Article

More than one way to articulate a vision: A configurations approach to leader charismatic rhetoric and influence

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Abstract

Charismatic rhetoric represents an important tool for leaders to articulate their respective visions. However, much of the research to date on this construct has yet to consider how the eight separate dimensions of charismatic rhetoric may be used in conjunction with one another to form distinctive profiles of charismatic leadership influence. Thus, the present investigation explored the interplay of the individual dimensions using content analysis of the 1960-2012 United States presidential debates. Cluster analysis revealed the emergence of four distinctive rhetorical strategies, one of which was more strongly related to the prediction of influence success as measured by presidential election outcomes. Results suggest that conceptualizing charismatic rhetoric as a multidimensional profile construct represents a valuable area for subsequent research on charismatic rhetoric, and several possible directions are suggested.

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... Charismatic leaders use their authority to empower followers to become self-effective (Gautsch & Setley, 2016). (Baur, et al., 2016). ...
... 157). In addition,Baur et al. (2016) state visionary leadership demonstrates the "communication of an inspiring vision is seen to lie at the core of the exceptional leadership that mobilizes the masses" (p. 157). ...
... & Hoshino, 2016).Baur, Ellen, Buckley, Ferris, Allison, McKenny, and Short (2016) ...
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This study examined perceptions of differing leadership styles in the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of New Jersey to determine if a preferred pastoral leadership style exists. One hundred and thirteen randomly selected participants were administered the Vannsimpco Leadership Survey (VLS), which assesses nine leadership styles and hybrid combinations of leadership styles. Data analysis revealed there were statistical differences among the leadership style groups (F [8, 1008] = 62.96, p < .01). Transformational (M = 4.47), Democratic-Transformational (M = 4.24), and Democratic (M = 4.09) leadership style groups had the highest means in the results of the independent samples t-tests. There were no significant differences noted between the clergy, ministry leaders, and other laypersons’, non-clergy members of the Church, perceptions of leadership style groups.
... K. Chen, 2016). Second, leadership researchers using content analysis in extreme contexts have mainly focused on narratives and correspondences with followers (e.g., Baur et al., 2016;Bligh, Kohles, & Meindl, 2004a;Davis & Gardner, 2012). Although these endeavors have given insights into the importance of optimistic and inspiring messaging, leaders may not genuinely portray hope or optimism when talking with followers. ...
... Third, by examining the connection of contextual extremity on both overall psychological capital and its subdimensions, we respond to the call by Dawkins, Martin, Scott, and Sanderson (2015) by considering the dimensionality of psychological capital, which has traditionally been measured as an aggregate multidimensional construct. Important implications are determined based on how multidimensional constructs are measured (Johnson, Rosen, & Chang, 2011;Law, Wong, & Mobley, 1998) and these implications have recently begun to be considered more directly in the leadership literature (e.g., Baur et al., 2016;Davis & Gardner, 2012). By examining the underlying dimensions individually or in groups rather than as a collective, we are able to consider how individual leader resources (e.g., optimism, resilience) may be uniquely affected by contextual extremity. ...
... Using historical leadership accounts and adapting these qualitative data for such research endeavors more thoroughly highlights the influence of the context on leadership (e.g., Fiol, Harris, & House, 1999;House et al., 1991). Leadership is based in the language of leaders (Conger, 1991;Insch et al., 1997) and analyzing the rhetoric of historical leaders offers important insights into their leadership (Baur et al., 2016). As noted by Bligh et al. (2004b), "content analysis lends itself nicely to objective comparison across contexts while preserving much of the original effects of those contexts" and "is therefore ideally suited for the comparison of individual leaders over their careers" (p. ...
Article
Drawing from positive organizational behavior, psychological capital has been shown to be a beneficial resource allowing leaders to remain positive and future-oriented. While having hope, optimism, confidence, and resilience are particularly effective in periods of great risk and uncertainty, extreme environments likely affect leaders’ psychological capital, as evidenced by changes to these comprising factors. Answering several recent calls for historical and narrative-based approaches to leadership in extreme events, we use content analysis and historiometrics in the case of Benjamin Montgomery, the first African American plantation owner in the post–Civil War U.S. South, who faced a sequence of extreme events after purchasing the plantation on which he was formerly a slave. We triangulate our examination through the letters Montgomery penned to his former owner Joseph Davis—the older brother of Confederacy President Jefferson Davis, records on the focal actors, and historical documents from the period. We then reconstruct and examine the relative contextual severity and its impact on Montgomery’s psychological capital across a 6-year period directly following the Civil War (1865-1870). We find that while unfamiliar extreme episodes erode leader psychological capital, those resources are restored when such periods are overcome and experience is gained. We also reconsider psychological capital as a profile multidimensional construct and show underlying pairs of dimensions, which we label as overt positivity (optimism and resilience) and realistic positivity (hope and confidence), trend similarly yet remain distinct from the other pair. The implications of these findings and future directions are then discussed.
... Meanwhile, it is suggested to characterize the behavior of a leader by linking it to four components: task-oriented, relational-oriented, change-oriented, and passive. Avery important emphasis here is political knowledge and experience in the field of politics (Ferris et al., 2007;Ferris et al., 2012;Baur et al., 2016;Ferris et al., 2016). Some researchers analyze the benefits of political knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in the organization, where they find that those who have political knowledge / skills better understand interpersonal relationships in terms of social dynamics, regulate their behavior according to the situation, influence others, form a sincere and the image of a trusted person (Ferris et al., 2007). ...
... Some researchers analyze the benefits of political knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in the organization, where they find that those who have political knowledge / skills better understand interpersonal relationships in terms of social dynamics, regulate their behavior according to the situation, influence others, form a sincere and the image of a trusted person (Ferris et al., 2007). A total of eight components characteristic of the configuration of charismatic personality rhetoric are distinguished: (1) collective focus, (2) temporal orientation, (3) follower worth, (4) similarity to followers, (5) values and moral justifications, (6) tangibility, (7) action, and (8) adversity (Baur et al., 2016). Political leadership research emphasizes follower evaluation and satisfaction with the activities of a political leader (DeRue et al., 2012). ...
Article
The concept of leadership in education has been influenced by several disciplines: sociology, psychology, political science, economics, philosophy (Simkins, 2005, English, 2006). The development of the concept of leadership has also been greatly influenced by the analysis of organizational systems from a sociological perspective (English, 2006).The analysis of scientific literature shows that the concept of leadership in education is analyzed and presented by many authors from different points of view. Leadership in education is analyzed by emphasizing the position of administration and management, reviewing changes in the school system and leadership models that help to implement systemic changes in school, focusing on the learning process and curriculum development, emphasizing leadership in higher education, narrative, historical context, and meta-analysis.The results of the focus group with higher education staff show that leadership in higher education covers a wide range of activities: administration, management, teaching, research, supervision of final theses, decision-making in projects - basically sociological, political, administrative, philosophical aspects of leadership are incorporated.
... For example, does CEO transformational leadership make it more likely that LTMMs will "buy in" to the value of HRM practices and therefore implement them at a higher rate or implement them more effectively? Similarly, does CEO charismatic rhetoric (Baur et al., 2016) make it more likely that employees will view new HRM practices and policies as viable solutions to firm issues or as benefits to themselves? ...
... More specifically, managers' leadership behaviors (e.g., transformational leadership behaviors; Vermeeren, 2014) may simultaneously influence individual subordinates' interpretation and all subordinates' shared understanding of the availability and reinforcement of HRM practices and policies. For instance, given that transformational leaders are known for caring about followers' career development needs by showing individualized consideration (e.g., Bass, 1998), it stands to reason that transformational leaders are likely to use training and development opportunities to help their followers meet their career goals. As such, G. Chen and Kanfer's (2006) framework suggests that highly transformational leaders would not only make training and development programs available to individual followers and encourage them to take on appropriate training and development opportunities but also form a shared understanding among all followers that training programs are available for everyone's development. ...
Article
Although much research has examined human resource management (HRM), managers’ roles in HRM seem to have been ancillary to this area of research. That is, HRM theory and research largely has advanced with a focus on policies, practices, systems, and their implementation and effectiveness, with less attention focused on the managers responsible for the design, adoption, enactment, and implementation of HRM strategy and practice. The purpose of this review is to examine extant research to determine the state of knowledge of the role of managers across organizational hierarchy in HRM. Thus, we review empirical literature for studies that include aspects of the impact lower-to-middle managers, human resource managers, top management teams, CEOs, and boards of directors have on HRM content, process, and outcomes. On the basis of the findings of this systematic, multilevel review, we discuss avenues for future research at each specific manager’s level, as well as general opportunities and challenges for research on managers’ roles in HRM across all hierarchical levels.
... Such competing perspectives tap distinct dimensions of rhetoric from various styles of leaders (e.g., charismatic) such that the first focuses on adversity and action while the latter highlights a temporal orientation and collective focus. The use of such unique strategies has been shown in leadership research to predict different responses from followers (Baur et al., 2016). Leadership scholars could build on this notion to explore how a discovery versus creation approach to communicating a vision influences perceptions of leadership effectiveness and the power to influence stakeholders. ...
... For instance, the type of rhetoric used by leaders has been found to strengthen their influence on followers such that leaders can use different rhetorical strategies to convey their visions. Baur et al. (2016) found that U.S. presidential candidates enacted three unique strategies in debates to convey their charismatic leadership, of which one was found to be significantly more effective at gaining support from voters. Using methods such as content analysis and natural language processing, researchers can apply a similar logic to analyze the rhetoric of crowdfunding campaigns. ...
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More than a decade ago, scholars formally conceptualized the potential synergy between leadership and entrepreneurship scholarship. Our work highlights research accomplishments occurring at the interface of these two intellectual areas as well as identifying untapped possibilities for continued research. We highlight how recent efforts have witnessed a mutual exchange of ideas that present opportunities benefiting both fields. Drawing from four key domains of entrepreneurship previously proposed to mutually inform future leadership research efforts, we make suggestions for integrating entrepreneurial opportunities, the roles of individual and entrepreneurial teams, the modes of organizing entrepreneurial ventures, and differing entrepreneurial environments with key trends important to leadership research, such as servant leadership and leader-member exchange theory. Overall, our work provides an assessment of the state of the art surrounding the coalescence of leadership and entrepreneurship research and sets an agenda for the next decade of research at this intersection.
... Karisma adalah modal yang sangat efektif bagi kepemimpinan karena memiliki efek transformational bagi pengikut (Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1999;Baur et al., 2016;Beyer, 1999;Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1996). Karisma ini memiliki efek terhadap kredibilitas pada pemimpin. ...
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This study aims to further explain the effect of Charisma and Psychological Capital (PsyCap) on Credibility among start-up entrepreneurs in Makassar City. Participants in this study were employees who worked in various Small and Medium Business Units with minimum age of 17 years. There were 132 participants involved in this study (58% female and 42% male). Using the Hierarchical Regression technique, this study found that all regression models significantly predicted the entrepreneurs’ Credibility with p value ranged from 0.01 to 0.001. Charisma could explain 31% of Credibility while together Charisma and PsyCap explained 40% of Credibility. The models showed that Charisma (β= 0.27, p< 0.01) and PsyCap (β= 0.41, p< 0.001) acted as significant predictors for the start-up entrepreneurs’ credibility. This study confirmed the previous theories and evidence regarding the effect of Charisma and PsyCap on Credibility. Both Charisma and PsyCap contributed significant effect on the start-up entrepreneurs’ credibility.
... Berson et al., 2001;Sosik and Dinger, 2007) have developed a similar list of common characteristics and themes, including an emphasis on shared meaning (e.g. Baur et al., 2016) and the use of vivid imagery (e.g. Berson et al., 2016), along with a focus on idealized (Awamleh and Gardner, 1999), future-oriented (e.g. ...
Article
A number of leadership theories have highlighted the positive impact that a leader’s vision can have on follower outcomes. Although significant research has examined the impact of vision, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relationship is incomplete. Here, we use self-concept-based theory (Shamir et al., 1993) to explore how the strength of the vision being propounded and the way that it is expressed by leaders influence collective work beliefs. Using a matched sample of teachers and principals, we observe that inspirational visions are positively associated with group affective tone and that future-oriented visions are positively associated with collective efficacy and group affective tone, with all relationships mediated by visioning behaviour. Thus, employees whose leaders exhibit strong visions feel more collectively capable (higher levels of collective efficacy) and happier (higher levels of group affective tone) than employees whose leaders exhibit weak visions, especially when messages are delivered in an emotionally positive way. We conclude that visions contain distinct vision strength themes that differ in terms of their motivating capacity and offer important practical implications and suggestions for future research.
... The instrument was developed based on previously validated instruments. The sources for each construct are: motivation [77]; warmth [78]; empathy [79]; rhetoric capability [80]; sociability [81]; self-control [82]; integrity [83]; political savviness, communicative ability and role effectiveness [2]. The instrument can be found at this link. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper aims to contribute to the concept of ethical CIO leadership through a distinctive focus on virtue ethics. Our research investigates the theoretical significance of CIO virtues on two CIO capabilities and their corresponding influence on the CIO's role effectiveness in organizations.
... As identified by Uhl-Bien et al. (2018), leadership for organizational adaptability is not the same as simply commanding transformation. For example, it does not place a focus on driving transformation top-down from leaders with visions and inspiration (e.g., Baur et al., 2016), but instead the focus is on how leaders can make organizations and their members demonstrate adaptability when faced with complex challenges such as the achievement of new innovation. In other words, managers and leaders at various management layers in an organization have to drive communication and collaboration among organizational members, so that they have the flexibility, agility and adaptability to handle changes in the world that are often dramatic and unpredictable (e.g., Uhl-Bien et al., 2007;Keister, 2014). ...
... There were on average 13 words (SD = 8) for warmth dimension and 11 words (SD = 7) for competence dimension. Additionally, we controlled for the length of the mission statements by dividing each score by the total number of words analyzed to derive a normed score to index each organization's warmth and competence organizational personality (Baur et al., 2016). For example, an organization that scored high on warmth but low on competence notes that they value "integrity, excellence and respect for people." ...
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For many job seekers, organizational affiliation can act as a signal of their values and goals. According to theory of symbolic attraction (TSA), job seekers are attracted to organizations with symbolic images (i.e., organizational personality) that help them portray a certain type of social identity. However, studies have found mixed support for TSA and this may be attributed to a lack of a broad and theoretically-based taxonomy of organizational personality. As such, we drew on multiple theoretical perspectives from the social judgment literature to develop an alternative two-factor organizational personality taxonomy. Across three studies, we first created and validated a scale to reliably and validly measure organizational personality. Then, we showed that active job seekers with different social identity needs are indeed attracted to companies that differ along the two dimensions of the new taxonomy (i.e., warmth and competence) using LinkedIn job advertisements. Finally, we used computer-aided text analysis (CATA) to index organizational personality from company mission statements but found only partial support for TSA in a sample of engineering job seekers. We contribute to the recruitment literature by exploring why certain job seekers are initially attracted to different types of organizations and discuss how TSA can be further developed and refined. Practically, our results highlight the potential utility of organizations signaling images that resonate with job seekers' social identity concerns early on in the recruitment process.
... (2) the communication is vividly emphasizing the importance of the collective; (3) the interactions are full of conviction and passion. Importantly, verbal and nonverbal behaviors (e.g., captivating tone of voice, maintaining eye contact with the audience, gesturing freely, adopting a relaxed posture, and using facial expressions) can send charismatic signals (Baur et al., 2016) that can be perceived and processed by followers, creating those charismatic connections. Therefore, to experience the effects of charismatic leaders, followers need to be susceptible to charismatic signals. ...
Article
We investigate the impact of the circadian process (24-h biological cycles that influence sleep/wake periods) and chronotypes (individual differences in the timing of those cycles) in charismatic leadership. We theorize that the expressions of charismatic signals by leaders, and the perceptions of those signals by followers are influenced by the circadian process. Moreover, considering that individuals vary in their sleep awake preferences (larks vs. owls), we argue that chronotype interacts with time of day to influence expressions and perceptions of charismatic leadership. In Study 1, we found that synchrony between leader chronotype and time of day affects expressions of charismatic leadership. In Study 2, we turned our attention to the followers' circadian process and found that synchrony between a follower's chronotype and time of day affects follower's perceptions of charismatic leadership. Our new model highlights how charismatic leadership can be driven by circadian process.
... По-прежнему в фокусе исследователей риторика отдельных политиков, при этом большая часть работ посвящена анализу риторики президентов США (см. [Arthur, Woods, 2013;Baur et al., 2016;Coe, Schmidt, 2012;Ritchie, Thomas, 2015;Trager, Vavreck, 2011] и др.). ...
... The delivery as rhetoric is a crucial tool for charismatic leaders to convey their vision effectively and influence followers to adopt it (Baur et al., 2016). It is composed of a range of verbal and nonverbal behaviors, including a captivating tone of voice, exhibiting verbal fluency, maintaining eye contact with the audience, gesturing freely, adopting a relaxed posture, and using facial expressions (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999;Holladay & Coombs, 1994;Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1996;Rosenberg & Hirschberg, 2009). ...
Article
Perceived charisma is an outcome of message content and delivery, where the latter dominates the former. Framing perception of charisma within dual-process theories, we suggest a rapid processing of delivery and a slow processing of content. We aimed to track the differential processing speed of content and delivery that accounts for the delivery dominance. In two laboratory experiments, we manipulated content and delivery. Participants reported perceived charisma after viewing a presentation (Experiment 1) or moment-by-moment during the presentation (Experiment 2). The results confirmed the immediate influence of delivery on perceived charisma that was later either supported or revised by the content. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... We propose to model leadership behavior by writing style and language use, with a particular focus on TFL, which has proven effective for encouraging innovative work behaviors when task complexity is high (Afsar & Umrani, 2020), as is the case in online ICs. Furthermore, some prior research has suggested that TFL is manifested in leaders' language (e.g., Baur et al., 2016;Boies et al., 2015), but studies of its impact on innovation outcomes, especially in virtual settings, remains scarce and produces some mixed results. While some research suggests that TFL produces higher follower performance in situations with low physical distance (e.g., Howell & Hall-Merenda, 1999), other scholars find that TFL has a stronger effect in teams that purely rely on virtual interactions (e.g., Purvanova & Bono, 2009). ...
Article
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Many organizations seek to establish online innovation communities (ICs) to obtain valuable knowledge and innovative ideas, though both research and practice suggest that they also struggle to sustain continued, high-quality member participation. Designated IC moderators might be able to stimulate IC members to participate regularly and make high-quality contributions. In response to calls to integrate organizational behavior and IC research, this study addresses the impact of community moderators’ uses of transformational leadership (TFL) language on member participation. By operationalizing the TFL dimensions—charisma, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation—with language cues, this article uses an automated text analysis approach to review 64 firm-hosted ICs with 538,805 posts, analyzed with two hierarchical linear models. The findings show that moderators’ charismatic language cues enhance members’ participation quality and quantity. Although individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation increase participation quality, they decrease participation quantity. Organizations thus should assign moderators to lead ICs by using TFL language strategically, in accordance with the focal IC goals, in terms of the quality and quantity of member contributions to their innovation processes. This article contributes to the literature by exploring how leadership language in online communities can facilitate the development of innovative ideas. In addition, this study offers a more nuanced view on the effects of TFL by revealing both positive and negative outcomes in firm-hosted online ICs and it introduces a new, objective measure of TFL built on linguistic markers. This article also includes specific guidelines for how moderators can achieve effective leadership through their language use, as well as managerial implications for the effective selection, training, and support of IC moderators.
... Participant data draws a distinction between change and adaptivity with an over-riding view from the data that adaptivity is seen as higher order to change management. This is a view that aligns with evidence cited earlier and which is summarised by Uhl-Bien and Arena (2018) drawing on a wide body of literature (Hooijberg, Hunt & Dodge, 1997;Parry, 1999;Zaccaro & Klimoski, 2001;Burke, Pierce & Salas, 2006;Uhl-Bien, Marion & McKelvey, 2007;Uhl-Bien & Marion, 2009;Doz & Kosonen, 2010;Worley & Lawler, 2010;Rosing, Frese & Bausch, 2011;Reeves & Deimler, 2011;Keister, 2014;Griffith et al., 2015;Baur et al., 2016;Margolis & Ziegert, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
Given the pace and complexity of change for schools globally, this study investigates how leaders of international schools are navigating the future for the organisations they lead. The research draws on two pieces of existing literature, firstly that of Adaptive Leadership Theory which has mainly evolved outside the education sector and secondly literature related to the School as a Learning Organisation (SLO) which has not specifically been defined within the international school context. This study explores how relevant and applicable these two concepts are for international schools and investigates what the relationship is between the two concepts. This study is qualitative, using eleven semi-structured interviews with educational leaders working in the international school sector. The participants within this study defined, with a strong degree of consistency, their view of schools as adaptive organisations and of adaptive leadership, identifying three overarching themes: openness, strong sense of identity and empowerment. Participants also defined a set of adaptive leadership behaviours which they viewed as essential for growing adaptive capacity in international school leaders. From the data analysed within this study, the SLO concept is relevant and applicable to an international school context. This research contributes to a gap in the knowledge base relating to adaptivity in the education context, specifically in relation to international schools. Detail is provided on the characteristics of an adaptive international school and adaptive international school leadership. The research provides confidence for the applicability of the SLO model in international schools and defines the interrelationship between this and the concept of adaptivity.
... In particular, they allow people to focus on the values and ideals most central to how they define themselves (Trope & Liberman, 2003;Tsai & Thomas, 2011), and they give employees more flexibility in terms of how they see themselves fitting into a change effort (Eisenberg, 1984;Gioia, Nag, & Corley, 2012). On the other hand, more than a dozen studies containing over a half-million data points provide convergent evidence that concrete (versus abstract) visions of the future boost outcomes related to change (Baur, Ellen III, Buckley, Ferris, Allison, McKenny et al., 2016;Carton, 2018;Carton & Lucas, 2018, studies 1-3, supplemental studies 1-2; Carton, Murphy, and Clark, 2014, studies 1-2;Emrich et al., 2001, studies 1-2; Gartenberg, Prat, & Serafeim, 2019;Aswad, 2019;Naidoo & Lord, 2008). Concrete visions are more motivating than abstract visions because they are more emotionally engaging (Carton & Lucas, 2018;Guadagno, Rhoads, & Sagarin, 2011). ...
... If unaddressed, this variance would result in longer texts generally having higher CATA scores than shorter texts. Although there may be reasons to analyze CATA data using raw measurements, researchers often control for the length of the document by dividing each CATA variable by the total number of words (e.g., Baur et al. 2016). However, research in information retrieval has suggested that merely standardizing for document length by putting observations on a per-word basis may not be enough. ...
Article
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Computer-aided text analysis (CATA) offers great promise for scholars who aspire to capture the beliefs, cognitions, and emotions of individuals as reflected in their narratives and written texts. We review advancements in the use of CATA in organizational studies and highlight the increased momentum towards incorporating rigor when using CATA. We review key CATA software and note the variance in possibilities of approaches when extracting meaning from languages. We then outline the potential for this technique to build knowledge surrounding organizational psychology and organizational behavior. Specifically, we highlight specific research streams that might benefit from the use of CATA and highlight cross-cultural perspectives that might further advance the use of this technique.
... When applied to rhetorical analysis, Bligh et al. (2004) culled various dictionaries from the DICTION software to create eight composite variables based on Shamir et al., (1994) work on the rhetoric of charismatic leadership. Scholarly research exploring charismatic rhetoric has revealed that leaders may alter their use of charismatic rhetoric over time (Bligh et al., 2004), and that particular patterns of charismatic rhetoric may be associated with performance measures, such as presidential election outcomes (Baur et al., 2016). Working in the social context, Anglin et al. (2014) examine rhetoric associated with collective focus, temporal orientation, followers' worth, similarity to followers, values and moral justification, tangibility, action, and adversity. ...
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Rewards based crowdfunding (where individuals provide funding for a campaign in exchange for a pre-specified reward) represents one of the largest forms of crowdfunding to date. While an emerging stream of research examines how the rhetoric used in crowdfunding campaigns impacts funding success, a number of studies examining language used in crowdfunding have only been explored in the context of social crowdfunding campaigns that rely on very different audiences, funding amounts, and project goals. To build knowledge surrounding the relationship between the rhetoric used in rewards-based crowdfunding and potential campaign success we replicate a number of rhetoric approaches previously examined in social contexts. Specifically, we examine the efficacy of charismatic rhetoric, political rhetoric, entrepreneurial orientation rhetoric, and virtue rhetoric in a sample of 1000 campaigns drawn from Kickstarter. Our replication results reveal relatively little consistency across contexts underscoring the value of repli-cation to understand boundary conditions of important entrepreneurial phenomena.
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The aim of this study is to evaluate new service development competencies in Turkish banking sector. Within this scope, 16 Turkish deposit banks are taken into the consideration. Additionally, balanced scorecard-based criteria are evaluated with the integrated hybrid multicriteria decision-making approach by using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) and fuzzy VIseKriterijumsa Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje methods. Moreover, this evaluation is performed by using both decision makers’ evaluations and content analysis. It is concluded that there is a significant difference in the results based on decision makers and content analysis. Foreign banks have the best performance in decision makers’ evaluation, whereas there are different banks in the first ranks of the content analysis. However, fuzzy AHP and fuzzy ANP give very similar results in ranking the banks according to the new service development competencies. Furthermore, no banking type in Turkey has any priority over the others in all analysis. Hence, a foreign bank has the best performance, whereas another foreign bank states on the last rank.
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The purpose of this study was to examine how leader communication inspires athletes in a team sport context. Footage of elite rugby coaches and athlete leaders delivering genuine speeches were used as a stimulus. Team sport athletes (n = 20) watched this footage and identified which aspects of the communication inspired them. Follow up interviews were conducted to explore what the participants were inspired by and why. Thematic analyses revealed six main dimensions of what was inspiring within the content of the speech, including showing how the team can be successful, embracing and reinforcing the underdog status, and creating pride and unity within the team. In addition, a number of features of effective delivery were identified, including the tone of voice, fluency of speech, and the way key ideas were emphasised.
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Despite the breadth of research examining charismatic leadership in the psychology and management literature, research on charisma and its relationship to brands has remained scant. This is due in part to the lack of consensus regarding what brand charisma really is. The objective of this paper is to define the conceptual domain of brand charisma and the behaviours associated with its legitimization. Specifically, we present an exploratory study to shed light on the behavioral attributes of charismatic luxury brands. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of eleven core behaviours as perceived by luxury brand consumers and support a multidimensional conceptualization of the brand charisma construct. Key implications are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
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Background/Aim Belief in COVID-19 related conspiracy theories is a widespread and consequential problem that healthcare leaders need to confront. In this article, we draw on insights from social psychology and organisational behaviour to offer evidence-based advice that healthcare leaders can use to reduce the spread of conspiratorial beliefs and ameliorate their negative effects, both during the current pandemic and beyond. Conclusion Leaders can effectively combat conspiratorial beliefs by intervening early and bolstering people’s sense of control. Leaders can also address some of the problematic behaviours that result from conspiratorial beliefs by introducing incentives and mandates (e.g., vaccine mandates). However, because of the limitations of incentives and mandates, we suggest that leaders complement these techniques with interventions that leverage the power of social norms and increase people’s connections to others.
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One primary mechanism through which leaders influence others in the context of organizational change is their rhetoric. While planning change communication, it is important for a change agent to craft the appropriate message content to foster employees’ commitment to change. Furthermore, the literal meaning of a message can be strengthened by the way it is delivered. This study investigates the content of a change message and how it is articulated by the leader using a vignette-based experimental study. Based on a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, 200 participants are assigned to one of the eight hypothetical change scenarios that vary by change message content, message delivery, and change context. The results show the impact of rational versus emotional content and message content versus delivery on commitment differ based on secure or insecure contexts. This study provides cues for practitioners to design change messages to obtain commitment to change.
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Charismatic leadership has been largely overlooked by organizational theorists. In part, the problem can be attributed to the lack of a systematic conceptual framework Drawing from political science, sociology, and social psychology, this paper addresses the problem by proposing a model linking organizational contexts to charismatic leadership. A series of research hypotheses is offered.
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The empirical literature on charismatic or transformational leadership demonstrates that such leadership has profound effects on followers. However, while several versions of charismatic leadership theory predict such effects, none of them explains the process by which these effects are achieved. In this paper we seek to advance leadership theory by addressing this fundamental problem. We offer a self-concept based motivational theory to explain the process by which charismatic leader behaviors cause profound transformational effects on followers. The theory presents the argument that charismatic leadership has its effects by strongly engaging followers' self-concepts in the interest of the mission articulated by the leader. We derive from this theory testable propositions about (a) the behavior of charismatic leaders and their effects on followers, (b) the role of followers' values and orientations in the charismatic relationship, and (c) some of the organizational conditions that favor the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leaders.
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The concept of charismatic leadership has emerged as a central concern in leadership research. This investigation examines the impact of delivery on perceptions of leader charisma. Respondents were exposed to a supervisor presenting a charismatic message in either a weak or strong delivery condition. The results indicate that delivery does make a difference in evaluations of leader charisma. The concept of communicator style is offered as a way to interpret the findings.
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Examines why stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination are enduring phenomena. Social psychological research, reviewed here in 4 major sections, explains that stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination have (1) some apparently automatic aspects and (2) some socially pragmatic aspects, both of which tend to sustain them. But, as research also indicates, change is possible, for (3) stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination seem individually controllable, and consequently, (4) social structure influences their occurrence. Past and present theoretical approaches to these issues are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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On many occasions, organizational science research has been referred to as fragmented and disjointed, resulting in a literature that is, in the opinion of many, difficult to navigate and comprehend. One potential explanation is that scholars have failed to comprehend that organizations are complex and intricate systems. In order to move us past this morass, we recommend that researchers extend beyond traditional rational, mechanistic, and variable-centered approaches to research and integrate a more advantageous pattern-oriented approach within their research program. Pattern-oriented methods approximate real-life phenomena by adopting a holistic, integrative approach to research wherein individual- and organizational-systems are viewed as non-decomposable organized wholes. We argue that the pattern-oriented approach has the potential to overcome a number of breakdowns faced by alternate approaches, while offering a novel and more representative lens from which to view organizational- and HRM-related issues. The proposed incorporation of the pattern-oriented approach is framed within a review and evaluation of current approaches to organizational research and is supplemented with a discussion of methodological and theoretical implications as well as potential applications of the pattern-oriented approach.
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In this article, we review the history of the social scientific study of leadership and the prevailing theories of leadership that enjoy empirical support. We demonstrate that the development of knowledge concerning leadership phenomena has been truly cumulative and that much is currently known about leadership. We identify the contributions of the trait, behavioral, contingency and neocharismatic paradigms and the results of empirical research on prevailing theories. Issues that warrant research in each of the paradigms and theories are described. Ten additional topics for further investigation are discussed and specific recommendations are made with regard to future research on each of these topics.
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We present a model of CEO charismatic leadership in organizations and show how such leadership can, through levels of management and analysis, impact organizational performance. We integrate levels issues relevant to the conceptualization of theoretical constructs and their relationships, measurement, and echelons, and develop the concept of close versus distant leadership as a means of understanding the dynamics of CEO leadership. We also include a consideration of possible alternative levels of analysis at which the constructs in our model may be operating.
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We argue in this paper that in an age of complexity, change, large enterprises, and nation states, leaders are more important than ever. However, their effectiveness depends on their personality and charisma and not solely on their control over bureaucratic structures. We used a study of U.S. presidents to test a general model of leader effectiveness that includes leader personality characteristics, charisma, crises, age of the institution headed by the leader, and leader effectiveness. Age of the presidency accounted for approximately 20 percent of the variance in presidential needs for power, achievement, and affiliation. Presidential needs and a measure of leader self-restraint in using power, the age of the presidency, and crises accounted for 24 percent of the variance in presidential charisma. Age of the presidency, crises, needs, and charisma together predicted from 25 percent to 66 percent of the variance in five measures of presidential performance. Our study demonstrates that personality and charisma do make a difference.
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One key responsibility of leaders involves crafting and communicating two types of messages—visions and values—that help followers understand the ultimate purpose of their work. Although scholars have long considered how leaders communicate visions and values to establish a sense of purpose, they have overlooked how these messages can be used to establish a shared sense of purpose, which is achieved when multiple employees possess the same understanding of the purpose of work. In this research, we move beyond the traditional focus on leader rhetoric and individual cognition to examine leader rhetoric and shared cognition. We suggest that a specific combination of messages—a large amount of vision imagery combined with a small number of values—will boost performance more than other combinations because it triggers a shared sense of the organization's ultimate goal, and, in turn, enhances coordination. We found support for our predictions in an archival study of 151 hospitals and an experiment with 62 groups of full-time employees. In light of these findings, we conducted exploratory analyses and discovered two dysfunctional practices: leaders tend to (1) communicate visions without imagery and (2) over-utilize value-laden rhetoric.
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We propose a taxonomy of multidimensional constructs based on the relations between the construct and its dimensions. Multidimensional constructs that exist at deeper levels than their dimensions we term latent model. We call constructs formed as algebraic functions of their dimensions aggregate model, whereas constructs formed as different profiles of dimensional characteristics we term profile model. We discuss the nature of multidimensional constructs defined under these models and their operationalizations in empirical research.
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Research suggests that the integrative complexity of political rhetoric tends to drop during election season, but little research to date directly addresses if this drop in complexity serves to increase or decrease electoral success. The two present studies help fill this gap. Study 1 demonstrates that, during the Democratic Party primary debates in 2003–2004, the eventual winners of the party nomination showed a steeper drop in integrative complexity as the election season progressed than nonwinning candidates. Study 2 presents laboratory evidence from the most recent presidential campaign demonstrating that, while the complexity of Obama's rhetoric had little impact on college students' subsequent intentions to vote for him, the complexity of McCain's rhetoric was significantly positively correlated with their likelihood of voting for him. Taken together, this research is inconsistent with an unqualified simple is effective view of the complexity-success relationship. Rather, it is more consistent with a compensatory view: Effective use of complexity (or simplicity) may compensate for perceived weaknesses. Thus, appropriately timed shifts in complexity levels, and/or violations of negative expectations relevant to complexity, may be an effective means of winning elections. Surprisingly, mere simplicity as such seems largely ineffective.
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This study examined the effects of vision content, delivery and organizational performance on perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness. Subjects included 304 undergraduates who were presented videotaped speeches by a bogus CEO of a software company. A 2 × 2 × 2 design was employed in which message content (visionary/non-visionary), delivery (strong/weak), and organizational performance (high/low) were manipulated. A modified, 7-item version of Meindl and Ehrlich's (1988) Romance of Leadership Scale (RLS-D) served as a covariate. A MANCOVA analysis indicated significant effects of delivery, content, and organizational performance on both perceived leader charisma and effectiveness. The RLS-D was unrelated to either dependent variable as a covariate. The results suggest that strength of delivery is an especially important determinant of perceptions' of leader charisma and effectiveness. Although speech content and organizational performance cues likewise accounted for variance in these perceptions, their effects were at times offset by those of delivery.
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There is a widely shared consensus that charismatic–transformational leadership is a particularly effective form of leadership. In a critical assessment of the state-of-the-science in this area of research, we question the validity of that conclusion. We identify four problems with theory and research in charismatic–transformational leadership. First, a clear conceptual definition of charismatic–transformational leadership is lacking. Current theories advance multi-dimensional conceptualizations of charismatic–transformational leadership without specifying how these different dimensions combine to form charismatic–transformational leadership, or how dimensions are selected for inclusion or exclusion. Second, theories fail to sufficiently specify the causal model capturing how each dimension has a distinct influence on mediating processes and outcomes and how this is contingent on moderating influences. Third, conceptualization and operationalization confounds charismatic–transformational leadership with its effects. Fourth, the most frequently used measurement tools are invalid in that they fail to reproduce the dimensional structure specified by theory and fail to achieve empirical distinctiveness from other aspects of leadership. Given that these problems are fundamental and inherent in the approaches analyzed, it is recommended that current approaches be abandoned, and that the field forego the label of charismatic–transformational leadership in favor of the study of more clearly defined and empirically distinct aspects of leadership.
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Because of their unique relationship with followers, charismatic leaders can be powerful agents of social change. Current theories of charismatic leadership have emphasized primarily the personality and behavior of leaders and their effects on followers, organizations, and society. This emphasis fails to uncover why and how the charismatic leader/follower interaction can generate social change. Our study draws on theories of social meaning to develop a process model of charismatic leadership. Empirical exploration of our model suggests that charismatic leaders employ a set of consistent communication strategies for effecting social change.
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We present a theoretical analysis of the follower's role in the charismatic leadership process. Specifically, we distinguish between two types of charismatic relationships - personalized and socialized - and present general propositions about how followers' self-concepts may determine the type of charismatic relationship they form with the leader. We then develop more specific propositions about the follower's role in various stages of the charismatic relationship process, and we conclude by outlining the implications of the propositions and suggesting further opportunities for theoretical extension.
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Content analysis is a research technique used to objectively and systematically make inferences about the intentions, attitudes, and values of individuals by identifying specified characteristics in textual messages. The unobtrusive nature of content analysis makes it well suited for strategic management research. To date, the content analyses in most management studies have been performed by human coders, despite advances in computer technology that enable researchers to perform the same analyses more reliably and less expensively. In this paper, the investigator compares human-coded content analysis to computerized coding of the same text communications. The results suggest the two methods may be equally effective. Differences in results obtained using different units of analysis (such as analysis by sentence, by paragraph or by whole document) are also examined. Better reliability, improved stability, and comparability of results suggest more extensive use of computerized content analysis in future research.
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There is perhaps no construct that is so fundamental to interpersonal interactions in organizations, yet so incompletely understood, than distance. Part of the difficulty in developing a comprehensive and informed understanding of the role distance plays in organizations is that theory and research in this area have been quite fragmented, focusing on narrow aspects of the construct and lacking the integration necessary to build a more general knowledge base. For example, Graen (1976) has contributed greatly to our understanding of one aspect of distance, presenting a model based on role theory whereby in-group and out-group members are hypothesized to enjoy different rewards, benefit from different leadership behaviors, and experience different levels of satisfaction and performance ratings based on relative closeness (or distance) in their working relationship with their supervisor. Other researchers have explored the phenomena of psychological distance (Rothaus, Morton, & Hanson 1965), spatial distance (Kerr & Jermier 1978; Ferris & Rowland 1985), and physical distance (Sundstrom, Burt, & Kamp 1980; Sundstrom 1986) in the supervisor-subordinate relationship. This research, although a good starting point, does not adequately define or integrate the various aspects of distance in organizations. This article represents an effort to develop a broader and more extensive understanding of the role distance plays in organizations by integrating the various types of distance into a theoretical model. A model of Dyadic Distance in the supervisor-subordinate relationship is presented which develops the new constructs of Dyadic, Psychological, Structural, and Functional Distance, examines their process dynamics and impact on Human Resource Management issues such as performance evaluations and turnover, and proposes needed directions for future research in this important area.
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This research explores the use of impression management tactics in combination. Two studies were conducted to identify three profiles of impression management use and to examine how three individual difference variables are related to these patterns. The results suggest that women are less aggressive than men in using impression management, that high self-monitors favor positive impression management strategies, and that high Machs use impression management tactics rather indiscriminately. The findings also suggest that individuals who either avoid using impression management or who use only positive tactics are seen more favorably than those who use relatively high levels of all types of impression management. Some implications and directions for future research are discussed as well.
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Scholars since Weber have suggested that times of crisis may create an increased opportunity for charismatic leadership to emerge. We examine the rhetorical content of President George W. Bush's public speeches before and after the terrorist attacks of September 11th to determine if the context of crisis affected the President's communications with the American people. We also examined how the media's portrayal of President Bush may have changed after the crisis. Results suggest that the President's rhetorical language became more charismatic after the crisis of 9/11. In addition, the media's portrayal of Bush reflected a similar increase in charismatic rhetoric, suggesting an increased receptivity to a more charismatically based leadership relationship after the crisis.
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Despite past entreaties to organizational theorists and researchers to address levels issues more carefully, levels issues continue to arouse confusion and controversy within the organizational literature. We highlight three alternative assumptions that underlie the specification of levels of theory throughout organizational behavior: (a) homogeneity within higher level units, (b) independence from higher level units, and (c) heterogeneity within higher level units. These assumptions influence the nature of theoretical constructs and propositions and should, ideally, also influence data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Greater attention to levels issues will strengthen organizational theory development and research.
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In this article we present a model of the processes whereby social actors use impression management behaviors to create and maintain identities as charismatic leaders. Using a dramaturgical and interactive perspective, we examine the roles that the environment, actor (leader), and audience (followers) play in defining the situation and in jointly constructing a "charismatic relationship." We assert that charismatic leaders' self-systems and situational assessments guide their efforts to manage follower impressions of them, their vision, and their organization. Framing, scripting, staging, and performing constitute the basic phases in this dramaturgical process. Exemplification and promotion are identified as the primary strategies invoked by leaders during the performing phase to construct a charismatic image; facework is employed to protect this image when it is threatened. We also consider how and why followers come to attribute charisma to, identify strongly with, and direct high levels of positive affect toward the leader. We advance research propositions along with methodological recommendations for testing them, and we conclude by considering the model's practical implications for developing charismatic relationships that empower followers and facilitate the attainment of socially beneficial goals.
Social influence processes in organizations involve the demonstration of particular behavioral tactics and strategies by individuals to influence behavioral outcomes controlled by others in ways that maximize influencer positive outcomes and minimize negative outcomes. Such processes necessarily draw from research in topic areas labeled impression management, self-presentation, interpersonal influence, and organizational politics. However, few efforts have been made to integrate this work for purposes of assessing our current knowledge base, and identifying gaps and thus areas in need of further investigation. The present paper provides a critical analysis and review of theory and research on social influence processes in the workplace, with particular emphasis on human resources systems, organized according to the What, the Where, the Who, and the How of influence. In the process, we identify neglected areas, including theory-building challenges, as well as key issues in need of empirical investigation.
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Administered the Profile of Organizational Influence Strategies to 360 American, Australian, and English managers to examine how Ss used various strategies to achieve personal objectives. No differences in the relative use of influence strategies were found between countries. Reason and assertiveness were used most often with subordinates, and reason and coalition with superiors. Friendliness, bargaining, appeals to higher authority, and sanctions were used less frequently. Factors determining the use of particular strategies were Ss' power in the organization, objectives, and expectations of the target person's willingness to comply. Factor analysis revealed 3 types of managerial styles. Shotgun managers were characterized by high use of all 7 strategies, inexperience, and unfulfilled objectives; tacticians by high use of reason, success in achieving objectives, and high levels of power and satisfaction; and bystanders by low use of all strategies, lack of power and objectives, and job dissatisfaction. Effective management was associated with the flexible use of influence strategies appropriate to a given situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[the authors] contrast transactional and charismatic or transformational theories of leadership briefly review prior research and evidence on charismatic and transformational theory review demonstrates that there is a substantial convergence of findings that provides a rather clear picture of the behavior involved in effective charismatic and transformational leadership present a study designed to test predictions of theories concerning the effects and behavior of charismatic compared with noncharismatic United States presidents (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)