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Mortality of small cetaceans and the crab bait fishery in the Magallanes Area of Chile since 1980

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Since 1974, species of small cetaceans, fur seals, sea lions, sea birds and to some extent sea otters, have been taken deliberately each year for bait in the Chilean artisanal fishery. In recent years, three new trends are contributing to alleviate mortality pressure on marine mammals in Magellanes: a change in fisheries legislation, an increased diversification of the artisanal fishery and an increasing public awareness of the values of marine wildlife. -from Authors
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REP. INT. WHAL. COMMN (SPECIA L ISSUE 15), 1994 485
SC/46/SM11
Mortality of Small Cetaceans and the Crab Bait Fishery in the
Magallanes Area of Chile Since 1980
Anne -Cather in e Les crauw a et and Jorge Gibbo ns
Casilla 527, Punta Arenas, Chile
ABSTRA CT
Since 1974, species of small cetaceans, fur seals, sea lions, sea birds and to som e extent sea otters, have been taken deliberately each
year for bait in the Chilean artisanal fishery for centolla, southern king crab (Lithode s santoll a) and cen tollón , false king crab
(P ara lom is gra nulosa). We describe the socio-econ om ic context o f this fishery and we review official fishery statistics and unpublished
data in order to estimate the magnitude of this direct take betw een 1980 and 1992. We find that the need for bait in the crab fishery has
continually decreased from a peak value o f 950 tonnes in 1986 to a minimum of 450 tonnes in 1992. In recent years, three new trends
are contributing to alleviate mortality pressure on marine mammals in Magellanes; a change in fisheries legislation, an increased
diversification of the artisanal fishery and an increasing public awareness of the values of marine wildlife.
KEYW ORDS: INCIDE NTAL CA PTURE; DIRE CT CAPTURE; FISHERIE S; S OUTH PACIFIC; PINN IPEDS; SEA
OTTERS; COM M ERSO NI D OLPH IN ; BLACK DOL PH IN; DUSK Y DOL PHIN; RIGHT W HALE D OLPH IN ;
BURM EIS TE R I PORPO ISE; MAN AGE M EN T.
INTRODUCTION
As sev eral a uth ors have reported (e.g . Goo d all, 1977;
Sielfeld et al., 1977a; b; T orres, 1977; Sielfeld a nd
Ven egas, 1978; C á rd enas et al., 1987; G ood all and
Cam eron, 1980; G o oda ll et al. , 1988b; Lea th erw ood et al. ,
1988), small c etacean s have been taken delib erately each
ye ar since 1974 in the M agella n region of Chile for use as
ba it in tra ps set for ce ntolla or southern king crab ( Lith odes
san tolla) an d ce ntolló n or false king crab (Paralomis
gra nu losa). H owe ver , no th o ro ugh ex amination of the
de velop m e nt of th e crab fishery, its g eo grap hic e xpansion
or th e dem and fo r m a rine m ammal ba it has b een pre sen te d
previou sly. In this pa p e r, we discuss the so cio-economic
ba ckg rou nd to the fishery, the histo rical seq uence of
relevan t political and eco no m ic eve nts, a nd attem p t to
estimate the nu m bers of ce ta ceans tha t w ou ld have b een
require d to sup p ort th e crab fisheries in re cen t years.
This work is pr edicated on th e assu m ptio n that , to
conserve p opu lations in th e Patag o nian and F uegian
ch an nels, one n eed s to have: (a) b e tte r infor m atio n on th e
status of the po pulatio ns affected by activities re la ted to
crab fishing, (b) be t te r inform a tion on the n umbe rs o f
cetacean s killed and (c) a basic m anagem e nt plan for
pr ese n tatio n to the Chilean gov ern m ent and th e fishing
communities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We have reviewed the litera tur e on th e cra b fisheries in
so uth ern C hile with re sp ect to the u se o f ba it and the social
an d e co nom ic factors a ffecting or influencing th e fisheries.
We especially sou gh t infor m atio n on cultura l elemen ts,
ethn ic str uctures and po pulation tra nsitio ns within the
fishing com m unitie s of th e M agellan region .
W ritten sources include d annu al statistics from port
au th o rities , the Servicio Nac io nal de P esca (SE R NA P ),
the Ins ti tu to de Fo m ento Pesq uer o (I FO P ), the Servicio
Ag rico la y G a n ader o (SAG ), the C orpor ación N ac ional de
Fo m ento a la Produc cn (CO R F O), th e Ins tituto
Na cion al d e Estadístic as (IN E ) and a p ublishe d socio
econom ic profile of a par t of the artisa nal fishing
community (H enriquez , 1990). We also c hecke d e very
issue of the regiona l newspap er La Prensa Aus tral, from
1987 to early 1993, fo r artic les r ela te d to the tak in g of
wildlife f or bait, the ove r e xploita tion of crab etc. This
newsp ape r searc h gave us an in dication of what
inform atio n has bee n m ade available to th e com m u nity an d
the perceived im p ortan ce of the se issues at the re giona l
level.
We conducted extensiv e inte rviews w ith fisherm en
(app ro x. 60 ), 16 o f 25 c omp any m ana gers, s cien tists,
represe ntative s of th e Chilean N avy and perso nnel in the
fish eries service. Co m pany manag ers com ple te d
qu estionn aire s d esig ned to elicit t hei r views on the
cond ition o f th e crab fisheries, suggeste d solutio ns to
prob lem s a nd likely obstac les to im plem ent atio n of
regu la to ry me asures. Th e Sec re ta ry of Fish erie s k indly
co o perate d with a writte n inter view reg ard in g new
policie s.
We used the re gio n’s 14 fishing a re as (IF O P,
publication s 1979-1990) to ide ntify fishing grou nds with
the high es t catch effo rt. A nnu al catch effo rt values per
area are given as fractio ns of the total annu al ca tch effort.
Th e seasona l and geographical distributio n of catch effort
was c om pared with the availa ble inf orm a tion on
distrib ution of small cetacean s.
In this pape r, th e termcatch eff o rt’ refers only to the
effort d ir ected at the trap pin g o f crabs. I t d oes n ot
enco mpass th e effort involving nets o r diving gear. We
ca lculated e ffor t using IFO P meth ods , with the following
assum ptions:
(a) a 40% loss in active fishing days due to p o or w e ath er o r
tec hn ical difficulties;
(b) an average subm e rs io n time pe r tra p set (cast) of 72
ho urs for centolla (one thi rd of th e traps are set per
cast);
(c) an ave rage s ubm ersion tim e of 48 ho urs fo r ce ntolló n
(one half of the traps are set pe r cast).
Th e m o nthly catch e ffort p e r vessel was thu s calcu la te d by
mu ltiply ing the nu m ber of tra ps o n boa rd by t he num ber of
fishing days pe r m onth a nd th e n dividing by either 2
(centolló n) or 3 (centolla).
Pa rt ia l m onthly and yearly inf orm a tion on c ra b catch
effort was available for 1979-1986 from S E R N A P and
IF O P . Catch e ff ort for 1987-1989 was calculated fro m daily
486 LE SCR AUW AET & GIBBONS: CR AB BAI T FISHERY IN CHILE
fishing activity as reco rde d by h a rb o u r p erson nel, who
no ted th e arr ival and dep a rture of vessels and the area s
fro m which crab s were har vested (fishing Regions I-XIV ,
see Fig. 3). F iles k e pt by the p o rt a uth orities prov id ed each
vessel’s leng th. By knowing the ave rage number o f traps
ca rr ie d by different leng th classes o f vessels, we were able
to estim a te th e to tal n um ber o f traps d eployed from a
pa rtic ula r port.
O ur estim ates of catch effort fo r centolla an d cen to ln,
co m bined , during 1990-1992 are b ased on the total
es timated num ber of tra ps available in th e re gion and the
nu m b e r of effective fishing days. T he total catch ef fo rt,
mu ltiplied by a ‘bait unit ’, gives an in dication o f the total
am oun t of bait u se d ( bot h wildlife a nd legal). Since in
reality bait units may vary in size by as much as 1.5kg, the
use o f a single va lu e is a rb itrary. W e chose 0.5kg, th e
minimu m am o u nt o f ba it ne ede d for a single tra p , to
ge n erate conservative e stim ates of tota l b ait requ ir emen ts .
We identified poten tial legal sou rces of bait in the region
(e.g. slaugh te rh ous e was te , w aste from the indu strial
fishery) an d review ed official in fo rm ation to verify t hat this
ba it was bein g us ed for cr ab bing .
Finally, in o ur discussion we cons id er av ailab le data for
1993 and 1994 in o u r assessm ent of conclusions drawn from
the main perio d of our wor k (i.e . up to 1992).
RESULTS
Government policy and national fisheries
Growth in fisheries has mad e fishing the second most
im p ortan t c ateg ory in the Chilean economy, contribu ting
12% of the total valu e of natio nal exp orts in 1990. In 1989,
Chile exp orted a total catch of 6.6 million ton nes o f fish,
shellfish, cru stac eans an d a lgae w orth US$930 million.
Dev elopmen ts in the C hile an fishery ind ustry occ urred
un d e r a regime o f free access to fisheries an d m ajor
redu ctions in all forms of re gulation and co ntrol. It had an
ex trem e ly destructive im pac t o n n atura l resou rc es, with
the e xhaustion of mollu sc ba nks a nd t he overfishing of
im p o rtant pelagic fish and shellfish pop ulatio ns. Ten o f th e
main fisheries, to geth er co n tributing 85% of the to ta l
ex port v alue, sh owed signs o f overex ploita tion (Co uve,
1991).
Unmanageability of the crab fisheries
Chilean com m ercial fisheries for cen to lla an d ce ntolló n are
ce ntred in the Magellan Region (49°S-56°S). This region
sup plies 97% o f the national pro ductio n of cen tolla and
100% of that o f centoln. In 1976, accelerated an d
sustain ed gro wth began in this ind ustr y w ith incr ea ses in
the sizes of the fleets, th e proc essing companies, th e
geog raph ical ar eas, ann ual landings and ex ports (T able 1,
Figs 1 and 2).
Ann u al la nd ings be fo re 1976 fluc tu ated b etw e en 200 an d
450 to nne s.
By 1986, crabb in g had become unm anagea ble, as shown
by the high per cen ta ge of illicit cap tures ; Hern ande z and
Diaz (1986) estimated th at 30-40 % of the to ta l landing s
we re ta k en illegally ( eithe r und ersize d crabs, crabs
ob ta ine d from closed areas or tho se o b taine d using illegal
metho d s) . Some co m pany owners s ug gested that this may
have re ach e d up to 70% in later years.
Six factors are seen as con trib uting to the
un m anage ability o f the Chilean crab fisheries.
(1) Free access
Little or nothing was req u ir ed of en tra nts to the fisheries,
resulting in an increas e from nine processing plants in 1974
to 27 in 1988.
(2) State supp ort
Th e C hilean gov ernm ent, throug h C O R FO , prov id ed
extrem ely favo urable te rm s for the acquisition of fishing
bo ats an d eq uip m ent. From 1976 to 1989, 90 be neficiaries
in the a rtisan al s ector re ceived, in to tal, ap proximately
US$600,000 of c re dit, while four e n te rpr is es in th e
indu strial sec to r re ceiv ed a to tal of US$2,500,000 of credit
fro m 1982 to 1986 (B. Bo nifetti, CO RF O , pers. comm.).
Th e artisanal fleet grew from ap proxim ately 60 befo re
1970, to nearly 600 boa ts by 1988.
(3) Grow th in expor t dem a nd
Ex tremely fav our able exte rna l mark e t c onditions arose in
recen t years for Chilean crab. In 1990, the ir exp ort va lue
reac h ed app ro xim ately US$2,800 per tonn e ; 30 tim es
greater than the average v alue for all o ther fishing
prod ucts. This was partially du e to th e high prices of
Alask an king c ra b (Paralithodes camtschatica ) which
Table 1
Characteristics of growth in crab fishery, Magallanes, 1974-1992. Key: (A) Centolla; (B) Centollón.
No. o f fishing vessels
Year
Total
catch (A) (B)
No. of
companies (A) (B)
No. c
transport '
1974 511 9
1976 1,028
1979 3,220 2,268 952 13 150 63 8
1980 1,810 1,381 429 14 105 26 8
1981 1,590 1,280 310 16 133 46 6
1982 1,782 1,473 309 14 138 18 8
1983 3,586 2,755 831 24 177 90 8
1984 3,597 2,746 851 220 123 8
1985 2,902 2,636 266 229 39 21
1986 3,586 2,593 993 282 130 45
1987 3,961 2,188 1,773 27 296 55
1988 4,491 2,161 2,330 27
1989 4,250 2,297 1,953 27
1990 3,699 1,834 1,865 25
1991 5,127 1,738 3,389 550 total
1992 2,494 1,173 1,321 21 550 total
REP. INT. W HAL. COMMN (SPECIAL ISSU E 15), 1994 487
o
o
oce nto lla
T—
JX
w
CD
C
c
o
H
ce n to l n
1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992
Yea r
Fig. 1. Annual landings, centolla-centollón.
1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990
Year
Fig. 2. Geographical expansion of centolla and centollón fishery.
en cou raged t he U SA to im p ort lo wer-pric ed cra b produ cts
fro m the ex-USS R , A rgentin a and C hile. The A laska n
fishing grou nds we re clo sed from 1982 to 1988. This led to
an in crease in the num ber of processing plants in the
Mag allanes an d seriously disrup ted the bala nce betw een
the artisana l fishing sec to r and the processin g capacity of
the industry .
(4) La ck o f regulation
Th e free market economic polic y focused on maximising
sh ort-term profits and ne glected the gove rnm ent’s
responsibility for prote ctin g the nation ’s marine res ources.
This is evide nt from th e con trast be twee n th e m ajor
de velopm e nt of the fisheries an d the simultaneou s declin e
in S E RN A P’s wo rk fo rce. In 1973, the S ER N A P regional
office in M ag allanes had 13 insp ecto rs. This decline d to
be tw e en eight (in 1985) a nd ten (in 1992). Th e n ecessary
infras tructure ( p rop e r vehicles, vessels, rad io and office
eq u ip m e nt) was not in place to sup port th e sta ff of
ins pectors and the legal sanction s were too weak to deter
illegal crabbing.
In 1987, only two o f th e 27 companies w ere su pp lied by
their own vessels. The rem ainder of th e region al fleet wo rk
as in dividuals, unde r highly com p etitive con ditio ns. C rab is
bo u ght alive at low prices in the rem ote fishing area s by
company boats th a t also bring in expensiv e supplies and
gasoline o r ex ch an ge the m f or fres h p rod ucts, often at
unfair rat es. The increa se d c ompe tition for fresh crab
toget her with poor working co nditio ns ha s led to crim inal
activity amo ng fishermen includ ing stealin g a nd sabotag e.
(5) Geography
Until t he m id-1970s, the cen to lla fishery was lim ited to nine
companies o p erating only on the west co ast of Isla G ra n de
de Tie rr a del F u ego, aro u nd Isla D a w so n, in Seno O tway
an d along the so uth coas t of Pen in su la Brunswick (52°S-
54°S). Since 1976, th e c ra b fishing g ro und s h ave ex pan ded
to cover appro xim ately 25 ,000km o f laby rinth ia n int erior
channe ls tha t are difficult, if not imposs ible to police. In
1981, th e Po rve nir a rea was closed to crab fishing in
respon se to a study that rev ealed overfishing in this area
(Cam podon ic o, 1979). Seno O tw ay a nd Seno A ñ o N ue vo
were closed for the same reaso ns, but m a ny fisherm en
ad m itte d tha t th ey h ad fished in closed area s at o ne tim e or
an o th er. In 1990, abou t 20 b oats w ere d iscove red fishing in
Seno o Nu evo, usin g camouflage a gain st aeria l
surve illance (A. Roman, Direc tor SERNAP-M a gallane s,
La P rensa A ustra l).
(6) Cultural fa ctors
Cr ab fishing is ex trem e ly dem anding in te rm s o f physical
effort, harsh clima te (low te m p e ratu res , h igh
prec ip itation , strong winds), exp osu re to dange ro u s
circumstanc es and isolation. Most a rtis ana l fisherm en h ave
come to the M ag allanes fro m rura l areas on Isla Chiloë
(42°S-43°S). Th ey generally c om e from low incom e
back groun ds with lim ited em p lo ymen t alte rna ti ves other
than in agricultu re or fishing and hav e little or no form al
ed uca tion ( H e nriqu e z, 1990); crab fishing is by far th e m ost
luc rativ e optio n. Fo r example, the average m onthly w age
of a sh ephe rd is U S$ 100, wh ereas crab fishe rm e n could
ea rn as m uch as US$ 1,000 pe r m o nth in the 1980s.
During 1983-1984, a special effort was m ade by local
au th oritie s in P u nta Ar enas , with supp o rt from the
Organ is atio n of Amer ic an States, to im prove fishing
techniqu es in the artisanal sec tor. Althou g h c ou rs es
(inc ludin g training in the use of fishing g ear , such as
lon glines, n ot repr ese n ted in th e Chiloë fishing cu lture )
we re o ff ered f re e of charg e, only 43 p erson s a ttended .
Longlin es a re an im portan t tool for ob ta in ing fish as ba it in
the crabbing areas.
Th e few a ttempts to form labo u r union s o r o ther la bour
orga nisa tion s have failed, ap parent ly bec ause crab fishing
is so profitable and individualistic (M r J. Gonzalez -
Pr esid ent of the U nion o f Artis ana l Fish erm e n - Pun ta
Are nas, per s. com m .).
Su m m ary
In summary , the crab fish eries of Ch ile can be
ch aracterised by: (a) a lack o f form a l re sp onsibility b y the
ind ustry with r esp ect to the w orking con dition s and
metho ds of th e fishermen; (b) stron g co m p etit io n for ra w
mater ia l, which has s timulated illegal capture ; (c) over
capitalisation o f the fleet; an d (d) a fa ilure o f gove rn m ental
au th orities to int ervene an d preve n t res ource d epletio n.
Th e fisheries have be com e u nman agea ble in spite of a h igh
degree of awa re ness am o ng politician s, man agers,
scientists, fish ermen and th e g ene ral public. This
aw areness is eviden t from the a b u ndan t infor m ation in th e
med ia , n umer ous techn ical rep o rts by I F O P , seminars an d
wo rkshops organised by region al auth orities and, finally,
the number of re gulation s app lied to the fisheries.
Be tw e en 1983 an d 1986, the previously establishe d 5-
mo nth closed seaso n ( F ebruar y-June ) was ab olishe d.
La ter, to pro tec t th e c en to lla du ring its r eprod u ctive
season, c ra bbin g was sus pen ded from D e cem ber to
Fe bru ary (1987-199 1). A special decr ee in 1991 estab lish ed
a 7-month closed season (D e cem ber-June ) to pro tect the
species from further ove re x ploitatio n, b u t the closed
season was sho rtened to five mon ths in 1992 in view of th e
socio -economic crisis facing the a rtisan al sec to r. T he
Dec em ber -J anua ry closed s ea so n f or c entoln r emain s
un ch anged .
488 LE SCR AUW AET & GIBBONS: CRAB BAIT FISHE RY IN CHILE
Status of small cetaceans in southern Chile
Le ga l status
U nder D e cre e N o. 223, 1979, o f th e M inisterio de
Ec o nom ia, F om ento y Con stru cció n, tr aps are the only
type of fishing gea r tha t can be u sed legally to catch crabs.
Th ese trap s ne ed bait. In 1977, after To rre s (1977) had
mad e the a uthorit ie s aw are of the fact that large n umbers
of small ceta ceans wer e be ing ta ken fo r cra b bait in the
Magellan reg io n, the M inisterio de Agric ultu ra published
Decree N o. 381, proh ibitin g the c atch , tran s port,
commercialisa tion , poss ession o r processing of small
cetacean s. Special p erm its for scientific or cultural
pu rpo ses ha ve bee n issued on four occasions - thr ee
relating to th e e xport of Com merson ’s d olphins
(C ephalorhynchu s co m m er so nii) a nd one allow ing the
ca ptu re o f Chilea n d olphin s ( Cephalorhy nc hu s eutropia)
(S E R N A P, Reso lu tion No. 364, 1988).
Act ual situatio n
In s pite of the 1977 de cre e, m an y pu blications have
re fer red to con tinue d catch es of small ceta ceans along th e
so uth ern Ch ilean coasts, specifically to suppo rt crab bait
(T orres, 1977; Sielfeld et al., 1978; T orres et al., 1979;
Goo dall and Cam eron, 1980; Sielfeld, 1983; Good all and
Jo r dan, 1986; G o odall et al., 1988b; Cres po et al., 1994;
and others) . P ublish ed estim ates of the numbers o f
individu als or m eat tonn age s o f small cetacean s and other
marine wildlife are su m marised in T able 2; these estim a tes
rang e from 50 dolphins pe r w eek in 1976 (T o rr es, 1977) to
400 tonne s of m arine and oth e r wildlife (including
cetacean s) during 1987 (C árd ena s et a l., 1987). T he species
of wildlife known to h av e be en take n fo r crab b ait a re listed
in T able 3. A s to small cetac ea ns, P eale ’s dolp hins
(L ag eno rh ynchu s australis), Ch ilean dolp hins and
Com merson ’s dolphins were most affected , while the
presen ce o f dusky dolp hins (La gen or hynch us obscurus),
So uth ern right whale dolphin s (Lissodelphis pe ro nii) and
Table 2
Estimates of illegal captures of small cetaceans.
Year(s) Estimate Source
1976 (6 months) 50 specimens/week Torres, 1977
1978 2,400 specimens/year Torres, 1979
1979 4,120 specimens/year Torres et al., 1979
1980-1983 240 tonnes/year Sielfeld, 1983
[mainly Commerson’s and Peales dolphins, sea lions and sea birds]
1987 400 tonnes/year Cárdenas et al., 1987
[species mentioned by Sielfeld (1983)]
Table 3
Species o f wildlife affected by crab bait fishery.
Most affected species Species affected to lesser extent
Otaria flavescens Pho coe na spinipinnis
Arctoce phalus australis Lagenorhy nchus obscurus
Lagen orhync hus australis Lisso delphis peronii
Cephalo rhynchus com mer sonii Phalacrocorax magellanicus
Cephalo rhynchus eutropia Phalacrocorax albiventer
Phalacrocorax atriceps
Eudyptes crestatus
Larus dominican us
Larus skoresbii
La ma guanico e
Lutra felina
Lutra pro vocax
Bur m e is te r’s po rp oises (Ph oc oe na spinipinnis) in the area
suggest tha t they also would have bee n ta ken o ccasion ally
for bait.
Progress of know le dg e on sm all cetaceans
The re has been little scientific re searc h o n small cetaceans
in Chile. D urin g the last c entury, only thre e g rad uate
these s on cetolo gical subjects have b een p rod uced by
Ch ilean U niversities and o nly one p ro jec t (for monitorin g
mortality o f small cetace ans in Regions IX and X - in 1989)
was entirely financed with nationa l funds. A secon d projec t
was partially sup p o rted by the C hilean Ministry of
Agriculture (Cla rke e t a l. , 1978).
In cons equ ence, little is k now n abo u t the g ene ra l
biology, d is trib ution , tr oph ic relations or rep ro d uctiv e
habits o f sm all c etac eans in C hile, or on the s ta tu s of
po pulatio ns a nd their in terac tion s with hu m ans.
Estimation of illegal bait
A m o u n t
Ann ual catch e ff ort valu es and estim ates of tota l am o u nt of
ba it u se d in t he cen to lla fishery (both legal an d illegal) a re
summ a rised in T able 4a, while tho se for the centoln
fishery from 1979-1986 ar e in Tab le 4b. D ata for 1990-1992
in Ta ble 4a r efe r to co m bine d c entolla a nd ce nto llón catch
effort. C entolla catc h effort show s a su bstan tial increa se
sta rting in 1983, with a p e ak value in 1986. C ent ollón catch
effort valu es re m ain gene rally low bu t v ariable until 1986.
Alth o ugh n o data on centollón catc h effort afte r 1986 are
included , the s ubs ta ntia l increases in total ann u al landing s
(Tab le 1(B) o f SE R N A P ann ual statistic s) ind icate th a t the
Table 4a
Annual catch effort values for centolla fishery with estimated amounts
of bait used (tonnes).
Year No. o f effective traps Estimates bait used (tonnes)
1979 1,443,782 722
1980 649,487 325
1981 734,155 367
1982 974,864 487
1983 1,537,259 769
1984 1,445,568 723
1985 1,850,787 925
1986 1,900,000 950
1987 1,875,600 938
1988 1,860,000 930
1989 1,700,000 850
1990 1,600,000 800
1991* 1,800,000 900
1992* 900,000 450
* Data include both centolla and centollón catch effort values.
Table 4b
Annual catch effort values for centollón fishery with estimated amount
of bait used, 1979-1986.
Year No. o f effective traps Estimated bait used (tonnes)
1979 100,627 50
1980 44,225 22
1981 50,995 25
1982 48,814 24
1983 200,378 100
1984 272,646 136
1985 66,115 33
1986 282,272 1-41
REP. INT. W HAL. COMMN (SPECIA L ISSUE 15), 1994 489
Table 5a
Distribution of annual catch effort for centolla (1979-1990*), for the different fishing Regions (I to XII); catch effort per area is expressed as a
fraction of the total annual catch effort.
Region
Year I I-A II III IV IV-A V VI VII VIII IX X X I XII Undetermined Total
1979 0.11 .0.14 0.01 0.22 .0.17 0.14 0.16 0.03 . - ..0.03 1.0
1980 0.03 -0.15 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.02 0.18 -0.06 -0.31 - - 0.00 1.0
1981 0.04 -0.04 0.00 0.19 0.05 0.20 0.09 0.20 0.07 -0.11 - - 0.00 1.0
1982 0.00 -0.05 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.28 0.02 0.09 0.05 -0.10 0.22 -0.00 1.0
1983 0.02 -0.30 0.01 0.03 0.01 - - 0.29 0.33 - - - - 0.00 1.0
1984 0.04 -0.52 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.31 0.05 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 1.0
1985 0.00 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.04 0.17 0.10 0.10 0.02 0.00 0.16 0.08 0.00 0.00 1.0
1986 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.16 0.04 0.16 0.06 0.09 0.05 -0.17 0.07 -0.00 1.0
1987 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.23 0.14 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.06 -0.18 0.07 0.03 0.00 1.0
1988 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.17 0.18 0.01 0.07 0.00 0.19 0.02 -0.31 - - 0.02 1.0
1989 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.14 0.13 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.10 0.03 0.02 0.16 0.10 0.07 0.00 1.0
1990* 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.07 0.15 0.00 0.19 0.00 0.07 0.12 0.04 0.16 0.01 0.13 0.00 1.0
Total
(%)
2 1 12 7 13 2 13 6 13 7 0 14 4 2 1009
* Based on data from January to June 1990.
catch e ffort fo r this spe cies has increa se d app re ciab ly since
1986. O ur e stim ates o f catch eff ort a re similar to those
made ind epe n den tly by H ernand e z et al. (1986) f or the
pe riod 1979-1984.
Evaluatio n o f sources
Th e catch effo rt valu es pu blis hed by IF O P are s upplied by
the c ompanies , bas ed on d eclarations by the fishermen.
H arb o u r r ecord s gen erally confirm info rm a tion on activity
as given by the com p an ie s, but in dep e nden t fisherm en’s
re ports on the n um ber of tra ps used are likely to be
un derestim ate s.
In Tab le 4a we u sed only ha rbour activity reco rd s an d
indep e nden t me th ods to estim ate the num ber of tr aps
ca rried from 1987-1992. Thu s th ese estim ates sho uld be
little affected by biases in the fishermen ’s re por ting . They
are, how ever, bias ed by th e fact th at part of the crab catch
has be en m a de with illegal gear (e.g. n ets) or by illegal
me ans (e.g. diving). This bias is difficult to quantify, but
IF O P pu blic atio ns ge nera lly corre ct estimates o f bait
require m e n ts by s ubtracting 20% to acco un t for it. Th ere
was n otic eab le increase in t he last few years in th e nu m ber
of b oats to o small to carry a significant num ber of trap s
(IFO P , 1988). This tr end is in te rpre te d to ind ic ate t hat
netting and diving for crabs has increased . C rab nets are
know n to cause a significant a m o unt of incide ntal small
ce ta cean mortality due to entang le m e nt ( G ood all and
Cam ero n, 1980).
Th e am o unt of b ait used by fishermen within crab
ex tr action a rea s is difficult to determ in e. T he fisherm en
usu ally ke ep thei r cam p sites sto cked with ab out 15% of
the total b ait nee d ed (Sie lfeld, 1983).
Geograp hical dis tribution
CENT OLLA
For official m ana gem ent purposes, the cen to lla and
centoln fishing groun ds have b een divided into 14
differen t fishing R egions (see map , Fig. 3). The
distribu tion of catch effort for cen to lla from 1979-1990 is
given in T a ble 5a. Fluctuations b etw een seasons are d ue to
the in corporation of new area s as well as the a ban donm ent
of o th e rs . Be fore 1976, the crab fishery was limited to th e
vicinity of Punta A ren as. Fro m 1979-1989, th e main
activity was localised in the areas south of the M agella n
Strait. Regions V an d V II had very lo w ca tch effort du ring
1980-1981, bu t the c rab fishery expa nded to R e gion X
durin g t h at season. In 1981-1982, Re gion s V and V II
beca m e im p ortan t crab bing a re as again, w ith no m ajor
changes in fishing activity nea r th eir n ort hern limits. A
fu rt her northw ards exp ansion in Reg io n XII occu rre d in
1987.
A fter 50 y ea rs of inten se activity, the Po rve nir a re a
(Reg io n I) was closed for four yea rs beginn ing in 1983.
Alon g with lo ca tions in Regions II , IV and V I, this a re a has
be en exploited almost continuou sly fo r centolla.
Accum ulative catch effort is highest in Regions II, IV, V,
VI and X.
CENT OLL ÓN
Re gion IX , w here C omm erson’s d olph in s are com m only
ob se rved (G o odall, 1994) ha s b een the p rimary fishing are a
for ce ntolló n th roug h out the e n tire p eriod (1979-1 98 6).
Re gion s II, V II and VIII were use d less intensive ly d uring
this p eriod (Table 5b).
Table 5b
Distribution o f catch effort for centollón, 1979-1986.
Region
Year I II IV-A VII VIII IX Total
1979 _.6,500 .94,127 100,627
1980 1,056 - - -43,169 44,225
1981 -12,219 -17,151 21,625 50,995
1982 -1,678 27,064 -20 ,072 48,814
1983 - - 80,483 31,610 88,285 200,378
1984 - - 87,766 23,313 161,567 272,646
1985 - - - 27,361 38,754 66,115
1986 -57,090 -27,037 188,145 272,272
Total 1,056 70,987 - 201,813 126,472 655,744 1,056,072
(1%) (6%) (19%) (12%) (62%)
490 LE SCRAU WAET & GIB BO NS: CRA B BAI T F ISHERY IN CH ILE
<>_ a r g e n ™ A_
CHILE
ISLA GR ANDE
) /TIERR A DEL
/ FUEG O V
PA CIF IC O CE A N
Fig. 3. Geographical location of fishing areas - centolla and centollon (XII Region - from IFOP)
Ev alua tio n o f sources
Info rmatio n o n cap tur e sites has b ecome less an d less
reliable with the growth in illegal crabb in g activity,
espec ially since certain areas have been close d. T he
fishe rm en are the ex clusiv e sources of d ata on c apture
site s. We can t herefo re assu me th a t t h ere is a n eg ative bias
in the amoun t o f catch effort assig ned to clo se d area s an d a
co rresp ond in g positive bias in th e am oun t a ssign ed to areas
still open to fishing.
Mon thly variations
Ta ble 6 show s mon th ly ca tch effort for cen to lla, 1979-
1990. Catch effo rt for the cento lla fishery was low during
the first m onths of the ca le ndar ye a r and g radu ally
increased towards th e p e ak winter m onth s. D ata from
IF O P show it was high est for the cen to ln fishery during
the first half of the calen d ar yea r, with pea k valu es from
Ap ril to July.
Evaluation of sources
Th e monthly fishing activity ( re cord ed as de p a rtu re a nd
arrival of boa ts in th e h arb our) inf orm ation can be
regarded as reliab le , at least durin g the open season .
During the closed season illegal fishing cont in ues, alth oug h
probably at relativ ely low levels.
REP. INT. WH AL. COMMN (SPECIAL IS SU E 15), 1994 491
Table 6
Seasonal variations in catch effort for the centolla fishery 1980-1990. Catch effort per month is expressed as a
fraction o f total annual catch effort. Key: CS = closed season.
Year
Month
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
1980 0.25 e s e s e s e s e s 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.15 0.18 0.23 0.98
1981 -e s e s e s e s e s - - - - - - -
1982 -e s e s e s e s e s -0.11 0.13 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.99
1983 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.12 0.17 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.97
1984 -0.05 0.12 0.16 0.21 0.18 0.13 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 1.00
1985 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.11 1.00
1986 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.97
1987 e s 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.17 e s 0.99
1988 e s 0.04 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.08 0.09 e s 0.95
1989 e s 0.04 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.13 e s 0.97
1990* e s 0.14 0.22 0.25 0.20 0.18 - - - - - e s 0.99
* Based on data January to June.
Presence of cetaceans
Th e m o st com m o n sm all cetac ean s in t he Mag ellan regions
are Co m m erson’s an d P e a le’s dolphins. Comm erson ’s
do lp hins are fou nd principally in the eas tern S trait of
Mag ellan (Reg io n I X ), es pecially fro m the Se gunda
Ang o stu ra eastw ards (Good a ll, 1994). A erial surveys in
this a rea in Janua ry-F ebru ary 1984 indicated th e presence
of 3,211 (± 1,680) d olphin s (L e ath erw o o d et a i, 1988). A
mor e extensive a eria l surv ey ca rried out in M ay 1987 gave a
po p ulation e stim ate o f only 313 (sic) in dividuals (V enegas
and A tala h, 1988). T he d ifference m ay be due to (a) a rea l
decrea se in po p u la ti on; (b) seaso nal migratio ns o f th e
dolphins from th e are a; o r (c) differe nces in survey
method s or ob ser ver abilities. C o m m erso n ’s dolp hins in
the K e rgu elen Isla nd s m igrate of fsho re in w inter
(R o b ine a u, 1985; D e B uffrénil et a l., 1989) and w inter
offshore mov emen ts have b een sugg ested for tho se o f th e
Magellan region (Go o dall et al ., 1988a; G ooda ll , 1994). It
thus seems mor e likely t h at th e re a re f ew er dolphins in th e
area du ring the mos t inten sive fishing p erio ds. Peale’s
dolphins are foun d thro u ghou t the year a nd the ir
distribu ti on cove rs all inte rior wate rs includin g the m ost
inten sive c ra bbing a re as, th ey m ay be the species m ost
affected by cr ab fishing. From 1984, the ar eas s outh o f the
Magellan S tr ait (R e gions V, V I and V II I) w here dusky
do lphins are m ost fre que n tly obs erved , have become
im p o rta n t crab bing area s. A n a p par ently re sident group o f
Ch ilea n dolph in s is obser ved thr o ugho u t the y ear in Seno
Skyring, a no n-cra bbing area .
Interviews and public information
Crab industry interview s
Mos t of th e h eads of co m pan ies who w ere in terv iewed
accused th e fisherm en of igno rance an d irrespo nsib le
be hav iou r. They c o nsidere d the fisherm en to be
respon sible fo r pro blem s re la ted to the use of wildlife as
crab ba it. Howev er, they assu m ed th eir sha re of
respon sibility for the region al overfishing of crab and
ad m itted to pa rtic ip ating in illegal practices. For exam ple,
one admin is tr ator adm itted th a t severa l th ous and
pinn ip eds had b e en killed by his c om p an y in the last few
years for bait a nd aphrodisiacs; genitals o f sea lions ( Otaria
flavescens) and fur seals (Ar ctoc ep ha lu s australis) w ere
ex p orted illegally to Asian m ark ets while the ir carcasses
served as crab bait.
All of the managers interviewed agreed that their b ait
sup plies did not cove r th e necessities of the fishermen , b ut
in the case of th e co m panies which did n o t o wn thei r own
vessels, t he m ana gers assum e d no re spons ib ility fo r the
actions of indep e nden t fishermen. Fisherm en ge nera lly
acce pted th eir respon sibility for killing wildlife but claimed
th a t no economically v iable alternat iv es exist. Ma ny
fishe rm en believ e that red meat is by far th e b est bait.
Ma ny fishermen claim ed tha t the intro d u ctio n of
ha rpo ons by fisherm en from the regio n of Valdivia (Re gion
IX - 40°S) in the 1970s trigge red an increa se in the u se of
wildlife, cetacean s in partic u la r. The use of har poon s was
well do cumen ted in th e 1970s (Sielfeld et al., 1977a; b;
Goo dall and Camer on, 1980). Fisherm en arg ued tha t the
men from C hilo ë, the m a jority of th e crab fishe rm e n, did
no t know how to use longlines or harpoon s and tha t this
acco unted for th e deficit o f b ait sup plies. H o w eve r, in
Nov embe r 1992, a m etal-w ork in g shop in Pu n ta Ar ena s
was man ufacturin g harpoo n s to catch dolphins.
Alternative sources of bait
Com pan y hea ds and fisherm en agree d th a t an
im pro vem e nt in the tr ansp o rt to th e fishing area s of ch eap,
legal bait, such as dem e rs al fishery wa ste cou ld prov ide
pa r t of th e so lu tion.
Th e availability of ‘legal ba it’ in the region is de duc ed
from an nua l fisheries an d mea t pro d uctio n sta tistics. Since
mo st artisanal fish p ro duc ts a re sold w hole, o nly w aste
fro m indus trial fish processing is ta k en into acc oun t; this
has in creased since 1987 ( INE, 1988-1989; S E R N A P,
Ann u al Statistics R e p o rt s). T he availability and
applicability o f d iffe re nt types o f bai t w e re s tu d ie d by D iaz
(1988). The most com m on species ava ilable were froz en
ha ke (M acruronus magellanicu s), jurel (Trachu ru s
murp h y), salted s ar dines (C lu pea bentincki) an d anchoveta
(En graulis ringens). His results suggest that alth oug h
sardines an d anc hov eta are p erh aps th e b est crab bai t, the y
wo uld cost more tha n d emersal fishery waste.
Cetacean mortality
Bo th fishermen and indu stry repre sen tativ es insisted that
the mo rtality o f m arine m ammals was highest from 1980-
1986 and th a t it ha d dec re ased to a m in im um since the
arrival of th e indus trial fishing fleet in the region (1988),
which pro duc es significant qu antitie s of waste ann ually.
REP . INT. W HAL. COM MN (SPECIAL ISSUE 15), 1994 493
(3) Organisation
Th e artisa nal sec to r is b eginning to move towards labo u r
organ isatio n th rou gh un io ns an d co operatives, a lthoug h
pa rticip ation is still limited (ap prox. 30% of the 1,6 00 -
1,700 fishermen). Th is should facilitate co-op eration with
regard to con trol, techn ical assista nce, social and medica l
care , e duc ation etc. The crea tion of a training centre in
1992 (FUN C A P , Fun dac n p ara la Capacitacn del
Pe sc ado r A r te san a l) th a t p ro vides free specialisatio n
courses to a rtisan al fisherm en and th e re quirem ent th at
they subscribe to the local register shou ld result in some
im provem e nt in social con ditions.
(4) Edu cation
Th e knowled ge o f and inter est in m arine ma mmals in C hile
is increasing, as indica ted by the number of wo rk sh ops and
co nferences and by the g rowing num ber of rese arche rs in
the field. Th ere is also mor e concern for c onserva tion by
the community cha nne lled throu g h regional and nation al
no n -g ove rnm e ntal o rganisa tion s. T he strong inc re as e in
(eco )tourism in the region may increase awareness of the
econ omic value of m arin e m am m als. To uris m has b een the
fastest grow ing sec to r in M a gellan es’ local economy for the
last thre e yea rs and in 1993, eco tourism acco unted for
ab o ut 25% of the total reg io nal tourism rev enu e (total of
US$70 million, 160,000 visitors; Servicio N acional de
Tu rismo, Ser natur, 1994).
Alth o ugh marine expeditions are now offe red, despite
the gre at po te n tial (e.g. see th e WDCS re p o rt on whale
watching in L atin A m erica an d the Car ri bea n , 1994) no ne
as yet is ba sed on dolp hin or w ha le watching activities.
(5) External pressure
On 13 M ay 1992, a US b ased NG O formally p e tition e d th e
US g overnm ent to b an imp orts o f crab and crab prod ucts
fro m Chile, u nder th e 1972 M arin e Mam mal Protection
Act. This provide s fo r the Sec re ta ry o f the T reasu ry to ba n
the im p ort of com m ercial fish and fish p rod ucts caugh t with
metho ds that kill m arine m am m als in excess of US
sta n dards. T he p etition was sup p o rted by at least nine
major US bas ed enviro nm ental and wildlife conservation
NGOs and by Fishe ries Associations.
In res ponse, the C hilean g ove rn m ent thr oug h its
regional office SERNA P , pro d uce d a leaflet on aspects o f
the biolo gy o f som e of the species of m arine m amm als in
reg io nal wa te rs a nd calle d f or a study of the bait problem in
Re gion X II.
A multi-d isciplinary co mmission was es tablished to
study the availa bility of leg al bait and mech an isms for its
distribu tion in th e fishing areas. Th e com mission
de te rm in ed th a t a stock of 40 to nnes of bait (mostly
origina ting from industr ia l fishery waste) should be ke pt
fro zen in c ase no fre sh legal ba it is available. Howev er, no
ag re ed mechanism s have b e en established c oncern in g the
legal e nfo rce m ent of the use of this bait or the cost of
pe rman e ntly main ta in in g such a stock. Ultim ately, the
decision to buy an d be sup plie d with legal bait dep end s
up on the fishermen th em selves.
RECOMMENDATIONS
(1) T o re duc e to a m inim u m th e use of illegal b ait, an
indep e nden t co nsu ltan t should be en gaged to: (a)
assess the cu r re n t availability o f leg al bait in the
region; (b ) m ak e co st-ben efit com p arison s; (c) plan for
the d eve lo p m ent of an in frastruct ure to distribu te ba it
to the fishing area s; and (d) prov id e a legal framew ork
to make the use of legal b ait obligatory.
(2) Public a waren es s reg ardin g ce ta ceans s hould be
increased by: (a) establishing a follo w-up to the 1992
program m e of ed uca tion for children on ma rine
ma mmals and the ir enviro nm ent, s u ppor te d by the
IU C N Cetacea n Specialist Group ; (b) evalua ting the
po ten tial o f dolphin and whale watching in the region
and ensuring th at the pr omotio n o f pro je cts to dev elop
this activity includes suitable reg ulation s and
guide lin es; (c) th e pr om otion of marine p rot ected
areas in Chile, including the inc orp ora ti on of sites of
special intere st fo r marin e mam m als.
(3) Studies of the p o pulatio ns o f sm all ce ta ceans should be
su ppo rted; thes e shou ld focus on obtaining da ta that
can be used to assess fishery impacts on pop ulation s
(e.g. abun d anc e, d istribu tion and sto ck id en tity;
po pulatio ns dyna mics, troph ic r elatio ns).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We greatly app rec ia te th e tim e given by all th e person s
men tione d in this pa p e r, w ho rep rese n te d m any official
an d non-official o rganisa tion s and fish ermen. R .N.P .
Goo dall, A .C.M . Schiavini, K. Nie derm a n n, R .R .
Re eve s, G.P . Don ovan a nd an ano nym o us reviewer
offered helpful sugge stions on the man uscrip t. We tha nk
Sean Wh yte (W hale an d Do lph in C onserv atio n Society)
for s upp orting our w ork in Chile fro m th e very beginning.
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... This species is harvested in Chile and Peru for human food, and has been used as bait in crab fisheries in southern Chile (Lescrauwaet and Gibbons 1994). ...
... Southern Right Whale Dolphins have been taken for crab bait and for human consumption in Peru and Chile (Jefferson et al. 1994, Lescrauwaet andGibbons 1994). There are no estimates of the number of animals killed. ...
... Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) have been hunted (at least 13 dolphins/year) for bait by local long-line fishers in the northern Colombian Pacific (Avila et al., 2008). In Chilean Patagonia, Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) used to be hunted for crab bait, although changes in the dynamic of this fishery may have reduced their direct harvest for this purpose (Lescrauwaet and Gibbons, 1994;Goodall, 2009). ...
Article
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Wild animals are captured or taken opportunistically, and the meat, body parts, and/or eggs are consumed for local subsistence or used for traditional purposes to some extent across most of the world, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. The consumption of aquatic animals is widespread, in some places has been sustained for millennia, and can be an important source of nutrition, income, and cultural identity to communities. Yet, economic opportunities to exploit wildlife at higher levels have led to unsustainable exploitation of some species. In the literature, there has been limited focus on the exploitation of aquatic non-fish animals for food and other purposes. Understanding the scope and potential threat of aquatic wild meat exploitation is an important first step toward appropriate inclusion on the international policy and conservation management agenda. Here, we conduct a review of the literature, and present an overview of the contemporary use of aquatic megafauna (cetaceans, sirenians, chelonians, and crocodylians) in the global tropics and subtropics, for species listed on the Appendices of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). We find that consumption of aquatic megafauna is widespread in coastal regions, although to varying degrees, and that some species are likely to be at risk from overexploitation, particularly riverine megafauna. Finally, we provide recommendations for CMS in the context of the mandate of the Aquatic Wild Meat Working Group.
... The use of dolphins as bait has been reported in other countries in Latin America, such as Ecuador (Castro et al., 2020), Colombia (Avila et al., 2008), Chile (Lescrauwaet and Gibbons, 1994), and Argentina (Goodall and Schiavini, 1994). With our statistical analysis we hoped to elucidate associations between variables such as use as bait to port location or type of fishery. ...
Article
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The use of small cetaceans as bait is a practice that has been reported worldwide, affecting the conservation status of vulnerable species. In Peru specifically, it has been documented since at least the late 1990s. Here we document the various contemporary uses of small cetaceans, including targeted capture for subsequent use as fishing bait. We designed a survey addressing fishery characteristics, bycatch and the use as bait of small cetaceans, and the history of these practice. We surveyed 147 fishers based in the four Peruvian ports of Paita, Salaverry, Pucusana, and Ilo and held in- depth interviews with 12 fishers from Salaverry and Pucusana. Results from our surveys show that the majority of fishers have had small cetacean bycatch while fishing and that bycaught individuals in gillnets are commonly found dead (Salaverry: 100% of fishers, Pucusana: 58%) whereas in longlines small cetaceans are found alive (Paita: 74%, Ilo: 53%). We found that the use of dolphins as bait is still common in both gillnet and longline shark fisheries along the coast of Peru and that it is more frequent in northern ports. Gillnet fishers reported using one to four dolphins as bait per trip (10–15 sets) from bycatch events and discarding the rest if they have excessive bycatch, while longline fishers reported using 10–20 dolphins per fishing trip from either direct take by harpooning or the exchange of carcasses from gillnet vessels. Bycatch and use as bait mainly affects four species, the dusky, bottlenose and common dolphins and the Burmeister’s porpoise. We identified three drivers of the use of dolphins as bait: effectiveness, availability and cost. These factors will have to be addressed in parallel if this practice is to be reduced. We recommend combining legislative and community- led strategies to reduce bait use and thus further the conservation of small cetacean populations in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.
... Peale's dolphins inhabit different nearshore habitats including kelp forest, fjords, and deep bays (Brownell, Crespo, & Donahue, 1999; de Haro & Iñíguez, 1997;Dellabianca et al., 2016;Goodall et al., 1997;Lescrauwaet, 1997); they can also be found~300 km offshore in the open sea (Dellabianca et al., 2016). The species was heavily affected by a single fishery targeting two species, the southern king crab, Lithodes santolla, and false king crab, Paralomis granulosa, during the 1970s and 1980s, where it was used as bait (Goodall, Galeazzi, & Lichter, 1988;Goodall, Schiavini, & Fermani, 1994;Lescrauwaet & Gibbons, 1994). Despite a lack of information on how many individuals were removed during this fishery, it is believed that the exploitation was sufficiently intense that L. australis was at risk of local extinction (Goodall et al., 1988). ...
... Historically there is evidence that different types of marine mammals were used by fishermen to bait traps in commercial crab fisheries (Lescrauwaet & Gibbons, 1994). Several studies have attempted to use waste from fish processing industries to create alternative bait with some success (Mackie et al., 1980;Chanes-Miranda & Viana, 2000;Dale, Siikavuopio & Aas, 2007;Beecher & Romaire, 2010;Archdale & Kawamura, 2011). ...
Article
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Commercial harvesting of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in the Barents Sea started in 2012 by Norwegian fishing vessels. This new fishery has significant bait requirements, representing an emerging conservation challenge. In this study, we evaluate the performance of five alternative (natural) baits manufactured from the waste stream of existing and sustainably managed harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) capture. Five different types of new bait were evaluated, including seal fat (SF), seal fat with skin (SFS), seal meat with bone (SMB), whale fat with skin (WFS), and whale meat with fat (WMF). A comparative fishing experiment was conducted onboard a commercial snow crab fishing vessel in the Barents Sea (May-June, 2016) to evaluate the performance of traditional bait (squid, Illexs spp.) and alternative baits at catching snow crabs. Performance of the different baits were compared on the basis of the number of commercial crab caught per trap haul catch per unit effort (CPUE) and carapace width (CW). Our results showed that SF and SFS performed equally well to traditional bait, with no statistical difference in CPUE (p-value ¼ 0.325 and 0.069, respectively). All of the other experimental baits significantly decreased CPUE, when compared to squid. No significant effect of bait treatment on CW was detected and the cumulative distribution of CW was the same between control traps and each of the bait treatments. Overall the results indicated that SF and SFS represent a viable alternative to replace traditional bait, addressing a key conservation challenge in this bait intensive snow crab fishery.
... En la actualidad, existen registros que esta especie ha sido cazada para consumo humano en Queule y San Antonio y para carnada en Queule (Aguayo, 1975). C. eutropia ha sido capturado incidentalmente en redes y luego utilizadas como carnadas (Goodall & Cameron 1980, Goodall et al. 1988aLescrauwaet & Gibbons 1994;Aguayo-Lobo 1999;Dawson 2002).La escasa información existente para la especie junto a la intervención antrópica histórica y actual a las que ha sido sometida principalmente con actividades pesqueras, explican su categoría de conservación "Near Threatened" (NT, IUCN 2009). ...
Technical Report
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El presente documento da cuenta de las actividades y resultados durante toda la ejecución del proyecto: Implementación del Plan de Manejo del Santuario de la Naturaleza de Cobquecura. Concurso Público: Conservación de ecosistemas y gestión de áreas de alto valor para la conservación del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente-Chile. Se destaca en base a nuevos antecedentes la importancia ecológica del Santuario de la Naturaleza Islotes Loberia e Iglesia de Piedra para la costa de la Región de Ñuble. Se replantea los limites actuales del Santuario de la Naturaleza y se propone una nueva zonificación con una ampliación de la zona de protección, zona de amortiguamiento. Además propone realizar un nuevo polígono de protección de acuerdo a los antecedentes culturales y científicos, de los cuales podrían sustentar la propuesta para nuevo polígono de protección y conservación marina.
... Furthermore, recent reports indicate the use of dolphins as bait (Mintzer et al. 2018 Despite the ban, fishers continued until the 1990s to extract oil from small cetaceans that were allegedly bycaught (Tonay & Öztürk 2012). They also targeted dolphins as competitors for fish (Birkun 2002 (Crespo et al. 2017;Lescrauwaet & Gibbons 1994;Cardenas et al. 1987). In Chile, most recent reports on the hunt of Commerson and Chilean dolphins are from 2017 (Mintzer et al. 2018). ...
Research
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The hunting of small cetaceans (i.e., all toothed whales, except the sperm whale) for food or fishing bait is far more widespread than most people realise. While in recent years public attention has focused on hunts in Japan (specifically in Taiji) and the Danish Faroe Islands, small cetaceans are deliberately killed at similar or even higher levels in several other regions. Overall, approximately 100,000 small whales, dolphins, and porpoises are intentionally killed each year worldwide. In most cases, these are unregulated, or even illegal, hunts. Typically, they are unsustainable and poorly documented and their impact on populations is unknown. Where legislation is in place, appropriate control and rigorous enforcement measures are often lacking. This report aims to give a global overview of the scale of small cetacean hunts, the number of individuals and species targeted, and their ecological impact.
... Laws were adopted to protect dolphins but enforcement was poor (Cárdenas et al., 1987;Aguayo et al., 1998;Altieri and Rojas, 1999). The decline of crab abundance, the use alternative baits and other factors greatly reduced illegal hunts in the 1990s (Lescrauwaet and Gibbons, 1994;Van Waerebeek et al., 1997b). Small cetaceans were also killed in central Chile in the 1970s for bait in the longline fishery (Aguayo et al., 1998) and, although recent reports are scarce, in 2014 local fishermen were arrested for fileting a dolphin. ...
Book
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Butterworth, A., Simmonds, M. P., eds. (2017). People – Marine Mammal Interactions. Lausanne: Frontiers Media. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88945-231-6 Our relationships with marine mammals are complex. We have used them as resources, and in some places this remains the case; viewed them as competitors and culled them (again ongoing in some localities); been so captivated and intrigued by them that we have taken them into captivity for our entertainment; and developed a lucrative eco-tourism activity focused on them in many nations. When we first envisaged this special topic, we had two overarching aims: Firstly, we hoped to generate critical evaluation of some of our relationships with these animals. Secondly, we hoped to attract knowledgeable commentators and experts who might not tradi- tionally publish in the peer-reviewed literature. We were also asking ourselves a question about what responsibility mankind might have to marine mammals, on our rapidly changing planet? The answer to the question; can, or should, humans have responsibility for the lives of marine mammals when they are affected by our activities? - is, in our opinion, ‘yes’ – and the logical progression from this question is to direct research and effort to understand and optimise the actions, reactions and responses that mankind may be able to take. We hope that the papers in this special issue bring some illumination to a small selection of topics under this much wider topic area, and prove to be informative and stimulating.
Chapter
Despite centuries of whaling focused mostly on mysticete species, eight of the ten most endangered species of cetaceans in the world today are odontocetes. These species have certain features of their ecology in common, such as coastal habitats and usually ranges in developing countries, but also have some shared behavioral and social traits, such as strong susceptibility to entanglement in fishing nets and acoustic disturbance. I use four species of small cetaceans as case studies to examine the elements that have caused their predicaments. It is likely that the vaquita (Phocoena sinus) will soon become the second species of cetacean to go extinct in modern times, and the Atlantic humpback dolphin (Sousa teuszii) appears to be the next most endangered species. Several other cetacean species are facing similar levels of risk—despite some having misleading status assessments. There is a need to learn from our past mistakes to provide better protection to those species at risk and thereby avoid future extinctions.
Article
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The use of aquatic mammals as bait to enhance the harvest of fisheries species has garnered little attention by the scientific and conservation communities, often receiving only brief mention in reports focused on the human consumption or bycatch of aquatic mammals. A number of studies, however, highlight the negative impact of this practice on affected mammal populations. A systematic review of relevant literature published since 1970 yields new insight into the scope of the issue. Findings indicate that the practice of using aquatic mammals for bait has been and continues to be geographically widespread, has affected at least 42 species, and often involves deliberate killing for the express purpose of securing bait. The nature of the fisheries involved is diverse, encompassing a wide range of target species and gear types; however, shark fisheries that employ longlines appear to be the most widely engaged in using aquatic mammals as bait. This practice appears to be most common in Latin America and Asia. It is evident, based on our review, that there is little information on the impact of the direct take on most targeted mammal populations, commonly small cetaceans, and increased monitoring efforts are needed in many locales. In most instances, the ecology and population dynamics of the targeted fishery species is poorly understood and in some cases the species is classified as threatened, suggesting a fishery sustainability issue that cannot be fully addressed with a substitute for the aquatic mammal bait. It is essential that natural resource managers implement mitigation approaches that consider the socio-economic, cultural, political, and ecological circumstances leading to the use of aquatic mammal bait in each fishery.
Article
Different cetacean species are taken depending on area, gear and target fish species involved. In Buenos Aires Province, franciscana Pontoporia blainvillei is the species most frequently caught in shark and croaker gillnet fisheries. In some places in this province, such as Necochea (the best studied area of Argentina), gillnets also catch Burmeister's porpoises Phocoena spinipinnis and purse seines catch dusky, common, and bottlenose dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus, Delphinus delphis and Tursiops truncatus). Between San Matias Gulf and San Jorge Gulf, bottom and mid-water trawls, mainly for shrimp and hake, catch dusky dolphins and to a lesser extent common dolphins, Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii and spectacled porpoises Australophocoena dioptrica. In Patagonia (Santa Cruz Province) gillnets are used for robalos Eleginops maclovinus; Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis, Commerson's dolphins and spectacled porpoise are caught incidentally. At Tierra del Fuego Island, gillnets are used for robalo, hake and silverside on the northeast coast and take Peale's and Commerson's dolphins and spectacled and Burmeister's porpoises. In some localities southern sea lion Otaria flavescens damages catch and nets and is occasionally entangled. -from Authors