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Partners for Resilience Livelihoods Assessment Report - August 2013

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Abstract and Figures

Report written from work as a Junior Researcher for the Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre
Content may be subject to copyright.
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Climate-Smart, Ecosystem-
Friendly Livelihoods
Assessment
Partners for Resilience - Kenya
The Netherlands Red Cross, The Catholic Organization for Relief and
Development Aid, Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre, Wetlands
International, Kenya Red Cross Society, Merti Integrated Development
Programme, and Wetlands International Kenya chapter
July 11, 2013
Prepared by Amy Quandt
amy.quandt@colorado.edu
Junior Researcher, Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre
PhD Environmental Studies, University of Colorado - Boulder
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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ………………………………………………………………. 3
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….. 4
Methodology ……………………………………………………………………… 5
Recommendations ………………………………………………………………… 8
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………… 34
Appendices
Appendix A: Volunteer Training Manual and Household Interview Guide …… 36
Appendix B: Focus Group Discussion Guide …………………………………… 47
Appendix C: Document Review Results ………………………………………... 50
Appendix D: Isiolo County Data Summary …………………………………….. 57
Appendix E: Town Zone Data Summary ……………………………………….. 95
Appendix F: Riverine Zone Data Summary …………………………………….. 117
Appendix G: Charri Zone Data Summary ……………………………………… 143
Appendix H: Cherap Zone Data Summary ……………………………………… 157
Appendix I: Data Summaries of the 7 Communities …………………………… 168
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Executive Summary
This livelihoods assessment was conducted by the Partners for Resilience Project (PfR).
PfR aims at increasing resilience of vulnerable communities in the Ewas Nyiro North River basin
to address increased disaster risks, effects of climate change, and environmental degradation. .
PfR aims to take a “livelihood” approach at the community level, and encourage people to
diversify and strengthen their livelihoods to reduce the risk of disaster, adapt to climate
variability and change, and manage/restore their ecosystems. Therefore, the assessment aimed to
identify resilient livelihood options that are both climate-smart and ecosystem-friendly that could
be implemented and/or encouraged in the project areas by the PfR partners and implementing
organizations.
The livelihoods assessment is comprised of several components including a document
review, 6 focus group discussions, and 270 household interviews. Seven communities were
selected for the focus group discussions and household interviews based on ecological zone. The
zones and communities surveyed include cherap (Basa), charri (Bulesa), town (Kinna and Merti)
and riverine (Gotu, Burat, and Manyangalo). The interviews were analyzed using Microsoft
Excel.
Based on the livelihoods assessment results, climate-smart and ecosystem-friendly
livelihood options are recommended to PfR for implementation in their project areas. The
summary of livelihood recommendations is as follows:
Town
1. Greenhouse and tree nursery project for the disabled
2. Business capacity building
3. Poultry keeping
Riverine
1. Agricultural support
2. Agro-business capacity building project
3. Poultry keeping
Charri
1. Goats and camels stocking
2. Agricultural support
3. Business capacity building
Cherap
1. Goats and camels stocking
2. Business capacity building
3. Agricultural support
This report concludes with both the resources used to conduct the assessment and summaries of
the data. This includes copies of the document review, volunteer training manual, household
interview guide, focus group discussion guide, and data summaries for all the communities
combined, each ecological zone, and every community surveyed.
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Introduction
This livelihoods assessment was conducted for the Partners for Resilience Project (PfR).
Partners for Resilience (PfR) are an alliance of Dutch based non-profit making organizations
namely: The Netherlands Red Cross (NLRC), The Catholic Organization for Relief and
Development Aid (Cordaid), CARE Netherlands, Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre
(RCCC) and Wetlands International (WI) in nine countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Mali,
Indonesia, Philippines, India, Nicaragua and Columbia). PfR is implementing the Climate-Proof
Disaster Risk Reduction (CPDRR) programme in Ewaso Nyiro North River basin through local
partners namely Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS), Merti Integrated Development Programme
(MID P) and Wetlands International Kenya chapter. The programme aims at increasing
resilience of vulnerable communities to address increased disaster risks, effects of climate
change and environmental degradation. The programme has three expected outcome objectives:
1. Objective 1: To increase the resilience of communities to disasters, climate change and
environmental degradation;
2. Objective 2: To increase the capacity of civil society organisations (CSOs) to apply
disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate-change adaptation (CCA) and ecosystem
management and restoration (EMR) measures and conduct policy dialogue;
3. Objective 3: To make the institutional environment from international to grass-root level
more conducive to integrate disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and
ecosystem-based approaches.
The translation of each intervention strategy into practice is characterized by an
innovative integration of three approaches: Disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change
adaptation (CCA) and eco-system management and restoration (EMR). So far different targets
have already been reached with respect to the above three programme objectives.
In PfR Kenya, target areas are the traditional pastoralists of the Borana tribe. However,
these target communities have sedentarized and live in settled communities in permanent
housing; many do not have large herds of animals. The area is prone to drought and seasonal
flooding of the Ewaso Nyiro River. Current livelihood options are very limited, mainly focused
on livestock-keeping and exploratory farming. This is supplemented by chronic food aid. PfR
aims to take a “livelihood” approach at the community level, and encourage people to diversify
and strengthen their livelihoods to reduce the risk of disaster, adapt to climate variability and
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change, and manage/restore their ecosystems. Therefore, PfR Kenya carried out a survey to
assess what is going on and the possible options that could be best promoted and encouraged by
the program. The assessment will help identify resilient livelihood options that are both climate-
smart and ecosystem-friendly that could be implemented and/or encouraged in the project areas
by the PfR partners and implementing organizations.
Methodology
Summary
The livelihoods assessment used a mixed-methods approach that includes document
review, field observations and notes, household surveys, and focus group discussions. This
study took place in Isiolo County, Kenya in 7 different communities. These communities
include Basa, Bulesa, Merti, Gotu, Kinna, Burat, and Manyangalo. All the communities are PfR
communities except Merti, Manyangalo, and Gotu. The communities were selected based on
various ecosystem types:
Riverine - Gotu, Manyangalo, Burat
Town - Merti, Kinna
Charri - Bulesa
Cherap - Basa
Data collection was conducted between June 18th and July 9th, 2013. Overall, 270 household
interviews were conducted and 6 focus group discussions. The household surveys were carried
out by enumerators in English, Kiswahili, or Kiborana based on the respondents preference and
were recorded in English or Kiswahili. The focus group discussions were moderated by Amy
Quandt with assistance in translating from Kiborana to English/Kiswahili for four of the six
focus group discussions. The other two focus group discussions were conducted in Kiswahili.
Document Review
Document review took place between May 23rd and June 3rd, 2013. The document
review was accompanied by visits to various government and organization offices in Nairobi and
Nanyuki. These offices supplied soft and hard copies of documents based on their past work.
Offices visited include the National Drought Management Authority in Nairobi, the Ministry of
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Yunus Antony Kimathi training volunteers in Gotu
Volunteer conducting a household interview in
Burat.
Northern Kenya ASAL Secretariate in
Nairobi, Cordaid, Kenya Red Cross
Society Headquarters, Water River
Management Authority in Nanyuki, and
the National Drought Management
Authority in Nanyuki. The summary of
the various livelihood options mentioned
in the document review is available in
appendix C.
Household Interviews
The household survey (appendix A) was created by Amy Quandt with assistance from
Yunus Antony Kimathi and Yusuf Dima. They translated the interview questions into both
Kiswahili and Kiborana, conducted 3 practice interviews in Burat, made slight modifications,
and finalized the survey in English, Kiswahili, and Kiborana. To conduct the interviews in the
communities local enumerators were used who spoke the Kiswahili, Kiborana, and English if
possible. The enumerators wrote the respondents
answers in either Kiswahili or English.
Before conducting the household surveys, the
enumerators were given a training manual (appendix
A) and an hour-long training with Amy Quandt and
Yunus Antony Kimathi. Following training each
enumerator had the goal of conducting 5 interviews
each day, and most days that goal was met. For the
household surveys in Basa, Bulesa, and Merti the
same 6 enumerators, two men and four women were
used to conduct surveys. One day of surveys was
held in Basa, one day in Bulesa, and two days in
Merti. Also in Merti, for one day of data collection,
Disaster Risk Reduction seminar participants were
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utilized to conduct the surveys as part of their seminar. In Gotu, two male enumerators and one
female enumerator assisted data collection. However, the female enumerator was illiterate, no
literate woman was available in Gotu, so she assisted Amy Quandt in translating the interviews
into Kiborana during the interview process. In Kinna, two men and two women enumerators
conducted surveys for three days. For communities around Isiolo, two men and two women
were trained. They spent two days in Burat and two days in Manyangalo. The following is a
basic breakdown of the household surveys:
Community
Approx.
Population
# Interviews
# Male
Respondents
Basa
3908 population
514 households
30
10
Bulesa
n/a
30
11
Merti
n/a
73
29
Gotu
68 households
15
8
Kinna
n/a
41
18
Burat
n/a
40
18
Manyangalo
n/a
41
21
TOTAL
n/a
270
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Focus Group Discussions
Overall, six focus group discussions were conducted in Basa, Kinna, and Burat. The
focus group discussion guide was written by Amy Quandt (see appendix B). In each of these
three communities one women's focus group and one men's focus group discussion were
conducted. In the remaining four communities (Manyangalo, Gotu, Merti, and Bulesa) logistics
prevented focus group discussions from being completed. The focus group discussions were
organized by the community leadership and took place in community offices. Each focus group
discussion had between 10 to 20 participants. For the Basa focus group discussions, Boru from
MID-P assisted in moderating and translating from Kiborana to English. For the Kinna focus
group discussions, volunteer Abdi Kadir assisted in the translation of the discussion from
Kiborana to Kiswahili. In Burat, Amy Quandt and Yunus Antony Kimathi conducted the focus
group discussion. Each discussion took from 1.5 to 2 hours. Questions 1 through 7 were
recorded on large flip chart paper so that the participants could all see their answers, and
questions 8 through 13 were recorded in a notebook. During a few of the focus group interviews
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Table 1. Source of Income
No. of Respondents
Selling Livestock
19
Selling Milk/Animal Products
9
Business
1
Farming
1
some questions were skipped given time constraints and when this occurred this was noted in the
data.
Recommendations
The recommendations in this section are based on all the data collected from the
document review, field notes, household surveys, and focus group discussions. There are
between 2-4 recommendations for each ecological type.
Cherap Zone - Basa
The three major livelihood recommendations are as follows: 1. Goats/camels stocking, 2.
Business capacity building and support, and 3. Agricultural support. There were 30 household
interviews total so all the numbers listed are out of 30 total interviews. For the complete
summary of reports for the cherap zone and the Basa community see appendix H?
1. Goats and Camels Stocking
The cherap zone is
dominated by pastoralism and
livestock keeping. This is very
evident in the household surveys and
every household interviewed, 30 out
of 30 total interviews, keep livestock. Additionally as seen in table 1, for 28 households their
main source of income is either the sale of livestock or livestock products such as milk. While
the cherap zone depends on livestock as their major livelihood activity, this livelihood is
threatened by climate change. During the women's focus group discussion the women expressed
their concerns about livestock keeping in the future by stating that their livelihoods are focused
on cattle, and vulnerable to drought, children in school depend on livestock for their education,
and people are losing livestock. The men's focus group discussion agreed with this and they said
that cattle are vulnerable to drought. Therefore, I recommend not an entire livelihood shift
away from livestock keeping, but a change in the livestock that are being kept. I recommend that
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Figure 1. Livelihoods both threatened by drought and those that do well in
drought according to the Cherap zone household surveys.
PfR can support livestock keeping in the cherap zone through goat and camel stocking for the
most vulnerable households.
Both the focus group discussion and household survey results illustrate the community
desire to switch to goats and camels because cattle are threatened by climate change. The men's
focus group stated that it might be wisest to move to herding camels and goats, and the women
said that goats and camels
are drought resistant so
maybe they can change to
that. This was supported by
the household interviews.
When it comes to drought,
cattle (17 respondents) and
livestock (11) were listed as
being threatened by drought
but camels (13) and goats
(14) were listed as
livelihoods that do well in
drought as seen in figure 1.
High temperatures also
threaten cattle (10
respondents), but according
to the respondents camels
(13) and goats (6) do well in
high temperature (table 2).
But drought and high
temperatures are not the
only impacts of climate
changes. Floods can also
destroy livelihoods, and specifically farming (21 respondents) was listed as the most endangered
livelihood from floods. However, livestock (7) including camel (6) and goat (8) were listed as
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Table 2. Livelihoods That
Do Well in High Temps
No. of Respondents
Nothing
6
Cattle
4
Camel
13
Goat
6
Livestock
6
Figure 2. Livelihoods that harm the environment in cherap
livelihoods that do well in floods. Therefore
supporting livestock keeping is important and
may help build livelihood resilience against
floods because if the farms in the area are
destroyed by floods the communities will still
have their livestock to depend on.
Additionally, the household
survey respondents want to adopt
camel keeping (2 respondents) and
goats (2) as a livelihood in the
future and one respondent requested
more information about camel
keeping. This illustrates a
household desire to change the types
of livestock that are being kept from
cattle to goats and camels. The
change of livestock type may also
help conserve the environment and the rangelands. Ten respondents named overstocking and
overgrazing of livestock as a livelihood that harms the environment (figure 2). Camels are much
more valuable monetarily than cattle, goats, and sheep, so therefore fewer could be kept with the
same economic benefit, thus potentially reducing overstocking.
The above information provides the rational for why goats and camel stocking may
provide climate-smart and ecosystem friendly livelihood alternatives in the cherap zone. I
propose that camel and goat stocking benefit the most vulnerable community members, perhaps
those that have already faced severe livestock losses due to drought. I also propose to follow the
model used by Heifer International (www.hiefer.org) for their livestock projects and give a basic
outline of this model below. The first step is to form a group of vulnerable households and agree
upon the regulations of being part of the livestock group. The group then decides which
households should be the first to receive the goats or camels. Whoever is chosen will receive 4
animals, ensuring that both genders are represented so that they can reproduce. When babies are
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born the owner is obligated by the group
regulations to give another group member the
offspring until every group member has also
received 4 animals. This is a more sustainable,
long term, and cost-effective way of
restocking. Particularly with camel stocking
this method would be helpful because
providing camels to many households is
economically unfeasible, but providing camels
to a few households with the stipulation that
they give the offspring to other vulnerable households ensure that the benefits will spread
throughout the community and reach many households. Additionally, for all group members
who are receiving camels they should receive training about camel care, common diseases, and
other things so that they understand how to properly take care of their camels.
2. Business Capacity Building and Support
A desire for capacity building and financial support for business was expressed in the
cherap zone in both the household interviews and focus group discussions. Particularly, the
women present for the women's focus group discussion expressed interest in learning more about
business. They said that if women could be supported in business then they can help their
children. They now find it difficult to maintain business because they do not have the funds. If
they could be supported in business it would help, training on business skills and how to measure
loss. However, the men did not discuss business in their focus group discussion. Therefore, I
propose that PfR support women in both capacity building to help educate them about proper
business skills and in finding avenues to finance the start-up of local businesses.
Business was not only mentioned in the focus group discussions, but was talked about
during the household interviews. Business was the only non -agro-pastoral livelihood mentioned
that does well in drought (2 respondents). Additionally, it was not listed as a livelihood
threatened by any of the impacts of climate change including drought, high temperatures, and
floods. The women's focus group discussion listed many small-scale businesses including
Photo: Camels in Isiolo County
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Table 3. Want More Info
About What Livelihoods?
No. of Respondents
Driving
1
Business (capacity building)
5
Vegetable Farming
1
Camel
1
Farming
5
Figure 3. Challenges to starting new livelihoods
tailoring and restaurants, to be neutral to both the impacts of climate change and the
environment. This suggests that businesses may be less severely impacted by climate change
and have a less direct impact on the environment. Furthermore, 13 respondents said that their
main source of food was buying from
kiosks, which illustrates that there is a
demand for business. When asked what
livelihoods they want to adopt in the
future, business (2 respondents) and
kiosks (2 respondents) were mentioned
and 5 household survey respondents wanted capacity building about business (table 3). Some
people have already started experimenting with business and 1 respondent has started a
motorbike transport business and 3 have experimented with running kiosks.
The above information provides the rationale behind supporting businesses in the cherap
zone. However, PfR should not only provide capacity building about business, but provide or
educate community members on how to finance their businesses. The major challenges listed to
adopting new livelihoods in the cherap zone (figure 3) are lack of skills (6 respondents), lack of
capital (6), and drought (6), which is why both capacity building and capital is needed to
properly support business development in the cherap zone. As stated earlier, I propose that
business capacity building and support should be focused on women because they are the ones
that expressed the most interest in it. Logistically, this could take many forms. One option
would be to provide a workshop to women about business skills and financial resources available
to them. Another option would be to help
form a woman's group and work closely
with them to educate them on business skills
and help them financially set up a business
of their choosing. Business skills that
should be covered in any type of workshop
or capacity building should include
accounting, measuring loss and profit, how
to obtain goods, how to do pricing, how to
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Figure 4. Main sources of food in the cherap zone
develop a business plan and proposal, and savings options for profits. To financially support
business development there are also several options. PfR, or MID-P, could directly fund
business proposals or provide micro-loans to business proposals. Another option is creating a
group business where women combine their financial resources to open a business. Other
options available through banks and financial institutions could also be explored. An
organization that may be able to help with business capacity building is TechnoServe Kenya
(http://www.technoserve.org/our-work/where-we-work/country/kenya#_overview) but other
organizations may also exist.
3. Agricultural Support
Farming is relatively new in the cherap zone and many community members have
expressed a desire to improve their farming practices because they are vulnerable to the impacts
of climate change. About 60% of the households interviewed practice agriculture, although the
households are only planting maize and farms were listed as vulnerable to drought, high
temperatures, and floods. The women's focus group discussion stated that farming is currently
not doing well in drought and flood, and how can we improve this? The men's focus group
discussion said that if you look ahead the most sustainable livelihood is farming, although there
are a lot of problems with farms because they do not have the technical knowhow. I therefore
propose that PfR should support communities in the cherap zone through agricultural capacity
building, technical support, and supplies.
It is important to support farming not only to improve agricultural resilience to climate
change, but to improve food security in the area. Food security in the cherap zone is a problem
and 7 respondents rely on relief food as their
main source of food, while only 2 respondents
said that the farm provided them with their main
source of food, as seen in figure 4. This
reliance on relief food creates the problem of
dependence and PfR should work to improve
food security through improving local
agriculture. The household surveys illustrated a
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Table 4. Why Have You
Not Planted Trees?
No. of Respondents
Lack of Information/
Knowledge
6
Lack of Water
16
Lack of Seedlings
6
desire to adopt farming and learn more about farming. One respondent said that they wanted to
adopt modern farming and 3 respondents stated that they wanted to start irrigated farming in the
future. Additionally, households wanted more information about farming (5 respondents) and
vegetable farming (1) (see table 3 above). Specifically, the men's focus group wanted knowledge
on pest control. And the women's focus group said that they are new to farming and they want
to learn about varieties of vegetables and food they can grow. They do not have skills to tap
water for farming, which is one of the biggest challenges. Also they want to know about crop
diseases and how to treat them. Therefore, capacity building in the cherap zone should provide
them with information about pest control, types of crops they can grow because right now the
main crop is maize, and also irrigation techniques. As given in figure 3 above, the major
challenges to adopting new livelihoods is lack of capital (6 respondents), and lack of skills (6),
and drought (6). Thus, these concerns should be addressed and PfR should support agriculture
with both capacity building and financial support, as well as address drought by focusing on
crops that do best in drought conditions and drought resistant crop varieties.
Environmentally, farming can cause negative impacts on natural resources, specifically
through the clearing of trees and natural vegetation for farming. Thus, farming support should
also include an environmental education component, specifically focusing on tree planting and
agroforestry. No households (0 respondents) in the cherap zone have planted trees because of a
lack of water (16 respondents), lack of seedlings (6), and lack of information/knowledge (6), as
shown in table 4. This lack of experience in tree planting should be viewed as an opportunity to
provide education and resources for tree planting in an area that desperately needs it. Because
farming is taking place along the river, I propose that tree planting should also take place along
the river and be integrated onto the farms. This would address the issue of lack of water for tree
planting and also improve the conditions on the farm. Agroforestry has been shown to increase
agricultural yields, and trees grown for
lumber provide additional income to the
family, while fruit trees can improve nutrition
and health. Additionally, beneficial trees on
the farm could prevent soil erosion and
decrease the negative impacts of floods on
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Photo: Farms just outside of Basa
the farm.
Logistically, this is a
large undertaking with a variety
of components. I propose a
multi-stage workshop with a
group of 10 or so of the most
vulnerable and interested
farmers. The first stage would
include the technical capacity
building include types of crops
that can be grown, with a focus
on vegetables and drought
resistant maize, and pest
management and crop diseases. Pest and disease management techniques should be
environmentally-friendly to ensure that the river water is not polluted with chemicals. Drought
resistant maize varieties include Katumani and DH04. According to household surveys from
other communities, vegetables that do better in drought include kale and potatoes. Capacity
building should also include teaching gardening/farming skills to grow these other types of crops
and not just maize. The second stage of the workshop should focus on environmental education
and the benefits of trees, both on the off the farm. This is important because if the community
members do not understand the benefits of trees they will not be invested in planting and
maintaining trees. Tree species that could be considered include Grevillea robusta (lumber and
firewood), Cajunus cajun or pigeon peas (food, nitrogen-fixing, and firewood), and drought-
tolerant fruit trees including varieties of oranges and mangoes. Wetlands International should
take the lead on this section of the workshop. Other organizations that could help with the
workshop in general include the African Institute for Economic and Social Development and
AGRODEV (www.agrodevngo.org). The last and third stage of the workshop should be the
distribution of seeds and seedlings and a field visit to their farms to discuss how PfR could
improve irrigation in the future since household survey respondents also mentioned water being
a major challenge to farming.
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Figure 5. Livelihoods threatened by floods.
Riverine Zone - Gotu, Burat, Manyangalo
The riverine zone was a combination of household surveys and focus group discussions
in Gotu, Burat, and Manyangalo. The three major livelihood recommendations are as follows: 1.
Agricultural support, 2. Agro-business capacity building project, and 3. Poultry keeping. There
were 96 household interviews total so all the numbers listed are out of 96 total interviews. For
the complete summary of reports for the riverine zone and Gotu, Burat, and Manyanglo
communities see appendix F.
1. Agricultural Support
In riverine communities agriculture is central to the local livelihoods due to the
availability of water from permanent or semi-permanent rivers. The importance of farming was
discussed in both the focus group
discussion and the household interviews.
About 75% of households surveyed
practice agriculture, so supporting the
development and improvement of this
major livelihood is critical. However,
farming is threatened by the impacts of
climate change including drought (50
respondents), high temperatures (55), and
floods (61), see figure 5. Therefore, improving the resilience of agricultural livelihoods to
climate change is especially important in riverine zones. Therefore I propose that PfR support
riverine zone communities with both capacity building and farming equipment.
Farming is also a major source of food in riverine zones and 59 respondents depend on
their farms for food. Not only is farming important for food security purposes but it is a major
source of income for community members (45 respondents). As seen in figure 6 below, farming
and casual labour are by far the most important sources of income and based on field notes and
observations, much of the casual labour taking place is paid labour to work on others farms,
making farming an even more important source of income generation than results show.
17
Figure 6. Major sources of income
In the household interviews many people expressed an interest to learn more about
farming and improve their farming practices. For example, 47 respondents stated that they want
more information about agriculture, and specifically drought resistant crops (2), horticulture (2),
greenhouse/irrigation (4), and modern agriculture techniques (13). When asked how PfR can
support their livelihoods many of the answers were also related to farming including water for
farming (18 respondents), water for tree planting (1), generator (8), tree seedlings (6), farm
inputs (10), seeds (14), and capacity building about farming (5). This sentiment was echoed in
the men's focus group discussion and they said that the project should support the use of animal
manure on farms. They also want to know more about horticulture and vegetable farming, and
they lack certified seeds and knowledge on pesticide use. Furthermore, communities in riverine
zones have also started integrating trees onto their farms so supporting this is important for
ensuring that farming practices are ecosystem-friendly. About 68% of the households surveyed
have planted trees, however the most commonly named livelihood that harms the environment is
charcoal burning (47% of respondents) so supporting tree planting is not only important to
ensure ecosystem-friendly farming, but to combat the negative effects of charcoal burning.
Lastly, PfR should provide both
capacity building and farming
equipment because the major challenges
faced when starting new livelihoods are
lack of capital (64 respondents), and
lack of skills/knowledge (23).
The above information provides
strong rational for supporting farming in
riverine zone communities. Because
community members expressed a desire
to learn more about farming, particularly
vegetable farming and the use of
pesticides and fertilizers, a capacity
building workshop should be conducted
by PfR. The workshop should include
18
Photo: Sprinkler system in Manyangalo.
some of the more vulnerable community members. Topics discussed in a farming capacity
workshop should include the use of ecosystem-friendly pesticides and organic farming
techniques including animal manure use as fertilizer. Ecosystem-friendly pesticides and
fertilizers are important to ensure that farming is not harming the environment and during the
men's focus group discussion they mentioned that the use of pesticides damages the environment,
while household survey respondents listed farm chemicals (1 respondent) and farming (1) as
livelihoods that harm the environment. Other organic methods should be discussed including
crop rotations with leguminous plants including beans or pigeon peas (Cajunus cajun) to
maintain soil fertility without using chemicals. Respondents also expressed an interest in
learning about drought resistant plants and seeds, as well as horticulture techniques, so part of
the workshop should include practical skills about growing vegetables. Additionally, the
workshop should include how to properly plant and take care of tree seedlings.
In addition to capacity
building, PfR should support
irrigation for farming as
mentioned by 18 respondents. I
propose that PfR help improve
irrigation techniques with hoses,
sprinklers, and drip irrigation.
From field observations, many
households in the riverine
community of Manyangalo utilize
hoses and sprinklers and it
appears to be fairly successful
there. These supplies should
supplement the capacity building
workshop and should be aimed at the same community members. Additionally, tree seedlings
should be given to these community members including fruit trees and Grevillea robusta in order
to ensure ecosystem-friendly farming and to help prevent severe soil erosion in case of flood
events.
19
Figure 7. Major livelihoods to adopt in the future.
2. Agro-business Capacity Building Project
In addition to supporting improved farming in riverine zone communities, supporting
agro-business will help farmers get larger economic benefits for their crops and spread benefits
to the larger community. I propose that PfR provide agro-business capacity building to a
community group and then provide them with financial assistance to begin an agro-business. A
potential vulnerable group for this project is unemployed youth, those that have finished
secondary school but now have no real source of income, job, land, or livestock. Supporting
agro-business will help create a sustainable source of information and farming supplies for the
riverine communities and the agro-business will benefit the community as a whole because they
will have easy access to such resources.
A desire to learn about agro-business came up in both the focus group discussion and
household surveys. The men's focus group discussion said that there is currently a poor market
due to brokers. They therefore want information about markets and agribusiness. They want to
know about seasonal calendars of farming with reliable good markets and what types of farming
they should grow in each month to maximize profits. A local agro-business could also serve as a
go between for the community
and larger agriculture markets.
In the future, the households
surveyed want to adopt
business (32 respondents) and
agribusiness (4), as illustrated
in figure 7. Household survey
respondents also mentioned
markets for commodities (3
respondents), microfinancing
(1), and drought resistant crops
(2) as livelihoods that they
want more information about
and supporting agro-business
20
development meets these needs. Additionally, supporting and helping to improve the agriculture
economy will support the larger community because 45 respondents rely on the sales of farm
produce for their major source of income. Concerning climate change, business was the most
commonly mentioned livelihood that could adapt to conditions with both severe drought and
flood (20 respondents). This makes supporting agro-business a climate-smart livelihood option
according to the household surveys.
PfR should provide both capacity building and financial support to support agro-business
in riverine zone communities based on the assessment results presented above. This project could
be conducted with a group of unemployed youth in order to provide them with a livelihood.
Capacity building about agro-business should focus on agricultural markets and where and when
to sell the communities crops. Other important topics include where to obtain agricultural
supplies such as certified, drought resistant seeds, and could also include medicine for livestock.
Basic business skills are also important including accounting skills, how to measure loss and
profits, sharing and saving profits, and daily management of the business. PfR should then help
to financially support the group to begin their agro-business, including obtaining agricultural
supplies, business space, and finding avenues to transport local agricultural goods to larger
markets. This business will provide immediate benefits to those involved in the group, but
benefit the larger community significantly as well and will generally help support the
development of agriculture in riverine zone communities.
3. Poultry Keeping
Riverine zone communities need to find alternative sources of income to charcoal
burning, as discussed above, and poultry keeping is a viable option that is climate-smart and
ecosystem-friendly. Poultry keeping was mentioned in both the focus group discussions and
household surveys. Poultry keeping is already practiced by 18 household survey respondents
(23% as seen in figure 8), 2 listed it as a minor livelihood activity, and 2 mentioned it as a
livelihood they have started or experimented with recently. Therefore, I propose that PfR initiate
a poultry keeping project in riverine communities as a viable alternative livelihood.
21
Figure 8. Livestock raised in riverine zone
Both the focus group discussions and household interviews stated that poultry keeping is
a livelihood that does well when faced
with the challenges of climate change.
The men's focus group listed chickens
as something they want to adopt in the
future and that chickens do very well in
drought and flood and is good for the
environment. The women also rated
chickens as beneficial for the
environment. This implies that chicken
keeping is a good climate-smart and
ecosystem-friendly livelihood
alternative to charcoal burning. The
household interviews support this and chickens were listed as a livelihood that does well in
drought (3 respondents), high temperatures (7), and floods (4). They were also listed as a
livelihood that can adapt to conditions of both severe drought and severe floods (2 respondents).
The riverine communities expressed interest in poultry keeping and 3 respondents named it as a
livelihood they want to adopt in the future. Furthermore, 4 respondents said that PfR can support
their livelihoods through poultry keeping, and 4 respondents want more information about
poultry keeping. This shows that there is community interest and support for poultry keeping.
Additionally, chickens can support household nutrition and food security by providing eggs and
meat.
PfR should start poultry raising projects in riverine zone communities and this should
include both capacity building and assistance with supplies. I propose that the best target group
is vulnerable households that depend on ecologically unsustainable livelihoods such as charcoal
burning, poll cutting, or firewood sales. The group could include between 10-20 households.
The group should receive a small workshop about proper care for chickens and common diseases
and pests. They should be taught how to build a proper chicken coop. The group should then be
supplied with materials to build chicken coops and given medicines for chicken diseases and
pests which can be shared among the group. Once coops have been built, the group members can
22
Table 5. Why Do You Not
Practice Agriculture?
No. of Respondents
Lack of Land
19
Lack of Capital
16
Lack of Manpower
15
Old Age/ Disability
14
No Time
12
Lack of Water
9
Lack of Seeds
7
Lack of Skills/ Knowledge
6
Lack Tools / Resources
3
No Interest
2
each be given a few chickens. Organizations that could assist with such a project include Kenya
Poultry Partnership (kenyapoultry.org) and the Kenya Poultry Farmers Association.
Town Zones - Merti and Kinna
The town zones were a combination of household surveys and focus group discussions in
Kinna and Merti. The three major livelihood recommendations are as follows: 1. Greenhouse
and tree nursery project, 2. Business capacity building, and 3. Poultry raising. There were 114
household interviews total so all the numbers listed are out of 114 total interviews. For the
complete summary of reports for the town zones and Merti and Kinna communities see appendix
E.
1. Greenhouse and Tree Nursery Project
Towns face unique challenges
and have unique advantages when it
comes to agriculture. A big challenge is
lack of space for large-scale farming (see
table 5), however due to the greater
number of people there is a need and a
market for agricultural crops to provide
food to the community. The household
surveys found that the two biggest
sources of food in towns include buying
from shops (82 respondents) and food relief (33). This illustrates a problem of food security and
these problems were echoed in the women's focus group discussion when the women stated that
malnutrition is a problem and children are not getting fruits and vegetables. It also illustrates
that there is a market for farm produce since 82 respondents buy their food from shops.
Additionally, only 26% of the households surveyed in towns practice agriculture. When asked
what prevents them from practicing agriculture, table 5, the main factors included a lack of
manpower (15 respondents), lack of capital (16), old age/disability (14), and lack of land (19).
To address all of these issues of food security and challenges to practicing agriculture, I propose
23
Photo: Left, Mama Asha. Right, a mango tree she has planted and sells the fruit to earn a small income.
that PfR conduct greenhouse and tree nursery projects in town zones. Furthermore, I propose
that the project focus on vulnerable disabled and elderly community members because
greenhouse farming and tree nurseries provide huge benefits, while requiring less physical
requirements. One community member that was interviewed provides a great example of why a
greenhouse and tree nursery project should target vulnerable disabled and elderly community
members. Her name is Mama Asha and she is both elderly and disabled. She also takes care of 7
children. Even with all these obstacles she is still trying to making a living and has planted
mango trees and maize on her land. She is not able to farm a large area due to her disability, but
the little she does helps her and her family. If she was involved in a greenhouse and tree nursery
project it would improve her life and that of her family. They would have a source of food, and a
source of income through the sale of greenhouse crops, tree seedlings, and eventually fruit from
trees they plant on their own land.
The town zone communities expressed a desire to learn more about modern farming
techniques and greenhouses. When asked during the household surveys what livelihoods they
want to adopt in the future 10 respondents said farming and 5 said modern farming.
Additionally, respondents stated that they want more information about modern farming (24
respondents), vegetable farming (2), and greenhouses (2). They also said that PfR could help
support their livelihoods through farming equipment (5), farming capacity building (2), tree
planting (1), and capital for farming (4). This information from the household surveys illustrates
24
Figure 9. What prevents you from planting trees?
that the community has a desire to learn more about modern agriculture, tree planting, and
greenhouses. This sentiment is echoed in the focus group discussions. During the men's focus
group discussion they stated that people do not know modern [farming] technology, and the
women said that they want to learn about modern farming such as greenhouses and capacity
building about farming. When dealing with the impacts of climate change, a greenhouse and
tree nursery project may be a good option. For example, livestock (60 respondents) was listed as
a livelihood threatened by drought, while farming (34) is less threatened. However, farming was
listed as being threatened by high temperatures (64). Therefore, greenhouses are appropriate to
promote because they are shaded from intense sun and are water efficient in times of drought.
Farming was also mentioned as being very threatened by flood (91 respondents), so the
placement of the greenhouse is very important. Furthermore, when asked what livelihoods can
adapt to situations of both severe drought and severe flood, respondents listed modern farming (8
respondents), greenhouses (1), and fruit trees (1), suggesting that a greenhouse and tree nursery
project is climate-smart.
A greenhouse and tree nursery project will also benefit the environment in town zones.
Tree planting is practiced by 43% of the households surveyed, however 80% of those households
have only planted Neem (Azadirachta indica), so expanding the varieties of trees planted could
help provide a wider variety of benefits. For those who have not planted trees, when asked what
prevents them from planting the most common answer was that they do not know the importance
of trees (25 respondents), see figure 9. This shows that there is a need for education about the
benefits and importance of trees
for the environment but also for
livelihood support and income
generation.
I propose that PfR
conduct greenhouse and tree
nursery projects in town zone
communities focusing on
vulnerable disabled and elderly
community members. The project
25
Photo: Water canal and tree farming in Kinna.
should include capacity building and support obtaining supplies and seeds. These two aspects
are important because the major challenges to starting new livelihoods include a lack of capital
(42 respondents), lack of information (28),
lack of resources and equipment (20), and
food security (10). PfR can assist in
forming a group, and then help them obtain
a greenhouse, greenhouse supplies, and
supplies for a tree nursery (which can be
inside the greenhouse as well). Once these
materials have been received, practical
training on how to properly start and
manage a greenhouse and tree nursery
should be provided to the group members.
A component of this training should focus on the importance of tree planting as well to promote
the tree nursery. The group can then decide how they want to manage the greenhouse and tree
nursery logistically, meaning if they want the greenhouse for their own consumption, for sales,
or for a combination of the two.
2. Business Capacity Building
Towns, being a commercial center for smaller surrounding communities, provide an
opportunity to practice business and trading activities. However, in order to be successful those
community members owning and running businesses need knowledge and skills about how to
properly run a business. The results from both the focus group discussions and household
surveys show a strong interest in learning more about business and adopting business as a
livelihood in the future. In addition, household survey respondents stated that business is the
most able livelihood to adapt to conditions of both severe drought and severe flood (35
respondents). Therefore, I propose that PfR support business capacity building in town zone
communities.
Business is considered a climate-smart livelihood alternative and this was evident from
both the focus group discussions and household surveys, where respondents said that business
26
Figure 10. Livelihoods respondents want to adopt in the
future.
does well in drought (32 respondents), high temperatures (14), and floods (18). During the men's
focus group discussion they said that during drought business is good because people do not
have food and they have to buy it from kiosks. Additionally, there was a strong desire to learn
more about business expressed during the household interviews. As illustrated in figure 10
below, business was the most commonly mentioned livelihood that respondents want to adopt in
the future (34 respondents), and 21 respondents said they want more information about business.
Some community members are already trying to run business (8 respondents) and kiosks (5) as
minor livelihood activities. An additional 9 respondents said that they have recently
experimented with running businesses. When asked how PfR can help support their livelihoods
the most common response (19 respondents) was capital for business. All of these results
illustrate a strong desire by community members in town zones to learn more about business and
how to successfully run a business.
Business capacity building should also include information about how to finance and
obtain capital to start a business. Challenges to starting new livelihoods in the town zone
communities include lack of capital (42 respondents) and lack of information or knowledge (28),
so teaching people how to obtain capital for businesses is important. During the women's focus
group discussion they also talked about needing both capital and capacity building. They said
that they want capital to start business and capacity building; everyone sells the same thing so
they do not know where to start and
they are afraid of loss.
I therefore propose that PfR
hold business capacity building
workshops for interested members of
the community in town zones. The
results presented above provide the
rationale for why business is a good
climate-smart and ecosystem-friendly
livelihood to promote in town zones.
Also as discussed above, both capacity
building and financing are important.
27
Table 6. Most Common
Minor and Non-Agro-
Pastoral Livelihoods
No. of Respondents
Casual Labour
13
Business
8
Selling Vegetables
6
Farming
6
Kiosk
5
Charcoal Burning
5
Poultry Keeping
4
Livestock Sales
4
Selling Milk
3
Cutting Firewood
3
Business skills that should be covered in any type of workshop or capacity building activity
should include accounting, measuring loss and profit, how to obtain goods, how to do pricing,
how to develop a business plan and proposal, and savings options for profits. To financially
support business development there are also several options. PfR, or MID-P, could directly fund
business proposals or provide micro-loans to business proposals. Another option is creating a
group business where members combine their financial resources to open a business. Other
options available through banks and financial institutions could also be explored.
3. Poultry Keeping
As mentioned above, town zone communities have unique challenges, including issues of
space and food security, and unique benefits, including easier access to markets. Poultry keeping
can improve food security and nutrition, which is important because 33 respondents said they
depend on relief food. Poultry keeping is already a main source of food for 1 respondent and the
sale of eggs a main source of income for another respondent. Chickens are also not time
consuming and do not take up much space. During the livelihoods assessment poultry keeping
was brought up by both the focus group discussions and household surveys. However, it was
only the women's focus group discussion that talked about poultry keeping. I therefore propose
that PfR conduct a poultry keeping project with vulnerable women in town zone communities
that include both capacity building and financial support.
When done properly, poultry keeping is a climate-smart, ecosystem friendly livelihood
option. Chickens were listed as a
livelihood that does well in drought (1
respondent), and high temperatures (3).
Chickens were also mentioned by 2
respondents as a livelihood that does well
in conditions of both severe drought and
severe flood. As seen in table 6, poultry
keeping is already a minor livelihood (4
respondents) in town communities and 1
respondent has experimented with poultry
28
Figure 11. Main sources of income.
keeping.
Based on the assessment results presented above, PfR should start poultry raising projects
in town zone communities and this should include both capacity building and assistance with
supplies. I propose that the best target group is women and the group could include between 10-
20 households. The group should receive a small workshop about proper care for chickens and
common diseases and pests. This is very important and during the womens focus group
discussion they mentioned that chickens get chicken pox and there used to be a lot of chickens
around here before they died of chicken pox. They should also be taught how to build a proper
chicken coop in order to protect the chickens. The group should then be supplied with materials
to build chicken coops and given medicines for chicken diseases and pests which can be shared
among the group. Once coops have been built, the group members can each be given a few
chickens. Organizations that could assist with such a project include Kenya Poultry Partnership
(kenyapoultry.org) and the Kenya Poultry Farmers Association.
Charri Zone - Bulesa
The charri zone was a combination of household surveys in Bulesa. The three major
livelihood recommendations are as follows: 1. Goats/Camels stocking, 2. Farming support, and
3. Business capacity building. There were 30 household interviews total so all the numbers
listed are out of 30 total interviews. For the complete summary of reports for the charri zone and
Bulesa community see appendix G.
1. Goats/Camels Stocking
Livestock keeping is the major
livelihood practiced in the charri zone
and 25 of the 30 households surveyed
keep livestock, and half (16
respondents) the respondents depend
upon the sales of livestock or livestock
products as their main source of
income, as seen in figure 11. Because
29
Figure 12. Livelihoods that are threatened by drought and
those that do well in drought.
livestock is such a vital livelihood to the charri zone it is important to support livestock keeping.
However, due to the impacts of drought and climate change, I propose that PfR supports goats
and camel stocking in the charri zone, as a more climate-smart livestock alternative.
The impacts of climate
change are seriously impacting
traditional livestock practices. For
example, livestock (13 respondents),
cattle (15), and sheep (15) were listed
in the household surveys as being
threatened by drought, while camels
(27) and goats (17) as livelihoods
that do well in drought, see figure 12
below. Similar answers were given
for conditions with high
temperatures, and respondents said
that cows (6 respondents) and sheep
(7) are threatened by high
temperatures while camels (17) do
well in high temperatures. Additionally, camels (2 respondents) and goats (11) were named as
livelihoods that can adapt to conditions of both severe flood and severe drought. These results
illustrate that switching types of livestock to camels and goats are considered by the charri zone
communities to be a climate-smart livelihood alternative. Related to the environment,
overgrazing was named by respondents as a livelihood that harms the environment. Camels are
much more valuable monetarily than cattle, goats, and sheep, so therefore fewer animals could
be kept with the same economic benefit, thus potentially reducing overstocking.
In the charri zone, household survey respondents also expressed a desire to switch types
of livestock to goats and camels. When asked what livelihoods they want to adopt in the future,
11 respondents said camels and 5 answered goats. Moreover, respondents answered that PfR can
support their livelihoods by providing livestock (5) and camels (3). A camel and goat stocking
project would also address the challenges to adopting new livelihoods. The top challenges
30
mentioned for adopting new livelihoods are floods and drought (5 respondents) and lack of
capital (5). Camels and goats are climate-smart and could help provide capital to vulnerable
community members.
The assessment results presented support the idea that PfR should undertake a goat and
camel stocking project in the charri zone. The above information provides the rational for why
goats and camel stocking may provide climate-smart and ecosystem-friendly livelihood
alternatives in the charri zone. I propose that camel and goat stocking benefit the most
vulnerable community members, perhaps those that have already faced severe livestock losses
due to drought. I also propose to follow the model used by Heifer International
(www.hiefer.org) for their livestock projects and give a basic outline of this model below. The
first step is to form a group of vulnerable households and agree upon the regulations of being
part of the livestock group. The group then decides which households should be the first to
receive the goats or camels. Whoever is chosen will receive 4 animals, ensuring that both
genders are represented so that they can reproduce. When babies are born the owner is obligated
by the group regulations to give another group member the offspring until every group member
has also received 4 animals. This is a more sustainable, long term, and cost-effective way of
restocking. Particularly with camel stocking this method would be helpful because providing
camels to many households is economically unfeasible, but providing camels to a few
households with the stipulation that they give the offspring to other vulnerable households ensure
that the benefits will spread throughout the community and reach many households.
Additionally, for all group members who are receiving camels they should receive training about
camel care, common diseases, and other things so that they understand how to properly take care
of their camels.
2. Farming Support
In addition to livestock keeping, farming is another major livelihood activity practiced in
the charri zone. Farming is practiced by 45% of the household survey respondents. Supporting
agriculture in the charri zone is important because households rely on farming for food (5
respondents) and a source of income (5 respondents). Additionally, food security is an issue and
5 respondents rely on relief food to feed their families. Also, along with the challenges discussed
31
Figure 13. Livelihoods threatened by flood
Figure 14: Why have you not planted trees?
above for starting new livelihoods, food security was listed as a major challenge by 4
respondents. I therefore purpose that PfR support this important livelihood through capacity
building and financial support.
It is especially important to support
improved farming in the charri zone in the
face of the impacts of climate change.
During the household surveys farming was
listed as being threatened by drought (9
respondents), high temperatures (18), and
flood (20, figure 13), and it is therefore
important to improve farming in order to
combat these climate change impacts. While
vulnerable to climate change, household survey respondents want more information about
farming (7 respondents), and want PfR to support their livelihoods by providing farming
equipment (5) and agricultural capacity building (1). Furthermore, 2 respondents have
started/experimented with farming as a livelihood option recently. So while farming is
vulnerable to climate change, community members are still interesting in learning more about
farming and practicing farming, which is why PfR support is needed to ensure climate-smart
farming.
In addition to climate-smart agriculture, ecosystem-friendly farming techniques should
also be promoted in charri zone communities. Household survey respondents named farming (6
respondents) as a livelihood activity that harms the environment, which means that current
farming practices may not be ecosystem-friendly and environmentally sustainable. To promote
ecosystem-friendly farming techniques
I propose that environmental education
and tree planting be a significant
component of any PfR project
supporting farming in charri zone
communities. Of the households
surveyed, 79% do not plant trees, while
32
10 respondents listed cutting trees as a livelihood taking place in the community that harms the
environment. This most likely indicates that trees are being cut but not replaced through tree
planting. As illustrated in figure 14, the main reasons people do not plant trees is because they
do not know the importance/benefits of trees (13 respondents) and they do not have seedlings
(5). This should be viewed as an excellent opportunity to educate charri zone community
members about this importance of trees and through the promotion of tree planting and
agroforestry.
Logistically, support agriculture and tree planning is a large endeavor. I propose a multi-
stage workshop with a group of 10 or so of the most vulnerable and interested farmers. The first
stage would include the technical capacity building include types of crops that can be grown,
with a focus on vegetables and drought resistant maize, and pest management and crop diseases.
Pest and disease management techniques should be environmentally-friendly to ensure that the
river water is not polluted with chemicals. Drought resistant maize varieties include Katumani
and DH04. Capacity building should also include teaching gardening/farming skills to grow
these other types of crops and not just maize. The second stage of the workshop should focus on
environmental education and the benefits of trees, both on the off the farm. This is important
because if the community members do not understand the benefits of trees they will not be
invested in planting and maintaining trees. Tree species that could be considered include
Grevillea robusta (lumber and firewood), Cajunus cajun or pigeon peas (food, nitrogen-fixing,
and firewood), and drought-tolerant fruit trees including varieties of oranges and mangoes.
Wetlands International should take the lead on this section of the workshop. Other organizations
that could help with the workshop in general include the African Institute for Economic and
Social Development and AGRODEV (www.agrodevngo.org). The last and third stage of the
workshop should be the distribution of seeds and seedlings and a field visit to their farms to
discuss how PfR could improve irrigation in the future since household survey respondents also
mentioned water being a major challenge to farming.
3. Business Capacity Building
Building capacity in the charri zone to undertake business activities could improve the
lives of vulnerable households with few other livelihood options. Business is also considered a
33
Figure 15. What livelihoods do you want more information
about?
climate-smart and ecosystem-friendly livelihood option, because during household surveys it
was listed as a livelihood that does well in drought (1 respondent), and a livelihood that does
well in conditions of both severe drought and severe flood (2 respondents). Additionally, from
the household survey a large proportion of respondents (20) buy their food from shops, which
suggests that there is a market for business in the charri zone. I therefore propose that PfR
support business capacity building in charri zone communities.
Many community members have already experimented with business or trading activities
or have expressed a desire to learn more about business. Businesses such as kiosks (1
respondent) and restaurants (1 respondent) are listed as the main source of income for those
households. Also, several households utilize various businesses as a minor livelihood activity
including carpentry (1 respondent), butcher (2), kiosk (2), selling miraa (2), plumbing (1), and
selling chickens (1). Other households have recently started or experimented with businesses
including selling miraa (2 respondents), kiosks (2), and selling vegetables (1). This illustrates
that community members in the charri zone have already started businesses, and further capacity
building could help improve their business practices and profits. During the household surveys,
respondents showed an interest in adopting business in the future (2). The most telling
assessment result is seen in figure 15,
which shows that business is tied with
modern farming for the most
commonly listed livelihood that
respondents want more information
about and to learn more about (7
respondents). Furthermore, 2
respondents said that PfR could support
their livelihoods through capital for
business, and any PfR business
capacity building project must also
address how to finance businesses.
The assessment results above provide the rationale behind conducting a business capacity
building project. Logistically, this project could take on several forms. One option would be to
34
provide a workshop to vulnerable households about business skills and financial resources
available to them. Another option would be to help form a community group and work closely
with them to educate them on business skills and help them financially set up a business of their
choosing. Business skills that should be covered in any type of workshop or capacity building
should include accounting, measuring loss and profit, how to obtain goods, how to do pricing,
how to develop a business plan and proposal, and savings options for profits. To financially
support business development there are also several options. PfR, or MID-P, could directly fund
business proposals or provide micro-loans to business proposals. Another option is creating a
group business where women combine their financial resources to open a business. Other
options available through banks and financial institutions could also be explored. An
organization that may be able to help with business capacity building is TechnoServe Kenya
(http://www.technoserve.org/our-work/where-we-work/country/kenya#_overview) but other
organizations may also exist.
Conclusions
The purpose of this assessment was to determine climate-smart and ecosystem-friendly
livelihood options that PfR can promote in their project areas. Through the information gained I
believe that I have recommended such alternative livelihood options. When analyzing data and
thinking about possible recommendations the main theme I tried to keep in mind was livelihood
resilience. To me this means two things: making current livelihoods more resilient to climate
change and environmental degradation, and diversifying livelihoods so that if one livelihood fails
a household has alternatives to fall back on and support themselves with. When considering
possible recommendations I used these two ideas to guide the recommendations.
To conclude, the major thing I want to stress is the need for action. One of the biggest
challenges faced by the volunteers conducting the interviews was that community members are
tired of being questioned but not seeing results. Some households were so frustrated that they
even refused to be interviewed or said at the end of the interview that this is the last time they
will answer questions. This frustration by many households poses questions about the ethical
nature of the livelihoods assessment. In my opinion, it is unethical to take up the time of
community members through the household surveys and focus group discussions without
35
delivering any results. Therefore, the need for action is increasingly important and that was the
whole motivation behind the livelihoods assessment in the first place. I would also like to thank
all of the volunteers and Partners for Resilience staff that helped conduct this assessment.
Without their help and support the climate-smart, ecosystem-friendly livelihoods assessment
would not have been possible.
36
Appendices
Appendix A: Volunteer Training Manual and Household Interview Guide
Training Manuel: Livelihoods Assessment
Partners for Resilience - Kenya
June 12, 2013
Prepared by Amy Quandt
amy.quandt@colorado.edu
PhD Environmental Studies
University of Colorado - Boulder
1. Purpose of the Assessment
This livelihoods assessment is being conducted for the Partners for Resilience Project
(PfR). Partners for Resilience (PfR) are an alliance of Dutch based non-profit making
organizations namely: The Netherlands Red Cross (NLRC), The Catholic Organization for Relief
and Development Aid (Cordaid), CARE Netherlands, Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre
(RCCC) and Wetlands International (WI) in nine countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Mali,
Indonesia, Philippines, India, Nicaragua and Columbia). PfR is implementing the Climate-Proof
Disaster Risk Reduction (CPDRR) programme in Ewaso Nyiro North River basin through local
partners namely Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS), Merti Integrated Development Programme
(MID P) and Wetlands International Kenya chapter. The programme aims at increasing
resilience of vulnerable communities to address increased disaster risks, effects of climate
change and environmental degradation. The programme has three expected outcome objectives:
4. Objective 1: To increase the resilience of communities to disasters, climate change and
environmental degradation;
5. Objective 2: To increase the capacity of civil society organisations (CSOs) to apply
disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate-change adaptation (CCA) and ecosystem
management and restoration (EMR) measures and conduct policy dialogue;
6. Objective 3: To make the institutional environment from international to grass-root level
more conducive to integrate disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and
ecosystem-based approaches.
The translation of each intervention strategy into practice is characterized by an
innovative integration of three approaches: Disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change
adaptation (CCA) and eco-system management and restoration (EMR). So far different targets
have already been reached with respect to the above three programme objectives.
In PfR Kenya, target areas are traditional pastoralists of the Borana tribe. However, these
target communities have sedentarized and live in settled communities in permanent housing;
many do not have large herds of animals. The area is prone to drought and seasonal flooding of
the Ewaso Nyiro River. Current livelihood options are very limited, mainly focused on livestock-
37
keeping and exploratory farming. This is supplemented by chronic food aid. PfR aims to take a
“livelihood” approach at the community level, and encourage people to diversify and strengthen
their livelihoods to reduce the risk of disaster, adapt to climate variability and change, and
manage/restore their ecosystems. Therefore, PfR Kenya would like to carry out a survey to
assess what is going on and the possible options that could be best promoted and encouraged by
the program. The assessment will help identify resilient livelihood options that are both climate-
smart and ecosystem-friendly that could be implemented and/or encouraged in the project areas
by the PfR partners and implementing organizations.
2. Assessment Logistics
This section includes an outline of the basic assessment logistics. This includes
information about the survey and a basic schedule for the daily activities of the assessment. The
assessment will take place in 4 communities located near the Ewaso Nyiro River.
Approximately 50-60 individual interviews and 2-4 focus group discussions will be completed in
each community. This makes a total of 200-300 individual interviews and 8 - 16 focus group
discussions. The individual interviews will be selected randomly from a list of households that
the Community Development Committee in each community will provide. Each interviewer will
receive the names of 10 - 15 households that they should aim to visit and interview throughout
the visit, which will most likely last 2 to 3 days. Women interviewers will be interviewing
women and male interviewers will be interviewing men. Detailed interview procedures are
provided in the next section. Field observations will also be made about the community and
livelihood activities and notes and photos will be taken. After the information is collected the
data will be collated and analyzed and alternative livelihood recommendations will be provided
to the Partners for Resilience project partner organizations and implementing organizations.
The following timeframe is the schedule of activities when visiting a community to
administer the survey and conduct the focus groups. One day will be spent in each community
and the general schedule below will be followed for each visit.
Activity
Materials/Logistics
Personnel
Time Spent
Arrival and Preparation
Transportation, training materials,
volunteers should be contacted ahead of
time and prepared, focus group members
should be selected and notified ahead of
time by volunteers.
Abdi, Amy, Shadrack,
Malik, and Anthony to
help mobilize
volunteers ahead of
time
1 hour
Volunteer Training (to
be conducted before
survey administration but
not necessarily on the
same day)
Flipcharts, clipboards, surveys, paper,
pens, an appropriate meeting space, list of
households to select respondents
Amy,
Volunteers/Champions
1 - 2 hours
Focus Group
Discussions
A meeting space, flipcharts, markers,
focus group discussion questions
Amy
1 hour each for a
total of 1 to 2
hours
38
Survey Administration
Clipboards, pens, surveys
Volunteers/Champions,
Respondents, and Amy
1 hour per survey
(to be occurring
simultaneously as the
Focus Group
Discussions)
Field Observation
Pens, paper
Amy, Volunteers,
Community Members
If time allows
3. Interview Techniques
This section includes the general protocol to be used while conducting an interview. It
also includes tips to help make the interview process easier and to ensure that the information
collected is of a high quality. Please read this section very carefully and ask your trainer if you
have any questions about anything. It is very important that you understand this information and
that each interviewer follows these protocols and tips. The information collected during the
interviews should be of the highest quality in order to effectively meet the assessment objectives
and provide information about climate-smart and ecosystem-friendly livelihood alternatives.
The livelihood alternatives that will come from this survey could make a big difference in the
lives of the communities that PfR works with!
The following are the basic steps and techniques to understand for conducting an interview:
Beginning the interview
1. Introduce yourself clearly.
2. Explain the purpose of the interview and read the introduction at the beginning of the
survey.
3. Address terms of confidentiality (see notes below for more about confidentiality).
4. Choose a setting with the least distraction and most privacy (most likely near their home).
5. Explain the format of the interview.
6. Indicate that the interview should take between 30 minutes to 1 hour.
7. Use these first few minutes to establish a rapport and friendly chatting is encouraged but
do not take up too much time.
8. Allow interviewee to clarify any doubts about the interview or if they choose to not be
interviewed then thank them for their time and move to the next household. The
interview is optional and the respondent should not be coerced to participate. If they do
not want to participate, that is fine.
9. Let the respondent know that they can choose to skip any questions they want to or stop
the interview at any time during the interview.
10. Decide in which language the interview will be conducted. Ideally, use the language in
which the respondent is most comfortable.
11. Prepare to begin the survey and note taking.
During the Interview
1. Be polite, professional, and friendly.
39
2. Ask one question at a time word for word as written and look them in the eyes when you
ask questions.
3. Ask questions in the order they are given on the survey and ask every question.
4. Be neutral and objective; do not offer opinions, judgments, or advice.
5. Listen carefully to what they are saying and not what you think they should be saying.
6. If you are unsure about what they are saying gently probe further or ask for additional
clarification or elaboration (for more advice on how to prove see the notes below).
7. Do not read through your questions quickly like you cannot wait to be finished.
8. Do not let the respondents stray to another topic, but steer them back to the topic at hand.
9. See the notes below for how to best record responses.
Practicing
Ending the Interview
1. Show appreciation and thank the respondent for their time.
2. Let the respondent know that the information they gave will be very useful.
3. Allow a few minutes for polite conversation. The respondent might have questions about
PfR or the survey they want to ask.
The following tips and advice will help you be a successful interviewer and collect good,
accurate information:
Confidentiality
Confidentiality is incredibly important in order to obtain honest and accurate information.
Therefore it is important to make sure the respondent understands that their responses
will not be shared with the public and will be used only for the purpose of the study.
Maintain confidentiality by conducting the interview in a private location without anyone
else being present. This may be difficult but at the very minimum make sure that the
respondent is not around those who may influence their answers. For example, when
interviewing a woman it may be fine for her children to be around, but potentially not her
husband who could influence her answers.
Put the completed survey immediately back in its folder after the interview is concluded.
Do not show the completed survey to ANYONE outside the research team and do not
discuss the interview with ANYONE outside the research team.
Interviewer Bias
It is very important that the interviewer not influence or bias the respondent and their
answers, you want people to answer honestly and not just the way they think someone
wants them to answer.
By slanting the results they might jeopardize the results or purpose of the study.
Do not ask leading questions that may cause the respondent to answer in a certain way.
For example do not ask question such as "You are a farmer, right?"
Avoid phrases such as: "I agree (or disagree) with you," "That is not right," "You are
wrong," or "That can't be right."
40
Probing and Drawing Out Responses
Probing is a technique used by the interviewer to draw out a response without putting forward
their own opinion or biasing the person's answer. Probing is used when the respondent is shy or
not giving complete answers. There are different kinds of probing techniques that may work for
you:
Silent probe
Allow the respondent to have time to think about their answer. Staying silent for a minute
after asking the question may give the respondent time to answer the question more
accurately.
Verbal recognition
An interviewer can also get the respondent to answer by letting the respondent know they
are listening. The best way to do this without putting too much outside influence on the
respondent is by saying "ok" or "uh huh" after the respondent finishes a sentence. Also
some feedback is alright. By occasionally adding statements like "thank you that was
helpful," or "that is useful information," you can help encourage and give confidence to
shy or timid respondents.
Verbal probe
Sometimes it is good to ask clarifying questions without putting forward your own
opinion or making the respondent feel bad. These types of questions include: "Could you
explain what you mean by that?" "Could you tell me anything else about ____?" and
"Could you tell me more about that?"
Clarifying probe
Sometimes the respondents might give a very long answer that is hard to capture in notes.
One way to make sure that you have a clear idea of what the respondent was saying is by
paraphrasing or summarizing what you just heard and asking. . . "Is that a fair summary?"
Recording the Responses
Write the responses immediately as they are being given.
Please record responses in either English or Kiswahili.
You do not need to record the whole response but be sure to capture the main points and
ideas.
Feel free to use lists or key words to capture the main points.
Do NOT disregard something just because you do not think it is important; write down
all answers given by the respondent.
Cultural Sensitivity
It is important to remain culturally sensitive at all times throughout the interview process
and follow the local cultural norms.
If possible, the interview should be conducted in whichever language the respondent is
most comfortable.
In order to obtain honest and culturally appropriate information it is best if women
interview women and men interview men.
Dress in a manner that is culturally acceptable for the interview and consistent with what
the local people wear. This may mean dressing conservatively or wearing a head
covering. This also means not dressing too fancy or formal if the respondent will not be
41
dressed formal. If you are dressed much more formal than the respondent they may feel
intimidated.
Non-Verbal Language
Encourage respondents by nodding and smiling.
Make eye contact frequently and do not just look at the survey sheet.
Look interested in what they are saying.
Maintain positive body language.
Make sure you are dressed appropriately.
4. Interview Questions and Format
It is important to make sure that you have familiarized yourself with the interview
questions before actually conducting the interviews. This is important because it helps you guide
and structure the interview. The interview questions are available in English, Kiswahili, or
Borana. Let the respondent decide which language they would like to use. The example
questions below are in all three languages but during the actual survey the different languages
will be available separately. In this example survey Kiswahili is first, Kiborana next in italics,
and English in smaller text and in parenthesis last.
HOUSEHOLD LIVELIHOODS SURVEY
Tarehe ya mahojiano Tariki Odhu (Date of Interview) ____________________________
Kijiji Olla (Village) _____________________________________
Anayehoji Nam odhu namgafat (Interviewer) __________________________________
MWANZO JALQAB (INTRODUCTION)
Jina langu ni_____________. Nimetoka katika mradi wa Partners for Resilience kutoka
mashirika ya Cordaid, Netherland Red Cross, Wetlands International, na Red Cross/Red
Crescent Climate Centre. Mradi huu unahakikishwa unatendeka katika vitongoji vyetu na
shirika la msalaba mwekundu na Merti Integrated Development Programme (MID-P). Mradi
huu inafanyika katika vitongoji vinao karibiana na mto wa Ewaso Nyiro. Kiini cha mradi huu ni
kuongeza ukakamavu wa wanavijiji kupunguza makali ya janga, kubadilika uhali wa anga, na
uharibifu wa mazingira na pia kuongeza nguvu kwa washiriki mbalimbali katika eneo la
vitongoji vyetu kuweza kutenda, kufanya na kufikiana na njia mbalimbali ya kupunguza janga
inayo husisha jinsi ya kukabiliana na mabadiliko ya hali ya anga, na kudumisha na kuboresha
mazingira. Mradi wa Partners for Resilience yanafanya utafiti kuhusu jinsi watu wanavyo
jimudu kimaisha. Lengo la utafiti huu ni kuangalia jinsi bora tunavyoweza kujimudu kimaisha
kupitia mabadiliko ya hali ya anga bora na mazingara nzuri. Habari zote ambazo utatupea
zitakuwa za siri na zitatumika kwa utafiti huu, tu. Ushirikiano wako ni wa kujitolea na unaweza
kukubali kuhojiwa au la. Kwa ruhusa yako, nitakuuliza maswali kuhusu mradi huu na
mahojiano na itachukua muda wa saa moja. Nitaandika kidogo wakati tunawasiliana. Asante.
42
Maqan kiyin ______________ Anini waar Partners for Resilience Projectiti kayu Cordaid,
Netherlands Red Cross, Wetlands International, Red Cross/ Red Crescent Climate Centre walin
jiran. Huji tana waari hojatu Kenya Red Cross Society kaanilen Merti Integrated Development
Programme. Project kana waar Galan Waso Nyiro North irr qubatu tochani akk waari
imidamne oja dibbi dufu ka akk ola faa, Bedelam qilensa faa yokan arda kes jiran midasiti faa
akk dum waar barsisani kara wan kanan dowan kayu dum midami namat indufn. Baranot akk
bedelaman oja qilensi lafa bedelamfa kanin arda kes jiran gudisani dadalu akk Muuk nami
inchir fa yokan muuk obriti fa. Partners for Resilience Project kunini odhu isan irra fudachu
feda Waan nami jirun ira ka akk horri qencha faa laf tesan keesat. Waan kan wani tochanif akk
odhu argatan waan nami jirun irra ka amale midasan gaf dibi maamul dansa namaf horile
irjiru.Odhu isan irra argan tokole namut indabarsinu amale baranotum kanaf fenaa.
Nutdaramitin fedum tanteti nam infenele dubin injirtu. Oja atin kubalte odhu taan nukenita
Project kan ira taa masaa tokfa fudatu. Wandidiqo tok qorada akum atin wanatimtut.
My name is ______________. I am part of the Partners for Resilience Project which is a joint project by Cordaid,
Netherlands Red Cross, Wetlands International, Red Cross/ Red Crescent Climate Centre and the implementing
partners the Kenya Red Cross Society and the Merti Integrated Development Programme. The project is
implemented in the Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin and aims to increase the resilience of communities to the
impacts of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation and to enhance the capacity of civil society
organization to apply and promote an approach to disaster risk reduction that includes climate change adaptation and
sustainable ecosystem management. The Partners for Resilience Project is conducting a survey about livelihood
activities in the area. The purpose of this information is to learn about what livelihood activities can be promoted in
the future that are both climate-smart and ecosystem friendly. All information you may provide will be confidential
and will be used solely for this study. Your participation is voluntary and you can choose to not participate. With
your permission, I will ask you a set of questions related to this project and this should take about an hour. I will be
taking some brief notes as you answer the questions.
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
Umri Gaan (Age) _______________________________________________
Jinsia Uww/dir (Gender) ____________________________________________
Umeitimu Kiwango Gani ya Masomo? Agg min agami somt (Education) ___________________
Kabila Gos (Ethnic Group) __________________________________
Dini Dinti (Religion) ______________________________________
Umeoa au Umeolewa? Wafute/ sifudani? (Marital Status) ________________________________
Kiasi cha Uwanja Unaomiliki Qias lafa/ plot (Area of Household Land) _______________________
Umri wa Watu wa Nyumba Yako (pamoja na mhojiwa) Gaan waar min sunit galu (Household
members ages)
43
LIVELIHOODS INFORMATION
1. Katika nyumba yako mnafuga mifugo? Horri ola qabda? NDIYO au HAPANA (circle one)
(Does your household keep animals?)
AKIJIBU NDIYO:
1a. Mnafuga wanyama gani, na mnawafuga nyumbani au mbali? Horrin atin qabdu
maanfa? Horrin ollat gal mo fago jir? (What animals do you keep and are they kept at home or
far away from the homestead?)
1b. Unategemea nini kufuga mifugo ukikutwa na matatizo? Esa waargat oja horrin dibb
qab? (watu wengine, upataji wa ardhi) What do you rely on to keep animals when the situation is
not favorable? (other people, access to land, etc).
1c. Ni mazingira gani ni mzuri kwa kufuga mifugo? Fula akamit horri dansa? (What
environmental conditions are good for keeping animals?)
1d. Mabadiliko gani umeweza kupitia/kuona kwa muda ukiwachunga mifugo yako?
Bedelam akami agart gan kesat hori qabdan kan ira? (What changes have they experienced
over the years of practicing pastoralism?)
1e. Unapitia changamoto gani? Dibb akami agart? (What challenges do you face?)
AKIJIBU HAPANA/LA:
1f. Mbona? Nini inakufanya usifuge mifugo? Manif horri qencha inqabn? (Why not? What
prevents you from keeping animals?)
2. Katika nyumba yako huwa mnalima? Obru/shamba qotatani? NDIYO au HAPANA (circle
one) (Does your household practice agriculture?)
AKIJIBU NDIYO:
2a. Unalima mimea gani? Midan kam obrat? (What crops do you grow?)
2b. Huwa unalima mimea yako kivipi? Midan sun akam obrat? (How do you grow your
crops?)
2c. Unategemea nini ili uweze kulima ukikutwa na matitizo? (kwa mfano, watu wengine,
upataji wa ardhi) Esa waargat oja obru/ shamban dibb argat? (What do you rely on farm
when the situation is not favorable? For example, other people, access to land, etc).
<18
18 - 55
55+
Kiume Dir (Male)
Kike Uww
(Female)
44
2d. Ni mazingira gani ni mzuri kwa kulima? Fula akamit obru/shamba dansa? (What
environmental conditions are good for farming?)
2e. Changamoto gani unapitia ukilima? Dibb akami agart? (What challenges do you face?)
AKIJIBU HAPANA/LA:
2f. Mbona? Nini inakufanya usilime? Manif obru/shamba inqotan? (Why not? What
prevents you from farming?)
3. Katika nyumba yenu mnatoa chakula wapi? Mnapataje chakula? Dir keas kana sagale garami
argatan? Sagale kara kamin argat? (What are your household's sources of food? How do you obtain food?)
4. Katika nyumba yenu mnatoa mapato wapi? Woma alla argata? Bese kara kamin argat?
(What are your household's sources of income? How do you obtain money?)
5. Ni njia gani zingine mnajimudu katika nyumba yenu? Waani nami jirun didiqon kayu atin
ojat maan? (What are the minor livelihood activities practiced by your household?)
6. Unajimudu kupitia njia gani zingine isipokua ukulima au kufuga mifugo? AKIJIBU NDIYO,
Ni nini? Waani nami jirun kayu obruf/ shamba yokan horri qencha intatin ka atin ojat maan?
(Do you have any non-agro-pastoral livelihood activities? IF YES, what?)
7. Ni kujimudu kimaisha gani unatishiwa na janga la ukame, na kwa njia gani? Waan nami jirun
kamit guya ola gudho miidam? Kara kamin? (What livelihoods are most threatened by drought and
how?)
7a. Ni njia gani ya kujimudu kimaisha hufanya vyema wakati wa ukame? Waan nami
jirun kamit jirachu danda guya ola? (What livelihoods do the best in times of drought or dry
years?)
8. Ni njia gani ya kujimudu kimaisha unatishiwa na hali ya joto jingi, na kwa njia gani. Waan
nami jirun kam gudho owi miid? Akamin? (What livelihoods are most threatened by high temperatures and
how?)
8a. Ni njia gani ya kujimudu kimaisha hufanya vyeme wakati ya joto jingi, na kwa njia
gani? Waan nami jirun kamit dansa guya owa? Akamin? (What livelihoods do best when the
temperatures are very high and how?)
9. Ni njia gani ya kujimudu kimaisha unatishiwa na mafuriko, na kwa njia gani? Waan nami
jirun kam fachan bisani gudho miit? Akamin? (What livelihoods are most threatened by flood and how?)
9a. Ni njia gani ya kujimudu kimaisha unafanya vyema wakati wa mafuriko au mvua?
Waan nami jirun kamit jirachu dandaa guya facha bisani? (What livelihoods do best in times
of flood or wet years?)
10. Kwa sababu ya mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa na anga, inaweza kuleta hatari kali ya ukame au
mafuriko na shida mbalimbali ambazo zinatokana na janga la ukame na mafuriko zinaweza
45
kubadilika. Fikiria haya, ni njia gani ya kujimudu kimaisha unafikiria inaweza kuambatana
vyema kwa wakati kama huu na kwa nini? Bedelam qilensati, olafi facha bisani gudho jirti.
Waani nami jirun kamit danda jirachu guya olatif facha bisani? Manif dandet? (Due to climate
change, weather may become extreme with more severe drought and severe flood and also the risks may be
constantly changing. Considering this, which livelihood activities do you think would adapt better to such a
situation and why?)
11. Watu wa kijiji chako wanafanya jinsi gani kujimudu kimaisha ambaye inaharibu mazingira
au maliasili, na inaharibu nini? Waan nami jirun ka isan ojatan kamit lafaa irr injirr? Akamin?
(What livelihoods are taking place in the community that harm or damage the environment and how?)
11a. Kama jinsi hii ya kujimudu kimaisha inaharibu mazingira, mbona watu
wanaendelea kufanya? Waan nami jirun sun manif ojatan? (Why do people carry out each
livelihood?)
11b. Njia gani mbalimbali tofauti watu wanazo ya kujimudu kimaisha? Waani dibin isan
ojachu dandetan maan sun malle? (What alternatives do people have?)
12. Watu wa kijiji chako wanafanya jinsi gani kujimudu kimaisha ambaye haiharibu mazingira,
au jinsi ya kujimudu kimaisha ambaye inaboresha mazingira na mnaboreshaje? Waani nami jirun
ka isan ojatan kamit lafaa irr jir? Akamin lafa irr jirt? (What livelihoods are taking place in the
community that do not harm or damage the environment, or even livelihoods that improve the environment, and how
do they improve it?)
13. Ulianzaje jinsi ya kujimudu kimaisha mpya tangu mwaka tano uliopita? NDIYO au
HAPANA? (circle one) Gaan shan kadabr waan nami jirun woma jalqabdani? (Have you started
any new livelihood activities in the past 5 years?)
13a. AKIJIBU NIDYO, ulianza kufanya nini mpya na mbona? AKIJIBU HAPANA, kwa
nini hukuanza jinsi mpya ya kujimudu kimaisha? IF YES, Maan jalqabdan? IF NO,
manif jal inqabin? (IF YES, what activities did you start and why? IF NO, why not?)
13b. Jinsi mpya ya kujimudu kimaisha inaendeleaje? Utapendekeza jinsi ya kujimudu
kimaisha huu kwa wengine?) Waani jalqabdan sun akam taat? Namu barisftani waan
jalqabdan sun? (How are the new livelihoods performing? Would you recommend them to others?)
14. Umewai kufanya majaribio ya jinsi ya kujimudu kimaisha mbalimbali? NDIYO au
HAPANA (circle one) Waani nami jirun dibin kayu isan taka ojatan jirti? (Have you experimented
with different livelihood activities?)
AKIJIBU NDIYO:
14a. Umejaribu kufanya nini na mbona? Maan faa ojatan? Manif ojatan? (What activities
have you experimented with and why?)
14b. Jinsi gani ya kujimudu kimaisha ilifaulu na jinsi gani ya kujimudu kimaisha
haikufaulu na kwa nini? Waan sun kamit midage, kam imidagin? Akamin ? (Which ones
were successful and which ones were not and why?)
46
15. Unatamani au unataka kufanya jinsi gani ya kujimudu kimaisha kwa siku za baadaye na kwa
nini? Waan jiranin dibin jirti kayu isan qabachu fetani gaf dibi? Manif qabachu fetan? (Are there
livelihoods you want to adopt in the future and if so, why?)
16. Kuna njia nyingine wa kujimudu kimaisha ungependa habari zaidi au ungependa kujifunza
zaidi? Waani dibin nami jirun kayu isan barachu fetan jirti? (Are there livelihoods you would like
more information on or want to learn about?)
17. Unataka watoto wako wafuate jinsi gani ya kujimudu kimaisha na kwa nini? Waani dibin
nami jirun kayu atin ilman keti damt maan? Manif damtaf? (What livelihoods are you encouraging your
children to pursue and why?)
18. Katika nyumba yako mnapata changomoto gani ukitaka kuanzisha jinsi mpya ya kujimudu
kimaisha? Dibb akami agart waan nami jirun areti jalqabu? (What are the challenges that your
household faces in adopting new livelihood activities?)
19. Unapanda miti? NDIYO au HAPANA (circle one) Muuk obritani? (Do you plant trees?)
19a. AKIJIBU NDIYO, kwa nini unapanda miti and unapanda miti gani? AKIJIBU
HAPANA, kwa nini hupandi miti? IF YES, Muuk akami obritan? manif obritan? IF NO,
Manif muuk inobrin? (IF YES, why and what types of trees? IF NO, why not?)
20. Mradi wa Partners for Resilience utawezaje kukusaidia kujimudu kimaisha? Waan nami
jirun kayu Partners for Resilient Project isan qarqart jirti? (How could the Partners for Resilience
project support your livelihood?)
21. Tumefika mwisho wa mahojiano. Ungependelea kuongeza chochote? Wani dibin atin iti
dart jirti? (We have reached the end of the interview. Is there anything else you would like to add?)
47
Appendix B: Focus Group Discussion Guide
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE
Date of Interview (Tarehe ya Mahojiano) _______________________________
Village (Kijiji) _______________________________________
Group (Kikundi cha akina nani?) ________________________________________
Number of Participants (Watu wangapi) __________________________
Moderator (Nani anaongoza mahojiano) _____________________________________
INTRODUCTION
My name is ______________. I am part of the Partners for Resilience Project which is a joint
project by Cordaid, Netherlands Red Cross, Wetlands International, Red Cross/ Red Crescent
Climate Centre and the implementing partners the Kenya Red Cross Society and the Merti
Integrated Development Programme. The project is implemented in the Ewaso Nyiro North
River Basin and aims to increase the resilience of communities to the impacts of disasters,
climate change and environmental degradation and to enhance the capacity of civil society
organization to apply and promote an approach to disaster risk reduction that includes climate
change adaptation and sustainable ecosystem management. The Partners for Resilience Project is
conducting a survey about livelihood activities in the area. The purpose of this information is to
learn about what livelihood activities can be promoted in the future that are both climate-smart
and ecosystem friendly. All information you may provide will be confidential and will be used
solely for this study. With your permission, I will ask you a set of questions related to this
project and this should take about an hour.
Jina langu ni_____________. Nimetoka katika mradi wa Partners for Resilience kutoka
mashirika ya Cordaid, Netherland Red Cross, Wetlands International, na Red Cross/Red
Crescent Climate Centre. Mradi huu unahakikishwa unatendeka katika vitongoji vyetu na
shirika la msalaba mwekundu na Merti Integrated Development Programme (MID-P). Mradi
huu inafanyika katika vitongoji vinao karibiana na mto wa Ewaso Nyiro. Kiini cha mradi huu ni
kuongeza ukakamavu wa wanavijiji kupunguza makali ya janga, kubadilika uhali wa anga, na
uharibifu wa mazingira na pia kuongeza nguvu kwa washiriki mbalimbali katika eneo la
vitongoji vyetu kuweza kutenda, kufanya na kufikiana na njia mbalimbali ya kupunguza janga
inayo husisha jinsi ya kukabiliana na mabadiliko ya hali ya anga, na kudumisha na kuboresha
mazingira. Mradi wa Partners for Resilience yanafanya utafiti kuhusu jinsi watu wanavyo
jimudu kimaisha. Lengo la utafiti huu ni kuangalia jinsi bora tunavyoweza kujimudu kimaisha
kupitia mabadiliko ya hali ya anga bora na mazingara nzuri. Habari zote ambazo utatupea
zitakuwa za siri na zitatumika kwa utafiti huu, tu. Ushirikiano wako ni wa kujitolea na unaweza
kukubali kuhojiwa au la. Kwa ruhusa yako, nitakuuliza maswali kuhusu mradi huu na
mahojiano na itachukua muda wa saa moja. Nitaandika kidogo wakati tunawasiliana. Asante.
48
WARM-UP ACTIVITY
Daily/seasonal calendars - If it has not been done yet in this community, the participants will
conduct a daily and a seasonal calendar. If there is not time to do both, let the group decide
which one is more important in relation to their livelihood activities. The calendars will be
drawn on flipchart paper.
Ratiba ya siku/ Kalenda ya mwaka - Sasa tuandika kalenda ya mwaka au ratiba ya siku moja
kuhusu shughuli zako na jinsi mnajimudu kimaisha.
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE
1. Write a list of all the major livelihoods practiced in the community (on flipchart).
(Tafadhali, mwandike jinsi ya watu wanajimudu kimaisha.)
2. Below, write a list of all the minor livelihood activities practiced in the community (on
flipchart). (Tafadhli, mwongeze jinsi ya watu wanajimudu kimaisha yote hata kama ni ndogo
sana au ni watu wachache sana)
After these lists are created the following questions will be answered using the lists and written
next to the livelihoods that apply to each question.
(Baadaya ya kuandika kila kitu, masuali yanayofuata watajibiwa kwa kutumia majibu ya
maswali 1 na 2.)
3. How do these livelihoods perform in drought conditions? Rank the livelihoods with 1 = great,
2 = fair, 3 = neutral or no effect, 4 = poor, and 5 = bad.
(Wakati wa ukame, jinsi mbalimbali watu wanaojimudu kimaisha inaendeleaje? Mweke 1 kama
ni nzuri sana, mweke 2 kama ni nzuri, mweke 3 kama inaendalea tu, mweke 4 kama ni mbaya,
na mweke 5 kama ni mbaya sana.)
4. How do these livelihoods perform in flood or wet conditions? Rank the livelihoods with 1 =
great, 2 = fair, 3 = neutral or no effect, 4 = poor, and 5 = bad.
(Wakati wa mafuriko jinsi mbalimbali watu wanaojimudu kimaisha inaendeleaje? Mweke 1
kama ni nzuri sana, mweke 2 kama ni nzuri, mweke 3 kama inaendalea tu, mweke 4 kama ni
mbaya, na mweke 5 kama ni mbaya sana.)
5. How do these livelihoods impact the environment? Rank the livelihoods with 1 = beneficial, 2
= somewhat beneficial, 3 = neutral or no effect, 4 = somewhat harmful, and 5 = very harmful.
(Haya jinsi mbalimbali watu wanaojimudu kimaisha ina athari gani kwa mazingira? Mweke 1
kama inaboresha mazingira sana, mweke 2 kama inaboresha mazingira kiasi, mweke 3 kama
hamna athiri, mweke 4 kama inaharibu mazingira kiasi, na mweke 5 kama inaharibu mazingira
sana.)
49
6. How do these livelihoods affect others abilities to carry out their own livelihood activities?
Rank the livelihoods with 1 = beneficial, 2 = somewhat beneficial, 3 = neutral or no effect, 4 =
somewhat harmful, and 5 = very harmful.
(Haya jinsi mbalimbali watu wanaojimudu kimaisha ina athari gani kwa watu wengine? Mweke
1 kama inaboresha sana jinsi kujimudu kwa watu wengine, mweke 2 kama inaboresha kiasi jinsi
kujimudu kwa watu wengine, mweke 3 kama hamna athari, mweke 4 kama inaleta shida kidogo
kwa jinsi kujimudu kwa watu wengine, na mweke 5 kama inaleta shida kubwa kwa jinsi
kujimudu kwa watu wengine)
7. Due to climate change, weather may become extreme with more severe drought and severe
flood and also the risks may be constantly changing. Considering this, which livelihood
activities do you think would perform better to such a situation? Tick the livelihoods chosen with
3 ticks = perform very well, 2 ticks = perform well, and 1 ticks = perform somewhat well (Kwa
sababu ya mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa na anga, inaweza kuleta hatari kali ya ukame au mafuriko
na shida mbalimbali ambazo zinatokana na janga la ukame na mafuriko zinaweza kubadilika.
Fikiria haya, ni njia gani ya kujimudu kimaisha unafikiria inaweza kuambatana vyema kwa
wakati kama huu? Tick jinsi ya kujimudu kimaisha kwa tick 3= itaendalea vizuri sana, tick 2=
itaendelea kiasi, na tick 1 = itaendelea kidogo.
The following questions are separate to the livelihood lists and are answered separately.
(Maswali yanayofuata hayategemea na majibu mengine na kila swali inajibu yake.)
8. What are the biggest environmental problems faced by the community?
(Mnakuwa na matatizo makubwa gani kuhusu mazingira na maliasili?)
9. What are the challenges to the current livelihood activities in the community?
(Mnakuwa na changamoto gani kuhusu jinsi mbalimbali watu wanaojimudu kimaisha?)
10. What livelihood activities would you like to adopt in the future and why?
(Mnatamani au mnataka kufanya jinsi gani ya kujimudu kimaisha kwa siku za baadaye na kwa
nini?)
11. What livelihoods do you need more information on?
(Kitu ya kujimudu kimaisha, gani mnataka kujua zaidi au kujifunza zaidi kabla ya kuanza?)
12. What are the challenges to adopting new livelihoods?
(Mnapata changamoto gani kuanzisha jinsi ya kujimudu kimaisha mpya?)
13. We have reached the end of the discussion. Is there anything else you would like to add?
(Tumemaliza maswali ya mawasiliano. Kuna kitu ambacho mnataka kuongeza au kuongea
kuhusu?)
50
Appendix C: Document Review Results
#
Livelihood
Description
Pros/Cons
Organization and
Contact Info
Climate-
Smart?
Ecosystem
friendly?
1
Camel
Camels being used as
a livestock option.
Training on how to
camel husbandry.
Pros- produce milk
even during drought
which improves
nutrition, drought
resistant and can
therefore reach
pasture out of range
for cattle, they are
browsers which
extends their
dietary range
Cons- may be
culturally
inappropriate,
buying camels to
start the project can
be expensive, lack
of knowledge on
how to herd camels,
Borana consider
camels destroyers
of trees (PfR
Baseline Survey),
expensive.
Undertaken by Kenya
Rural Development
Programme (National
Drought
Management
Authorty). Contact
Jiddah (0722654494).
Came up in the PfR
Mogogashe VCA and
PDRA report. Nanyuki
NDMA also
mentioned this. The
Community Managed
Disaster Risk
Reduction:
Experiences from the
horn of Africa
discusses the
adoption of camels
by the Hamer.
Camels are
adapted to
drought
conditions
Depends on
herding
strategy
2
Gum arabica
Collect Gum Arabica.
According to the RUA
proposal Gun Arabica
is highly marketable
and about 80 ags of
gum Arabica
collected in 2 months
will yield about Ksh
400,000.
Pros - can be
financially lucrative
Mentioned in the
Rangeland Users
Association Proposal
that was submitted
to the Drought
Management
Initiatives. Listed as
an alternative
livelihood in the PfR
Kinna VCA draft.
Utilizes
indigenous
trees
3
Ponds for
gardens
Create a water
catchment pond and
then make small
gardens or
greenhouses next to
the pond.
Pros - Does not rely
on river water or
other sources,
provide water
source and food for
household use or
sale
Cons - Labor to
build pond/water
catchment, cost of
greenhouse, access
Undertaken by Kenya
Rural Development
Programme (National
Drought
Management
Authority). Contact
Jiddah (0722654494)
Floods
could wash
out the
pond/catch
ment
structure
and/or
gardens
and
greenhous
es.
Clearing of
land could
cause
environment
al
degradation
51
to seeds
Drought
could
cause the
water in
the pond
and not be
refilled.
4
Fish farming
Create fish ponds
Pros - protein,
source of income
Cons - requires
technical
knowledge, locals
may not be used to
eating fish, lack of
access to market
can limit sale
Attempted by
Cordaid and Kenya
Rural Development
Programme (National
Drought
Management
Authority), contact
Jiddah (0722654494).
Failed with both
organizations.
Uses only a
small amount
of land.
5
Drought
Resistant
Maize
Variesties
Varieties called
Katumani and DH04
Undertaken by Kenya
Rural Development
Programme (National
Drought
Management
Authority), contact
Jiddah (0722654494).
The
purpose of
to fight
drought
conditions
and
improve
farming in
drought
conditions.
6
Aloe Plant
Production
Aloe plants can be
planted and
cultivated to be used
in lotions and
cosmetics
Pros - grows in arid
areas, not eaten by
livestock
Cons - processing of
plant
Undertaken by the
Kenya Rural
Development
Programme (National
Drought
Management
Authority) in
Samburu and
Baringo, contact
Jiddah (0722654494)
Grows in
dry areas
7
Rainwater
harvesting
and water
tanks
Harvest rainwater
through the provision
and use of tanks
Pros - Easy access to
water
Cons - Relies on rain
and tanks can sit
empty waiting for
rain
Cordaid (PfR Baseline
Survey), came up as a
suggestion to
decrease
vulnerability in the
Modogashe CA and
PDRA Report. In the
Cordaid book
Community Managed
Disaster Risk
Reduction:
Experiences from the
horn of Africa.
Does not
remove
water from
rivers
52
8
Community
tree
nurseries
Creation of
community tree
nursery to be used by
a community group
collectively to grow
trees for household
planting or sale.
Should be created
close to a reliable
water source.
Pros- help
communities come
together,
environmental
benefits, trees
provide a variety of
benefits and
products
Cons- conflict
between users, lack
of knowledge about
tree planting, water
scarcity
Mt. Kenya - Burguret
Conservation Forum
Depends
on the
conditions
and water
resources
available
Can help
promote tree
planting in
communities.
9
Planting of
Hay and
Napier
Grasses
Species include
cencherus ciliaris
(African tail grass)
and eragrostis superb
(masai love grass)
Come up as a
recommendation as a
DRR strategy to deal
with drought in the
PfR Sericho VCA and
PDRA Report. These
species included in
Muchuro proposal
(Muchuro integrated
drought mitigation
project).
Serve as
drought
fodder for
livestock
Can prevent
soil erosion
10
Digging
Dams to
support
Irrigation,
Sand Dams
Came up as a
recommended way
to support livelihoods
in the PfR Sericho
VCA and PDRA
Report, and
Modogashe VCA and
PDRA Report. Sand
dam in Malkadaka
has been successful
(Malkadaka VCA
report). Mentioned
in Biliqo VCA report.
Floods may
destroy
dams
Can disrupt
the natural
flow or rivers
11
Community
managed
conservancy
project
Pros - mitigate
external conflict,
communal
management of
resources, serve as
a drought reserve
for grazing land.
Cons - The Maasai
experiences of
creating 'group
ranches' caused
them to ultimately
lose control of large
areas of their
Proposed as a way to
reduce vulnerability
to external conflict in
the PfR Malkadaka
VCA and PDRA
Report.
Conserve
wildlife and
environment
53
territory. Requires
significant resources
both technically and
financially.
12
Poultry
raising
Womens groups or
households can raise
poultry as an income
generating activity or
to increase food
security
Pros -
Cons - "modern"
varieties may not
survive in the
project areas
In the PfR Kinna VCA
draft this is
mentioned as a
supplementary
activity conducted by
most households and
by some womens
groups.
Small
environment
al impact.
13
Green
houses
Pros - increased
food security
Cons - cost
An action proposed
by PfR Kinna VCA
draft. Also
mentioned in Biliqo
report.
Most water
efficient.
Can save
space and
therefore
natural
resources.
14
Opening of
Veterinary
Supply Shop
A youth group or
community group
could open a vet
shop in the
community
Pros - Creates an
income generation
project for the
group, also provides
much needed
veterinary supplies
Cons - Cost of
opening store,
management of
store and income
Mentioned as a
livelihood strategy in
the PfR Iresa Voru
VCA. Also mentioned
in Bulesa VCA, and
Badana VCA. In
Badana VCA they said
this has failed due to
lack of support from
donors to contribute
financially.
15
Developmen
t of
Livestock
markets
Open livestock
markets in
communities
Mentioned in
virtually all the
community VCA and
PDRA reports.
16
Planting of
trees along
river bank
Pros - Stabilize river
bank, provide shade
so less water is lost
through
evaporation,
provide tree
products
Cons - Minimal
financial benefit
Mentioned by PfR
Biliko VCA.
Help
stabilize
banks and
prevent
flooding
Conserve the
river banks
17
Creating/Op
ening of
Milk
Processing
Plant
Mentioned in many
of the community
VCA reports including
Biliqo
18
Donkey Cart
Rent out the use of a
donkey cart (with
Mentioned in PfR
Basa VCA.
A carbon-
neutral
54
Business
donkey) for those
who want to use it to
collect water or
firewood
transportat
ion method
19
Hay and
fodder
preservation
and storage
Basa community built
a shelter to store
fodder when it is
plenty for times of
scarcity.
Pros- Fodder during
dry season or times
when fodder scarce
Cons - Extra work
Mentioned in PfR
Badana VCA report.
Conducted in Basa by
PfR.
Provide
drought
time
fodder for
livestock
20
Beekeeping
Train community
groups on bee
keeping (This project
was done in Uganda
by CORDIAD And
Ecological Christian
Organization).
Beehive reserves can
be established to
designate long-term
foliage for bee
foraging.
A livelihood practiced
in Oldonyiro
according to PfR VCA
report. Also in Garba
Tula PDRA.
The
establishmen
t of forest
reserves
protects
forests from
being
cleared.
21
Bead
making and
women's
crafts
groups
Make beads and
bracelets for tourists.
Other crafts could
include making paper
mache and paper out
of elephant dung
Cons - might be
hard to find markets
These activities are
conducted in
Oldonyiro by the
Naserian and Namlek
Women Groups
22
Gardens
Pros - Enhances
nutrition and food
security
Cons - growing
vegetables could be
taboo, people may
not know how to
cook and eat
vegetables
In the Gotu VCA
there is a story of a
man who started a
tomato and spinach
garden
May
improve
food
security,
depending
on
available
water
resources
23
School Tree
Planting/
environmen
tal Clubs
Seedlings distributed
and grown by clubs.
These were used for
river bank
stabilization.
Pros - teaches
children how to
plant trees
Conducted by PfR in
communities of
Biliko, Bulesa,
Gafarsa, and Kambi
Yahuu
Environment
al
conservation
24
Processing
and Sale of
Hides and
Skin
Several of the PfR
VCA community
reports mentioned
this.
25
Amiran
farmer kits
These kits are used
to promote modern
agriculture and
Pros - high quality
food production
using minimum
Implemented by the
Kenya Red Cross in
Samburu and Moyale
55
include greenhouses
using gravity based
drip irrigation
system, top quality
agro input seeds, and
agrochemicals to
ensure a seasons
harvest. Used with
schools at
community groups.
resources such as
water, land, and
labour.
Cons - chemical use,
financial resources
districts. In the OFDA
revised proposal
2011.
26
Livestock
price
information
network
Youth that live near
markets could start a
small business where
they send a text
message or phone
call to herders that
enroll in this service
for a small fee. The
youth visit the
market daily to find
out the price of
livestock for that day,
then inform the
herders. Or a herder
could have a number
to call when they
want to know the
price and then the
youth go to the
market to check the
price for the herder.
Pros - Benefits
herders and creates
income for others
Cons - Cell service
reliability
It is mentioned in
many of the PfR VCA
reports that people
want to know the
price of livestock in
the market so they
know if they want to
sell or not BEFORE
traveling there
27
Dairy goats
Pros -
Cons - "modern"
varieties may not
survive in the
project area
(mentioned in garba
tula resilience
assessment report
(ASAL and Ministry
of Northern Kenya)
This was included in
the Muchero
proposal of the
Muchero Integrated
drought mitigation
project.
28
Fodder
Trees
Create fodder tree
nurseries for sale or
planting later.
Mentioned in Garba
Tula PfR PDRA
Provide dry
season
fodder
Environment
al
conservation
29
Petty Trade
The sale of things
such as sugar, miraa,
cigarettes, and fruits
Pros - Typically
driven by women
and benefiting
women. Can be
done collectively by
womens groups
Cons - Unable to
Mentioned in Garba
Tula Resilience
Assessment (Ministry
of State for the
Development of
Northern Kenya and
Other Arid Lands).
56
example due to lack
of capital,
transportation
problems, and
unreliable demand.
30
Drip-
irrigation of
vegetable
gardens
This project was
undertaken in
Nakapiripriit district,
Uganda. They
established a solar
powered pump that
pumped water to a
tank, which was then
used for drip
irrigation. The
community group
established beds and
tended the
vegetables.
Pros - Improve food
security, income
generation
Cons - Establishing a
water source could
be
difficult/expensive
Climate Proof
Disaster Risk
Riduction Annual
Progress Report
Project Number
107024, PfR Uganda,
Cordaid, Ecological
Christian
Organization.
Minimizes
water use.
31
Fuel
Efficient
Stove
Capacity
Building
Conduct a capacity
building workshop to
teach community
members,
particularly women,
about how to build
and use fuel efficient
stoves.
Pros - Save
firewood, save
women time which
they can then use
for other activities
that generate
income for the
family.
Cons -
Climate Proof
Disaster Risk
Riduction Annual
Progress Report
Project Number
107024, PfR Uganda,
Cordaid, Ecological
Christian
Organization.
Saves trees
32
Agroforestry
: Balanites
aegyptiaca
This tree is
considered an
indigenous
multipurpose
climate-proof tree.
The fruit is edible and
many parts of the
plant are used as
famine foods ( the
leaves are eaten raw
or cooked, the oily
seed is boiled to
make it less bitter
and eaten mixed
with sorghum, and
the flowers can be
eaten. Also used in
traditional medicine.
The tree fixes
nitrogen, can be used
as a live fence, woo
dburned as a low-
smoke firewood.
Pros - Food security,
fencing, fodder,
fixes nitrogen, wood
used as firewood,
toothbrushes,
fences, provides
traditional medicine
for headache and
cough.
Cons - Tree takes
time to grow
Very
flexible
tree, can
withstand
occasional
flooding,
and has
good
drought
tolerance.
Also can
provide dry
season
food for
animals
and
people.
Fixes
nitrogen
which can
improve soil
fertility
57
Appendix D: Isiolo County Data Summary
Isiolo County Data Summary
This summary includes the results from all 270 household surveys conducted for the
climate-smart, ecosystem-friendly livelihoods assessment. It is made up of graphs and tables
that illustrate the major important findings of the livelihoods assessment.
Question 1: Do practice agriculture?
Practice Agriculture?
No. of Respondents
Yes
132
No
134
Question 2: Do you practice livestock keeping?
Keep Livestock?
No. of Respondents
Yes
192
No
78
Question 3: Which livelihoods are threatened by drought and which do well in drought?
Livelihoods Threatened By Drought
No. of Respondents
Food Security
4
Livestock
120
Cattle
70
Goat
25
Agriculture
104
Everything
4
Human Health
6
Selling Miraa
1
58
Onions
1
French Beans
3
None
1
Potatos
1
Maize
4
Kibarua
1
Beans
2
Sheep
37
Shoats
2
Business
2
Selling Farm Produce
1
Camel
1
Donkey
2
Livelihoods That Do Well in Drought
No. of Respondents
Livestock
14
Goat
66
Agriculture
23
Everything
1
Selling Firewood
2
Camel
102
Migration
2
Business
41
Onions
1
French Beans
2
None
36
Potatos
4
Maize
1
Kibarua
7
Beans
3
Donkey
4
Rabbits
2
Business (Cooking)
1
Charcoal burning
9
Chicken
4
Motobike Business
1
Casual Labour
7
Pigeon Peas
3
Brewing Alcohol
1
59
Selling Farm Produce
1
Relief Food
2
Destocking
1
Sheep
7
Business - Kiosk
1
60
61
Question 4: What livelihoods are threatened by high temperatures and which do well in high
temperatures?
Livelihoods Threatened
by High Temps
No. of Respondents
Business
1
Cattle
30
Livestock Keeping
30
Farming
154
Goats
20
Nothing
9
Camels
1
Everything
2
Kale
9
62
Onions
2
French Beans
2
Beans
3
Maize
4
Charcoal Burning
1
Chicken
1
Tomatoes
1
Casual Work
1
Sheep
26
Livelihoods That Do Well In High Temps
No. of Respondents
Business
20
Cattle
14
Livestock Keeping
53
Farming
18
Goats
21
Nothing
21
Collecting Stones for Sale
1
Poultry Keeping
10
Selling Firewood
1
Onions
6
French Beans
1
Beans
6
Maize
8
Everything
5
Casual Labour
12
Sorghum
1
Potatos
1
Charcoal Burning
8
Rabbit
1
Business (Cooking)
2
Donkey
2
Business (Kiosk)
3
Pigeon Peas
2
Camel
58
Beekeeping
1
Planting Trees
1
Sheep
1
63
64
Question 5: What livelihoods are threatened by floods and which do well in floods?
Livelihoods Threatened by
Flood
No. of Respondents
Livestock
45
Farming
193
Poultry Keeping
1
Human Health
5
Goats
19
Nothing
0
Onions
4
65
Potatos
3
French Beans
4
Maize
3
Transport/ Roads
3
Shelters
11
No Floods
3
Sheep
18
Beans
3
Everything
2
Fruit Trees
1
Cattle
16
Vegetable Farming
2
Livelihoods That Do
Well in Floods
No. of Respondents
Livestock
89
Farming
20
Poultry Keeping
5
Cows
54
Goats
30
Cutting Firewood
1
Camel
18
Digging Canals
2
Employment
1
Nothing
23
French Beans
3
Maize
11
Onions
2
Business - Kiosk
1
Casual Labour
11
Bananas
1
Cabbage
1
Kale
1
Business
23
Beans
3
Lentils
1
Sorgham
1
Rabbits
1
Business - Cooking
1
Beekeeping
1
66
Sheep
17
67
Question 6: What livelihoods could adapt well to conditions of both severe flood and severe drought?
Livelihoods That Do Well in Both Severe Drought and Flood
No of
Respondents
Selling Firewood
2
Dig Wells
2
Livestock
31
Camel
42
Nothing
26
Terracing
2
Planting Napier Grass
1
Charcoal Burning
1
Modern Farming / Greenhouses
17
Casual Labour
6
Farming
4
Relief Food
1
68
Banana
1
Maize
5
Business
57
Storing/Saving Food
1
Black Beans
2
Onions
1
Cows
14
Rabbits
1
Goats
18
Milk Cows
1
Chickens
4
Sorgham
2
Beans
1
Lentils
1
Planting Trees
2
Employment
2
Destocking Livestock
2
Beekeeping
1
Sheep
13
Fishing Farm
1
69
70
Question 7: What Livelihoods do you want to adopt in the future?
Livelihoods To Adopt in the Future?
No. of Respondents
Agriculture
43
Poultry farming
3
Beekeeping
3
Business
73
Goats
14
Large Scale Farming
8
Fish Farming
4
Horticulture Farming
1
Expand the Farm
8
Plant Fruit trees
1
Agro-Business
4
Livestock Business
6
Employment
1
Cross-Breeding Livestock
1
Livestock
15
Livestock (Zero Grazing)
1
Butchery
1
Formal Education
5
Restaurant
1
Destocking
1
71
Motorbike / Transport Business
2
Business (Kiosk)
7
Camel
21
Cattle
14
Open a Polytechnic Center
1
Dam for Irrigation
6
Carpentry
1
Modern Farming
6
Drip Irrigation
1
Animal Manure Fertilizer
1
Sheep
2
Cash Transfer
1
Generator
1
Plumbing
1
72
73
Question 8: What livelihoods do you want more information about or want to learn more about?
More Info About What?
No. of
Respondents
Poultry Keeping
4
Agriculture
52
Natural Gums
1
Markets for Commodities
3
Beekeeping
2
Pastoralism
8
Business
58
Modern Agriculture
44
Business - Goat Sales
1
Leadership Skills
1
Horticulture / Vegetable Farming
5
Drought Resistant Crops
2
Farming - Greenhouse/ Irrigation
6
Microfinancing
1
74
Cash Crops
1
Rabbit Raising
1
Camel Keeping
3
Fish Farming
3
Environmental Conservation
1
Carpentry
1
Computer Skills
1
Agro-Business
1
Dairy Goats
2
Driving
2
Education
2
75
Major Livelihoods You Want More Info About
Question 9: How can PfR help support your livelihoods?
PfR to Support Livelihoods
No. of
Respondents
Capital for Business
29
Equipment/ Generator
26
Dam / Borehole
25
Livestock
22
Capacity Building
19
Water for Farming
19
Seeds
14
Money/ Cash Transfer
14
School Fees
12
Farm Inputs (Fertilizer/ Pesticides)
10
Tree Seedlings/ Planting
9
Sanitation/ Latrine
8
Destocking
8
Seminars - Farming
7
Capital for Farming
7
Farming
6
76
Relief Food
6
Health Facilities
4
Poultry Keeping
4
Camel
4
Disaster/ Drought Management
4
Empower Community
2
Modern Livestock Breeds
2
Beekeeping
1
Water for Tree Planting
1
Build House
1
Rabbits Raising
1
Dove Raising
1
Markets for Farm Produce
1
Greenhouse
1
Training - Business
1
Obtain Land
1
77
78
Major Ways PfR Can Support Your Livelihoods
Question 10: How does your household obtain food? What are your sources of food?
Main Sources of Food
No. of Respondents
Buy from shops
127
Farm
74
Relief Food
52
Livestock Sales
52
Casual Labour
26
Food for Assets (Action
Aid)
17
Remittances
9
Farm Produce Sales
9
Business
4
Charcoal Sales
4
Milk from Livestock
3
Livestock
3
Help from Neighbors
2
Eggs from Chickens
1
Selling Miraa
1
Employed
1
Business - Cooking
1
79
Question 11: What are your household sources of income?
Household Source of Income
No. of Respondents
Livestock
80
Selling Crops
65
Casual Labour
56
Selling Animal Products
22
Remittances
15
Salary
13
Charcoal
12
Business
9
Selling Firewood
4
Business- Cooking
4
80
Business - Kiosk
2
Carpentry
2
Selling Miraa
2
Motorbike Transport
2
Selling Vegetables
1
Donkey Cart
1
Mechanic
1
Selling Eggs
1
Selling Relief Food
1
Business - Goats
1
OVC Office
1
Relief
1
Rental Property
1
Brewing Alcohol
1
Plumbing
1
81
82
Question 12: What minor or non-agro-pastoral livelihoods does your household practice?
Minor and Non-Agropastoral Livelihooods
No. of
Respondents
Casual Labour
50
Business - General
17
Charcoal burning
17
Business - Kiosk
12
Selling Produce/Crops
12
Poultry Keeping
9
Farming
8
Livestock Sales
7
Sell Miraa
6
Firewood Selling
6
Moving rocks/ Gravel
5
Selling Milk
4
Business - Cooking
4
Motorbike
4
Food for Work (Action Aid)
4
Relief Food
3
Goats
3
Carpentry
3
Remittances
2
Butcher
2
Merry-Go-Rounds
2
Brewing Alcohol
2
83
Self employment
1
Beekeeping
1
Working in Mines
1
Sand collection
1
Barber
1
Rabbits
1
Broker
1
Renting Rooms
1
Fixing Electronics
1
Sharpening Tools
1
Stage Manager
1
Plumbing
1
84
85
Most Common Minor or Non-Agro-pastoral Livelihoods
Question 13: What livelihoods practiced in your community harm the environment?
Livelihoods that Harm the Environment
No. of
Respondents
Burning Charcoal
110
Cutting Trees
72
Overstocking Livestock
28
Open Defecation
11
Gathering Firewood
8
Farming
8
Clearing Bush to Feed Livestock
8
Deforestation
7
Selling Gravel / Sand
5
Poor Waste Disposal
3
Cutting Poles
2
Bee Keeping
1
Poultry Farming
1
Pollute River
1
Farm Chemicals
1
Digging Furrows
1
Bush Fires
1
Selling Miraa
1
86
87
Question 14: What livelihoods have you started in the past 5 years or experimented with recently?
What Livelihoods Have you Started
Recently or Experimented With?
No. of Respondents
Farming
16
Business
13
Livestock
11
Business - Kiosk
11
Selling Vegetables and Fruits
6
French Beans
6
Selling Miraa
5
Casual Labour
4
Business - Cooking
4
Poultry keeping
3
Onions
3
Business - Sale of Livestock
3
Beekeeping
3
Sand Collection
2
Rabbit Raising
2
Planting Trees
2
Motorbike Business
2
88
Brewing Alcohol
2
Watchman
1
Textiles
1
Soy Beans
1
Selling Firewood
1
Self-Help Group
1
Relief Food
1
M-Pesa Shop
1
Making Tools
1
Making thatch roof for sale
1
Loans
1
Hunting
1
Gravel Making
1
Fishing in the River
1
Employment
1
Dove Raising
1
Donkey Cart
1
Dairy Goats
1
Cows
1
Clothes Sales
1
Charcoal Burning
1
Cereals Farming
1
Cash Transfer
1
Carpentry
1
Butcher
1
Bead Making
1
89
Most Common Recently Started or Experimented With Livelihoods
Question 15: What challenges do you face when starting new livelihoods?
Challenges To Starting New Livelihoods
No. of Respondents
Capital / Funds
117
Lack of Info/ Knowledge
51
Lack of Farming Resources/ Equipment
30
Drought and Floods
18
Food Security
14
No Manpower
12
Poverty
9
Lack of Skills
8
Lack of Space/Land
7
Lack of School Fees
4
Insecurity
3
90
Lack of Time
3
Markets
2
Human Health
2
Transportation
1
91
Question 16: Do you plant trees? If yes, what trees and why? If no, what prevents you from planting?
Have You Planted Trees?
No. of Respondents
Yes
126
No
156
Trees Planted?
No. of Respondents
Neem
27
Grevillea robusta
24
Mango
13
Cypress
13
Blue gum / Eucalyptus
12
Guava
8
Fruit Trees
7
Indigenous Trees
6
92
Avocado
4
Papaya
3
Orange
2
Jacaranda
2
Red Cedar
2
Herbal Trees
2
Miraa
1
Moringa
1
Banana
1
Pine
1
Acacia (Badan - Kiborana)
1
Dobyalis caffra (Kayaba - Kiswahili)
1
What Prevents Tree Planting?
No. of Respondents
Do Not Know Their Importance
38
Lack of Water
37
No Seedlings
28
93
Lack of Info/ Knowledge
22
Lack of Space
8
Never Told to Plant
4
Poor Environment
3
Household Migrates
2
Lack of Tools
2
Why Have You Planted Trees?
No. of Respondents
Shade
42
Fruit
23
Lumber
16
Bring Rain
11
Firewood
10
Environmental Conservation
10
Prevent Soil Erosion
8
Medicine
8
Prevent Dust
5
Windbreak
3
Water Conservation
3
Decorate Land
2
Income
2
94
95
Appendix E: Town Zone Data Summary
Town Zone Data Summary
This summary includes the results from all 114 household surveys conducted in the Town
Zones, which include Kinna and Merti, for the climate-smart, ecosystem-friendly livelihoods
assessment. It is made up of graphs and tables that illustrate the major important findings of the
livelihoods assessment.
Question 1: Do you practice agriculture?
Practice Agriculture?
No. of Respondents
Yes
29
No
82
Why Do You Not Practice
Agriculture?
No. of Respondents
Lack of Seeds
7
Lack of Water
9
No Time
12
Lack of Manpower
15
Lack of Capital
16
No Interest
2
Old Age/ Disability
14
Lack of Land
19
Lack Tools / Resources
3
Lack of Skills/ Knowledge
6
96
Question 2: Do you practice livestock keeping?
Keep Livestock?
No. of Respondents
Yes
79
No
35
Livestock
No. of Respondents
Goats
44
Sheep
34
Cows
44
Chicken
5
Shoats
4
Donkey
2
Camel
1
97
Question 3: What livelihoods are threatened by drought and which do well in drought/
Livelihoods Threatened
By Drought
No. of Respondents
Cattle
30
Sheep
14
Livestock
60
Farming
34
Shoats
2
Goats
5
Business
2
Maize
2
Selling Farm Produce
1
Livelihoods That Do
Well in Drought
No. of
Respondents
Livestock
5
Farming
13
Business
32
Nothing
10
Selling Farm Produce
1
Camel
50
Goat
29
Chicken
1
Relief Food
2
98
Question 4: What livelihoods are threatened by high temperatures and which do well in high
temperatures?
Livelihoods Threatened By
High Temps
No. of
Respondents
Livestock
13
Farming
64
Tomatoes
1
Cattle
12
Casual Work
1
99
None
6
Goat
8
Sheep
13
Livelihoods That Do Well in High
Temps
No. of
Respondents
Livestock
30
Farming
9
Business
14
Onions
1
Camel
31
Cattle
3
Beekeeping
1
Chicken Rearing
3
Goats
9
Everything
4
Planting Trees
1
Nothing
1
100
Question 5: What livelihoods are threatened by floods and which do well in floods?
Livelihoods Threatened
by Flood
No. of
Respondents
Livestock
16
Farming
91
Goats
6
101
Fruit Trees
1
Human Health
1
Sheep
12
Shelter
6
Cattle
3
Vegetable Farming
2
Livelihoods That Do
Well in Flood
No. of
Respondents
Livestock
53
Farming
6
Business
18
Maize
2
Cattles
19
Employment
1
Business - Kiosk
1
Beekeeping
1
Camel
8
Sheep
4
Goats
8
Nothing
3
102
Question 6: What livelihoods can adapt to conditions of both severe flood and severe drought?
Livelihoods That Do Well in Both
Severe Flood and Drought
No. of Respondents
Business
35
Chicken Rearing
2
Indigenous Crops
1
Fruit trees
1
Cattle
11
Camel
22
Nothing
8
Employment
2
Destocking Livestock
2
103
Modern Farming
8
Greenhouse
1
Beekeeping
1
Goats
13
Sheep
3
Casual Labour
1
Fish Farming
1
Livestock
9
Question 7: What livelihoods do you want to adopt in the future?
What Livelihoods Do You
Want To Adopt?
No. of Respondents
Farming
10
104
Business
34
Livestock
11
Camel
8
Business - Livestock Sales
2
Goat
6
Fish Farming
3
Large Scale Farming
5
Cattle
2
Business - Kiosk
1
Opening a Polytechnic Center
1
Dam for Irrigation
2
Carpentry
1
Modern Farming
5
Education
1
Drip Irrigation
1
Beekeeping
1
Animal Manure Fertilizer
1
Transport Business
1
105
Question 8
Want More Info About What
Livelihoods?
No. of Respondents
Business
21
Modern Farming
24
Pastoralism
3
Vegetable Farming
2
Cash Crops
1
Camel Keeping
1
Fish Farming
3
Environmental Conservation
1
Carpentry
1
Hygiene
1
Computer
1
Agro-Business
2
Greenhouse
2
Dairy Goats
2
106
Question 9: How can PfR support your livelihoods?
How can PfR Support Your Livelihoods?
No. of Respondents
Capital for Business
19
Given Livestock
12
Money/ Cash Transfer
10
Farming Equipment - Generator, Pipes
5
Destocking
6
Borehole / Dam
11
Capacity Building
8
Help with School Fees
6
Capital for Farming
4
Camel
1
Sanitation / Latrines
4
Capacity Building - Farming
2
Tree Planting
1
107
Food Voucher
3
Empower Community
2
Question 10: What is your households sources of food? Where do you obtain food?
Main Sources of Food
No. of Respondents
Milk from Livestock
3
Buy from shops
82
Relief Food
33
Eggs from Chickens
1
Food for Assets (Action
Aid)
9
Farm
8
Remittances
7
Farm Produce Sales
2
Livestock Sales
25
Casual Labour
3
Selling Miraa
1
108
Employed
1
Business
2
Question 11: What is your households major source of income?
Household Source of Income
No. of Respondents
Livestock
48
Salary
10
Remittances
10
Casual Labour
12
Farming
14
Selling Firewood
2
Selling Vegetables
1
Selling Animal Products
7
Business- Cooking
1
Business - Kiosk
1
109
Business
5
Carpentry
2
Charcoal
3
Donkey Cart
1
Mechanic
1
Selling Eggs
1
Selling Relief Food
1
Business - Goats
1
OVC Office
1
Question 12: What minor and non-agro-pastoral livelihoods are practiced by your household?
Minor and Non-Agro-Pastoral Livelihoods
No. of Respondents
Poultry Keeping
4
Livestock Sales
4
Selling Vegetables
6
Kiosk
5
Selling Milk
3
Casual Labour
13
Cutting Firewood
3
Selling Gravel
2
110
Business
8
Charcoal Burning
5
Selling Miraa
2
Motorbike Business
1
Business - Cooking
1
Farming
6
Carpentry
2
Merry-Go-Round Group
1
Broker
1
Renting Rooms
1
Remittances
2
Fixing Electronics
1
Sharpening Tools
1
111
Question 13: What livelihoods practiced in the community harm the environment?
Livelihoods That Harm the
Environment
No. of Respondents
Cutting Trees
29
Charcoal Burning
57
Deforestation
7
Selling Gravel
2
112
Firewood
2
Overstocking Livestock
11
Cutting Poles
4
Farming
5
Clearing of Bush to Feed Livestock
8
Question 14: What livelihoods have you started in the past 5 years or experimented with recently?
What Livelihoods Have You
Started/Experimented with in the Past 5
Years?
No. of Respondents
Farming
7
Making Gravel
1
Business
9
Business - Livestock Sales
1
Casual Labour
1
Donkey Cart
1
Fishing in River
1
Making Tools
1
Selling Firewood
1
Charcoal Burning
1
Hunting
1
Livestock
6
Motorbike Business
1
Sand Collecting
1
113
Business - Kiosk
3
Selling Fruits and Vegetables
3
Selling Meat
1
Selling Miraa
1
M-Pesa Shop
1
Watchman
1
Dairy Goats
1
Poultry
1
Beekeeping
1
Question 15: What challenges do you face when starting new livelihoods?
Challenges To Starting New
Livelihoods
No. of Respondents
No Produce to Sell
1
Lack of Info/ Knowledge
28
114
Capital / Funds
42
Insecurity
1
Lack of Resources/ Equipment
20
Poverty
2
Lack of Time
2
No Manpower
5
Lack of Space/Land
1
Drought
2
Food Security
10
Transportation
1
Human Health
2
Question 16: Do you plant trees? If yes, what types and why? If no, why not?
Have you Planted Trees?
No. of Respondents
Yes
55
No
73
115
Trees Planted
No. of Respondents
Neem
20
Acacia (Badan - Kiborana)
1
Dobyalis caffra (Kayaba - Swahili)
1
Mango
2
Fruit Trees
1
What Prevents Tree Planting?
No. of
Respondents
Household Migrates
2
Lack of Water
12
Poor Environment
3
Lack of Info/ Knowledge
7
No Seedlings
7
Lack of Space
5
Do Not Know Their Importance
25
Never Told to Plant
3
116
Why Have You Planted Trees?
No. of Respondents
Shade
22
Fruit
3
Prevent Soil Erosion
2
Prevent Dust
2
Decorate Land
2
Bring Rain
3
Medicine
5
Windbreak
2
Firewood
1
Environmental Conservation
4
117
Appendix F: Riverine Zone Data Summary
Riverine Zone Data Summary
This summary includes the results from all 96 household surveys conducted in the
Riverine Zone in the Gotu, Burat, and Manyangalo communities for the climate-smart,
ecosystem-friendly livelihoods assessment. It is made up of graphs and tables that illustrate the
major important findings of the livelihoods assessment.
Question 1: Do you practice agriculture?
Practice Agriculture?
No. of Respondents
Yes
72
No
24
Question 2: Do you practice livestock keeping?
Practice Livestock Keeping?
No. of Respondents
Yes
58
No
38
Animals Kept
No. of Respondents
Chicken
18
Goat
24
Rabbit
1
Dove
1
Cattle
29
118
Donkey
1
Duck
1
Sheep
4
Question 3: What livelihoods are threatened by drought and which do well in drought?
Livelihoods Threatened By Drought
No. of Respondents
Food Security
4
Livestock
36
Cattle
8
Goat
4
Agriculture
50
Everything
4
Human Health
1
Selling Miraa
1
Onions
1
French Beans
3
None
1
Potatos
1
Corn
2
Kibarua
1
Beans
2
Livelihoods That Do Well in
Drought
No. of
Respondents
Livestock
9
Goat
6
Agriculture
10
Everything
1
Selling Firewood
2
119
Camel
12
Migration
2
Business
7
Onions
1
French Beans
2
None
15
Potatos
4
Maize
1
Kibarua
7
Beans
3
Donkey
1
Rabbits
2
Business (Cooking)
1
Charcoal burning
9
Chicken
3
Motobike Business
1
Casual Labour
7
Pigeon Peas
3
Brewing Alcohol
1
120
121
Major Livelihoods That Are Either Threatened by Drought or That Do Well In Drought
Question 4: What livelihoods are threatened by high temperatures and which do well in high
temperatures?
Livelihoods Threatened
by High Temps
No. of
Respondents
Business
1
Cattle
2
Livestock Keeping
12
Farming
55
Goats
3
Nothing
3
Camels
1
Everything
2
122
Kale
9
Onions
2
French Beans
2
Beans
3
Maize
4
Charcoal Burning
1
Chicken