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A new species of bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus, Gekkonidae) from the North Papuan Mountains

Abstract

We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus from lower montane forests on the Torricelli and Foja Mountain ranges of northern New Guinea. Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other described Cyrtodactylus by the combination of moderately large size (SVL 104-109 mm), males with pores extending to the knee and arranged in independent precloacal and femoral series, transversely enlarged subcaudal scales, and dorsal pattern consisting of five to seven indistinct transverse dark bands. The known distribution of this species is similar to many other vertebrate taxa apparently restricted to isolated ranges within the North Papuan Mountains, and supports the biogeographic association of these poorly known upland areas.
22 Accepted by A. Bauer: 21 Apr. 2011; published: 27 Jun. 2011
ZOOTAXA
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Copyright © 2011 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 2930: 2232 (2011)
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A new species of bent-toed gecko (Cyrtodactylus, Gekkonidae)
from the North Papuan Mountains
PAUL OLIVER1,2,6, KELIOPAS KREY3, MUMPUNI4 & STEPHEN RICHARDS1,5
1Terrestrial Vertebrates, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A, 5000, Australia
2Center for Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Adelaide University, Adelaide, S.A., 5005, Australia
3Department of Biology, University of Manokwari, Papua, Indonesia
4Herpetology Division, Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI),
Widyasatwaloka Building-LIPI, Jalan Raya Cibinong Km 46, Cibinong 16911, West Java, Indonesia
5Conservation International, Atherton, QLD, 4883, Australia
6Corresponding author. E-mail: paul.oliver@adelaide.edu.au
Abstract
We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus from lower montane forests on the Torricelli and Foja Mountain ranges of
northern New Guinea. Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other described Cyrtodactylus by
the combination of moderately large size (SVL 104–109 mm), males with pores extending to the knee and arranged in
independent precloacal and femoral series, transversely enlarged subcaudal scales, and dorsal pattern consisting of five to
seven indistinct transverse dark bands. The known distribution of this species is similar to many other vertebrate taxa ap-
parently restricted to isolated ranges within the North Papuan Mountains, and supports the biogeographic association of
these poorly known upland areas.
Key words: Foja Mountains, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Torricelli Mountains
Introduction
The North Papuan Mountains (or northern coastal ranges) of New Guinea are a series of relatively low (generally
less than 2000m high) ranges located to the north of and isolated from the much larger, higher and continuous main
Central Cordillera of the island (Stattersfield 1998; Beehler 2007). Ongoing survey work has revealed a wealth of
described and undescribed species endemic to these areas (e.g Diamond 1982; Kraus and Allison 2000, 2006a;
Helgen 2007; Beehler et al. 2007; Richards et al. 2009). Perhaps the most poorly known of the North Papuan
Mountains is the Foja Mountains in northern Papua Province of Indonesian New Guinea. Until as recently as 2004
the montane slopes of this range remained completely unexplored by scientists (Diamond 1982; Beehler et al.
2007), but recent expeditions organised by Conservation International and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(LIPI) and supported by National Geographic have provided a first picture of biodiversity on the upper slopes of
the Fojas. This work has revealed a suite of new mammal, bird, reptile, frog and butterfly species (Van Mastrigt
2006; Beehler et al. 2007; Richards et al. 2009).
The reptile diversity documented at montane sites in the Fojas was relatively low but included a moderately
large and distinctive undescribed species of bent-toed gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus. Cyrtodactylus is the most
species-rich genus of geckos on New Guinea and surrounding islands (and the most species-rich gekkonid genus in
the world) (Uetz and Hallerman 2008). Twenty-one species are recognised from Melanesia, of which 12 have been
described in the last decade (Rösler 2000; Günther and Rösler 2003; Kraus and Allison 2006b; Rösler et al. 2007;
Oliver et al. 2008, 2009; Kraus 2007, 2008). Despite this high number of recent descriptions, many additional
undescribed species are already present in existing collections from New Guinea (Kraus 2007; Rösler et al. 2007;
Oliver pers obs). Not surprisingly then, examination of museum material subsequent to the Foja Mountains expedi-
tion identified a specimen of this distinctive new Cyrtodactylus from another North Papuan Range, the Torricelli
Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 23
A NEW SPECIES OF BENT-TOED GECKO
Mountains of Papua New Guinea, that is lodged in the Australian Museum. Herein we present a description of this
new species based on both new and old material.
Material and methods
Specimens were collected during field surveys in northern New Guinea in 1990 (Torricelli Mountains) and 2008
(Foja Mountains). Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% alcohol and are lodged at the Museum
Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB) in Bogor, Indonesia, and the Australian Museum (AM) in Sydney, Australia. Tis-
sues were taken from all specimens and either stored frozen (AM) or in 70% ethanol (MZB). All paratypes of the
new species are currently held at MZB, but two are to be lodged in the South Australian Museum; pending export
and registration we refer to these specimens using field numbers.
The following measurements were taken with digital callipers to the nearest 0.1 mm and largely follow Kraus
(2006): snout-vent length (SVL), tail length (from the posterior edge of the vent to the tip of the tail (TL), total
length of original tail (OT), trunk length from axilla to groin (TrL), distance from anterior edge of nares to eye
(EN), head length from tip of snout to mid-posterior margin of ear opening (HL), maximum head width (HW),
maximum head depth (HD), forearm length from base of palm to elbow (FA), crus length from base of heel to knee
(CS), transverse diameter of orbital (EYE) and transverse diameter of ear (EAR). We counted left and right suprala-
bials to both the midpoint of the eye and to the rictus (SUPR), left and right infralabials (INFR), dorsal tubercle
rows from lateral fold to lateral fold at the midpoint of body (DTR), tubercles in lateral fold on the right and left
sides (LTTUB), ventral scale rows at midpoint of body (VENT), number of narrow and wide subdigital lamellae
(LAM) under all digits of the manus and pes on the right side, precloacal (PREPORES) and femoral pores (FEM-
PORES), where present, and postanal tubercles (PATUB).
Comparative material from the following institutions was examined: American Museum of Natural History
(AMNH), Australian Museum (AM), South Australian Museum (SAMA), and Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense
(MZB). Lizard specimens stored at MZB are referred with the joint acronym ‘MZB lace’ (short for lacertilia) as is
standard at this institution. Specimens examined are listed in Appendix 1. Further comparative data was taken from
De Rooij (1915), Brongersma (1934), Brown and Parker (1973), Rösler et al. (2007) and Kraus (2008).
Systematics
Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov.
Figures 1–4
Holotype. AMS R135519, adult male, from the Kukumbau area of Mount Sapau, (3° 23' S, 142° 31' E), between
1000–1200 metres altitude, Torricelli Mountains, West Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, collected by Pavel
German on 10 Mar 1990.
Paratypes. MZB lace7474 (field-number SJR 13593), 7475 (SJR 13594), SJR13593, all adult females; SJR
13613, adult male; Foja Mountains (2° 35' 27.8"S, 138° 43' 11.9"E), Papua Province, Indonesia, at approximately
1250 metres altitude, collected by Paul Oliver between 19–21 Nov 2008.
Diagnosis. Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other Melanesian and Wallacean
Cyrtodactylus by the following unique combination of characters: moderately large size (SVL to 109 mm); rela-
tively slender body with robust head (HW/SVL 0.193–0.213); enlarged femoral-scale series extending beyond the
knees; males with precloacal (12) and femoral (17–25) pores arranged in three independent series; femoral-pore
series extending beyond the knee; medial subcaudal scales in mostly single row and transversely enlarged to
approximately one third width of tail; tail without prominent dentate tubercles; and dorsal colouration consisting of
5 to 7 very irregular and indistinct dark-brown transverse bands.
Comparisons. A single row of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales distinguishes Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus
sp. nov. from the majority of recognised Melanesian Cyrtodactylus. Of those species which share this character;
Cyrtodactylus aaroni and C. mimikanus (which also occurs in the Foja Mountains) have a much lower total number
of femoral/precloacal pores (<35 v >47) and a distinctive dorsal pattern consisting of six or seven wide chocolate
OLIVER ET AL.
24 · Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press
brown bands separated by very thin, strongly defined light bands (Günther and Rösler 2003); members of the Cyr-
todactylus lousiadensis group (restricted to far-eastern New Guinea) also have transversely enlarged subcaudals,
however in this group they are much wider (approaching the width of the tail), they are also generally much larger
geckos (109mm to 160 mm adult SVL) and most (Cyrtodactylus epiroticus, C. klugei, C. louisiadensis, C. robustus
and C. tripartitus) can be further distinguished by possessing wide brown dorsal bands of even width with even
edges (vs indistinct, ragged-edged dark brown bands); of the remaining two species, Cyrtodactylus murua differs
in its lower number (three) and much broader dark dorsal bands, and Cyrtodactylus salamonensis has a much
higher number of dorsal tubercle rows (28–29 v 18–20) (Rösler et al. 2007; Kraus 2009).
FIGURE 1.Dorsal a) and ventral b) views of holotype (AMS R135519) of Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. Scale = 20 mm.
All other recognised species of Melanesian Cyrtodactylus lack a single series of transversely expanded
subcaudals; C. sermowaiensis (recorded up to around 700m on Mount Sapua, the type locality of Cyrtodactylus
boreoclivus sp. nov. (F. Kraus pers com.)), can be further distinguished by lacking a continuous series of enlarged
femoral scales, lacking precloacal and femoral pores in the males, and a dorsal pattern consisting of transverse
series of very dark brown and generally highly contrasting blotches or broken bands on a pale background (vs
dorsal colouration consisting of less contrasting dark brown transverse bands on a dark background); C. loriae
(also known from across northern and eastern New Guinea), can be further distinguished by having a continuous
femoral and precloacal pore series; C. serratus, (known only from the Central Cordillera) differs in this same
Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 25
A NEW SPECIES OF BENT-TOED GECKO
feature and the presence of spinose lateral and dorsal tubercles (v low, rounded and dorsal only) extending to the tip
of the tail, (Kraus 2007); C. novaeguineae (also widespread and overlapping over much of northern New Guinea),
C. irianjayaensis and C. zugi, are readily distinguished by their larger size (adult SVL up to 172 mm v < 109 mm),
absence of ventral-lateral tubercles extending to at least the angle of the lower jaw and sometimes across the throat,
and presence of enlarged tubercles below the lateral fold.
FIGURE 2. Details of cloacal region of holotype (AMS R135519) of Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. Extent and position of
precloacal pore series indicated by small arrows, and femoral pore series by large arrows. Scale = 10 mm.
Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. is readily distinguished from all remaining Melanesian Cyrtodactylus; C.
papuensis and C. nuaulu possess a precloacal pit, lack femoral pores extending to the knees, and are much smaller
(< 90mm), C. nuaulu also has a distinctive series of dentate lateral tubercles extending to the tip of the tail; and
Cyrtodactylus capreoloides and Cyrtodactylus derongo have different dorsal patterns, consisting respectively of
thin brown bands on a light brown background, or thin bands of light creamish dots on a dark reddish brown back-
ground (Brown and Parker 1973; Rosler et al. 2007).
Description of holotype. A moderately large (109 SVL mm), slender gecko; head long (HL/SVL 0.26), mod-
erately wide (HW/HL 0.75) and distinct from neck; snout sharply rounded in dorsal profile, relatively long, longer
than eye diameter; loreal region weakly inflated; interorbital region and top of snout concave; canthus rostralis
smoothly rounded (Fig.1). Eyes very large, pupil vertical, superciliaries extending from anterio-ventral to posterior
dorsal edge of eye, largest at the anterior-dorsal corner. Ear opening small and obscured by a superior skin fold.
Rostral wider (4.8 mm) than high (2.9 mm), widest at and extending into nostrils, bordered dorsally by two
supranasals, distinct medial suture extending from dorsal edge of rostral, less distinct lateral suture extending from
ventral tip of medial suture. Nares bordered by first supralabial, rostral, first supranasal and series of 5 postnasals.
Supralabials to rictus 11 on right and 12 on left, approximately 9 to midpoint of eye; supralabials anterior to eye
much longer than high, bordered dorsally by a single series of enlarged scales. Head scales small and granular, tem-
poral and nuchal scales smaller than those on snout, scattered small conical tubercles on dorsal half of temporal
region. Infralabials to rictus 8 on right and left, all longer than high, bordered by several rows of enlarged scales
grading into small and granular gular scales. Mental almost rectangular, with triangular posterior extension, wider
than long, bordered by first infralabials and two pentagonal postmentals in contact for approximately 70% of their
length.
OLIVER ET AL.
26 · Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 3. Dorsal view of paratypes of Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. showing variation in colour pattern (labels on
specimens are all field numbers). From left to right MZB lace 7474 (F-num SJR 13593), MZB lace 7475 (F-num SJR 13594),
SJR 13613, SJR 13592. Scale = 20 mm.
Body elongate (TrL/SVL 0.45), skin moderately tuberculate, distinct ventrolateral fold with 37–40 slightly
conical tubercles oriented posteriorly and separated by one or no smaller granules, posterior tubercles largest. Dor-
sum with approximately 17–18 rows (not including lateral fold) of low rounded tubercles at midpoint of body, sur-
rounding scales small and granular; ventral scales much larger than dorsal scales, increasing in size medially,
arranged in approximately 37 rows at midpoint of body. Distinctly enlarged femoral and precloacal scales in near-
continuous series extending in single row along proximal third of tibia, in one to two rows along femur and in up to
five rows in precloacal region. Precloacal pores in slightly angled series of 12 in the third enlarged precloacal scale
row. Femoral pores extend along distal half of femur onto proximal third of tibia, 25 in right series, 24 in left series
(Fig. 2).
Forelimbs relatively elongate (FA/SVL 0.16), hindlimbs more robust and longer than forelimbs (CS/SVL
0.18). Dorsal surfaces of hindlimbs and lower forelimbs with numerous rounded tubercles. Digits long and well
developed, inflected at basal interphalangeal joints, digits narrowing distal to joints; subdigital lamellae smooth,
rounded and expanded proximal to joint inflection (9–10–10–10–9 manus; 8–10–10–12–10 pes); narrow lamellae
distal to digital inflection (8-9-10-11-9 manus; 9–10–13–12–11 pes) (not including ventral claw sheath); large
recurved claws sheathed by a dorsal and ventral scale. Slight basal webbing between digits I–IV on manus and pes.
Tail original, long and slender, tapering to point with a lateral groove extending most of its length. Caudal
scales granular, increasing in size ventrally, a distinct series of transversely enlarged subcaudals scales extending
almost to tip of tail, few scattered tubercles extending along dorsal surface of tail to approximately 4–5 cm from
groin. Cloacal sacs swollen and prominent, left hemipene slightly everted, two enlarged postanal tubercles at ante-
rior lateral edge of each cloacal sac.
Colouration in preservative. Dorsal ground colour moderately dark greyish-brown with scattered lighter grey
flecking, especially on tubercles; a series of five indistinct bands on the body formed by a grade from light greyish
brown to progressively darker brown, bordered posteriorly by a thin very dark brown jagged region; bands becom-
ing more indistinct posteriorly. Laterally, torso relatively uniform medium-brown with scattered small light-grey
and dark-brown spots and blotches. Nuchal region with a dark-brown indistinct W-shaped marking, further extend-
ing across the temporal region to the posterior edge of eye and bordered dorsally by a thin pale-grey line. Dorsum
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A NEW SPECIES OF BENT-TOED GECKO
FIGURE 4. Photographs in life of paratypes of Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. from the Foja Mountains A) MZB lace
7474, and B) SJR13613 . Photographs courtesy T. Laman and National Geographic.
OLIVER ET AL.
28 · Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press
of head greyish brown with extensive fine dark-brown mottling and blotching; supralabials and infralabials light
greyish brown. Ventral surfaces light grey with dense brown speckling. Lateral and dorsal surfaces of limbs same
ground colour as dorsum; digits slightly lighter, all with scattered dark-brown and light-greyish spots, sometimes
forming indistinct thin bands; ventral surfaces of limbs and digits with relatively less pigmentation, but retaining
extensive fine brown flecking. Tail with seven broad dark-brown bands and six thinner light-grey bands, thinner
light-grey bands with scattered dark spots, ultimate two centimetres light grey heavily mottled with dark brown.
Va ri at io n . Variation in mensural and meristic characters among the type series is presented in Table 1; varia-
tion in colour pattern is illustrated in Figure 3. All female paratypes lack precloacal and femoral pores but do pos-
sess a row of distinctly enlarged femoral scales extending to the knee. Three of the paratypes have partially or fully
regrown tails. The regrown tail is always uniformly dark greyish brown with irregular scalation and, in at least two
specimens, has distinct longitudinal ridges (MZB lace 7474, SJR13613). The only paratype with a complete and
original tail (SJR13592) lost this during capture. The original tail has six broad dark-brown bands and five much
narrower light-grey bands.
Although the number (5–7), width, intensity and distinctness of the dark and lighter transverse bands vary (Fig.
3), this basic colour pattern is relatively consistent across the type series. A distinct dark W-shaped mark in the
nuchal region is also present in all specimens. Paratype MZB lace 7474 has the most distinct dorsal pattern, in this
specimen the dark blotches do not always extend completely across the dorsum and the light-grey blotches are
larger, lighter and sometimes join laterally to form an indistinct broken longitudinal ‘ladder’ pattern along the dor-
sum. In other specimens (e.g., SJR 13592), the light transverse bands are very indistinct, especially posteriorly. The
venter is always predominately light grey, but there is slight variation in the degree and intensity of grey-brown
spotting and flecking on the venter of the head, throat, body and legs.
Appearance in life. Photographs of paratypes MZB7474 and SJR13613 in life (Fig. 4) show the same pattern
as in preservative, but with a higher level of contrast between light and dark-brown areas that makes the bands
more obvious. Some light-brown areas in preservative appear almost yellowish in life, especially on supracilaries.
Eye cream with extensive dark-brown vermiculations, pupil vertical; tongue pink.
FIGURE 5. Map of northern New Guinea showing type locality (square) and paratypic locality (star) for Cyrtodactylus boreo-
clivus sp. nov.
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A NEW SPECIES OF BENT-TOED GECKO
TABLE 1. Mensural and meristic data for the type series of Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov.
Distribution and natural history. Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. is currently known only from two sites
in the north coast ranges of mainland New Guinea (Fig. 5). The Foja Mountains and Torricelli Mountains are sepa-
rated by over 300 km, and further surveys may reveal that it is found in intervening ranges such as the Bewanis and
Cyclops. Specimens from the Foja Mountains were located at 1250 metres altitude in undisturbed lower-montane
forest (sensu Johns 1976). Although exact altitude data are not available for the holotype from Mt Sapau, discus-
sions with the collector (P. German) indicate that it was found in lower-montane forest at around 1200 metres.
Specimens from the Foja Mountains were collected on the trunks of either small shrubs or large trees, generally
less than five metres above the ground. Although additional Cyrtodactylus were detected by their eyeshine 15–20
AMSR135519 MZB lace 7474 MZB lace 7475 SJR13592 SJR13613
holotype paratype paratype paratype paratype
SEXmfffm
SVL 109.0 104.3 107.3 108.5 105.7
TrL 40.1 51.1 51.2 53.1 52.4
TL 137.0 108.0 121.0 127.0 128.0
OT 137.0 39.0 68.0 127.0 21.0
FA 16.9 16.7 16.6 15.6 16.5
CS 19.5 20.5 19.8 20.6 20.0
HW 21.6 21.5 20.9 20.9 22.5
HL 28.8 28.0 28.4 27.3 27.8
HD 12.1 11.7 12.8 11.7 11.8
EN 11.2 9.9 10.4 10.1 10.4
EYE 7.7 7.4 7.5 7.1 7.9
IN 4.0 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.6
EAR 2.5 2.1 2.3 1.5 2.0
SUPR (R) 9/11 7/10 7/9 8/11 8/10
SUPR (L) 9/12 9/11 9/10 7/9 8/11
INFR (R ) 8 9 10 8 10
INFR (L) 8 9 10 9 9
DTR 17/18 16/17 17/19 18/18 18/19
LTTUBR 37 43 38 36 40
LTTUBL 40 39 41 37 41
VENT 37 36 44 39 39
LAM MANUS I: 8+9 I: 8+7 I: 8+7 I: 9+7 I: 9+8
II: 9+10 II: 10+12 II: 10+9 II: 8+8 II: 10+12
III: 10+10 III: 12+11 III: 9+10 III: 10+8 III: 11+10
IV: 11+10 IV: 12+11 IV: 12+11 IV: 10+9 IV: 13+10
V: 9+9 V: 12+11 V: 12+8 V: 11+8 V: 12+9
LAM PES I: 9+8 I: 9+9 I: 9+7 I: 9+8 I: 10+10
II: 10+10 II: 11+12 II: 11+10 II: 9+10 II: 11+11
III: 13+10 III: 13+12 III: 12+12 III: 11+11 III: 11+11
IV: 12+12 IV: 12+14 IV: 12+12 IV: 11+10 IV: 13+11
V: 11+10 V: 13+11 V: 12+11 V: 12+8 V: 13+11
PREPORES 12 na na na 12
FEMPORES 25R, 24L na na na 18R, 17L
PATUB 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 1/1
OLIVER ET AL.
30 · Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press
metres high in large trees, these were impossible to collect and in some cases it was not possible to confirm their
identities. Two uncollected individuals of Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. were observed less than a metre apart,
one on a large tree trunk and another on a liana approximately 10 metres high in the canopy. Female SJR 13593
contained two well-developed eggs, indicating that at least some individuals are reproducing in November.
No other gekkonids were found in sympatry with Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. in the Foja Mountains,
but at lower altitudes Cytodactylus mimikanus and Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae were present. In the Torricellis C.
sermowaiensis, C. novaeguineae and C. cf. lorie have also been collected in relatively close proximity to the type
locality, but whether the distributions of these taxa overlap or abut with Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. is
unknown.
Etymology. From the latin boreo meaning northern, and clivus meaning slopes, in reference to the northern
Ranges of New Guinea, to which the species is presumably endemic.
Discussion
Despite a spate of recent descriptions (Rösler 2000, Günther and Rösler 2003, Kraus and Allison 2006a, Rösler et
al. 2007, Oliver et al. 2008, 2009, Kraus 2007, 2008), many additional Crytodactylus from New Guinea remain
undescribed. Based on existing museum collections and unpublished genetic data it seems that actual diversity may
be as high as double the currently recognised total (Oliver pers. obs., Kraus pers. com.). Many described species
also remain known from either few specimens and/or only one or two localities. Given this abundance of unrecog-
nised and/or poorly known taxa, and pending the results of genetic investigations currently underway (Oliver
unpublished), we do not speculate about the evolutionary relationships of Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov.
The northern lowlands of New Guinea have been the focus of several recent herpetofaunal surveys but Cyrto-
dactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. has not been found during these projects (e.g., Austin et al. 2008, SJR pers. obs., Fred
Kraus pers. com.). Furthermore, while Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. was moderately common in the Foja
mountains at 1200 metres, extensive survey work at lower altitudes in the Fojas documented only C. novaeguineae
and C. mimikanus. It seems likely that the new species is restricted to moderately high altitudes within the North
Papuan Mountains. This is the second species of Melanesian Cyrtodactylus known only from altitudes of 1000
metres and above (the other being C. capreoloides from the Central cordillera (Rösler et al. 2007)). Given the top-
ographic complexity of New Guinea, and the influence of altitude on species diversity patterns in other elements of
the New Guinea fauna, we suspect that additional work will reveal further upland endemic Cyrtodactylus else-
where in New Guinea, especially within the large areas of lower-montane forest along the Central Cordillera.
Based on its known distribution, Cyrtodactylus boreoclivus sp. nov. is one of a growing suite of species that
occur in two or more apparently isolated montane populations in disparate North Papuan Mountain Ranges (Hel-
gen 2007; Kraus and Allison 2006b). Further morphological and genetic work will almost certainly reveal many
more species, or sister-species complexes, that are restricted to montane isolates within these ranges. Given that
many of these montane taxa endemic to the North Papuan Mountains are poor dispersers and unlikely to have been
extirpated by recent anthropogenic influences, their current distribution indicates that there was historical connec-
tivity and gene flow between these now-isolated montane blocks. While modern assessments of biogeographical
history are in their infancy in New Guinea, a genetic assessment of diversity within taxa distributed across the
North Papuan Mountains would provide a valuable insight into the temporal scale and historical processes respon-
sible for this distribution pattern.
Acknowledgements
We thank the Indonesian Institute of sciences (LIPI) for permission to undertake research in Papua Province, Indo-
nesia. Indonesian material was collected during a RAP biodiversity survey organised by Conservation International
and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences with support from the National Geographic Society. Without the efforts of
Neville Kemp, Bruce Beehler, Burhan Tjaturadi, Tim Laman, Edwin Scholes, Brother Henk Van Mastrigt, Kris
Helgen, Chris Milensky, Nathan and the other villagers from Kwerba and Papasina field work in the Foja moun-
tains in 2008 would not have been possible, and far less enjoyable. Additional logistical support within Indonesia
Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 31
A NEW SPECIES OF BENT-TOED GECKO
was provided by Yatna Supriatna, Budi Iraningrum, Pak Ahmad Jauhar Arif, Hellen Kurniati, Sancoyo Lanang,
and many others. We thank Ross Sadlier, Glenn Shea, Paul Doughty and Mark Hutchinson for allowing examina-
tion and or loan of material in their care, Mike Lee and Carolyn Kovach at the South Australian Museum for vari-
ous assistances, Anurag Ramachandra for producing the map, and Pavel German for discussion and information
about the type specimen.
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OLIVER ET AL.
32 · Zootaxa 2930 © 2011 Magnolia Press
APPENDIX 1. Material examined.
Institutional abbreviations are given in materials and methods.
Cyrtodactylus darmandvillevi MZB lace 2005, Indonesia, Komodo National Park, Loh Liang, MZB lace 5297 Indonesia, East
Flores, Mt Egon.
Cyrtodactylus deveti MZB 6036, Indonesia, west Halmahera, Weda Village, MZB 6037, Indonesia, Halmahera, Tosoa Village.
Cyrtodactylus halmahericus MZB lace 6086, Indonesia, Maluku Province, southern Ternate Island, Gambesi Village, MZB
lace 6088, 6091-92, Indonesia, Maluku Province, Ternate Island, Faramadiahi Village, MZB lace 6095 Indonesia, Maluku
Province, east Halmahera, 17km from Lolobato National Park, MZB lace 1899, Indonesia, Seram, Manusela National
Park, Sasarata, MZB lace 2360, Indonesia, Seram, Kanike, MZB lace 2359, 2361, Indonesia, Seram, Solea, MZB lace
2362, 2363, Indonesia, Seram, Saunulu, Waikawa.
Cyrtodactylus irianjayensis MZB 5765, Indonesia, Papua Barat, Salawati Island.
Cyrtodactylus cf irianjayensis MZB 2297 (seven specimens) 2298 (five specimens), Indonesia, Papua Barat, Sorong (from
dealers’ premises).
Cyrtodactylus jellesmae MZB lace 4647-51, Indonesia, south east Sulawesi, Pulau Buton, Sungai Ladungkula, Kakenauwe Vil-
lage.
Cyrtodactylus loriae SAMA R62635, Papua New Guinea, Kikori Basin, Darai Plateau, SAMA R62636 Papua New Guinea,
Eastern Highlands Province, Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Herowana Village, SAMA R62637 Papua New
Guinea, Southern Highlands Province, Moro, SAMA R8305, 8369, WAM R67688-9, Papua New Guinea, Chimbu Prov-
ince, Karimui Village.
Cyrtodactylus mimikanus MZB lace 3561-3565 Indonesia, Papua Province, Cyclops Mountains, Yongsu, MZB lace 3565-6
Indonesia, Papua Province, Furu River, MZB lace 2303 (2 specimens) Indonesia, Papua Province, Wapoga River Basin,
Siewa.
Cyrtodactylus nuaulu MZB lace 2326 (holotype), MZB lace 2325, 2327-9 (paratypes) Indonesia, Maluku Province, Seram
Island, Manusela National Park.
Cyrtodactylus novaeguineae AMS 129290, Papua New Guinea, East Sepik Province, Maprik, AMS 119548-119550, Papua
New Guinea,West Sepik Province, Torricelli Mts, Wigote, MZB 5435-6, Indonesia, Papua Barat, Foja Mountains, Marina
Valen Village.
Cyrtodactylus tuberculatus SAMA R12058, SAMA 14002 Australia, Cooktown.
Cyrtodactylus salomonesis SAMA 56879 (holotype), SAMA R56780 (paratype), Solomon Islands, Santa Isabel Island, Kol-
opakisa.
Cyrtodactylus sermowaiensis SAMA R62653 Papua New Guinea, Ramu, Kurumbukari.
Cyrtodactylus tripartitus SAMA R62638-644, Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay Province, Misima Island, Misima Mine site.
Cyrtodactylus zugi MZB lace 5574 (holotype), MZB lace 5573, 5575 paratypes, Indonesia, Papua Barat, south coast of Batanta
Island, MZB lace 7310, Indonesia, Papua Barat, Batanta.
... The Papuan Region (islands east of the Moluccas to the Solomon Islands, centered around New Guinea) contains 27 named species, with many additional species awaiting description in museum collections. Kraus (2008) provided a key to the 20 species named by that time, but several species have been described since then (Oliver et al. 2011(Oliver et al. , 2016Nielsen & Oliver 2017). Papuan members of the genus are typically arboreal, although C. sermowaiensis is so easily captured in pitfall traps that it must spend a good deal of time on the forest floor (FK, pers. ...
... These specimens are listed in Kraus (2008) or in Appendix I. Additional comparative data were taken from Oliver et al. (2011Oliver et al. ( , 2016Oliver et al. ( , 2019, , and Nielsen & Oliver (2017). Parasites were kindly identified by Charles Bursey and are deposited in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML). ...
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