Article

Shadowing: Who benefits and how? Uncovering a booming EFL teaching technique for listening comprehension

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Abstract

This study examines common claims associated with shadowing. Studies in Japan conclude that shadowing is effective for improving learners’ listening skills. Two common claims are that shadowing is effective for lower-proficiency learners and that it enhances learners’ phoneme perception, thus improving listening comprehension skills. The former notion lacks sufficient research and the latter empirical data. Therefore, this study explores these claims by examining whether shadowing training improves learners’ phoneme perception and listening comprehension skills, and whether its effectiveness is limited to lower-proficiency learners. Participants comprised 43 Japanese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) from a Japanese national university. Nine lessons were conducted using an EFL textbook, following the teaching procedures outlined by previous studies. The pre- and post-tests utilized part of Japanese standardized tests for English listening (22 questions) and a 20-item dictation cloze test. Students were divided into low- and intermediate-proficiency groups using the listening pre-test results. Statistical analyses indicated that phoneme perception was enhanced in both groups, but only low-proficiency learners improved their scores for high-school level listening questions. Accordingly, language instructors may wish to use shadowing to improve learners’ foreign language skills, especially for bottom-up processes in listening.

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... Shadowing (also called mimicry) is a template-based method. It has been evidently significant for EFL learners to nurture their pronunciation skills using self-study exercises and imitate authentic English input (Hamada, 2016). Rongna and Hayashi (2012) postulated that practicing shadowing for about 10-30 minutes per day helps learners recognize the patterns that make up the sentences. ...
... Departing from the results of prior research that shadowing promotes motivation, attitudes, self-study and enhances listening and speaking abilities, the present study sets out to solidify such prior findings. It brings in more evidence of shadowing effectiveness on prosodic aspects as it helps non-native learners of English acquire a better command of the sound system of English beyond word and sentence levels (Hamada, 2016(Hamada, , 2018Haufe, 2012;Mishima, 2017;Sumiyoshi & Svetanant, 2017). It reviews in detail the available information and presents new and significant acoustic information about the topic. ...
... Based on this model, the researchers asked the participant to shadow 20 times or ten times per week, resulting in better performance. Opponents of shadowing contend that shadowing is discouraging, especially for low-level learners (Hamada (2016). The author's contention stems from the difficulty of performing this task; weak learners may be affected by negative feelings (e.g., demotivation and lack of confidence). ...
Article
Full-text available
Adopting an acoustic framework, this experimental study elucidates the effect of the shadowing technique on the prosodic competence of learners of English whose L1 (Arabic) and English have quite dissimilar phonological systems. It appertains to prosodic aspects such as pauses, stress, and sound length that cause challenges to non-English native speakers. Two individuals of heterogeneous linguistic background participated in a pre-test and a post-test before and after five weeks of shadowing sessions. The data was analyzed acoustically using Praat Software. Findings showed that the participant with the elementary level outperformed the other participant whose level was intermediate, partially because the former was highly motivated to improve her English. The study concluded that shadowing per se is in no way a panacea for improving supra-segmental features unless it is coupled with a motivation to do so, regardless of the level of proficiency.
... The advantage of shadowing, improvement of speech perception, is considered to contribute to comprehension when listening to unfamiliar English variations. In shadowing case studies, Japanese English learners who speak Japanese-accented English practiced shadowing with American English stimuli and improved their speech perception skills of American English (e.g., Hamada, 2016). It is hypothesized that if they practice shadowing with audio stimuli of another English variation, they may also improve their perception skills toward the English variation. ...
... Second, the past L2 shadowing research mentioned that the fatigue of the participants needs careful consideration. Shadowing is a cognitively demanding task (Kadota, 2007;Hamada, 2016), so exposing the participants too much and for too long would easily preclude them from sustaining their concentration. To reflect L2 learners' direct voices, in the initial process of preparing the material, one of the authors demonstrated a few examples and asked three proficient L2 learners how many sentences they could work on with full concentration. ...
... When incoming auditory signals and listeners' expectations match, comprehension is smoothly processed, but when there is a mismatch, executive resources such as working memory, attention, and semantic integration need to be recruited, slowing processing and increasing the listening effort (Van Engen & Peelle, 2014). Through shadowing practice, the participants in the experimental group improved their perception skills toward Chinese-accented English, just as they did toward American English in other studies (e.g., Hamada, 2016). After the training, there was probably less mismatch between the incoming auditory signals and these listeners' expectations. ...
... Since shadowing includes processes of speaking, listening and comprehension of speech simultaneously [2], it has been employed as a practicing strategy among simultaneous interpreters first and later was also adopted by language teachers. Recent decades have seen the effectiveness of shadowing in language learning [3][4][5]. [3][4] showed shadowing can improve students' listening comprehension. [3] also suggested that shadowing can enhance learners' phoneme perception ability. ...
... Recent decades have seen the effectiveness of shadowing in language learning [3][4][5]. [3][4] showed shadowing can improve students' listening comprehension. [3] also suggested that shadowing can enhance learners' phoneme perception ability. ...
... [5] showed that shadowing can improve learners' intonation, fluency, word pronunciation and overall pronunciation. And comparison study suggested that shadowing could be more or at least no less effective than extensive reading, reading aloud and listening in improving speaker's corresponding language skills, that is reading comprehension, speaking, and listening comprehension [4,[6][7]. The reason why shadowing could benefit language learning probably has its foundation in its processing mechanism. ...
... Since shadowing includes processes of speaking, listening and comprehension of speech simultaneously, it was firstly introduced as a practicing strategy among simultaneous interpreters (see [1] for a review) and later language teachers also adopted this method. Recent decades have seen the effectiveness of shadowing in language learning [2][3][4], especially in Japan. Research in [2][3] showed shadowing can improve students' listening comprehension. ...
... Recent decades have seen the effectiveness of shadowing in language learning [2][3][4], especially in Japan. Research in [2][3] showed shadowing can improve students' listening comprehension. The result in [2] also suggested that shadowing can enhance learners' phoneme perception ability. ...
... Research in [4] showed that shadowing can improve learners' intonation, fluency, word pronunciation and overall pronunciation. And comparison study suggested that shadowing could be more or at least no less effective than extensive reading, reading aloud and listening in improving speaker's corresponding language skills, that is reading comprehension, speaking, and listening comprehension [3,[5][6]. ...
... Hsieh et al., 2013;Lin, 2009) and recently has been recognized internationally (e.g. Hamada, 2016a, Hamada, 2016bFoote and McDonough, 2017). Despite its increasing popularity as an effective L2 learners' bottom-up listening technique, there is no summative review of shadowing to date. ...
... When listening, people use both top-down and bottom-up processing (Vandergrift and Goh, 2012). Shadowing improves bottom-up processing in listening because it helps learners perceive and recognize words (Hamada, 2016a). Low-listening proficiency learners depend on top-down processing to compensate for their weaker bottom-up processing (Rost, 2011). ...
... Research also shows who benefits from shadowing and when and how it should be used. First, past research has reported that shadowing is effective mainly for lowproficiency listeners (Hamada, 2016a;Kato, 2009;Tamai, 1997). In these studies, learners were divided into two proficiency levels and the lower-proficiency listeners were shown to have improved their listening comprehension skills the most. ...
Article
Twenty-five years have passed since a teaching technique, called shadowing, was introduced in Japanese EFL contexts. Recently, this technique has gradually been recognized around the world. Given that many studies have been published about shadowing, the time is ripe to summarize the results of the studies and to propose how shadowing should be used. This article introduces shadowing, first referring to theoretical explanations provided so far, especially in terms of attention, cognitive process, and listening process.The article then summarizes past studies on the effects of shadowing on listening and speaking. Next, it discusses challenges in research and also introduces shadowing variations for further use of shadowing. As a classroom teaching tool, this article suggests that beginner level learners should start from shadowing for listening and proceed to shadowing for speaking.
... Interestingly, one could argue that research in an EFL setting may have fewer threats to internal validity because students are less likely to use English outside of class on a regular basis. While it may or may not be true, Hamada (2016) explicitly stated that she assumed that the students in her study had no exposure to English outside the classroom. ...
... The next ten studies focus on the teaching of listening and speaking by testing a variety of specific interventions such as intercultural contact (i.e., contact with native speakers of the L2), suprasegmental instruction, the teaching of pragmatic routines, and even shadowing (i.e., repeating language while listening). In all cases except the shadowing study (Hamada, 2016), a control group who received regular instruction was used for comparison. Tomita and Spada's (2013) was a repeated measures study, discussed further below, where all students participated in both conditions. ...
... The twenty-four remaining studies can be considered quasi-experimental because intact classes were used. Only one of these studies, Hamada's (2016), used no control group. Both types of quasi-experimental studies can be rigorously designed. ...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning - edited by John W. Schwieter June 2019
... Each student could hear the shadowing voices of other students, but the volume of the audio was considered high enough to prevent being disturbed by others. These procedures have been used in other studies (e.g., Hamada, 2016) and still fulfilled the purpose of the research, showing positive results. ...
... As Clarke and Garrett (2004) mentioned, past studies on NSs' perceptual adaptation showed that brief exposure to accented speech benefits listeners, and even less than a minute of exposure triggers NSs' perceptual adaptation to NNSs' accents. In Hamada (2016), learners were exposed to a total of 1,104 words in an eight-day shadowing training, with positive results on their phoneme perception skill development. Given that NSs' perceptual adaptation occurs within a minute, eight lessons may be too long even for NNSs, but to ensure their improvement, providing a similar amount of exposure to 1,104 words is reasonable. ...
... Second, narrowing the discussion to shadowing alone, the result matched previously conducted research on shadowing. Shadowing was shown to improve EFL learners' phoneme perception skills, especially those of low-listening proficiency learners (Hamada, 2016). In the experiment, Japanese learners improved their phoneme perception skills of North American English, which is different from the Japanese-accented English they are accustomed to. ...
... This technique is used by those who want to adopt the conversational style of a particular person. Also known as shadowing reading or shadowing listening, this involves language learners "speak along" in time with an audio text (Hamada, 2015), which shares some common features with karaoke singing except that with song singing along, one can have the words in the front. The implication of shadowing is that one"s shadow follows every movement he/she makes. ...
... Moreover, this approach should be considered as a useful source of assistance for lower-level learners in enhancing their communication skills. Hamada (2015) pointed out that five times shadowing of a particular phrase is most beneficial for language acquisition. Before and after the shadowing activities, other tasks should be completed to guarantee the understanding and familiarity with the topic. ...
... As consequence, this study analyzes the influential benefits of its application in contact with more authentic materials in order to maximize its effectiveness in enhancing learners" communication skills from the point of phonological awareness. This can be explained by the intention of applying shadowing in teaching language was to allow learner build a connection between real phonological realisations of words and their orthographical forms and meanings, especially where weak forms, elision and assimilation exist (Hamada, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the years, there have been various teaching methods, and approaches introduced and then applied in teaching English language. Among them, shadowing techniques have been widely used for many years, and authentic materials have also proved to assist learners greatly in their second language acquisition process. Over their time teaching at university, the researchers have been persuaded that the more exposure students have to language as spoken and used by native speakers, the better they would become in their communication. This proves to be of great importance when it comes to young learners" acquisition of the language. This belief has shed a light to this research paper. This paper aims at investigating the effectiveness of applying shadowing techniques and authentic materials to promote phonological awareness among young learners of English. The study was conducted within the period of 8 weeks in a class of 40 young learners at grade 5 whose language proficiency ranged from A1-A2 according to Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR). The data were collected via a variety of qualitative and quantitative tools inclusive of interview, survey, and classroom portfolio. The findings revealed that authentic materials that were gathered from updated and trendy conversation situations accelerated learners" engagement and applicability in practice while shadowing techniques contributed to enhancing students" phonological correctness, self-confidence, and fluency in daily communication. As a result, the combination of two techniques together played a role in optimizing classroom activities in teaching pronunciation for younger learners in the presence of an optimistic environment...
... Shadowing is another instructional activity commonly used in decoding training. In the shadowing practice reviewed in these studies, learners tracked the speech that they heard and vocalized it as clearly as possible while simultaneously listening to it (Hamada, 2016(Hamada, , 2019Sumarsih, 2017). ...
... Under the framework of cognitive learning theory, the two most frequently reported enablers of decoding training were integrating/comparing new knowledge with existing knowledge (n = 16) and repeated practice (n = 13). In the majority of the training sessions, instructors drew learners' attention to how words that they already knew in print were spoken in connected speech or helped them to identify the difference between how words sounded in real speech and the standardized pronunciation they had learned from textbooks (e.g., Hamada, 2016;Kiany & Shiramiry, 2002;Thomson, 2012). The factors related to repeated practice needed to be interpreted in two dimensions. ...
... For example, Matthews et al. (2017) recommended using dictation tests at the beginning of decoding training to enable learners with differing proficiencies to be assigned appropriate listening texts. Hamada (2016) noted that it is important for learners to have basic English skills prior to shadowing practice. In addition, some instructors in the abovementioned 11 studies offered learners a certain degree of freedom during learning. ...
Article
Listening is a major challenge for many English as a foreign language (EFL)/English as a second language (ESL) learners. Many learners find it difficult to immediately process and segment an ongoing stream of sounds. Decoding training is one of several interventions that have been used to assist EFL/ESL learners. This paper reviewed empirical studies of the effectiveness of decoding training in developing EFL/ESL learners’ listening. We examined the following four major factors: (a) the types of instructional activities used; (b) the effects of decoding training on student listening outcomes; (c) the main instructional enablers of decoding training; and (d) the main instructional barriers to decoding training. The two activities most frequently used for decoding training were dictation and pronunciation instruction. A meta-analysis of 13 intervention studies showed an overall significant effect in favor of decoding training over non-decoding instruction for listening education (Hedges’s g = 0.553, CI = 0.348 – 0.759, 95% confidence interval, p = 0.000), with no evidence of publication bias. Two theoretical frameworks, cognitive learning theory and the attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction model, were used to synthesize 33 studies to analyze the common elements that promote and hinder the development of learners’ decoding skills. We proposed a set of design principles for decoding training that are expected to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of decoding training in EFL/ESL listening education.
... Shadowing (also called mimicry) is a template-based method. It has been evidently significant for EFL learners to nurture their pronunciation skills using self-study exercises and imitate authentic English input (Hamada, 2016). Rongna and Hayashi (2012) postulated that practicing shadowing for about 10-30 minutes per day helps learners recognize the patterns that make up the sentences. ...
... Departing from the results of prior research that shadowing promotes motivation, attitudes, self-study and enhances listening and speaking abilities, the present study sets out to solidify such prior findings. It brings in more evidence of shadowing effectiveness on prosodic aspects as it helps non-native learners of English acquire a better command of the sound system of English beyond word and sentence levels (Hamada, 2016(Hamada, , 2018Haufe, 2012;Mishima, 2017;Sumiyoshi & Svetanant, 2017). It reviews in detail the available information and presents new and significant acoustic information about the topic. ...
... Based on this model, the researchers asked the participant to shadow 20 times or ten times per week, resulting in better performance. Opponents of shadowing contend that shadowing is discouraging, especially for low-level learners (Hamada (2016). The author's contention stems from the difficulty of performing this task; weak learners may be affected by negative feelings (e.g., demotivation and lack of confidence). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adopting an acoustic framework, this experimental study elucidates the effect of the shadowing technique on the prosodic competence of learners of English whose L1 (Arabic) and English have quite dissimilar phonological systems. It appertains to prosodic aspects such as pauses, stress, and sound length that cause challenges to non-English native speakers. Two individuals of heterogeneous linguistic background participated in a pre-test and a post-test before and after five weeks of shadowing sessions. The data was analyzed acoustically using Praat Software. Findings showed that the participant with the elementary level outperformed the other participant whose level was intermediate, partially because the former was highly motivated to improve her English. The study concluded that shadowing per se is in no way a panacea for improving supra-segmental features unless it is coupled with a motivation to do so, regardless of the level of proficiency.
... Training of shadowing has gained attention as a tool for learning a second language. On the other hand, shadowing is widely accepted as one of the means to improve secondlanguage learners' listening skills during interpreter training (Kurz 1992;Hamada 2012) and foreign-language learning (Hamada 2016). In addition, interpreters, who are engaged in shadowing while being trained as interpreters show increased working-memory capacity (Liu et al. 2004;Signorelli et al. 2012). ...
... In addition, interpreters, who are engaged in shadowing while being trained as interpreters show increased working-memory capacity (Liu et al. 2004;Signorelli et al. 2012). Furthermore, previous intervention studies showed that shadowing training led to improved listening (listening comprehension skills and phoneme perception) compared with dictation training in low-level secondlanguage learners, but not in high level-learners (Tamai 2002;Hamada 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Shadowing and reading aloud both involve multiple complex cognitive processes, and both are considered effective methods for second-language learning. The working memory system, particularly the phonological loop, has been suggested to be involved in shadowing and reading aloud. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week intensive adaptive training including shadowing and reading aloud of second language on working-memory capacity, regional gray matter volume (rGMV), and functional activation related to the n-back working-memory task in young adults. The results showed that compared with the training groups without speaking (listening to compressed speech and active control involving the second language), the training groups with speaking (shadowing and reading aloud) showed a tendency for greater test-retest increases in digit-span scores, and significantly greater test-retest decreases in N-back task reaction time (increase in working memory performance). Imaging analyses revealed compared with the active control group, shadowing group exhibited decreases in rGMV and brain activity during the working memory task (2-back task), in the left cerebellum and reading group exhibited decreases in them in the right anterior insula. These regions are parts of the phonological loop, suggesting the presence of training-induced neural plasticity in these neurocognitive mechanisms.
... Shadowing has been reported to be effective for listening skill improvement, especially phoneme perception processing improvement (e.g., Kadota, 2007Kadota, , 2012Hamada, 2014Hamada, , 2015, although it is often considered to be a speaking task. When learners shadow, the initial task for learners is to perceive incoming sounds; then, reproduce the heard sounds. ...
... When shadowing, EFL learners focus on the incoming sounds themselves rather than accessing the meanings of the heard sounds due to limited cognitive resource. Therefore, their phoneme perception process improves through consecutive shadowing training (Hamada, 2015). With the enhanced phoneme perception process, learners can rehearse and process more information in their working memory, especially the phonological loop, a subsystem that stores phonological information temporarily. ...
... Shadowing has been reported to be effective for listening skill improvement, especially phoneme perception processing improvement (e.g., Kadota, 2007Kadota, , 2012Hamada, 2014Hamada, , 2015, although it is often considered to be a speaking task. When learners shadow, the initial task for learners is to perceive incoming sounds; then, reproduce the heard sounds. ...
... When shadowing, EFL learners focus on the incoming sounds themselves rather than accessing the meanings of the heard sounds due to limited cognitive resource. Therefore, their phoneme perception process improves through consecutive shadowing training (Hamada, 2015). With the enhanced phoneme perception process, learners can rehearse and process more information in their working memory, especially the phonological loop, a subsystem that stores phonological information temporarily. ...
Article
In this paper, I am going to discuss the fundamental function of two seemingly-similar activities, shadowing and repetition. To examine this, I made a small classroom study in which a total of 44 university students engaged. Along with the obtained data, I will discuss the primary function of each activity. 本稿では、一見類似している二つの活動(シャドーイングとリピーティング)の基本的機能について論じる。44名の大学生を対象に教室内実験を行った。そのデータをもとに、それぞれの活動の主要な機能について議論する。
... Interaction of the learners is not encouraged, which frequently the learners may not understand the meaning of what they are repeating. It is believed that when they listen and imitate the teacher as they are learning the structures of grammar (Bin Tahir & Hanapi, 2017;Hamada, 2016;Hamada, 2016;Littlewood, 2018). For audio-lingual method, grammar is taught indirectly or covertly (Deya, Gaibani, & Elmenfi, 2019;Lee, Schallert, & Kim, 2015;Qi & Lai, 2017;Rashid, Abdul Rahman, & Yunus, 2017). ...
... Interaction of the learners is not encouraged, which frequently the learners may not understand the meaning of what they are repeating. It is believed that when they listen and imitate the teacher as they are learning the structures of grammar (Bin Tahir & Hanapi, 2017;Hamada, 2016;Hamada, 2016;Littlewood, 2018). For audio-lingual method, grammar is taught indirectly or covertly (Deya, Gaibani, & Elmenfi, 2019;Lee, Schallert, & Kim, 2015;Qi & Lai, 2017;Rashid, Abdul Rahman, & Yunus, 2017). ...
Article
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Due to growing technological advances, schools are increasingly under pressure to adopt modern technology to motivate their students, especially preparatory school students. The use of rhymes to teach English in preparatory schools, as reported by teachers and their experience, is a tremendously useful tool to achieve this aim. However, empirical evidence to confirm this hypothesis in the context of Saudi Arabian preparatory schools is almost nonexistent. The principal objective of the study is to address this void by examining the influence of rhymes as a pedagogical tool. In this research, the participants were in the preparatory class students from selected schools in KSA, with an equal number of female and male students. The experimental and control groups consisted of 30 participants each. Results revealed that the use of the rhyme-based method of teaching in English has positive linguistic and attitudinal effects on the speaking and fluency of Saudi EFL learners at the preparatory level. Meanwhile, after the use of rhymes intervention, it significantly increased learners' perception and attitude towards English language speaking. Findings present implications for language teaching and further studies. In general, when Saudi EFL learners are being supported with the rhyme's method, the better chance of developing their fluency and accuracy in speaking. Likewise, when they are encouraged and motivated to talk in real-world language application the higher confidence they exhibit, Hence, the rhymes approach has been considered as an advantageous student-centred teaching platform in enhancing their communicative competence. The development of insurrectional materials which are rhyme-based is earnestly sought.
... This controversy can also be found with regard to SBT and language skills. While some studies (Bai, 2015;Hamada, 2016;Schwartz et al., 2017;Yagcioglu, 2018) reported the benefits of SBT for language skills, some other studies (Atai & Alipour, 2012;Johnson, 2017) reported mixed findings. On the other hand, examining the effect of strategy-focused instruction on vocabulary, Wei (2015) and Alamri and Rogers (2018 ) found that strategy-based vocabulary teaching could boost students' retention and learners' awareness through channeling direct attention. ...
... The results of this meta-analysis seem to have been in line with many other studies associated with SBT and inevitably learning. Some of these studies include Benati (2005), Bedir (2010), Plonsky (2011), Marzban and Isazadeh (2012), Sarafianou and Gavriilidou (2015), and Hamada (2016). Each one of these studies focused on the part of language teaching and learning, though what we did in this study was the investigation of their combined effects on language learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
This meta-analysis study aimed to explore the effectiveness of Strategy-Based Teaching (SBT) in ELT (English Language Teaching). A total of 18 original studies (2000-2020), with 1834 participants of diverse learning and teaching contexts, conformed with the inclusion/ exclusion criteria, were employed to be analyzed in this study. To provide a comprehensive picture of the possible moderating factors, we included 21 moderators under three moderating sets. The impact of methodological criteria, such as eligibility revisions and substitution of alternative ranges of values for arbitrary or unclear decisions, was examined using sensitivity analyses. The findings revealed an overall significant, positive and medium effect of SBT on English learners' outcomes for both fixed (g = 0.65) and random (g = 62) models. Moreover, meta-regression analysis results of moderating factors showed that the place, type, and design of the study had no significant predicting effect on SBT. It has been documented that the results of moderator analysis of language skills and components were also not significant. However, the results for moderating effect of language measurement instruments were found to be significant. Studies that employed standardized tests for language learning measurement revealed significantly higher mean effect size in comparison with those that used teachers' assessments. Overall, SBT was found to be positively effective within a variety of teaching and learning contexts in ELT.
... Thus, the primary role of shadowing is to improve learners' phoneme perception skills, which at the lowproficiency levels means using the bottomup processes (phoneme perception) more than the topdown processes, exercised later, which aim at catching the meaning rather than the phonemes. Therefore, through the repetitive practice of inclass shadowing applied in diverse ways, learners become better at catching the sounds that enable them to grasp the meaning (Hamada 2016b). The dividing line between imitation and repetition is unclear, since it is the information decoding process (overlapping with sound differentiation) that is responsible for meaningful and productive shadowing. ...
... On the other hand, advanced learners, who have an already satisfactory verbal material at their command, can focus on intonation and expressiveness during shadowing. For advanced users of a foreign language the technique provides a perfect exercise in order to increase the speed of pronunciation and information processing, and, if applied in a bilingual input-output exercise, to reinforce their translation skills (Hamada 2016b;Sumiyoshi & Svetanant 2017;Wang 2017). ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to present speech shadowing (the listener’s repetition of a word, phrase or sentence immediately after hearing it) as an effective teaching technique. Shadowing has been practiced in English classes in Japan for decades and many studies have confirmed its effectiveness for improving learners’ listening comprehension and pronunciation skills. Even though some studies have already indicated that this technique is successfully used in teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) (Zajdler & Chu 2019), its potential has not been widely utilized in the Chinese classroom in Poland. Thus, the present paper will first discuss the auditory and cognitive underpinnings of shadowing, then a classification of the types of shadowing will be proposed. Finally, practical aspects of shadowing as an effective in-class CFL teaching technique will be presented.
... Similarly, shadowing exercises ask learners to reproduce what they have just heard but slightly after the speaker, at times even pausing the recording before doing so (Celce-Murcia et al., 2010). A great deal of research has investigated tracking and shadowing in controlled contexts as techniques for improving listening comprehension (Hamada, 2016), intonation (Hsieh, Dong, & Wang, 2013), and prosody, fluency, and rhythm when reading aloud (Harmon, 2014). However, they have been studied only minimally as a tool for improving L2 learners' pronunciation in spontaneous speech (Martinsen, Alvord, & Tanner, 2014;Foote, 2015). ...
Article
This article seeks to untangle the ways in which the differing roles and responsibilities of researchers and practitioners in world language education may have perpetuated misunderstandings and offers concrete suggestions for bridging this gap in ways that facilitate the mutually beneficial sharing of experience and expertise between both groups. First, we will discuss how the differing roles and responsibilities of university researchers and K–12 teachers influence their perspectives on research. Next, we offer an example of collaboration between a classroom teacher and a university researcher that yielded powerful results with direct impact on classroom instruction.We follow this with an outline of a process that K–12 teachers can use 100 to begin to develop their own questions for study and future exploration. We conclude with practical suggestions for ways that university researchers and teachers can collaborate.
... Rather than solely focusing on employing different strategies to guess what is spoken, it makes more sense and is more effective to target at learning to actually decode sound signals. This is no mean feat, but given that (a) many incorrect answers in comprehension questions can be attributed to failures of word-level or clause-level rather than general understanding (Field, 2019) and (b) researchers who have focused on sounds and English phonology in teaching listening have shown promising results (e.g., Hamada, 2016;Tsang, 2020), greater emphasis on the process of listening is warranted. In other words, greater attention to the cognitive bottom-up approach (in Milliner and Dimoski's (2021) framework) is called for. ...
Article
Many scholars and teachers in EFL education should agree that compared with reading and writing, listening has received much less attention. This brief article discusses important gaps existing in EFL listening and overall proficiency development. It presents the case for a greater focus on sounds and actual listening in the classroom and spoken input (SI) beyond the classroom. To facilitate the discussion, two modalities of listening, namely learning to listen and listening to learn are introduced. It is hoped that by shedding light on these substantive issues, EFL stakeholders will work towards fine-tuning listening pedagogical practices and facilitating learners' reception of more SI beyond the classroom, both of which will highly likely improve learners' listening skills, enhance their overall English proficiency, and lead to more positive EFL learning experiences.
... Other scholars point to the benefits of shadowing for improving listening comprehension. Hamada, in a study of 43 Japanese university level students, concluded that phoneme perception improved through nine lessons including shadowing practice [46]. Tamai's studies determined that in comparison to transcription, shadowing practice helped students obtain higher scores on listening comprehension tests [47], and that students in lower levels demonstrate more gains from shadowing than those in higher levels [48]. ...
Article
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The scarcity of opportunities to communicate in English in Japan proves a challenge for learners, as significant improvements in English as a Foreign Language) (EFL) listening and speaking will not materialize without consistent practice and a motivation to study. Furthermore, analysis of standardized test scores shows that university students’ scores tend to decrease after their first year of study (Sumida 2015; Mikada 2016). In order to overcome these difficulties, a team of teachers at a university in Japan introduced a mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) shadowing application where students can train their ears while also practicing speaking with shadowing, a technique recognized as effective for improving speaking and listening (Kadota 2014; Hamada 2016). This paper describes the introduction of this application in general education English classes. It then considers its impact on the motivation, attitudes towards communicating orally in English, and perception of English ability of 1001 first-year university students, the majority science and engineering majors, who used it over one semester. Preliminary results of a pre- and post-intervention Likert questionnaire indicate that through this system, linguistic self-confidence, interest in English, ideal L2 self, attitudes towards communicating in the L2, and perceptions of English ability were potentially enhanced.
... Led by Tamai's study, there has seen a rise in popularity of shadowing practice as a L2 teaching technique in Japan. The effectiveness of shadowing has been proven in a number of researches in the EFL context (Hamada 2011a(Hamada , 2016Shiki et al. 2010;Tamai 1997), and by some studies in the Japanese as a second language (JSL) context (Kurata 2007;Mochizuki 2006;Toda et al. 2012). The effect of shadowing is attributed to the stimuli of working memory during the attempt of on-line brain activity (simultaneous listening and speaking), which encourages automatization of the bottomup language processing (Kadota 2007(Kadota , 2012. ...
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Shadowing has increasingly been recognized as an effective practice for developing listening skills in second language learning. However, there is very little study focusing on learners’ psychological aspects in implementing shadowing practice. The aim of this study is to explore second language learners’ psychological factors, from the motivation framework point of view, in relation to shadowing practice in Japanese as a foreign language context. This study addresses research questions regarding: (1) perceived effectiveness of shadowing; (2) differences in perception depending on the shadowing performance skills; (3) factors that encourage continuing of shadowing; and (4) perceived positive and negative aspects of shadowing. The participants were 36 university students who were enrolled in an advanced Japanese language unit at an Australian university. They were asked to complete a written survey containing 35 questionnaire items and 3 open-ended questions at the end of the study period. The study employs mixed methods, of quantitative and qualitative approaches, to analyze the results and findings. The results indicate that the majority of participants perceive shadowing as effective for both listening and speaking skills, and agree on the usefulness of feedback. However, individual differences were found in how they favor the shadowing speed in relation to their comprehension of the content. The implication of classroom applications is also discussed.
... Shadowing is thought to include complex perception-production interaction and automatic semantic and syntactic processing [2][3][4]. Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of shadowing practice in second language (L2) learning in terms of listening comprehension skills [5][6], pronunciation, intonation and fluency [7][8] and overall proficiency [9]. ...
... Similarly, shadowing exercises ask learners to reproduce what they have just heard but slightly after the speaker, at times even pausing the recording before doing so (Celce-Murcia et al., 2010). A great deal of research has investigated tracking and shadowing in controlled contexts as techniques for improving listening comprehension (Hamada, 2016), intonation (Hsieh, Dong, & Wang, 2013), and prosody, fluency, and rhythm when reading aloud (Harmon, 2014). p. 665 ...
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This exploratory classroom study investigated the effects of two video-assisted pronunciation interventions on the French pronunciation of 12 males and 7 females (n = 19) enrolled in a fourth-year high school French class. Interventions occurred three times per week over a semester and required participants to repeat what they heard while watching subtitled, cultural videos in French—both during class and in self-directed computer-lab exercises. Researchers assessed the improvement in pronunciation performance using pre- and posttests consisting of both read-aloud and oral free response tasks. Statistically significant improvements were observed on both tasks, with the most striking on the read-aloud task. Participants’ perceptions of interventions were also examined using both qualitative and quantitative surveys, which indicated that students appreciated the authenticity and learning autonomy of the self-directed exercises. Findings suggest that distributed practice through culturally contextualized, video-based interventions may offer an engaging way to incorporate explicit pronunciation instruction into the high school classroom.
... 34). This method has gained attention in recent EFL classes because it improves learners' language proficiency, particularly their listening skills (e.g., Hamada, 2016;Takeuchi, 2004;Tamai, 2005). According to Kadota (2019), shadowing is also an effective way to memorize newly learned language items, including chunks. ...
... Therefore, second language teaching usually employs explicit grammatical teaching such as structural features, linguistic units but also shadowing (repeating a portion of a dialogue verbatim using the same pronunciation and intonation and increasing the capacity of the phonological loop). Through shadowing, students use correct sentence structure and vocabulary (Hamada, 2016;Khuziakhmetov & Porchesku, 2016;Moskovsky, Jiang, Libert, & Fagan, 2015). In second language learning, students "become more aware of how they can use what they already know to fill gaps in their understanding" (Vandergrift, 2004, pp. ...
Thesis
The purpose of this study was to trace the effects of a language therapy program created by the University of Zurich Language Pathology department for children with more severe language acquisition disabilities, on otherwise typically developed dialect-speaking 3rd grade students attending Swiss public schools. Switzerland poses an interesting setting for this study for two reasons. First, since there are four languages spoken in Switzerland (German, French, Italian and Romansch), many Swiss German words (dialect) have been borrowed from the country’s other language speakers. Secondly, standard German is a transparent language (and not an opaque language), but words´ sounds are often omitted/swallowed in dialect speech. This means that the dialect is not transparent. Therefore the benefits of a transparent language (one-to-one correspondence between the sounds produced and the written language) are unclear. In this study, the indirect correspondence between the spoken and written word confronting dialect speakers allows one to observe the cognitive self-regulation required to function in a diglossia. To interpret the effect of such self-regulation, two hundred and seventy nine 3rd grade students (137 females, 142 males) in 16 classrooms participated in this study. Eight classes took part in the intervention program and eight parallel classes participated as control subjects. Teachers were asked about their school program to insure that similar material was covered in each parallel class. Intervention group teachers were given an initial introduction and training in Cognitive Language Acquisition Training in the classroom (CLAT) prior to the start of the intervention. The CLAT program is designed to improve the rate of language acquisition and the length of attention span. It consisted of 60 sentences and explanatory illustrations. Each sentence was to be practiced in six steps, daily for a 12-week period. Administration of CLAT took approximately 20 minutes per school day. The assessment tool for the evaluation of the intervention study was adapted from two sources: First, the Allgemeiner deutscher Sprachtest (Steinert, 2011) which consists of four parts related to print-speech mismatch: vocabulary, rhyme, grammar and spelling. Second, The Star Counting Test (de Jong & Das Smaal, 1990) placed additional demands on the attention capacity and the ability to activate and inhibit processes in working memory. The evaluation was conducted three times: Before the program began, one week after the program was completed and finally, four months later. The four aspects of language acquisition and attention capacity were then assessed based on the improvement rate between testing times. Analysis of variances with repeated measurement showed that CLAT is an effective metalinguistic tool for all aspects of language related to a print-speech mismatch but not for improving attention and concentration.
... After listening, students could also practice shadowing the text. Through shadowing practice, students gradually become more aware of phonetic patterns, which can lead to improvements in listening comprehension (Hamada, 2016). ...
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Considering that Japanese university reading classes are upwards of 100 minutes, EFL teachers need to be equipped with a variety of “active learning” methods to keep their students engaged and focused on specific reading skills, content comprehension, and vocabulary development. However, some Japanese students might be more familiar with a top-down, passive learning approach. Using the principles of Auster and Wylie’s (2006) four dimensions of the teaching process (context setting, class preparation, class delivery, and continuous improvement), surround-sound pedagogy (SSP) was designed by the author to increase student engagement and motivation in university-level EFL reading classes by stimulating active learning. This paper provides specific strategies on how to support student vocabulary and content comprehension/ retention, confidence when reading aloud, and accuracy in pronunciation/connected speech. 日本の大学ではリーディングの授業が100分以上に及ぶことから、EFLの教師は、生徒の読む力や理解力、語彙力の向上に向けて、様々な「アクティブラーニング」の手法を身につける必要がある。しかし、日本の学生の中にはトップダウンの受動的な学習方法に慣れている学生も存在する。Auster and Wylie(2006)のティーチングプロセスの4次元の原則(文脈設定、授業準備、授業実施、継続的改善)を用い、著者はサラウンドサウンド教育法(SSP)を考案した。これは能動的学習を促すことで、大学レベルのEFLリーディングの授業における学生の取り組み方とやる気を向上させるものである。本稿では、学生の語彙や内容の理解・保持、音読時の自信、発音・連結音声の正確さをサポートする方法について、具体的な戦略を示している。
... Both shadowing and overlapping can be performed silently or by vocalising the texts. The activities that require learners to listen to a text and vocalise it as accurately as possible mainly facilitate bottom-up listening because it leaves little or no time to spare for accessing meaning (Hamada 2016). Learners should be encouraged to use texts with native speakers' voice when they conduct active listening activities so that they have access to a better model of spoken language. ...
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Inspired by the success and informed by the principles of the Extensive Reading (ER) approach, Extensive Listening (EL) and Viewing have started to gain the attention of both L2 researchers and practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theoretical and research base of EL and the extent to which it is similar to or different from ER, discuss its language learning benefits for L2 students in different learning contexts, and explore different ways EL can be productively implemented in the classroom. Practical suggestions on how to source for freely available EL materials on the Internet and how these can be pedagogically used to enhance language proficiency are also offered. We believe that EL, when systematically implemented, can not only enhance students’ listening skills but also have a positive influence on the students’ overall language development.
... Shadowing is theoretically explained as a phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, and central executive. The phonological loop consists of phonological store, which retains phonological information and the articulatory rehearsal, which actively rehearses the phonological information [14]. ...
... Her most popular seminar is a seven-step shadowing method for improving student's listening skills. Shadowing is a method of listening practice popular in Japan (Hamada, 2016). Recently, Niko added a seminar on a mnemonic vocabulary study method. ...
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This multiple case study explores the means through which freelance teachers establish their legitimacy in their classrooms outside of formal institutions. The data in this study were examined through the lens of Bourdieu’s (1986) social theory of capital and Van Leeuwen’s (2007) theory of authority. The perceived legitimacy of four core participants was examined using interviews, observations, and collection of artifacts. Native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) differences were found to be an important factor, and legitimacy was found to be highly context dependent, with some teachers constructing their legitimacy in contexts where being an NNS is advantageous. Some freelance teachers’ legitimacy is constructed around experience gained outside of the English language teaching (ELT) industry and through offering access to authentic second language contexts to their students. A minority of freelance teachers have identified pedagogical gaps in the ELT industry and have flourished in their own special market niches. The emic approach employed in this study shows that teacher legitimacy is more nuanced and context‐dependent than the simple NS/NNS dichotomy.
... This result aligns with the result of a study by Renandya and Farrell (2011) and Gilakjani & Sabouri (2016) where vocabulary was listed as one of the source of students listening problems. Japanese students too have the same problem as they are unable to recognize target words or sentence while listening (Hamada, 2015). The highest percentage for "agree" that reaches 50% or more are "I know how to check for listening comprehension in my students", "listening is a basic skill", "if teachers spend more time teaching listening skills, students would be able to work in more advanced content and skills at an earlier age", "the teaching of listening skills is the responsibility of every teacher", "I have explicit preparation for the teaching of listening skills", "listening is a skill that can be taught", "raising the quality of children's listening skills and attitudes affects their learning positively in all subject areas", "the main difficulties for learners in listening arise from the background knowledge about the topic of the passage", "when learners don't understand a word, they should work out its meaning from the context", and "after listening, students should discuss how they completed the listening activity". ...
... The students could repeat the utterances generated by the AI coach as many times as possible. This teaching technique is called English shadowing, which can help students speak English out loud right from the beginning and is suitable for beginner learners as the students in this study to improve their English speaking (Hamada, 2016). The AI coach generated two datasets for English shadowing based on a series of algorithms: total frequencies and averaged scores of English shadowing for each student. ...
This study investigated the application of an artificial intelligence (AI) coach for second language (L2) learning in a primary school involving 327 participants. In line with Community of Inquiry, learners were expected to perceive social, cognitive, and teaching presences when interacting with the AI coach, which was considered a humanized agent. To examine how learners’ perceived AI presences were related to their language learning, this study drew on AI usage data, actual learning outcomes, and attitudinal data. Results from hierarchical regression analyses suggest that cognitive presence and learners’ affection for AI’s appearance were significant predictors of L2 enjoyment, which also positively predicted learning outcomes. The score of English shadowing (representing the quality of AI usage) positively predicted learning outcomes. Contrary to intuition, teaching presence was found to negatively predict learning outcomes. Based on cluster analysis and subsequent MANOVA results, this study indicates that the learners perceiving higher social and cognitive presences via interacting with AI and showing greater affection for AI’s appearance tended to use the AI coach more frequently, demonstrate higher L2 enjoyment, and achieve higher learning outcomes. The present study contributes to the limited but increasing knowledge of human-AI interaction in educational settings and carries implications for future efforts on the use of AI for L2 learning.
... Besides, students are directed to improve their listening skills and speaking performance. This finding was in keeping with Kadota (2007;, Hamada (2014;2015) who found that when shadowing, learners are directed to hear sounds rather than accessing the meanings of the heard sounds due to limited cognitive resources. ...
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Establishing students’ pronunciation needs a promising instructional method. One of the teachers’ efforts to develop students’ pronunciation is applying the shadowing technique. The shadowing technique was able to facilitate students to practice pronunciation skills. This study was categorized with a quasi-experimental study with the non-equivalent control group design. The samples were taken randomly using a purposive random sampling. The samples consist of 70 students that were divided into two classes, namely the experimental and control classes. The data were collected through interview, multiple-choice test, and record. Here it used descriptive and T-test analysis to find the ways they learned and the results. Finally, the researchers considered that shadowing technique is very good to be applied by the teachers and lecturers in class. The most surprising aspect of the findings are; 1) the students were motivated as long as teaching and learning conducted; 2) their response mostly positive to the way they learned; 3) and they got significant change on their pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. This change can be seen from their ability in expressing their ideas and 4) inferential statistic results; t-test was 4.077 and t-table was 2.021 with degree of freedom (df) 44 and the level of significance (0.05) in 95%.
... This stage involves an array of activities from less contextualised ones to those that can be equated to realistic tasks. A most controlled technique which has proved effective is Shadowing (also called shadow reading or shadow listening), a technique where learners try to speak along in time with an audio text, sometimes with the transcript in front of them (Hamada, 2015). The main objective is in line with the connection referred before between sight and sound shapes since shadowing enables learners to polish such link between the phonological realisation of words in context and their written form and meanings. ...
Conference Paper
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The various difficulties regarding the learning of sounds faced by foreign language learners have been studied from a number of perspectives in an attempt to find roots and explanations to what may hinder the acquisition of L2/FL sounds. Taking into account such perspectives and in the light of the advance of technology, a number of steps and technology-aided activities appear to be key if teachers are to help students produce L2/FL sounds successfully. The purpose of the present paper is to offer EFL educators a variety of activities following a certain progression of a class to train students in segmental phonetics in the hope of improving students’ oral proficiency. Keywords: segmental phonetics, EFL, technology, oral proficiency.
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Cambridge Core - Applied Linguistics - The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning - edited by John W. Schwieter
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Shadowing was introduced to foreign language teaching in the 1990s and since then it has been researched in EFL teaching contexts. Shadowing has been used as a listening task, and its effectiveness on listening comprehension has been acknowledged. However, its effect on pronunciation development remains unclear. With this unresolved issue in mind, I have attempted to develop shadowing-based pronunciation teaching methods by combining shadowing with activities for pronunciation skill development, namely haptic-shadowing and IPA-shadowing. A total of 58 Japanese second-year university students participated in the experiment (29 for haptic-shadowing and 29 for IPA-shadowing). A total of 15 lessons were given to each group. The results show that the haptic-shadowing group statistically improved on all the three features of comprehensibility, segmental features, and suprasegmental features, while the IPA-shadowing group improved on comprehensibility and segmental features. Additionally, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine learners‟ perceptions toward the two types of shadowing. Learners have a more positive and fresh image of haptic-shadowing and IPA-shadowing.
Article
Shadowing, a practice of repeating what one hears as simultaneously and accurately as possible, has been researched in the Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) field for years. The research findings have shown that shadowing contributes to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ bottom-up listening skills, which leads to their overall listening comprehension skills. However, the accumulated research findings have not uncovered what aspects of bottom-up skills shadowing precisely contributes to. Thus, this study attempts to examine the aspects of bottom-up skills to which shadowing contributes and proposes a new shadowing procedure to compensate for the limitation of the current shadowing procedure. To this end, a preliminary study and a primary study were conducted. In the preliminary study, the bottom-up skill development through shadowing practice was precisely examined, using a 112-item bottom-up listening test. Thirty-six Japanese university students participated in the experiment and engaged in shadowing practice in eight lessons for a month. The result showed that shadowing practice was effective for developing the skill of identifying prominence in a speech, and word recognition skills but not effective for enhancing phonemic discrimination skills. In the primary study, to overcome the limitation of the shadowing procedure, a new shadowing procedure including three components of attention to output, corrective feedback, and explicit instruction was proposed. Twelve Japanese university students participated and engaged in the new shadowing procedure for three months. Their progress was assessed by a 32-item phonemic discrimination test, and the result showed that the new output-based shadowing procedure with explicit instruction and corrective feedback improved phonemic discrimination skills for intermediate level Japanese EFL learners.
Decoding training is an approach to teaching listening skills to help learners develop the ability to recognize individual words from speech. Although it has been historically underemphasized, recent empirical studies have pointed to its potential value in listening education. However, instructors and students generally face certain challenges when developing decoding skills. In this study, we used a meta-synthesis approach to examine all available empirical studies and identify five main challenges in decoding training: (a) insufficient time and practice, (b) student disengagement, (c) cognitive overload, (d) undifferentiated learning, and (e) ineffective feedback. We also discuss how technology was used in these studies to address these challenges. Finally, we identify several gaps in technology-assisted decoding training and offer recommendations for future research.
Article
en The current rise in interactions among English speakers with different accents entails occasional difficulties in understanding unfamiliar English accents. This study attempted to propose a teaching technique using shadowing to listen to unfamiliar English accents. The participants were 96 Japanese university students. One group worked on shadowing assisted by script, one on shadowing only, while the control group only listened and did not engage in shadowing. Five speech samples, each read in a different English accent, were used. A 75‐item dictation test (with 25 items each for Chinese, Italian, and American accents) was administered as both a pre‐ and post‐test. The results showed that while only shadowing practice alone may not promote perceptual adaptation, when accompanied by a script, it enhances students’ perceptual adaptation. 抽象 zh 近年異なる訛りを持つ英語話者同士の交流が増えたことで、意思疎通に困難さが生じている。本研究では、聞きなれない英語の訛りをシャドーイングをすることにより聞きとれるようにする方法を提案する。スクリプトとシャドーイングの組み合わせ、シャドーイングのみ、統制群の3群からなる96名の日本人大学生のデータを分析した。教材は、異なる訛りを持つ英語で読まれた5つの文章を使用した。効果測定には75項目のディクテーションテストを事前事後テストとして使用した (中国語訛り、イタリア語訛り、アメリカ英語訛り各25項目) 。結果として、スクリプトとシャドーイングの組み合わせ群が訛りの聞き取りに対して効果的であるということが分かった。
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This paper is concerned with the improvement of English prosody of Japanese EFL learners. A new type of speaking training that combines shadowing with oral reading was introduced into English classes in order to raise learners' reproduction rates in shadowing practice and to efficiently improve their English pronunciation. Twenty Japanese university students participated in ten weekly training sessions utilizing this combination of practice techniques. For the purpose of gauging improvement over the ten-week period, a pre-test and a post-test were given before and after the ten weeks, respectively, in which they recorded their readings of the same short English passage. Their recordings were acoustically analyzed to examine any improvement in their English prosody. The results revealed that in the post-test they tended to enhance the contrast between neighboring stressed and unstressed syllables by using the duration, FO (pitch), and/or intensity of each syllable. In addition, significant increase in duration and pitch range was observed in sentence-final words/segments with nuclear pitch accents, suggesting a better realization of English intonation and final lengthening. All of these findings show that the combined training method of shadowing with oral reading improved rhythm, intonation, and final lengthening in English produced by the Japanese EFL learners.
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The background literature on the repeating of a conversation partner's words, here called "conversational shadowing, shows it to be naturally occurring in L1 acquisition and adult use. This study was motivated by the question "What happens when second language learners and native speakers actively shadow each other in conversation?" I look closely at conversational shadowing through transcripts of recorded conversations between two Japanese learners of English talking with two English native speakers in mixed dyads in which they were instructed to shadow each other.
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The background literature on the repeating of a conversation partner’s words, here called conversational shadowing, shows it to be naturally occurring in L1 acquisition and adult use. This study was motivated by the question ‘What happens when second language learners and native speakers actively shadow each other in conversation?’ I look closely at conversational shadowing through transcripts of recorded conversations between two Japanese learners of English talking with two English native speakers in mixed dyads in which they were instructed to shadow each other. First, it was found that the different sets of data emerging from the two Japanese students reveal that there may be a variety of effective types of shadowing, from those which may lengthen auditory short-term memory to more interactive and naturally selective shadowing that includes commenting and questioning. Secondly, it was found that interactive conversational shadowing gives rise to the types of conversational adjustments and negotiations that are thought to positively affect language acquisition (Long, 1983) through their impact on negotiation, noticing, intake, and uptake. Thirdly, the data highlights different learning advantages for the non-native speakers (NNSs) when shadowing native speakers (NSs) and when being shadowed by NSs. Finally, I attempt to place shadowing developmentally within Vygotskian socio-cultural theory with reference to Bakhtin’s ventriloquation and to outline a generative action research agenda.
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Applied linguists are increasingly conducting meta-analysis in their substantive domains, because as a quantitative approach for averaging effect sizes across studies, it is more systematic and replicable than traditional, qualitative literature reviews. Additional strengths, such as increased statistical power, moderator analyses, and model testing, have also contributed to its appeal. The current review describes typical stages of a meta-analysis in second language acquisition (SLA) research: (a) defining the research domain, (b) developing a reliable coding scheme, (c) analyzing data, and (d) interpreting results. Each stage has a host of equally reasonable decisions that can be made; each decision will influence the conduct of the meta-analysis, the nature of the results, and the substantive implications of findings for SLA. We highlight a number of benefits and challenges that inform these decisions. In general, when a meta-analysis in applied linguistics is well planned, employs sound statistical methods, and is based on a thorough understanding of relevant theory, it can provide critical information that informs theory as well as future research, practice, and policy.
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The interactions, during word-recognition in continuous speech, between the bottom-up analyses of the input and different forms of internally generated top-down constraint, were investigated using a shadowing task and a mispronunciation detection task (in the detection task the subject saw a text of the original passage as he listened to it). The listener's dependence on bottom-up analyses in the shadowing task, as measured by the number of fluent restorations of mispronounced words, was found to vary as a function of the syllable position of the mispronunciation within the word and of the contextual constraints on the word as a whole. In the detection task only syllable position effects were obtained. The results, discussed in conjunction with earlier research, were found to be inconsistent with either the logogen model of word-recognition or an autonomous search model. Instead, an active direct access model is proposed, in which top-down processing constraints interact directly with bottom-up information to produce the primary lexical interpretation of the acoustic-phonetic input.
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Predictions derived from the Cohort Model of spoken word recognition were tested in four experiments using an auditory lexical decision task. The first experiment produced results that were compatible with the model, in that the point at which a word could be uniquely identified appeared to influence reaction times. The second and third experiments demonstrated that the processing of a nonword phoneme string continues after the point at which there are no possible continuations that would make a word. The number of phonemes following the point of deviation from a word was shown to affect reaction times, as well as the similarity of the nonword to a word. The final experiment demonstrated a frequency effect when high and low frequency words were matched on their point of unique identity. These last three results are not consistent with the Cohort Model and so an alternative account is put forward. According to this account, the first few phonemes are used to activate all words beginning with those phonemes and then these candidates are checked back to the original stimulus. This model provides greater flexibility than the Cohort Model and allows for mispronounced and misperceived words to be correctly recognized.
Article
While improving listening comprehension skills has been one of the most difficult areas for language teachers and learners, shadowing has been playing a sensational role in improving learners’ listening skills in Japan in recent years. Most studies reported the effectiveness of short-term shadowing training in terms of learners’ listening skill improvement. However, how teachers can improve the skills effectively has not been fully examined. In order to explore a more effective procedure for teaching through shadowing, this study examined the shadowing procedure as a method of teaching listening. The research question was to determine whether the use of a combination of two levels of materials for shadowing improves learners’ listening comprehension skills better than materials of similar difficulty levels. The results show that a combination of the two different difficulties of materials improves learners’ listening comprehension skills more than offering materials at only one level of difficulty. リスニング力向上は教師・学習者にとって最も難しい分野であるが、近年シャドーイングは日本で重要な役割を担っている。多くの研究では、短期間のシャドーイング訓練の効果自体は報告されているが、どのように効果的に向上させるかについては十分には深められていない。シャドーイングを用いた、より効果的な指導法を研究するために、本論ではその方法を追及する。本論の目的は、難易度の異なる教材を組み合わせた場合と同程度の難易度の教材を使用した場合のどちらが効果的かを検討することである。その結果、難易度の異なる教材を組み合わせた場合の方が効果的だということが確認された。
Article
This study examines the effectiveness of pre- and post-shadowing for the improvement of listening comprehension skills. Two groups of Japanese university freshmen participated in the experiments (Pre-shadowing group: 27 males, 5 females; Post-shadowing group: 5 males, 19 females). The instructor gave 8 lessons, and both groups used the same textbook. The pre-shadowing group learned new vocabulary and content for the target passage, and then engaged in shadowing training; Post-shadowing group started with shadowing training, and then exclusively learned new vocabulary and content. The results show that the post-shadowing group improved their listening comprehension skills. The results are discussed in terms of learners’ anxiety and attention, difficulty of the target passages, and the activation of prior knowledge. 本論ではプリ・ポストシャドーイングのリスニング能力向上への効果を検証する。日本人大学1年生2群(プリシャドーイング群:男27名、女5名、ポストシャドーイング群:男5名、女19名)を被験者とし、共通の教科書を使用して計8回の授業を行った。プリシャドーイング群はパッセージの語彙と内容を先に学習し、その後シャドーイングを行った。一方、ポストシャドーイング群は先にシャドーイングを行い、その後語彙と内容を学習した。その結果、ポストシャドーイング群のリスニング能力が向上したことが分かった。研究結果を学習者の不安度と注意度、教材の難易度、そして既存知識の活性化の観点から考察する。
Book
Now in its third edition, Teaching and Researching Listening renews its commitment to provide language educators, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of ESL, TESOL, and Applied Linguistics with a state-of-the-art treatment of the linguistic, psycholinguistic, and pragmatic processes underpinning oral language use. This revised edition incorporates signifi cantly updated sections on neurological processing, pragmatic processing, automated processing, and pragmatic assessment, as well as coverage of emerging areas of interest in L1 and L2 instruction and research. Boxes throughout such as “Concepts” and “Ideas From Practitioners” help to both reinforce readers understanding of the topics covered and ground them in a practical context. In addition, the updated section “Exploring listening” provides access to a range of tools and technologies to explore new perspectives on listening. Combining detailed overviews of theunderlying processes of listening with an exhaustive set of practical resources, this third edition of Teaching and Researching Listening serves as an authoritative and c omprehensive survey of issues related to teaching and researching oral communication for language teachers, practitioners, and researchers.
Article
This study challenged the widely accepted theory that shadowing is most effective when using easier materials. This is experiment-based research with 73 learners in total. To examine if difficult materials can improve learners' listening comprehension skills, two experiments were conducted. The first study investigated whether learners' listening comprehension skills would improve by shadowing with difficult high school materials and what aspects of listening comprehension skills they would improve by the shadowing training. 44 Japanese first year high school students participated in the first study. 13 lessons were taught using a high level English textbook from a Japanese publisher, Crown I. The second study used authentic difficult materials to support the result of the first study and examine the effectiveness of difficult materials from a different perspective. 29 high school third year students participated in the second study and practiced 17 sets of passages in Obama speech collection. Furthermore, potential problems of shadowing were analyzed qualitatively. The results suggest that shadowing with difficult textbooks can improve students' listening comprehension skills, and the problems the students have in listening after short-term shadowing training are addressed.
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This book is the magnum opus of one of the most influential cognitive psychologists of the past 50 years. This new volume on the model he created (with Graham Hitch) discusses the developments that have occurred in the past 20 years, and places it within a broader context. Working memory is a temporary storage system that underpins onex' capacity for coherent thought. Some 30 years ago, Baddeley and Hitch proposed a way of thinking about working memory that has proved to be both valuable and influential in its application to practical problems. This book updates the theory, discussing both the evidence in its favour, and alternative approaches. In addition, it discusses the implications of the model for understanding social and emotional behaviour, concluding with an attempt to place working memory in a broader biological and philosophical context. Inside are chapters on the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, the central executive and the episodic buffer. There are also chapters on the relevance to working memory of studies of the recency effect, of work based on individual differences, and of neuroimaging research. The broader implications of the concept of working memory are discussed in the chapters on social psychology, anxiety, depression, consciousness, and on the control of action. Finally, the author discusses the relevance of a concept of working memory to the classic problems of consciousness and free will.
Article
Pour verifier l'hypothese de la profondeur de traitement, on a mesure la grandeur et la qualite de la retention de seize interpretes lors de quatre epreuves sur des passages en francais: ecoute, repetition mot a mot, traduction simultanee et traduction differee
Article
Imitation has a fundamental role in learning and development within Vygotskyan sociocultural theory. In this study, we adopt a sociocultural theory view of imitation as an intentional, meaningful, and transformative process leading learners to higher developmental levels. The study centers on instances of imitation that occurred as adult learners of English as a second language (ESL) were engaged in a classroom shadow-reading task. The task consisted of an interactional phase where two learners, working collaboratively, read aloud, shadowed, and orally summarized a story, and a non-interactional phase where students produced written retellings of the story. The qualitative analysis of the data involved identifying possible instances of imitation and tracking relevant story segments throughout the different phases of the activity. Various types of imitative behaviors were found, ranging from close copies to major transformations of models, as well as immediate to deferred reproductions. From an instructional point of view, the built-in, recursive structure of the shadow-reading task seemed effective in providing affordances for persistent, meaningful imitation and internalization of second language (L2) exemplars as well as story comprehension and retention.
Article
In second language acquisition (SLA) research, two types of second language (L2) knowledge, explicit and implicit, have been discussed for almost three decades. Although many SLA researchers agree that L2 instruction should give priority to implicit knowledge, researchers have not agreed on what type of test (e.g., oral narrative test and timed grammaticality judgment test) actually assesses these constructs of L2 implicit knowledge. According to Ellis (2005), some important constructs of implicit knowledge include (a) response according to feel rather than declarative rules, (b) spontaneity rather than planned behavior, and (c) a primary focus on meaning before forms. Ellis and his colleagues have recently attempted to develop elicited imitation (EI) as a measure of L2 implicit knowledge (e.g., Ellis, 2005, 2006; Ellis, Loewen, & Erlam, 2006; Erlam, 2006). In this article, the authors provide an instrument that can be used by SLA researchers who wish to use EI to measure the implicit grammatical knowledge of adult L2 learners. The primary purpose of this instrument is to allow researchers to systematically reflect on their proposed EI research. First, the authors define EI, and then they provide suggestions to SLA researchers who wish to use their instrument. (Contains 5 footnotes.)
Article
Ss shadowed or listened to stories that had been recorded at 1 word/sec (wps), 2 wps, and 3 wps. They then took tests of word recognition, semantic retention, and syntax recognition. At the slowest rate, shadowers’ word recognition and semantic retention were somewhat higher than listeners’ scores, but this difference disappeared at faster rates. Significant positive correlations among all three retention scores were observed for listeners, but for shadowers word recognition was unrelated to either of the other two retention measures. The results are discussed in terms of monitoring during shadowing. Implications for experiments on selective attention are considered.
Listening shidoho to shite no shadowing no koka ni kansuru kenkyu
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Tamai, K. (2005). Listening shidoho to shite no shadowing no koka ni kansuru kenkyu [Research on the effect of shadowing as a listening instruction method]. Japan: Kazama.
Kakukyuno meyasu [Brief explanation of each grade
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Eiken. (2013a). Kakukyuno meyasu [Brief explanation of each grade]. Tokyo: Eiken. Retrieved from: http://www.eiken.or.jp/eiken/exam/about (April 2013).
Torikumi yasui shadowing hoho no kenkyu [A study on a learner-friendly shadowing procedure
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Hamada, Y. (2011b). Torikumi yasui shadowing hoho no kenkyu [A study on a learner-friendly shadowing procedure]. Journal of the Japan Association for Developmental Education, 6, 71-78.
Shadowing to ondoku no kaagaku [Science of shadowing, oral reading
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Kadota, S. (2007). Shadowing to ondoku no kaagaku [Science of shadowing, oral reading, and English acquistion]. Tokyo: Cosmopier Publishing Company.
Shadoingu to ondoku to eigoshutoku no kagaku [Science of shadowing, oral reading, and English acquisition
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Kadota, S. (2012). Shadoingu to ondoku to eigoshutoku no kagaku [Science of shadowing, oral reading, and English acquisition]. Tokyo: Cosmopier Publishing Company.
Ketteiban Eigo Shadowing
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Kadota, S., & Tamai, K. (2004). Ketteiban Eigo Shadowing [English shadowing]. Tokyo: Cosmopier Publishing Company.
Kokueigo noryoku shomei shutoku wo mezashita listening shido no kosatsu
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Kato, S. (2009). Kokueigo noryoku shomei shutoku wo mezashita listening shido no kosatsu [Listening activities for the acquisition of Aviation English proficiency test]. Bulletin of Chiba University Language and Culture, 3, 47-59.
Seeking for effective instructions for reading: The impact of shadowing, text-presented shadowing, and reading-aloud tasks
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Cognitive processes in phrase shadowing: Focusing on articulation rate and shadowing latency
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Miyake, S. (2009). Cognitive processes in phrase shadowing: Focusing on articulation rate and shadowing latency. JACET Journal, 48, 15-28.
Application of shadowing to TEFL in Japan: The case of junior high school students
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Mochizuki, H. (2006). Application of shadowing to TEFL in Japan: The case of junior high school students. Studies in English Language Teaching, 29, 29-44.
Visual shadowing no koka [The effectiveness of visual shadowing
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Nakayama, T. (2011). Visual shadowing no koka [The effectiveness of visual shadowing]. Journal of the Japan Association of Developmental Education, 6, 51-59.
Gakushuhoryaku no chiagai ga shadowing no fukushouryou ni ataeru eikyo [A study on learning strategies in shadowing training
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Nakayama, T., & Suzuki, A. (2012). Gakushuhoryaku no chiagai ga shadowing no fukushouryou ni ataeru eikyo [A study on learning strategies in shadowing training]. Journal of the Japan Association of Developmental Education, 7, 131-140.
The role of latency for word recognition in shadowing
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Oki, T. (2010). The role of latency for word recognition in shadowing. Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan, 21, 51-60.
Perception of articles in L2 English
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Pierce, L., & Ionin, T. (2011). Perception of articles in L2 English. Selected Proceedings of the 2009 Second Language Research Forum: Diverse Contributions to SLA. Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics
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Richards, J.C., & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. 4th edition. London: Longman (Pearson Education).
Exploring differences between shadowing and repeating practices: An analysis of reproduction rate and types of reproduced words
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Shiki, O., Mori, Y., Kadota, S., & Yoshida, S. (2010). Exploring differences between shadowing and repeating practices: An analysis of reproduction rate and types of reproduced words. Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan, 21, 81-90.
Follow-up no chokairyoku kojo ni oyobosu koka oyobi 'follow-up' noryoku to chokairyoku no kankei: dai 4 kai 'Eiken' kenkyu josei hokoku [The effect of follow-up on listening comprehension
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Tamai, K. (1992). Follow-up no chokairyoku kojo ni oyobosu koka oyobi 'follow-up' noryoku to chokairyoku no kankei: dai 4 kai 'Eiken' kenkyu josei hokoku [The effect of follow-up on listening comprehension]. STEP Bulletin, 4, 48-62.
Shadowing no koka to chokai process ni okeru ichizuke [The effectiveness of shadowing and its position in the listening process
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Tamai, K (1997). Shadowing no koka to chokai process ni okeru ichizuke [The effectiveness of shadowing and its position in the listening process]. Current English Studies, 36, 105-116.
Ten years after September 11 attacks, how life has changed
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