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Digital Divides and Mobile Internet in Indonesia: Impact of Smartphones

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Abstract

Mobile leapfrogging refers to the process by which new Internet users access the Internet using mobile phones and not PCs. This study examines how and whether mobile phones narrow the digital divide among Indonesian people at four levels (device ownership, Internet adoption, use, and information acquisition). A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in three large cities in Indonesia (N = 605). The results indicated that, at different levels, younger and more educated people utilize mobile Internet, especially via smartphones. In contrast, feature phones are owned by less educated and older people regardless of income level, but Internet usage on such phones is more prevalent among younger and more educated people. Moreover, the adoption of the PC-based Internet promotes the ownership of smartphones. These results indicate that mobile leapfrogging is the case only with the ownership of feature phones. Furthermore, in comparison with feature phones, smartphones and personal computers are more associated with information handling capacity in daily life. These findings suggest that ICT literacy education is important, and one should not be optimistic about the mobile Internet’s prospects for narrowing the digital divide in developing countries.

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... Because they are more hidden and harder to reach, people with an income below the poverty threshold (further called income-poor people), are often under or not represented, both in large-scale academic and non-academic survey studies about Information and Communication Technology (ICT) access and skills (e.g., Puspitasari and Ishii, 2016;Ragnedda et al., 2019;Van Deursen et al., 2019;Vandendriessche and De Marez, 2020). Consequently, it remains unclear whether income-poor people have personal access to ICTs, whether they can use ICTs to fulfill basic needs, and which ICT problem solving strategies they can apply. ...
... Research within the domain of digital inequality has repeatedly demonstrated significant associations between ICT access, skills, use purposes, or support, on the one hand, and socio-economic and socio-demographic variables, such as income level, ethnicity, gender, age, education level or geography, on the other hand. Based on these studies, it has been concluded that lower levels or a lack of ICT access, skills or support are more prevalent among individuals with lower income, minorities, women, older people and lower educated people (Dodel and Mesch, 2018;Dolničar et al., 2018;Forenbacher et al., 2019;Puspitasari and Ishii, 2016;Ragnedda et al., 2019;Tsetsi and Rains, 2017). Although some studies have demonstrated that having a lower income, i.e., an income below average, is associated with lower levels of ICT access, attitudes and skills (e.g., Ragnedda et al., 2019;Tsetsi and Rains, 2017;Van Deursen et al., 2019), income-poor people are often not included in these survey studies. ...
... This study further adds to the literature in three ways. First, when measuring access, existing instruments ask people in a binary way whether or not they have a computer, internet or smartphone (e.g., Forenbacher et al., 2019;Puspitasari and Ishii, 2016;Ragnedda et al., 2019;Van Deursen et al., 2019), while some people might not have these by choice, and others might not have these by financial constraint. This distinction between lacking access by choice or by constraint is highly relevant, however until now, no studies have considered it. ...
Conference Paper
The Texas construction market is the second-largest hub inside the U.S. Nearly 750 thousand people are working in different sectors of the Texas construction industry. Although the big picture indicates steady growth in Texas hiring size in the last 30 years, the Texas construction market's volatility has been an issue for construction companies and their hiring plans. Rather than seasonal patterns inherent to construction activities, factors such as economic recessions and crises, tropical hurricanes, and outbreaks of pandemics are potential reasons for fluctuations in construction companies' demand to hire. The impact of each factor on the cities varies due to geographical and demographical diversity inside Texas. This paper focuses on understanding workforce migration behaviors following local disasters because it relies heavily on the local workforce. To determine each factor's significance is to find if they created an anomaly in the dataset after they occurred. This research implemented an outlier detection analysis on Texas cities and compared the resulting outlier dates with the timeline of Texas's extreme events in the last 30 years. The results show that economic crises with national scales such as the dot-com bubble at the start of the century and the 2008 economic crisis mostly affected four major cities (Austin, Houston, Dallas/Fort Worth, and San Antonio) of Texas. Multi-state local disasters such as hurricane Harvey impacted both major cities and their satellite cities, suggesting the migration of the workforce to the disaster-areas. The research found that low population cities have been affected by local disasters.
... Hence, Hypothesis 3 cannot be accepted. This is, however, consistent with findings from Kongaut and Bohlin (2016), and Puspitasari and Ishii (2016), which studied the smartphone adoption determinants as a whole and found the coefficient statistically insignificant. In their research, Gerpott, Thomas, and Weichert (2013) found that the gender gap is shrinking quickly in digital media, which may explain that there was no statistically significant gender effect. ...
... Furthermore, Adamides et al. (2013) discovered that gender had no effect on internet usage in Cypriot farmers. For Indonesian people, Puspitasari and Ishii (2016) discovered no significant effect of gender on smartphone adoption. On the other hand, Venkatesh, Morris, and Ackerman (2000) found that gender has a crucial role in the decision-making that affects information technology adoption. ...
... Thus, Hypothesis 5 can be accepted. The literature shows a positive association between computer ownership with internet connectivity and smartphone adoption (Puspitasari and Ishii 2016). Likewise, farmers who are computer literate have already acquired some expertise and skills of technology use and are thus more likely to adopt agricultural technologies (Tey and Brindal 2012). ...
... Differences in age, gender, income, education in Indonesia, have resulted in the emergence of the gap in access to technology (Yanti & Alamsyah, 2014;Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016;. In addition, to achieve the successful implementation of eGovernment, trust must be established between government institutions as well with the citizens. ...
... In the next section, each factor will be further explained. Holistic Approach (Bunker, 2012;Cope, 2015) Business Alignment (Bunker, 2012;Cope, 2015) Organisational Roles, Responsibilities, and Authorities (Bunker, 2012;IASME, 2013;ISACA, 2013;ISO/IEC 27001, 2013) Awareness, Education, and Training (Wicaksono, 2003;Bunker, 2012;Setiadi, Sucahyo & Hasibuan, 2012;IASME, 2013;Cherdantseva & Hilton, 2013;ISACA, 2013;ISO/IEC 27001, 2013;MICT, 2014;CCEB, 2015;CESG, 2015) Implementation Management Risk Management (IASME, 2013;ISACA, 2013;ISO/IEC 27001, 2013;MICT, 2014;CCEB, 2015;CESG, 2015;Cope, 2015) Security Objectives (Bunker, 2012;IASME, 2013;Cherdantseva & Hilton, 2013;ISO/IEC 27001, 2013;MICT, 2014;CCEB, 2015;CESG, 2015) Operations and Management (Bunker, 2012;Setiadi, Sucahyo & Hasibuan, 2012;IASME, 2013;Cherdantseva & Hilton, 2013;ISACA, 2013;ISO/IEC 27001, 2013;MICT, 2014;CESG, 2015;Cope, 2015) Performance Evaluation (Bunker, 2012;Cherdantseva & Hilton, 2013;IASME, 2013;ISACA, 2013;ISO/IEC 27001, 2013;MICT, 2014) Recovery and Continuity Management (Bunker, 2012;IASME, 2013;Cherdantseva & Hilton, 2013;ISO/IEC 27001, 2013;MICT, 2014;Cope, 2015) Indonesian Context Cultural Issues (Wicaksono, 2003;Djumadal, 2008;Setiadi, Sucahyo & Hasibuan, 2012;Cherdantseva & Hilton, 2013;Hardjaloka, 2014) Infrastructures Development (Wicaksono, 2003;ISACA, 2013;Hardjaloka, 2014;Anggono, 2015) Digital Divide (Khalil, Lanvin & Chaudhry, 2002;Hardjaloka, 2014;Yanti & Alamsyah, 2014;Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016; Trust and Privacy (Khalil, Lanvin & Chaudhry, 2002;Palupy, 2011;Norton Rose Fullbright, 2014) Organisational Structures (Setiadi, Sucahyo & Hasibuan, 2012;Operananta, 2015) Coordination (Setiadi, Sucahyo & Hasibuan, 2012;Operananta, 2015) 3. ...
Thesis
Information technology has been used in various fields, such as business, health, and education. This includes in government field, which is often called electronic government or eGovernment. In fact, many countries had implemented eGovernment, including Indonesia. The eGovernment initiative is aimed to improve government services to the public by improving the quality and availability of services that can be accessed regardless of time and place. Consequently, the services must always be available at any time, and any threat to the information and systems should receive attention to ensure business continuity in the event of an incident. However, in Indonesia, the implementation of eGovernment is still unsatisfying according to the United Nations eGovernment Development Index 2018. One of the reasons, as stated by the Director of eGovernment of Ministry of Communication and Information of Indonesia, is the information security aspect of eGovernment in Indonesia is still relatively vulnerable. Therefore, in the implementation of eGovernment, information assurance (IA) should be considered. The main purpose of IA is to protect the business by reducing risks associated with information and information systems as well as ensuring business continuity. However, there is no study so far that has focused on IA for eGovernment in Indonesia. For this reason, research on a framework of IA is needed to support the implementation of eGovernment in Indonesia. This research focuses on the development of an IA framework for eGovernment within the Indonesian context. The development of the framework is divided into four stages, which are identifying the factors from international best practices for IA, determining factors from literature, identifying the challenges, and evaluating and harmonising all the factors. The proposed framework is expected to assist eGovernment implementation in Indonesia to achieve eGovernment initiatives in Indonesia. The framework confirmed using the triangulation method by conducting a literature review, experts’ interview, and survey with practitioners in the field of IA, eGovernment, and information security from various institutions in Indonesia. ii The findings show that all the proposed factors in the framework are significant in IA implementation for eGovernment in Indonesia. Moreover, an instrument to measure IA implementation status derived from the confirmed framework was developed and validated. The results show that the instrument is able to assess accurately the status of IA implementation in government organisations in Indonesia and therefore it can be concluded that the framework is feasible to be implemented in Indonesia.
... 17 Unlike other studies, the study in Mexico also finds a greater probability of using the internet among women. Self-reported data from an urban survey in Indonesia find that, while feature phones are owned by less well educated, older people (regardless of income level), the use of the internet on such phones is more prevalent among the younger and more well educated (Puspitasari and Ishii 2016). Focusing on seven Latin American countries, Grazzi and Vergara (2014) conclude that income, educational attainment, urban-rural location, household size, the presence of students in the household, and network effects are drivers of internet access, as is internet access across different modalities in some countries. ...
... Some of these have also been explored in the literature. They include low educational attainment, lack of digital (computer) skills, and lack of knowledge of English or French (Birba and Diagne 2012; Martínez-Domínguez and Mora-Rivera 2020; Pénard et al. 2012Pénard et al. , 2015Puspitasari and Ishii 2016). Policy design needs to reflect a consideration that adoption does not directly translate into usage for everyone, and attention also must be tailored to vulnerable groups. ...
... Therefore, the specific Although the use of the internet is relatively high in Indonesia, communications are made predominantly through the mobile phone usage. Phones are generally used for entertainment purposes (social media, messaging), rather than information gathering [33] or browsing for news. At the time of our fieldwork, a small earthquake (less than 5 magnitude on the Richter Scale) occurred, and many residents contacted a disaster response volunteer to ask of a potential tsunami threat rather than looking up the information themselves (which is how the disaster response volunteer helping our research project realised that there was no potential tsunami warning). ...
... Tsunami sirens that are not functioning are a problem (section 4.2.2). Other tsunami warnings through government websites (InaTEWS, BMKG, BNPB) are not commonly used as there is lack of inclination of residents to use the internet for information gathering [33]. Scheduled and informed testing of tsunami sirens and education of tsunami warning system information gathering for residents will raise the trust in tsunami warnings and help residents make faster evacuation decisions. ...
... The dynamic prototype was tested by end users mainly in the research area. A [26]. The increasing number of people in the country using the Android platform is why this platform with GP was selected as the native mobile app. ...
... Currently, in Indonesia, the use of Android phones is growing rapidly. A total of 78% of the population used Android phones in 2016, and this rate is predicted to include 100% of the population in urban areas and 52% in rural areas in 2019 [26]. The trend of using short messaging service (SMS) has shifted to the use of internetbased apps for messaging, such as WhatsApp, Line, and Telegram [41]. ...
Article
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Background Limited information is available on how mobile health (mHealth) application (app) technology on mother and child health (MCH) is developed. This research aimed (a) to explore the process of developing mobile apps for MCH community-based services in the Indonesian setting of Pos Pelayanan Terpadu ( Posyandu/ Integrated Health Service Post), (b) to determine the feasibility of using the app by community health workers (CHWs), and (c) to evaluate the scalability of the mobile app at the national level in Indonesia. Methods A hybrid method was used to synergistically combine the action research principles and mixed methods comprising qualitative and quantitative methods. This study was conducted in the Pasawahan District, Purwakarta, Indonesia, from 2017 to 2019. Content analysis, coding, and categorizing were performed using NVivo 12 Pro for transcribed data. The Wilcoxon test (2018 and 2019) was conducted using STATA 15 Special Edition. Results (1) The use of a CHW notebook for data entry into the Posyandu Information System book delayed the data reporting process, resulting in the need to develop a mobile app. (2) There were significant differences in CHWs’ knowledge ( p = 0.000) and skills ( p = 0.0097) on training (2018) and Posyandu phases (2019). (3) A total of 964 Posyandu have been registered in the Posyandu mobile app from almost all provinces in Indonesia. Conclusions The three-year hybrid approach includes the crucial phases that are necessary to develop a mobile app that is more user-friendly and can act as a substitute for CHWs’ book. Hence, its implementation is promising for use at the national level.
... In the workplace, programs and online tools for communication, time registration, project management, and data storage have become common practice nowadays, including regular updates and the introduction of new digital tools [5]. Although, the use of digital services and programs may increase efficiency or simplify processes [2,6,7], the question raises whether some individuals may be at a disadvantage to fulfill basic needs due to these changes, as persons may experience difficulties in using a smartphone or computer to look for a job, to accomplish job tasks, to search for information on insurances, or to contact the government [8]. ...
... The unequal access to or adoption of smartphones, computers, and internet is the focus of digital inequality research or digital divide research [8,9]. Research within this domain has repeatedly demonstrated that a significant amount of individuals lack access, knowledge, positive attitudes, skills or support to adopt a smartphone, computer or internet in general as well as for specific uses, such as using a search engine, using a word processor, making new contacts online, or buying a product online, both in developed and developing countries, in disabled and non-disabled populations, among poor and non-poor, and across old and young individuals [6,7,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. ...
Article
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Today, some individuals may be at a disadvantage by experiencing difficulties in using a smartphone or computer to reach specific outcomes (e.g., looking for a job, searching for information on insurances) or in general (e.g., not knowing how to change the settings of an app or website). The aim of this study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new instrument, called the Digital Difficulties Scale (DDS). A multi-phase method was performed to develop the questionnaire in the period from January 2019 to November 2019. The item pool was generated based on a literature review, informal observations and interviews. Then, this item pool was presented both to experts (n = 6) and non-experts (n = 492) to assess content and face validity. In a second stage, construct validity (both exploratory and confirmatory), convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the questionnaire were tested. These analyses were based on a representative sample (n = 1000), and an independent sample for test-retest reliability (n = 44). Twenty-four items were generated and refined during content and face validity assessment. The exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors (Specific Digital Difficulties, General Digital Difficulties, and Worries about Future Digital Difficulties) containing sixteen items, together explaining 73.03% of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis proved adequate model fitness. Both convergent and divergent validity were good, and internal consistency was excellent, with Cronbach’s alphas ranging between .93 and .97. Finally, our instrument demonstrated good test-retest reliability, with interclass correlation coefficients between .73 and .86. Consequently, the DDS can be used both in future research and practice, as it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure who is disadvantaged to fulfill basic needs by experiencing difficulties in using a smartphone or computer.
... The number of users who are very dense during working hours also affects the quality of service. The problem of the digital divide in Indonesia is not only a problem with communication technology infrastructure, but further than that it is a social and cultural communication problem for people in Indonesia who have not yet formed an information society with an adequate level of media literacy (Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016;Wang et al., 2021). ...
... The digital divide in Indonesia can be seen in the ability of households to own technology devices, there are data showing that no more than 20% of households in rural areas own a computer. In addition, it is known that the internet speed in Jakarta, which already has 5G internet service, is 20 times faster than in cities in Eastern Indonesia, such as Manokwari and Jayapura, which only have an average speed of 256 Kbps (Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016). ...
Article
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The digital divide is one of the problems faced by the government since the COVID-19 pandemic occurred. All face-to-face activities in all development sectors are transferred online. The unpreparedness of communication technology infrastructure in Indonesia is one of the obstacles to online learning activities that require a stable internet connection, even in urban areas that already have communication infrastructure with 5G networks. However, it turns out that the problem is not only with infrastructure, what is more important than that is the opportunity and ability of the community to use communication technology. In this study, researchers limit research to only discussing the challenges of the digital divide in the online learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia with research locations in three districts in West Java in 2020-2021. This research uses a qualitative approach, an exploratory paradigm, in a case study perspective. The data collection process was carried out under natural conditions in the form of observation, in-depth interviews and documentation studies. This study concludes that collaboration between government officials and the community has a positive impact on people's opportunities to carry out online learning processes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The challenges of the digital divide faced during the digital learning process can be partially overcome by collaboration between the government, the community and the private sector, although the approach taken is different at each research location.
... However, in this study, it was applied in order to differentiate iOS and Android users and to understand their purchase intention. In literature, a lot of sources prove that Androids are easily adopted by individuals [31], [56]. On the other hand, external memory expandability and, simultaneously, an assortment of applications might also be considered to achieve the above-mentioned goal. ...
Article
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p class="0abstract"> Abstract— This paper examines attitudes towards smartphone characteristics (features, functions and relative advantage indicators) from the users’ perspective. A questionnaire survey was conducted among smartphone users (n=486) from different countries, however, most of the respondents were Azerbaijanis or Hungarians. The results of the survey were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis which enables to group the most important variables based on their correlations. Six components were extracted and 65% of the total variance was explained by the components. Surprisingly, Personal Digital Assistant tasks and Technical Features seem to be more important for smartphone users than Relative Advantage indicators (i.e. including the price of the handset). The main purpose of the mobile/smartphones – being in touch – explains less than seven percent of the total variance. Afterward, the respondents were clustered in 5 groups according to Rogers’ [2003. Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press] adopter categories, using the results of PCA for K-means cluster analysis. Based on the output of cluster analysis and final cluster centers, the adopter categories were defined. The results illustrate that the number of innovators and early adopters is significantly high in comparison with the original numbers offered by Rogers. <</script
... The usage of Internet technology indirectly increases information self-efficacy in its users. The capability of acquiring and handling information through technology helps the process of e-government implementation [5]. One of the few studies of e-government in Indonesia found that the majority of Internet users would be willing to adopt egovernment [6]. ...
Article
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The worldwide implementation of Information and Communication Technologies has helped the development of e-government systems. Indonesia as one of the largest countries in Asia has made the development of e-government system a priority. However, developing such system in Indonesia has been a challenge. This study aims to investigate the factors that may affect the adoption rate of e-government services among Indonesian citizens. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), this study added several other factors that may affect intention to use, namely Perceived Risk, Social Influence, and Trust. The survey respondents consist of enrolled students in several universities in Indonesia (N=472). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual model. The findings of this study is consistent to the original TAM study, and also identify Perceived Risk as an important factor. Perceived Risk is both directly associated to Intention to Use, and acts as a mediator between Perceived Ease of Use and Intention to Use. Therefore, the study gave an important background for policy makers and government officials to improve the existing system. From the human-computer interaction perspective, it is apparent that UI/UX designers need to consider user perception of risk when developing and promoting any new technology, especially for wide public.
... Sales of mobile phones are increasing at a rate of over 40% per year (Xu et al., 2016). In Indonesia, the penetration levels of primary and internet-capable mobile phones have reached 98% and 78% of households, respectively (Puspitasari and Ishii, 2016). It is not out of the question that Indonesia will have generated over 40 million end-of-life mobile phone units by 2028 (Santoso et al., 2019). ...
Article
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While end-of-life mobile phones make up a growing fraction of the total volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generated worldwide, their collection rate remains low. In order to address this problem, it is necessary to understand individual consumers’ disposal behaviors, especially in the context of developing countries. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess the determinants of disposal behaviors regarding waste mobile phones in a country lacking well-established systems. This study conceptualizes a model based on the theory of planned behavior and proposes five types of disposal behaviors: keeping, reselling, donating, recycling, and discarding. Models were tested using a survey administered to residents of Jakarta, Indonesia. Through use of structural equation modeling, this study shows that improving environmental awareness can stimulate subsequent responsible disposal behaviors. It also reveals that throwing waste mobile phones into mixed bins is common practice in Indonesia.
... Nevertheless, it does not mean that mobile devices are less influential for learning than PCs are. As suggested by a previous study, the prospects of the mobile internet (i.e., internet access from a mobile device) for narrowing the digital divide in developing countries should not be underrated (Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016). Even more so in Indonesia where most of the internet traffic comes from mobile internet (ICT Statistics Sub Directorate, 2019) due to the lack of and uneven access to fixed broadband internet, something that is more common and more affordable than mobile internet connection in many developed countries. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many countries to close their schools and to change their education system to adopt the learning from home (LFH) method, which arguably requires more direct involvement from parents to succeed. This study explored parent’s attitudes toward LFH policy based on a survey of 261 participants from 16 provinces in Indonesia. Employing latent class analysis, we revealed three distinct groups of parents with unique compounds of attitudes toward LFH (i.e., disengaged, positive, and negative). Disengaged parents neither consider LFH useful, nor do they see it as demanding. In contrast, the other two groups of parents have quite the opposite views on the usefulness and demandingness of LFH. Further analysis using multinomial logistic regression revealed that older parents from low-income households tend to be disengaged while fathers of young children tend to have negative attitudes toward LFH. Interestingly, the ownership of a personal computer at home seems to be a key indicator of parents with positive attitudes toward LFH after controlling for other demographic factors. How the findings provide a firsthand insight on the existence of digital divide by highlighting the importance of access to personal computers at home is further discussed.
... Other had found that there are negative association between smartphone use and academic performance [13] and work productivity [14]. Most of studies that already existed explored adoption issues of technology, but none of them reached out portable scanner application adoption [15]. This research purposed on other perspective to analyse the user acceptance of portable scanner application on smartphone as productivity tool [16]. ...
Conference Paper
The use of the Android Operating System in almost all smartphones in the world broadens the possibility of how people use the smartphones itself, including the use of smartphone cameras as an alternative to scanners. This article discusses how people behave in using the scanner application on smartphones for the purpose of document scanning. The method used here is the Extended Unified Theory Of Acceptance And Use Of Technology (UTAUT) analysis or called UTAUT2 with the addition of moderating variables outside the UTAUT2 model, namely the level of education and employment of 297 respondents that explores some questions regarding their behavior in using portable scanner application on their smartphones. The results of this study show that not all factors in UTAUT affect people's desire to use this application. Some factors which also have a partial result is the moderating effect of the factors of age, experience, level of education and employment.
... From a survey by Lim in 2011, and Wattegama and Soehardjo in previous years, 85% of the respondents owned a mobile phone and only 27% of the mobile phone owners accessed the Internet. 4 It showed that not all of Indonesia's population used the gadget effectively. Surprisingly, less than half of our population used the Internet. ...
Article
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In early of 2020, China had identified a new etiology of pneumonia which was later called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the condition declared as pandemic. In this emergency state of affair, people will seek information from websites disseminating health information online, including Indonesia. Since there is currently no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, the application of preventive measures has been essential. The hygiene and health measures can be easily spread widely as there’s been fast & numerous information spreading in the media, but that is not usually the case with underprivileged people with little access to technology. False news and lack of credible sources are also a threat. A health startup in Bandung, Indonesia, made initiatives to educate people about COVID-19 prevention through downloadable script and audio in the form of Public Service Announcement provided with 19 local languages through their website. This study aims to know the characteristics of profile users accessing the website through descriptive observational approach. The data came from the website automatically analysed by Google Analytics. We look into the audience data, comprising demographics and geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe the acquisition data that helps us in seeing website traffic. The significant difference found in this study is seen in the age group, meanwhile the gender group did not have a significant difference, which has 8% of disparity. By geographical distribution, 60% of top users are located in cities located in Java Island. Direct traffic, interestingly, made up almost 86 percent of all traffic. Twitter ranked the top for the social media traffic in our case. In conclusion, it is necessary to promote credible information in COVID-19 preventive measures and help maintain the accessibility of information.
... Many scholars hold the view that the above advantages of m-commerce motivated the adoption of this technology in developing countries. Those countries provide considerable market for ICT-based services [3,4]. One case is the country of Saudi Arabia, which is the focus of this paper, where mcommerce is increasingly gaining attention [5]. ...
... Some Indonesian people simply cannot distinguish clickbait and normal headlines and often get disappointed after clicking the news, and it may be correlated to the inequality of internet access in Indonesia, widely known as the digital divide (Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016). People with less internet exposure may have a hard time at pointing out clickbaits, simply because they seldom encountered it. ...
Preprint
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With increasing usage of clickbaits in Indonesian Online News, newsworthy articles sometimes get buried among clickbaity news. A reliable and lightweight tool is needed to detect such clickbaits on-the-go. Leveraging state-of-the-art natural language processing model BERT, a RESTful API based application is developed. This study offloaded the computing resources needed to train the model on the cloud server, while the client-side application only needs to send a request to the API and the cloud server will handle the rest. This study proposed the design and developed a web-based application to detect clickbait in Indonesian using IndoBERT as a language model. The application usage is discussed and available for public use with a performance of mean ROC-AUC of 89%.
... The impact of using mobile phones on the digital division in the developed countries has been investigated by a number of researchers (Mascheroni & Olafsson, 2015). Puspitasari and Ishii (2016) have investigated that increased use of mobile technologies is expected to overcome the digital gap in developing countries as well. On the other hand, the researchers have also explored the benefits of using mobile technology for educational purposes, especially in making students familiar with the English language (Mueller, Wood, & Archer, 2011). ...
Article
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Technology has become an important source for enhancing the knowledge of the students. Apart from the non-academic purposes, the use of technology for the academic purposes also has greater impact on the process of learning specifically on tertiary education. Therefore, it has become essential for higher education institutions to focus on the available opportunities for integrating technology in the academic setting. The developing countries like Pakistan, however; are facing some major challenges in technology integration due to the unavailability of sufficient financial resources. Hence, this study explores the use of digital technological tools at undergraduate level in one of the public sector universities of Pakistan. The study also examines the impact of the medium of instruction and respective discipline of the tertiary level students on the use of technology. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted from 200 undergraduate students studying in four different disciplines in the university. The findings revealed that the majority of the students at the undergraduate level have accessibility to smartphones, laptops or desktop computers in the university but only a few students use these available technological tools for learning purposes. Smartphones were determined to be the most easily available technological tool while the students generally do not prefer carrying their laptops to the university. Besides this, the students also reported having limited technological knowledge and skills for the digital tools to be used for educational and learning purposes. However, a greater percentage of the students were willing to participate in training sessions for learning.
... Users of this application are already familiar with the use of mobile devices such as smartphones. As many as 69 percent of Indonesians access the Internet via cellular devices, some people use the cellular Internet, primarily through smartphones [16], [17]. This number shows that users in Indonesia have adequate exposure and understanding of mobile applications. ...
Article
Smart Home technology development is directly proportional to the emergence of various applications as access media. Currently, many Smart Home applications do not use the concept of human-machine interaction (HMI). The problem that often arises in the interaction between humans and machines is that humans must understand what the machine wants to have wrong perceptions about the system. In this study, the solution is proposed with the HMI concept, which uses natural language interaction through the chatbot application as an interactive medium to control and monitor Smart Home devices. In this study, the chatbot application implements the Natural Language Processing (NLP) text recognition process. User acceptance of the system is carried out using the evaluation stage. Thirty users participated in an in-depth usage study in which they tackled using the system. This research aims to create an application that can make it easier for users to control various devices on a Smart Home through natural language interaction and to analyze the performance of the NLP method. The results showed that most users (90%) believed that the application can help users control and monitor Smart Home devices. The NLP application on the chatbot application provides a success rate of 93.3% where the results obtained from the chatbot response depend on the completeness of the token.
... Applicants must have a valid identity card, motorcycle license and registration, criminal record certificate, and an Android smartphone with certain system requirements ( Figure 3). The smartphone requirement is rarely a barrier, as competition among telecom companies has resulted in smartphones as cheap as 19,000 IDR (12.50 USD) (Puspitasari and Ishii 2016). Applicants must have their own motorcycle, but this also rarely poses a barrier given the vehicle's popularity and easy financing options. ...
Article
There is a growing consensus that emerging forms of flexibilized platform labor (e.g., Upwork, Uber) necessitate new forms of mobilization to resist exploitation, given workers’ atomization and lack of statutory rights. However, Euro‐American concerns about radical reductions in labor security are countered by workforces in the “near South,” where precarious, unprotected work has long been the norm. I explore incrementalist organization in motorcycle taxi (ojek) drivers’ resistance to the flexible labor regime of Go‐Jek, an Indonesian ride‐hailing app. I examine ojek pangkalan (older‐style informal‐sector drivers) and Himpunan Driver Bandung Raya (HDBR, a grassroots app‐based driver association) in the city of Bandung. Although antagonistic toward each other, ojek pangkalan and HDBR employ similar improvisatory strategies, notably micro‐territorial basecamps and grassroots social security, to establish claims to their working lives. Incrementalist strategies in Indonesia are thus highly flexible in helping workers manage precarity across formal and informal contexts. By examining organization repertoires among app‐based and older‐style ojek drivers, this paper contributes to discussions about how the precarity of platform labor is produced and managed in a global context.
... The "mobile leapfrogging" phenomenon is where new internet users use their mobile phones to access the internet and not personal computers. More than 78% of Indonesians use their mobile phones to access the internet, in contrast to 29% laptop or notebook users and 31% desktop computer users [18]. Increasing internet penetration and increasing mobile phone use allow more users to access mobile applications, especially mHealth applications. ...
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Introduction: Mobile health (mHealth) applications gain popularity due to the increasing number of mobile phone usage and internet penetration, which might help some of Indonesia's medical issues. However, the uptake of mHealth applications is still low in Indonesia. This study is aimed at understanding the factors that drive individuals to adopt mHealth applications and their impact on the intention to recommend. Methods: We applied a new model that combines three different theories with some other constructs: an extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, diffusion of innovation, and the internet customer trust model. The study used a cross-sectional study design with partial least squares causal modeling approach. Results: There are 787 respondents in our study, with the majority of them being female, young adults. Our model could explain 53.2% of the variance of intention to adopt while explaining 48.3% of the variance of intention to recommend. Initial trust in mHealth platform (β = 0.373, p = <0.001), facilitating conditions (β = 0.131, p = <0.01), and performance expectancy (β = 0.099, p = <0.05) are the top three most important drivers of intention to adopt mHealth applications. Lastly, importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) showed that the mHealth application's initial trust is the most important construct with a high-performance score. Discussion. Mobile health developers and managers need to improve initial trust in the mHealth platform, facilitating conditions, and performance expectancy when developing the applications. With a medium Q2predict, these factors can be applied out of the research context with medium predictive power.
... However, the behavioral research method has stated the possibility of using electronic questioner in order to face several conditions related to time, space, access, and financial limitation [3]. Besides, nowadays, communication technology, like smartphones, was a common device in which almost everybody in the city owns it [4,5]. To control the bias, we designed the questionnaire which needs household information, as explained before. ...
Article
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The dataset was collected using the survey method with an electronic questionnaire. The use of electronic questionnaires is intended to reach many respondents during the physical distancing caused by the COVID-19 global pandemic. The instrument used in data collection was adapted from Alinovi, Mane, and Romano (2008). The instrument was designed anonymously to ensure the privacy and independence of respondents in giving their responses. Data that is captured includes several categories either nominal, ordinal, or interval refers to the information that needs to be captured. Determination of the type of data also refers to the recommendation of previous research. The data was collected using the Google form platform. Questionnaire distribution was conducted on April 12-20, 2020, and 1096 responses were collected. The date is two weeks after the government call of the Republic of Indonesia to carry out Physical Distancing to anticipate the COVID-19 Global Pandemic. The entire data is then screened and filtered so that it only leaves the data with respondents who are domiciled in Medan City. After filtered, there is remained 846 data that is ready for analysis. In order to make more informative data, researchers conducted a descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis, and the Spearman's rank correlation. Analysis of the data provides valuable information related to the interrelation of each item and the pattern of economic resilience that the urban city community has as a data of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Researchers can then further analyzed the data with more advanced analytical tools to produce more valuable information in the development of science and in developing strategic policies related to anticipating the economic vulnerability of the household due to the global pandemic disaster.
... Water utilization efficiency is extremely low, i.e. crops are over irrigated or less irrigated. Accuracy is also a major defect in the manual irrigation systems (Puspitasari and Ishii, 2016;Pongnumkul et al., 2015;Philip et The objective of the study is to devise an integrated system in the form of plant growth monitoring and controlling irrigation to improve productivity in agriculture. To overcome the mentioned problems of the traditional agricultural methods, the proposed method is implemented for automation in agricultural systems. ...
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Traditional agricultural systems require huge amount of power for field watering. This paper proposes a smart irrigation system that helps farmers water their agricultural fields using Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). This system provides acknowledgement messages about the job's statuses such as humidity level of soil, temperature of surrounding environment, and status of motor regarding main power supply or solar power. Fuzzy logic controller is used to compute input parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature and humidity) and to produce outputs of motor status. In addition, the system also switches off the motor to save the power when there is an availability of rain and also prevents the crop using panels from unconditional rain. The comparison is made between the proposed system, drip irrigation and manual flooding. The comparison results prove that water and power conservation are obtained through the proposed smart irrigation system.
... Pemanfaatan internet dapat digunakan melalui perangkat komputer atau ponsel cerdas (Smartphone). Pada penggunaannya, internet cenderung lebih pupuler digunakan oleh kelompok sosial seperti Kaum Muda dibandingkan dengan kelompok yang lainnya, terutama di dalam aktivisme online (Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016). ...
Article
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Kaum Muda masih dinilai sebagai kelompok yang apatis di berbagai Negara termasuk di Indonesia. Situasi ini dikarenakan kurangnya ruang partisipatif yang mengakomodir kepentingan Kaum Muda. Kehadiran media sosial perlahan memberikan ruang partisipasi kreatif baru bagi Kaum Muda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan media sosial Twitter sebagai media partisipasi kreatif dan ekspresi politik Kaum Muda melawan korupsi di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan sumber data berasal dari studi dokumen dan media sosial Twitter. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan fitur Ncapture for Nvivo. Analisis penelitian dilakukan dengan pengkodean data, analisis konten dan visualisasi data menggunakan Software analytics Nvivo 12 Plus. Hasil penelitian ini menjelaskan bahwa media sosial Twitter memiliki pengaruh pada minat kolektif Kaum Muda pada wacana politik khususnya masalah korupsi. Ekspresi Kaum Muda di Twitter dibuktikan dengan ide kreativitas seperti meme, capture, caption, quote, dan hastag. Kreativitas tersebut merupakan bentuk ekspresi politik yang sekaligus mampu memengaruhi dan memobilisasi pengguna media sosial lainnya untuk ikut terlibat pada minat kolektif bersama melawan korupsi. Substansi penelitian ini memberikan kontribusi berupa rekomendasi kebijakan dalam mengampanyekan isu-isu antikorupsi di Indonesia dengan memaksimalkan penggunaan media sosial Twitter.
... This situation is better known as the digital divide. In general, the digital divide is regarded as social inequality in which learners of lower socioeconomic status exhibit lower levels of internet literacy which is impacted by the lack of device ownership and internet-based skills (Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016). The second issue to address is the acceptance of mobile learning among adults. ...
Article
This study aims to understand the learning process and language acquisition of Communicative Malay Language (CML) among foreign workers in Malaysia. A total of 10 foreign workers who were randomly selected in Kuala Lumpur and volunteered to participate were interviewed individually. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and interpreted to enable the researcher to conduct content analysis. The analysis revealed that most of the respondents were not adequately supplied with general knowledge about the country, and especially the language, when they arrived in Malaysia for the first time. Although only half of them specifically reported the utilization of mobile applications in learning CML, all of the respondents were aware of mobile applications in general and agreed that this would be a good instrument to help them learn the language, especially the listening aspect.
... 的研究通过不仅涉及访问的差异,而且关注使用的 自主性、相关技能、社会支持以及使用该技术的目 的不同,将其标记为第二道数字鸿沟,扩展了数字 鸿沟的背景。实际上,由于任何社会系统中的大多 数参与者都获得了技术,第二道数字鸿沟开始变得 比第一道数字鸿沟更重要 [22] 。最近出现了一种新的 [53,58,[71][72][73][74] 。Zhong [74] 认为,ICT 已经帮助各国提高了识字水平,因为互 [81] 发 布 的 "ICT 发 展 指 数 " 、 世 界 经 济 论 坛 的 " 网 络 就 绪 指 数 " [82] 及 " 数 字经济与社会指数" [83] 等,自 2014 年以来由欧盟委 [42,88] 、 移 动 设 备 的 采用 [12,[89][90] ,以及先进的电子服务,如电子学习、电 子银行、电子政务 [91][92][93][94][95][96] 和以及社交网络 [97] 等。Çilan ...
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In recent years, digital divide research has attracted extensive attention from scholars worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for Chinese scholars to understand the status quo of foreign research on digital divide and to carry out further systematic research in this field. First, this paper systematically summarizes the concept, the types of digital divide, and the problem domains of digital divide research. These domains include its influencing factors, measurement indexes, evaluation models, measures to bridge the gap, and development trends by means of synthesis, induction , and comparison. Then, the contemporary context of digital divide research abroad is reviewed. The review reveals that a relatively systematic theoretical system has been formed and the research methods in digital divide research are mainly quantitative research, which implies qualitative research in this field needs to be strengthened. Additionally, relevant research on the third digital divide is still in the preliminary stage, and the classification of digital divide and the measures to bridge the digital divide require further study. Last, the review indicates that the development trend of digital divide research is digital inclusion.
... Past studies have described the intercept technique as one of the most appropriate methods. This is due to its ease of implementation and lower refusal rate, most especially, when the respondents are drawn from varied backgrounds (Boateng et al., 2016;Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016). ...
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This study investigates usage behaviour as a variation in internet engagement by integrating the concept of access gaps with the ability-motivation-opportunity (AMO) framework. The research model was tested with data collected from 270 respondents in Klang Valley, which is the most urbanised metropolis in Malaysia. The result of path modelling analysis revealed that the cognitive factor of internet skill has the most significant effect on internet engagement. The significant effects of opportunity and extrinsic motivation on engagement were confirmed. Intrinsic motivation has no significant impact on engagement, but it has a significant interaction effect with opportunity. Thus, the lack of opportunity to access the internet does not limit the frequent engagement of the intrinsically motivated user. This study offers a systematic explanation of the underlying mechanism for the interaction among the access gaps and an alternative model in explaining the determinants of internet user behaviour.
... Our study clarifies the psychological factors of smartphone addiction among Muslim university undergraduates in Malaysia. In line with the literature on the proliferation of internet-enabled devices, the increasing accessibility to smartphones has facilitated higher users' engagement in online activities with the negative outcome of addiction (Puspitasari and Ishii, 2016). Accordingly, our results demonstrated the effects of flow, habitual behaviour and usage process as determinants of smartphone addiction among Muslim students. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to posit the extended version of the technology acceptance model to explain the psychological factors of Muslim university students’ smartphone addictive behaviour and neglect of studies. In particular, this research conceptualised addictive behaviour as smartphone dependency and proposed process usage, flow, habitual smartphone behaviour and preference for online social interaction (POSI) as the associated factors. Besides, this study investigated the effect of smartphone dependency on the neglect of studies. Design/methodology/approach Following the quantitative research design, this research tested the proposed model using data collected from Muslim students’ smartphone users in Malaysia. The analyses were based on the partial least squares–structural equation modelling technique. Findings The results revealed that flow has the most significant influence on smartphone dependency. Habitual behaviour and process usage were also significant predictors, but POSI was not significantly associated with smartphone dependency. Also, smartphone dependency was significantly related to the neglect of studies. Research limitations/implications This study provides empirical support to guide university management in preventing Muslim students’ over-dependence on smartphones. The Muslim community is synonymous with time management, where overdependence would diminish students’ religious and academic responsibilities. Such overdependence can cause neglect of studies; thus, the research findings can assist the university in introducing policies and campaigns that can educate students on the negative consequences of this pervasive digital addiction and ways to overcome them. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in understanding Muslim students coping mechanisms through smartphone usage. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the psychological factors of smartphone addiction and the resultant effect on the neglect of studies among Muslim university students.
... As the main pillar of literary learning, it is expected that teachers are able to bring their students to read literary works and interested in discussing together with their friends. By reading literature students have the opportunity to get acquainted directly with literary works, and at the same time appreciate them [80][81][82][83][84]. ...
Article
Education is a place where humans are formed to find and collect various information that will certainly be useful for shaping and developing human cognitive intelligence about many things, one of which is about ecology (environment / nature). In studying Indonesian, ecological discourse material (text) is one strategy to integrate environmental education and social interaction, as well as cultural customs of the community, especially Malay-Langkat which aims to form and develop mindsets and patterns of action, as well as healthy behavior both physically and mentally in everyday life. Through literary learning, educators are required to be more creative and sensitive in choosing interesting and suitable materials to be delivered instead of just fixating on the targets to be delivered and existing lesson plans, without thinking further about other things that can be used as a source of learning. But the availability of local ecology-based texts is still very little. This research aims to produce a Malay- Langkat literacy-based fiction text material that is feasible and effectively used at the high school level. So this research will focus more on developing a literacy culture to produce a literate generation, a generation that understands what is read and does something based on its understanding of the content of the reading. The literate generation is a generation that is intelligent, capable, characterful, and competitive. This research is a development research that adapts the 4-D Development model. Research and development steps are carried out using modifications and the Thiagarajan development model that is 4-D. This development model uses 4 stages consisting of define, design, development and dissemination.
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Digital media is currently very familiar with the students’daily activities. However, as one of school policies, most Junior High Schools in Klaten, including SMPN 5 Klaten, prohibit their students from using digital media, specifically Smartphones, in the learning process. The objective of this present study was to describe the improvement of students’ ability in comprehending the reading text through digital media literacy. This research applied Classroom Action Research with its cycles. Each cycle was executed through sets of activities consisting of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. By involving the eighth graders of SMPN 5 in Klaten, tests, observations, interviews, and document studies were used to obtain the data, and the data were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The results showed that the use of digital media literacy could improve the students’ ability in comprehending the texts. The improvement was shown by the increase of the percentage of the students obtaining the mastery criteria stated by the school by 22% in pre-cycle, increased to 63% in the first cycle, and 100% in the second cycle. How their ability in comprehending texts improved by the use of digital media literacy is also discussed.
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This study examines the relationship between mode of Internet access, variety of online activities, and the potential for the Internet to contribute to local social capital in distressed, urban communities. Based on a sample of 525 telephone surveys in Detroit, findings show that breadth of access predicts participation in a larger variety of online activities, which is associated with higher levels of local social capital. Neither public Internet access, home broadband, nor Internet access through a mobile phone data plan alone affords participation in a full range of social capital-enhancing activities. The findings highlight the potential problems of initiatives that assume equivalent social outcomes through nonequivalent modes of access, such as providing Internet access through mobile phones in place of home broadband. Efforts to enhance a city’s social infrastructure by providing Internet access are best served when individuals have multiple points of access available.
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This research attempts to explore digital divide among tribes in Taiwan and to reveal relevant important tribal contextual features. Firstly, we collect residents’ connection event logs from the free wireless Internet, i-Tribe. Those connect behaviors are quantified as average of daily connection frequency, daily connection time, daily data transmission, inter-login time, Internet speed, and connection quality which are corresponding to evaluate how often, how long, how much, how active, how fast and the effectiveness of the information and communication technology (ICT) accessibility of tribes. Then the tribes are grouped into tribal clusters optimally by a rank aggregation algorithm and are asked if there are significant differences among them by three stages of hypothesis testing. After the phenomenon of digital divide is confirmed, some important contextual features, longitude, female dependency ratio, network environment level, economic service level, and policy cooperation level, are identified using the ordinal regression model (ORM).
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E-government is the use of internet platforms to deliver governmental services to citizens with the goal of improving government efficiency, transparency, and participation. This study aims to find out what factors determine the rate at which public university in Indonesians accept e-government services. This study uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM is a traditional model of technology diffusion that is an essential conceptual criterion. It drives acceptance consisting of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. The results of this paper back up the original TAM hypothesis. Based on the data collected and analyzed, the study concludes that three influencing factors, namely perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), and perceived risk (PR), are significantly related to the intention to use e-commerce government. However, trust and social influence do not significantly affect the intention to use e-government services. This paper has significant implications for policymakers and government officials who want to see the growth of e-government usage in Indonesia. When attempting to market a new online system from the perspective of human-computer interaction, it becomes evident that designers must consider how users perceive the risks.
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The expansion of digital technology presents both obstacles and opportunities, particularly for young people. Consequently, educational institutions have been developing digital literacy curriculums. Since digital literacy is not yet included in the national curriculum as a compulsory subject, private schools have constructed digital literacy programmes based on local resources. This study investigates how digital literacy practices are carried out in selected private elementary schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, based on ICT learning, an information and media literacy approach, educators' role, and learning points. The data were collected in interviews with: (1) principals, (2) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) teachers, (3) librarians and (4) classroom teachers because, according to previous research, they are the main actors of digital literacy in school. The structured interviews use research instruments derived from two earlier studies and are tailored to the study's needs. This study demonstrates that (a) the digital literacy approach is implemented mainly through an ICT learning and media literacy approach while the information literacy approach is undermined; and (b) principals, classroom teachers, and ICT teachers are the three actors who play the most important roles in digital literacy, while librarians play a minor one. The majority of digital literacy training takes place in computer laboratories, while training in classrooms and libraries is less frequent. The study recommends the school blend ICT learning, information literacy, and media literacy pedagogy more comprehensively, with the library serving as the primary locus. In parallel, school principals should encourage school librarians to collaborate with the computer and class teachers to enhance the inclusive digital literacy curriculum.
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Mobile broadband internet is the main technology through which individuals access the internet in developing countries. Understanding the barriers to broadband adoption is thus a priority in designing policies aiming to expand access and close the digital divide across socioeconomic groups and territories. This paper exploits data from harmonized household expenditure surveys in seven countries in West Africa in 2018/19—a subregion with one of the lowest levels of mobile internet penetration in the world—to identify the main factors that limit mobile broadband internet adoption. Results show that low levels of household consumption and the price of mobile services are two key constraints. A one standard deviation increase in household expenditure, about US$65 per capita per month, is associated with a 6.5% point rise in the probability of adoption, while a one standard deviation drop in the price of mobile internet services (as a share of per capita household expenditure), about 5.5% points, raises the probability of adoption by 2.4% points. Other determinants include demographic characteristics (sex, age, language, urban location), socioeconomic features (educational attainment, sector of employment), and other factors linked to policy (access to electricity, ownership of assets, alternative means of internet access). Results are robust to specifications focusing only on areas with mobile internet coverage (3G).
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Digital marketing telah berkembang dengan sangat pesat sejak penggunaan Internet yang tinggi. Tingkat penggunaan ini dipicu dengan kehadiran smartphone dengan harga yang sangat terjangkau. Tetapi penggunaan digital marketing tidak banyak disadari oleh pelaku bisnis, terutama para UKM di kota Sawahlunto. Kebanyakan UKM di kota ini beranggapan bahwa digital marketing merupakan tempat untuk terjadinya transaksi, hal ini berbeda jauh dengan pengertian sebenarnya dari digital marketing. Karena digital marketing ini merupakan pemanfaatan semua sumberdaya yang berada pada Internet sebagai tempat pemberian informasi mengenai produk-produk yang dimiliki oleh UKM. Sumberdaya yang dimanfaatkan oleh UKM tidak hanya sebatas pada situs pemasaran, tetapi juga termasuk media sosial yang dimiliki oleh UKM tersebut. Media sosial yang digunakan untuk digital marketing tidak hanya tertumpu pada media sosial yang sengaja dibuat untuk UKM, juga media sosial yang dimiliki oleh pegawai/karyawan dari UKM tersebut. Sehingga pemasaran produk memiliki jangkauan yang lebih luas, dan dengan demikian penjualan produk dari UKM yang berada pada kota Sawahlunto juga meningkat.
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Taiwan is one of the largest distant water fishing (DWF) nations worldwide. As the domestic population structure of Taiwan has changed, the domestic distant water fishery industrial labour force has gradually been replaced by migrant fishing workers. Due to the occurrence of several events in recent years and increased attention from international and domestic societies, the entire labour management system has improved. This study describes the process of change in the labour market in Taiwan’s DWF industry and several major events affecting the revision of the legal system since 2017. In addition, this study examines whether Taiwan’s institutional changes can effectively solve various types of forced labour problems by referring to the forced labour indicators established by the International Labour Organization (ILO). This study shows that Taiwan’s DWF labour market has gradually improved migrant fishing worker protection following several major events and reforms. These improvements include regulated minimum wage and working conditions on board and decreased law and regulation violations. The survey results provide insightful views regarding the government’s response to eradicate forced labour and rights protection for migrant fishing workers in DWF. These experiences provide an important lesson for DWF nations in managing the DWF labour market. When problems related to subsequent migration occur, this paper can be used as a reform direction and management direction suggestion to protect the labour rights of fishery migrant workers.
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El objetivo del artículo es analizar las barreras de acceso y uso de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC) en zonas rurales y urbanas de México. Los datos provienen de la Encuesta Nacional sobre Disponibilidad y Uso de las Tecnologías de la Información en los Hogares (ENDUTIH) 2018. El análisis empírico consistió en explicar el no acceso y el no uso del internet, condicionados a un conjunto de características demográficas y socioeconómicas, a través de un modelo de regresión logística multinomial. Los resultados reflejan que el alto costo y la falta de infraestructura en telecomunicaciones impiden la conectividad residencial en las zonas rurales, en tanto el servicio incosteable es la principal limitante para la no conexión en áreas urbanas. Los hallazgos sugieren que las habilidades digitales y la educación son esenciales para el uso eficiente de la red. Esto confirma la necesidad de implementar políticas públicas diferenciadas en zonas rurales y urbanas para disminuir la brecha digital.
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Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) merupakan lembaga pendidikan yang memiliki kampus dengan luas wilayah 250 hektar di Dramaga, Bogor. Hal ini menyebabkan lokasi antara gedung berjauhan dan membuat pengguna sulit mendapatkan akses informasi tentang sarana dan prasarana. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membangun rancangan aplikasi eksplorasi kampus IPB Dramaga berdasarkan kebutuhan pengguna yang memperhatikan aspek pengalaman pengguna dalam perancangannya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode design sprint dengan dua kali iterasi. Penelitian ini menghasilkan prototipe medium-fidelity dari aplikasi tersebut. Pada iterasi pertama, prototipe telah diuji kepada tiga orang pengguna dengan tugas pengguna yang berkaitan dengan bis, mobil listrik, tempat penyewaan sepeda, gedung kuliah, tempat salat, kantin, dan parkir. Pada iterasi kedua, proses desain difokuskan pada pada transportasi bus dan diuji pada empat orang pengguna. Berdasarkan pengujian, seluruh pengguna menyatakan rancangan aplikasi sudah baik dan sesuai kebutuhan pengguna. Kata Kunci: design sprint, eksplorasi, kampus, pengalaman pengguna.
Conference Paper
The deployment of Indonesian telecommunication industry especially in mobile broadband 2G, 3G and 4G technologies is having problem because of large and archipelagic territory. The large territory causes some of outer areas having only 2G network and some areas sometimes 3G network without 4G network. This study presents the region capacity in Indonesia, the number of Base Transceiver Station (BTS sites) in each territory, divided among 2G, 3G and 4G technologies, and revenue growth (%) and analyses the 2G operation switch-off. The study results show that revenue growth from 4G operation is increasing in each region and 2G network said the contrary, so that the operator should consider to switch-off the 2G network in region with the smallest revenue. The research also contributes not only to the technology advancement of telecommunications in Indonesia but also the advice for network provider to switch-off the 2G technology in each Indonesian area.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to extend and validate the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) for investigating the effect of transparency on the adoption of e-Government in Indonesia from the perspective of citizens. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive review of the related literature leads to the development of a transparency-focused conceptual model to better understanding the adoption of e-Government. Structural equation modelling is used for analysing the data collected from the citizens in Indonesia. Findings This study confirms that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and transparency are the critical factors for evaluating the citizen adoption of e-Government in Indonesia. In addition, transparency is found to be the strongest factor that influences the decision of Indonesian citizens to adopt e-Government. Research limitations/implications From the theoretical perspective, the use of the UTAUT model is extended by incorporating the transparency factor that is vital to the adoption of e-Government in developing countries such as Indonesia. Practical implications In terms of managerial and policy implications, this research offers the Indonesian Government suggestions on how the adoption of e-Government can be improved. Originality/value This is the first study that extends and empirically validates the UTAUT model with transparency for evaluating the adoption of e-Government from the perspective of citizens in Indonesia. It demonstrates how the transparency factor can be incorporated to better understand the adoption of e-Government in such a context.
Technical Report
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Berbagai laporan memproyeksikan bahwa pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia akan terdorong oleh perkembangan teknologi digital. Namun, sejauh manakah pertumbuhan yang didorong oleh perkembangan ekonomi digital bisa menjamin peningkatan kualitas hidup seluruh lapisan masyarakat? Mampukah ekonomi digital pada masa depan mengurangi angka ketimpangan yang saat ini cukup tinggi? Berangkat dari pertanyaan tersebut, studi ini bermaksud memahami perkembangan ekonomi digital di Indonesia saat ini dan merumuskan langkah perbaikannya untuk masa depan. Dengan metode campuran kuantitatif dan kualitatif, studi ini menemukan bahwa internet di Indonesia saat ini masih belum merata berdasarkan wilayah, gender, tingkat kesejahteraan, tingkat pendidikan, dan sektor usaha. Internet juga masih dianggap sebagai sarana komunikasi dan hiburan, dan belum sebagai sarana bisnis secara luas. Agar perkembangan ekonomi digital di Indonesia dapat berkontribusi secara nyata terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi nasional, studi ini merekomendasikan kerangka pembangunan ekonomi digital yang inklusif dalam empat tangga yang meliputi aspek (i) jaringan internet dan infrastruktur pendukung, (ii) akses dan pemanfaatan internet, (iii) transformasi digital, dan (iv) jaminan sosial. Pertama, pemerintah perlu mendorong pemerataan jaringan internet beserta infrastruktur penopangnya, terutama di kawasan tertinggal, terdepan, dan terluar (3T) Indonesia. Kedua, pemerintah perlu memastikan bahwa tak seorang pun terabaikan dalam mengakses internet dengan harga yang terjangkau dan kualitas jaringan yang memadai. Pemanfaatan internet juga memerlukan literasi digital, terutama bagi mereka yang selama ini terpinggirkan. Ketiga, pemerintah perlu mendorong transformasi digital yang memicu lahirnya inovasi-inovasi baru melalui digitisasi dan digitalisasi. Pemerintah juga perlu menjamin kerahasiaan dan keamanan data, serta mengoptimalkan penggunaannya dalam pengambilan keputusan strategis untuk meningkatkan pelayanan. Keempat, pemerintah perlu memfasilitasi akses jaminan sosial bagi pelaku usaha dan pekerja digital untuk menjamin keberlanjutan usaha digital. Dengan kerangka inklusif ini, pembangunan ekonomi digital dapat dirasakan oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat sehingga berkontribusi secara nyata terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi.
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Background Chatbots, empowered by artificial intelligence, are becoming increasingly popular in many fields and have much potential for application in real life situations. However, little attention has been paid to medical chatbots and most existing evidence focuses on technical issues while behavioral research is still lacking. Objective This study seeks to examine the key factors that can motivate individuals to use medical chatbots. To that end, we have extended the theory of planned behavior by incorporating pertinent constructs derived after interviews with users. A research model and hypotheses are then proposed and tested. Methods Interviews were first conducted to collect qualitative data from 20 participants based on purposive sampling. Content analysis was then used to find evidence supporting important constructs for a research model. A survey methodology based on convenience sampling was then used to collect data. Totally, 205 valid responses were gathered and analyzed by using partial least squares structural equation modeling to validate the research model. Results Health consciousness and perceived convenience were found positively associated with individuals’ attitudes towards the use of medical chatbots. Moreover, attitude and subjective norm were found to be significantly and positively related to individuals’ intentions to use medical chatbots. Conclusions The proposed model with the extended theory of planned behavior is able to predict individuals’ intention to use medical chatbots well. Hospital managers can formulate strategies to improve individuals’ health consciousness and perceptions of convenience to develop the desired attitudes among individuals, using medical chatbots. Further, strategies to improve patients’ awareness of medical chatbots should also be formulated.
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■ Although the knowledge gap hypothesis is often mentioned in connection with the social consequences of the Information Society, there is little discussion of its theoretical background or specific empirical evidence. Therefore, this article explores the theoretical potential of the knowledge gap perspective for Internet research and presents data based on two recent Internet surveys, which demonstrate a double digital divide. Access to the Internet in Switzerland is still dominated by well-educated, affluent, young males and between 1997 and 2000 the gap between those who do and those who do not have access widened not narrowed. Furthermore, there are gaps in the use of the Internet too. More educated people use the Internet more actively and their use is more information oriented, whereas the less educated seem to be interested particularly in the entertainment functions of the Internet. ■
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The diffusion of the Internet (and its accompanying digital divides) has occurred at the intersection of both international and within-country differences in socioeconomic, technological and linguistic factors. Telecommunications policies, infrastructures and education are pr erequisites for marginalized communities to participate in the information age. High costs, English language dominance, the lack of relevant content, and the lack of technological support are barriers for disadvantaged communities using computers and the Internet. The diffusion of Internet use in developed countries may be slowing and even stalling, when compared to the explosive growth of Internet access and use in the past decade. With the proliferation of the Internet in developed countries, the digital divide between North American and developed countries elsewhere is thus narrowing, but remains substantial. The divide also remains substantial within almost all countries, and is widening even as the number and percentage of Internet users increases, as newcomers to the Internet are demographically similar to those already online. People, social groups and nations on the wrong side of the digital divide may be increasingly excluded from knowledge-based societies and economies.
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In this paper we describe our observations about information handling in the complex and dynamic decision making environment of ambulance control, more formally known as Emergency Medical Dispatch. Our findings suggest that the information handling capacity of individual dispatchers and of the system as a whole is affected by the difficulties they face in handling information, and this is exhibited in an increase in the time taken to activate ambulances as workload levels increase. We identified 18 information handling difficulties from which we extracted 12 information design features that are expected to improve the information handling ability of the dispatchers in this study.
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Though the digital divide appears to reproduce existing patterns of inequality regarding ICTs, some developing countries have narrowed the economic divide, through export-oriented production of ICTs. Certain ICT features seem to support a strategy of "technological leapfrogging" which successfully narrows gaps in productivity and output separating industrialized and developing countries. This article examines these claims, looking particularly at four difficulties in applying this strategy: acquisition of specific skills and adaptation of equipment; the market conditions needed for equipment and knowledge exchange; the need to acquire complementary technologies and capabilities; and the "downstream integration requirements" to achieve the necessary market development.
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The term “digital divide” has been used for almost a decade and typically relates to sociodemographic differences in the use of information and communication technology. However, the corresponding measurement is still relatively imprecise. Very often it is simply reduced to comparisons of Internet penetration rates. This article extends the measurements above the usual bivariate comparisons. Within this context, three essential approaches are presented and critically evaluated. First, loglinear modeling is used to address the interactions among the factors affecting the digital divide. Second, compound measures (i.e., the Digital Divide Index) that integrate a number of variables into a single indicator are discussed. Third, time-distance methodology is applied to analyze changes in the digital divide. The article argues that these approaches often yield entirely different conclusions compared to simple bivariate analysis. The examples are presented as a general warning against an oversimplified methodological approach to digital divide studies.
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The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the so-called "digital divide." The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of saturation, these gaps will more or less close. However, it is shown that differential access of skills and usage is likely to increase. The growth of a usage gap is projected. Multivariate analyses of Dutch official statistics reveal the striking effect of age and gender as compared to education. The usage gap is related to the evolution of the information and network society. Finally, policy perspectives are discussed.
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In 2009, just 27% of American teens with mobile phones reported using their devices to access the internet. However, teens from lower income families and minority teens were significantly more likely to use their phones to go online. Together, these surprising trends suggest a potential narrowing of the digital divide, offering internet access to those without other means of going online. This is an important move, as, in today’s society, internet access is central to active citizenship in general and teen citizenship in particular. Yet the cost of this move toward equal access is absorbed by those who can least afford it: Teenagers from low income households. Using survey and focus group data from a national study of “Teens and Mobile Phone Use” (released by Pew and the University of Michigan in 2010), this article helps identify and explain this and other emergent trends for teen use (as well as non-use) of the internet through mobile phones.
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Objective. Sociologists of technology propose that not only a technological artifact, as such, but also patterns of usage should be considered when studying the social implications of technologies. Accordingly, we explore how people's online activities are influenced by users' socioeconomic status and context of use. Methods. We analyze data from the Allensbacher Computer and Technology Analysis (ACTA) 2004 survey with uniquely detailed information about people's Internet uses and context of usage to explore this relationship. Results. Findings suggest that high-status and low-status individuals cultivate different forms of "Internet-in-practice." High-status users are much more likely to engage in so-called capital-enhancing activities online than are their less privileged counterparts. Conclusion. Results suggest differential payoffs from Internet use depending on a user's socioeconomic background. Digital inequalities might be mitigated by improving people's Internet equipment and digital experience, but they do not account for all the status differential in use.
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Although the knowledge gap hypothesis is often mentioned in connection with the social consequences of the Information Society, there is little discussion of its theoretical background or specific empirical evidence. Therefore, this article explores the theoretical potential of the knowledge gap perspective for Internet research and presents data based on two recent Internet surveys, which demonstrate a double digital divide. Access to the Internet in Switzerland is still dominated by well-educated, affluent, young males and between 1997 and 2000 the gap between those who do and those who do not have access widened not narrowed. Furthermore, there are gaps in the use of the Internet too. More educated people use the Internet more actively and their use is more information oriented, whereas the less educated seem to be interested particularly in the entertainment functions of the Internet.
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Previous studies conclude that broadband plays an important role in stimulating economic growth by generating new employment, and improving access to health and education. However, most of these analyses are conducted for developed countries, with little attention being paid to developing countries. This study aims to find out which factors should be considered, following the assertion by the ITU (2010) that broadband, especially mobile broadband, should be developed further to narrow the gap between developed and developing countries. Moreover, this study questions whether the digital gap in broadband access is merely a demand or supply problem. The demand side is represented by income level, which is closely related to affordability issues, while the supply side is indicated by the impact of different geographical characteristics which shows the different stage of infrastructure development. To operationalize this aim, a Probit regression models the decision to subscribe to mobile broadband as a function of income and geographical area, as well as other control variables. The results indicate that income is less important than geographical area in explaining mobile broadband access. The study proposes that the supply -side factor related to infrastructure development should be prioritized as the focus of broadband policy in the short term.
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Mobile communication emerged as a dominant channel for networked teenagers. While some theorists celebrate possibilities for autonomy, others are concerned that the increased reliance on mobile-based communication leads to disparities in digital skill and status replication. We examined how mobile-mediated behavior among teens interacted with the characteristics of socio-demographics and mobile access to predict (1) levels of diverse use and skill and (2) consequences of skill/use differences (n = 552). Findings revealed that skill/use disparities were manifested based on race, and such variations were associated with status of parents in interaction with mobile phone ownership. Instrumental use and content/creation-based skill had significant impacts on public involvement among teens. Our data have implications for understanding how social backgrounds incubate mobile-based disparities in light of enabling teens’ life chances.
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Based on data collected through the Net Children Go Mobile survey of approximately 3500 respondents aged 9–16 years in seven European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania and the United Kingdom), this article examines the diffusion of smartphones among children and contributes to existing research on mobile digital divides by investigating what influences the adoption of smartphones among children and whether going online from a smartphone is associated with specific usage patterns, thus bridging or widening usage gaps. The findings suggest the resilience of digital inequalities among children, showing how social inequalities intersect with divides in access and result in disparities in online activities, with children who benefit from a greater autonomy of use and a longer online experience also reaching the top of the ladder of opportunities.
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Digital inequality can take many forms. Four forms studied here are access to Internet, use of different devices, extent of usage, and engagement in different Internet activities. However, it is not clear whether sociodemographic factors, or devices, are more influential in usage and activities. Results from an unfamiliar context show that there are significant sociodemographic influences on access, device, usage, and activities, and differences in activities by device type and usage. While sociodemographic differences are more influential, device type can increase likelihood of use for some “capital enhancing” activities, but only for a computer. Thus, although mobile Internet is available for those on the wrong side of the digital divide, these users do not engage in many activities, decreasing potential benefits.
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This study examines the question of whether the geographical digital divide in China has reduced with the introduction of mobile, including 3G, telecommunications. Geographical digital divide is measured primarily by teledensity at the provincial level. Changes of the geographical digital divide over time are analyzed within the framework of hardware, software, and other factors. Following this analytical framework, mobile or wireless telecommunications has higher potential of equipping the poor and narrowing the digital divide, especially in developing countries. In terms of hardware, the installation cost of wireless technology is often lower than fixed-line telephone services, especially in remote rural areas and/or areas of difficult terrains. The hardware required by users, notably mobile handsets, is also cheaper to own than personal computers (PCs). In terms of software, a greater variety and more flexible packages are often offered for mobile telecommunication services, and most applications on mobile phones are simpler and more user-friendly. Moreover, the requirements of mobile technologies on some other key factors known to affect information and communication technology (ICT) adoption rates are also lower. In particular, the requirements for language, especially English, proficiency and computer literacy are lower. Furthermore, proactive government measures have been implemented in China to narrow the digital divide through supportive policies influencing the factors named above. Under these circumstances, the well-known association between economic growth and widening digital divide (a difficult dilemma faced by governments of most developing countries) has been reversed in China after 2005.
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The study explores group differences in demographic characteristics; Internet usage (device ownership, Internet availability, and frequency of weekly Internet use); and communication competence (instrumental, creative, and networking skills) between people who have and who do not have wired and/or wireless broadband connections and smartphones. The results of the one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post-hoc comparisons demonstrate significant differences in groups with different network connection types across demographic lines, different levels of Internet usage, and different communication competences. The results of the multinomial regression show significant differences across the variables between wired-only users and wired and smartphone users as well as between wired-only users and wired, wireless, and smartphone users. However, group differences between wired and smartphone users and wired, wireless, and smartphone users are significant only in device ownership and creative skill. We concluded that smartphone use was likely to aggravate the gaps of demographics, access, and skills in the seamlessly connected media environment. Meanwhile, access gaps made the most impact on information, communication, leisure/entertainment, and financial management activities online, followed by skill and demographic gaps. The findings imply that access and skill gaps could be higher barriers to the active engagement in diverse online activities and consequently create an overlapping effect on the established divide.
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This study examines smartphone adoption behavior among American college students by combining all components of innovation diffusion theory (IDT), the technology acceptance model (TAM), the value-based adoption model (VAM), and the social influence (SI) model. Data indicate that the smartphone adoption rates are beyond the early majority and are now approaching the late majority. The findings of analysis of variance tests revealed that all variables of TAM, VAM, and SI varied across the adopter groups: The current adopter's mean values of the variables were the highest, followed by those of potential and nonadoption groups. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analyses revealed that perceived value and affiliation mainly determine the different perceptions of adoption groups. Smartphone adoption, however, was relatively unaffected by perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Perceived popularity, perceived price, and ethnicity played a role in distinctive determinants between current adopters and nonadopters. The results imply that adopters perceive smartphones as not only a worthwhile device in which to invest money but also a symbolic device to signal their affiliation and timely technology adoption. Another intriguing finding is the differences of interest in contents between current adopters and nonadopters. Social interactions via social networking services, acquisition for lifestyle, information seeking, and entertainment via gaming were the main applications of interest.
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This paper examines the emerging global phenomenon of mobile leapfrogging in Internet access. Leapfrogging refers to the process in which new Internet users are obtaining access by mobile devices and are skipping the traditional means of access: personal computers. This leapfrogging of PC-based Internet access has been hailed in many quarters as an important means of rapidly and inexpensively reducing the gap in Internet access between developed and developing nations, thereby reducing the need for policy interventions to address this persistent digital divide. This paper offers a critical perspective on the process of mobile leapfrogging. Drawing upon data on Internet access and device penetration from 34 countries, this paper first shows that while greater access to mobile technologies suggests the possibility of a leapfrog effect, the lack of 3G adoption suggests that mobile phones are not yet acting as functionally equivalent substitutes for personal computers. Next, this paper puts forth a set of concerns regarding the limitations and potential shortcomings of mobile-based Internet access relative to traditional PC-based Internet access. This paper illustrates a number of important relative shortcomings in terms of memory and speed, content availability, network architecture, and patterns of information seeking and content creation amongst users. This paper concludes that policymakers should be cautions about promoting mobile access as a solution to the digital divide, and undertake policy reforms that ensure that communities that rely on mobile as their only gateway to the Internet do not get left further behind.
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Now fully recovered from the Asian crisis of the late ‘90s, the Indonesian economy is perhaps at its post-crisis healthiest. The once sluggish telecom markets too have started showing an impressive growth. Indonesian telecom industry is gradually attaining maturity while more opportunities are made available for the users. Despite the urban-rural connectivity disparity and the immaterialized ‘Palapa Ring’ – the USD 300 - 500 million mega broadband nationwide digital backbone to connect entire Indonesia - the environment is far improved from 2006 and even 2008, when the first two sector performance reviews were done.Numbers relate the story best. Parallel to the per capita GDP (real) increase from USD 1, 1196 in 2004 to 2,590 in 2009. The communication subsector (including broadcasting) has increased its contribution to GDP from 2.35% to 3.04% for the same period. The aggregate telecom revenue in 2010 was USD 11,000 million. While eleven mobile operators have issued close to 200 million SIMs (about 84 SIMs per every 100 in population) by 2010, the number fixed (wireline and wireless) subscribers have risen to 36 million (15 for 100) with Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) of 33% and 21% respectively between 2005 and 2010. Four providers offer wireless services while wireline, which is now identified as a constricting market, remains the monopoly of one of the two incumbents. Broadband landscape too has undergone a shift with more and more users relying on faster and easily available mobile broadband solutions than on fixed.
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This study examined the impact of mobile communications on interpersonal relationships in daily life. Based on a nationwide survey in Japan, landline phone, mobile voice phone, mobile mail (text messaging), and PC e-mail were compared to assess their usage in terms of social network and psychological factors. The results indicated that young, nonfamily-related pairs of friends, living close to each other with frequent face to-face contact were more likely to use mobile media. Social skill levels are negatively correlated with relative preference for mobile mail in comparison with mobile voice phone. These findings suggest that mobile mail is preferable for Japanese young people who tend to avoid direct communication and that its use maintains existing bonds rather than create new ones.
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This paper uses theory and empirical evidence to analyze the distributional effects of leapfrogging in mobile phones. The theory draws on earlier work on leapfrogging and Sen’s model of functionings and capabilities. The evidence draws partly on simple regression analysis. A key role is assigned to fixed-line telephony in reaching the conclusion that leapfrogging in mobile phones tends overall to be egalitarian in its impact on different developing countries. Mobiles however constitute very much the exception when it comes to technological relationships between rich and poor countries.
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In this paper, I look at the Apple iPhone as a fascinating instance of adaptation, especially as it relates to digital cultures. A theme in the rise of the mobile, or cell, phone has been how it underscores the active role that people play in the orchestration and use of culture. The gambit of the iPhone is that the mobile phone itself will be decisively remade, and through this that media culture will itself be reformed. To make sense of this rapturous reception, I examine the iPhone as a notable instance of consuming culture. The paper discusses the double sense in which the iPhone functions both as a signal adaptation of the mobile phone at the same time as it introduces new practices and politics of adaptation.
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Data from four types of research—news diffusion studies, time trends, a newspaper strike, and a field experiment—are consistent with the general hypothesis that increasing the flow of news on a topic leads to greater acquisition of knowledge about that topic among the more highly educated segments of society. Whether the resulting knowledge gap closes may depend partly on whether the stimulus intensity of mass media publicity is maintained at a high level, or is reduced or eliminated at a point when only the more active persons have gained that knowledge.
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People who have grown up with digital media are often assumed to be universally savvy with information and communication technologies. Such assumptions are rarely grounded in empirical evidence, however. This article draws on unique data with information about a diverse group of young adults’ Internet uses and skills to suggest that even when controlling for Internet access and experiences, people differ in their online abilities and activities. Additionally, findings suggest that Internet know-how is not randomly distributed among the population, rather, higher levels of parental education, being a male, and being white or Asian American are associated with higher levels of Web-use skill. These user characteristics are also related to the extent to which young adults engage in diverse types of online activities. Moreover, skill itself is positively associated with types of uses. Overall, these findings suggest that even when controlling for basic Internet access, among a group of young adults, socioeconomic status is an important predictor of how people are incorporating the Web into their everyday lives with those from more privileged backgrounds using it in more informed ways for a larger number of activities.
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This study analyses the cost of a low-volume basket of mobile services across a sample of Latin American countries, and contrasts these results with standard income and poverty indicators. The main goal is to establish how affordable mobile services are for the poor. Three general findings emerge. First, the poor generally pay a cost premium for using prepaid subscriptions that allow better expenditure control, though in many cases this premium is much lower than expected. Second, affordability is an important predictor of mobile penetration. Overall, while affordable handsets and the calling-party-pays system allow a significant number of low-income Latin Americans to become mobile subscribers, the results reveal that the current tariff structure has an inhibiting effect on service consumption by the poor. Third, since affordability is the most significant barrier to extending the reach of mobile services, as well as the range of services used by the poor, priority should be placed on policies aimed at reducing tariffs and stimulating the introduction of commercial innovations for low-income groups.
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Results from a national representative telephone survey of Americans in 2000 show that Internet and mobile phone usage was very similar, and that several digital divides exist with respect to both Internet and mobile phone usage. The study identifies and analyzes three kinds of digital divides for both the Internet and mobile phones—users/nonuser, veteran/recent, and continuing/dropout—and similarities and differences among those digital divides based on demographic variables. The gap between Internet users and nonusers is associated with income and age, but no longer with gender and race, once other variables are controlled. The gap between mobile phone users and nonusers is associated with income, work status, and marital status. The veteran/recent Internet gap is predicted by income, age, education, phone user, membership in community religious organizations, having children, and gender; for mobile phones, age, work status and marital status are predictors. The gap between continuing and dropout users is predicted by education for Internet usage and income for mobile phone usage. Finally, cross-categorization of Internet and mobile phone usage/nonusage is distinguished (significantly though weakly) primarily by income and education. Thus, there are several digital divides, each predicted by somewhat different variables; and while Internet and mobile phone usage levels in 2000 were about the same, their users overlap but do not constitute completely equivalent populations.
Article
Approximately 40% of the population enjoy access to the Internet via mobile phones in Japan, where user needs have driven developments of the mobile Internet such as “i-mode”. After reviewing mobile Internet services in Japan, this article examines key social and cultural factors of mobile Internet use based on nationally representative surveys focusing on differences between PC and mobile Internet. The results demonstrate that mobile Internet is a more time-enhancing activity while PC Internet is a more time-displacing activity. Additionally, this article discusses unique Japanese cultural factors affecting communication patterns characterized by the high disclosure of subjective self and low disclosure of objective self, which may explain the unique usage patterns of the mobile Internet in Japan.
Article
According to the conventional measure the digital divide assigns the same weight to each country regardless of its population size. In this note by contrast the divide is conceptualized as the absolute number of Internet users and mobile phone subscribers in developed as against developing countries. On this basis I find that the conventional gap in IT use between these countries either shrinks dramatically or is actually reversed. In estimating the new measure the role of China turns out to be central.
Article
Much of the existing approach to the digital divide suffers from an important limitation. It is based on a binary classification of Internet use by only considering whether someone is or is not an Internet user. To remedy this shortcoming, this project looks at the differences in people's level of skill with respect to finding information online. Findings suggest that people search for content in a myriad of ways and there is a large variance in how long people take to find various types of information online. Data are collected to see how user demographics, users' social support networks, people's experience with the medium, and their autonomy of use influence their level of user sophistication.
The digital media habits and attitudes of Southeast Asian consumers
  • Nielsen
Nielsen, 2011. The digital media habits and attitudes of Southeast Asian consumers. Retrieved from http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/reports/2011/southeast-asian-digital-consumer-habits.html.
National broadband plan: A case of Indonesia
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Setiawan, D., 2013. National broadband plan: A case of Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.mastel.or.id/files/Indonesia%20National%20Broadband% 20Plan%20-%20Denny%20Setyawan%20-%20MCIT.pdf.
Should Indonesia be teaching ICT in schools?
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The Asian mobile consumer decoded
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Indonesia: New Digital Nation? Internews Center for Innovation and Learning, Retrieved from https
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Always On: How the iPhone Unlocked the Anything-Anytime-Anywhere Future—And Locked Us In
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Internet skills and the digital divide The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon
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Indonesia broadband plan
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Review of Indonesian Broadband Development, LIRNEasia, Colombo
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@crossroads: democratization and corporatization of media in Indonesia
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Lim, M., 2011. @crossroads: democratization and corporatization of media in Indonesia. Participatory Media Lab, Arizona State University, & Ford Foundation. Arizona. Retrieved from http://participatorymedia.lab.asu.edu/files/Lim_Media_Ford_2011.pdf.
Dezitaru debaido towa nanika?
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A theory of the digital divide The Digital Divide: The International and Social Inequality in International Perspective
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van Dijk, J., 2014. A theory of the digital divide. In: Ragnedda, Massimo, Muschert, Glenn W. (Eds.), The Digital Divide: The International and Social Inequality in International Perspective. Routledge, London, pp. 29–52.