies biochemical measures improved significantly compared with the control or diet group. Primary limitations were inconsistent definitions of non-diet approaches and the use of different assessment instruments for measuring outcomes. Because of the long-term ineffectiveness of weight-focused interventions, the psychological improvements seen in weight-neutral, non-diet interventions warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objectives The purposes of this paper were to offer reflections, thoughts, and observations on the burgeoning research regarding eating disorders in athletes over the past 25 years, to comment on the findings and clinical implications of the studies contained in this special issue, and to provide suggestions for future research. Results Disordered eating and eating disorders are complex, multidimensional, and multiply determined, and can affect the health and performance of athletes in both genders and most sports. Although coaches and teammates can be significant sources of weight and body image pressure, they can also play a positive role in identification and prevention. Conclusions Further research is needed in several areas. These include a broader focus that includes athletes believed to be at less risk, most notably males and non-lean sport athletes, and ironically younger athletes, who may be at greatest risk. We also need more research related to treatment of athletes with eating disorders and especially how we might better motivate them for recovery.