Article

Chemical composition of bitter apricot kernels from Ladakh, India

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

"Chuli," the wild apricot growing abundantly in the trans-Himalayan Ladakh in the Jammu and Kashmir states in India, yields bitter kernels called "khante" which are utilized primarily for extraction of apricot oil by the aboriginal communities. The oil extracted by traditional methods is used for cooking, religious, and cosmetic purposes and is reported to have medicinal properties. However, no scientific characterization of the oil has been undertaken thus far. Bitter apricot kernels collected from ten villages across the apricot growing belts of Ladakh were analysed for their proximate composition, chemical characteristics, and lipid profile. This study reveals that wide variability exists in the region as far as oil content and composition are concerned. Proximate analysis of the bitter kernels revealed fat content in the bitter kernels to be as high as 54.24%. Protein content was found to vary from 17.75 to 22.56%, carbohydrate from 21.16 to 35.26%, crude fiber from 0.84 to 4.71%, and dietary fiber from 6.03 to 22.24%. Chemical analysis revealed that iodine values varied from 97.93 to 103.85 and saponification values from 189.57 to 191.71. Apricot oil is dominated by the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid profile shows that oleic acid was the primary fatty acid, and its content varied from 70.52 to 75.99% in the different samples. In addition, linoleic acid (14.13-22.83%), arachidic acid (0.08-0.39%), and ecosenoic acid in small quantities have been found. Stearic acid (0.34-1.22%) has been observed as a component saturated fatty acid, but palmitic acid (3.5-5.04%) and palmitoleic acid (0.56-0.91%) were observed to be present in larger quantities. Thus, wide variability has been found to exist in oil content and its composition in the wild apricot cultivars found growing as stray plantations on the rocky mountains of Ladakh, and the high yielding cultivars could be exploited for commercial extraction of the oil.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... arachidic acid (0.08-0.39%), stearic acid (0.34-1.22%), palmitic acid (3.5-5.04%), palmitoleic acid (0.56-0.91%), and eicosenoic acid (in small quantities) (Dwivedi & Ram, 2008). ...
... The apricot fruits are a rich source of oil, protein, soluble sugars, fiber (Dwivedi & Ram, 2008;Femenia, Rossello, Mulet, & Canellas, 1995;Mandal, Suneja, Malik, & Mishra, 2007) as well as fatty acids (Orhan, Koca, Aslan, Kartal, & Küsmenoglu, 2008;Turan, Topcu, Karabulut, Vural, & Hayaloglu, 2007;Ul'chenko et al., 2009), carotenoids such as β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, γ-carotene, and lycopene (Akin, Karabulut, & Topcu, 2008;De Rigal, Gauillard, & Richard-Forget, 2000;Rafi, Yadav, & Reyes, 2007;Ruiz, Egea, Tomás-Barberán, & Gil, 2005a), phenolics such as chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, Food Research International 44 (2011) 1238-1243 ...
Article
Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae) is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. Apricot is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. The plant is rich in mono- and polysaccharides, polyphenols, fatty acids and sterol derivatives, carotenoids, cyanogenic glucosides, and volatile components due to its appealing smell. P. armeniaca has been also investigated for various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antimutagenic, inhibitory activity against several enzymes, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive as well as antioxidant activity. Among these activities, antioxidant activity of apricot has been studied extensively and the plant displayed a high antioxidant effect in both in vitro and in vivo test systems. In this review, the relevant literature summary is given on phytochemistry and biological activity reports published on apricot. The literature survey for this review was performed using the key words “Prunus armeniaca and apricot” through the search Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, and Web of Science data bases between 1950 and 2010.
... Apricot, a very important commercial fruit, is in the world and numerous apricot stones are exposed in food processing. Recent studies showed that apricot stones are rich in unsaturated fatty acids (Özkal, 2004), minerals such as K, Ca, and Mg (Muradoğlu et al. 2011), contains dietary fiber (Dwivedi and Ram, 2006), and several biological activities by its antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and, antimicrobial properties (Mandalari et al., 2010;Yiǧit et al., 2009). For these reasons, apricot stones have been used in many foods and industrial areas in recent years. ...
Article
Full-text available
Apricots are becoming more preferred because of their usage in the fresh, dried, and processing industries and are appreciated by consumers for their pleasant flavor, aroma, and high nutritional value. Apricot cultivation is mostly performed by native varieties in Turkey, and there is insufficient knowledge about the characteristics of foreign varieties. In this study, important Turkish and foreign varieties were evaluated according to their morphological properties using multivariate analyses. The highest fruit weight was detected as 31.90 g (Sakıt-2) in the Turkish varieties and detected 22.36 g (Precoce de Colomer) in the foreign varieties. The highest fruit height, thickness, stone height, and weight were detected in 'Alyanak' and 'Sakıt-2' the Turkish apricot varieties. The 'Soğancı' and 'Sakıt-2' were characterized by the highest stone thickness, pH, fruit height, and weight in Turkish varieties, whereas 'Precoce de Tyrinthe' had the highest total soluble solids in the foreign varieties. The correlation analysis demonstrated significant positive correlations between examined features in Turkish and foreign varieties. In the principal component analysis, the first five components elucidated 93.59% of the total variance. Examined traits were separated into three groups, and 'Sakıt-2', 'Alyanak', 'Hasanbey', and 'Hacihaliloğlu' at the Turkish varieties were placed in the first two groups and characterized by fruit and stone traits, while the foreign varieties formed the other group and were characterize by pH, TSS, and colorimetric traits. The study put forward useful information for the comparison of morphometric traits between Turkish and foreign varieties, and the results can be used in future apricot breeding programs.
... arachidic acid (0.08-0.39%), and eicosanoic acid in small quantities have been found. Stearic acid (0.34-1.22%) has been observed as a component saturated fatty acid, but palmitic acid (3.5-5.04%) and palmitoleic acid (0.56-0.91%) were observed to be present in larger quantities (Dwivedi & Ram, 2008). In the study of Ogungbenle and Afolayan (2015), the major fatty acids of cashew nut roasted in an oven at regulated temperature of 150-200°C were oleic (58.7%), linoleic (18.9%) and palmitic (12.1%) acids. ...
Article
In this study, the effect of microwave (360 W, 540 W and 720 W) oven roasting on oil yields, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and fatty acid composition of some apricot kernel and oils was investigated. While total phenol contents of control group of apricot kernels change between 54.41 mgGAE/100 g (Soğancıoğlu) and 59.61 mgGAE/100 g (Hasanbey), total phenol contents of kernel samples roasted in 720 W were determined between 27.41 mgGAE/100 g (Çataloğlu) and 34.52 mgGAE/100 g (Soğancıoğlu). Roasting process in microwave at 720 W caused the reduction of some phenolic compounds of apricot kernels. The gallic acid contents of control apricot kernels ranged between 7.23 mg/100 g (Kabaaşı) and 11.23 mg/100 g (Çataloğlu) whereas the gallic acid contents of kernels roasted in 540 W changed between 15.35 mg/100 g (Soğancıoğlu) and 21.17 mg/100 g (Çataloğlu). In addition, oleic acid contents of control group oils vary between 65.98% (Soğancıoğlu) and 71.86% (Hasanbey), the same fatty acid ranged from 63.48% (Soğancıoğlu) to 70.36% (Hasanbey).
... Apricot fruit was also used in the formulation of the phytococktail. Previous reports showed that the apricot fruits are a rich source of soluble sugars, protein, oil, fiber and fatty acids [86][87][88][89][90] as well as a diverse array of bio-active principles and minerals [91][92][93][94][95]. This fruit and other products based on it were found to possess a wide range of biological properties including antimicrobial, antimutagenic, tyrosine enzyme inhibition, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities [35,39,40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), palmitoleic acid (43.47%), oleic acid (20.89%), and linoleic acid (4.31%) were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit in the stressful environment and could be used as a high value nutritional supplement.
... Malatya region produces half of the amount [1,2]. P. armeniaca ingredients vary between the species, but the main components are nearly the same (moderate amounts of saturated * Corresponding author fat and energy, no cholesterol), and it has high amounts of carbohydrates and fiber [3,4]. Its major vitamin contribution is vitamin A, and it is a rich source of phenolics, such as chlorogenic and neo-chlorogenic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin, rutin and pectin [3,5,6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to find out the cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects of bitter P. armeniaca seed extracts (PE) on cultured human lymphocytes in vitro. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects were evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, cell proliferation (WST-1) assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as well as chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase_dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. Although LDH results showed that the PE groups were not cytotoxic, WST-1 assay showed low cell viability in low concentrations of the PE-treated group. According to SCE results, there was a significant increase between control and PE-treated group. In CA assay, the ring and fragmented chromosome number in low PE-treated group was greater than in the other PE-treated and control groups. Especially in the PE-1 treated group, CA was 4.58% while it was 0.67% in the control group. When PE concentrations increased, the percentage of CA decreased gradually. In addition, the highest apoptotic index (78%) has observed from the lowest PE-treated group. In conclusion, the lower concentrations of PE may cause cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects due to their lower antioxidant components on human lymphocytes.
... In fact, the apricot is not merely consumed as a fresh or dried fruits by humans but its kernel in sweet form also consumed as dried fruits, whereas its bitter kernel can be used as a raw material in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, cooking oil, benzaldehyde, activated carbon, amygdaline and hydrocyanic acid can be produced from the apricot seeds [1][2] . The seeds of these fruits have also high protein content and can be used as a food or feed ingredient; however, they contain approximately 50 nmol/mg of plant tissue of the potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides amygdaline and prunasin depending on the plant species and environment [3]. ...
Article
In this study, amygdaline in Iraqi plant seeds was extracted and isolated from their seeds matrix using reflux procedure and subsequently identified and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reversed phase column of LC-18 (150mm x 4.6mm, 5μm)with actonitrile :water (50 : 50) as mobile phase at flow rate of (0.5 mL/min) and detection at wavelength of 215 nm.The experimental results indicated that the linearity of calibration is in the range of 1.0-30.0 mg L-1 amygdaline with the correlation coefficient of 0.9949. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for amygdaline were of 0.88 and 2.93 mg L-1 in standard pure sample. The mean recovery percent is 97.34±0.58 at 95% confidence interval and relative standard deviation in the range of 1.19-2.08 %. The content of amygdaline in plant samples was 4.60± 0.47 g /100 g, and 0.27±0.029 g/100g of apricot and citrullus colocynth respectively.
... The predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid representing 7.5-8.5 % of the total fatty acid composition ). Further, Dwivedi and Ram (2008) has also reported that oil of wild apricot grown in Ladakh region is predominated by oleic acid which varied from 70.52 to 75.99 % followed by linoleic acid (14.3-22.83 %), palmitic acid (3.50-5.04 ...
Article
Full-text available
Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have successfully been utilized for preparation of various value added products such as facial cream, lip balm, essential oil and protein isolate with good quality attributes and consumer acceptability. However, no scientific information on utilization of shells remained after kernel separation is available, but the shells are traditionally utilized for burning purpose during winters by the farmers. Therefore, it seems that every part of wild apricot can be utilized for conversion into value-added products and commercial utilization of this fruit will certainly add value to this underutilized fruit and also increase the economy of farmers.
... The kernels are used in the treatment of asthma, coughs, acute or chronic bronchitis and constipation. Also, kernel oil has been used in cosmetics as a pharmaceutical agent [3,4]. Apricot kernels contain amygdalin D(-)-mandelonitrile βgentiobioside [5,6] belongs to cyanogenic glycoside, which are phytoanticipins widely distributed in more than 2500 different plant species [7] including economical important plants like white clover, linum, almond ,sorghum, rubber tree and cassava [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study revealed the insecticidal activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of apricot Prunus armeniaca L. kernels on confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval. Extracts were prepared in the rate of 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg ml-1. Two methods were adopted: the first one consists on an incorporation of water and methanol extracts in the artificial diet of adults and the second concerns an abdominal application on 4th instar larvae and adults. Insect responses varied according to extract and concentration. After 7 days, the LC50 values were estimated to be 54.854 and 4.192 mg ml-1 while, after 14 days were 77.079 and 2.384 mg ml-1 respectively for aqueous and methanol extracts. It was found that T. confusum larvae and adults were more susceptible to the methanol extract compared with aqueous extract. Increasing the concentration and ingestion time increased the toxicity of extract on insect. Extracts topically applied on T. confusum revealed high toxicity caused by methanol and aqueous P. armeniaca kernels extracts. Also, methanol extracts was more active compared to the aqueous extracts. For all extracts, mortality was higher for larvae than adults. It is the first work undertaken on apricot kernels insecticidal activity and its results suggest that apricot kernel extracts could be promising for managing populations and environmentally safe for control confused flour beetle.
... In addition, Joshi et al. (1993) found that the Chavaru apricot kernel had 3.4% moisture, 44.6% oil, 20.2% protein, 18% fibre and 2.3% ash. Dwivedi and Ram (2008) determined the proximate analysis of the bitter apricot kernels. Fat content in the bitter apricot kernels was as high as 54.24%. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The present work was conducted to study the physical and chemical properties of wastes (solids and liquids) generated during processing of some fruits and vegetables (kernels and peels of mango, peels and pulp of orange, kernels and pomace of apricot and strawberry pomace). Phytochemicals profiles and dietary fiber composition of dried solid wastes was determined as well as evaluation of their antioxidant activity. In addition, the utilization of solid wastes as a value added products (source of dietary fiber in biscuits, pectin, coloring and clouding agents, antifungal effect and essential oils) were evaluated. The results indicated that dried apricot kernel had the highest amount of crude protein content (19.18%), fat content (44.94%) and crude fiber content (16.63%). It is also cleared that; dried apricot pomace significantly had the highest value of ash content (5.49%), total soluble sugars (44.54%), reducing sugars (20.11%) and non-reducing sugars (24.43%). Concerning the phytochemicals profiles, the results revealed that, dried mango kernel and dried strawberry pomace significantly contained the same amount of total phenol. Dried mango kernel and dried orange pulp significantly contained the highest amount of total flavonoids. It is also noticed that, dried orange peel and dried apricot pomace significantly contained the highest amount of carotenoids. Moreover, dried apricot pomace and dried mango peel significantly contained highest amount of ascorbic acid. However, dried mango peel had the highest level in antioxidant activity. The dried state of mango peels and orange peels were utilized for their use in the preparation of biscuits. Wheat flour was replaced at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by dried peels of mango and orange separately. The sensory evaluation of biscuits showed that the taste and odor of biscuits containing dried mango peels up to 10% were significantly accepted as compared to control. While biscuits containing dried orange peel at 5% was significantly accepted as compared to control. The results also indicated that, the using of methanolic extracts of dried solid wastes had antifungal effect against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus paraseticus and Aspergillus flavus. Moreover, the results showed that, the percent of fungal inhibition increased by increasing the extract concentration. A complete growth inhibition (100%) of Fusarium solani and Aspergillus flavus was achieved by using 1250 ppm of dried state of mango kernel extract or apricot pomace extract or strawberry pomace extract. Meanwhile, dried orange peel extract caused 100% inhibition for Aspergillus flavus at the same concentration. Moreover, results showed that orange peels produced color units by 9 folds and cloud units by 17 folds more than those produced from orange juice. So, such orange peel could be used as a source of coloring and clouding agents. Concerning the evaluation of wastewater generated during juice processing the results indicated that, wastewater of strawberry juice processing had the highest value in BOD5, COD and TDS followed by wastewater of mango, apricot and orange juices. Key words: Wastes; Phytochemicals, dietary fiber, TFC, ascorbic acid, Antioxidant activity, coloring and clouding agents and wastewater.
... They are a rich source of Vitamin A and contain more carbohydrate , protein, phosphorus and niacin than the majority of other similar fruits (Teskey and Shoemaker 1972). In the apricot kernel the oil content was found to be as high as 54.25% and it is used for edible purpose with out any toxic and side effect (Dwivedi and Ram 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study characterizes apricot germplasm through the use of RAPD markers. Twelve apricot cultivars ('Chuli', 'Suffaida', 'Shakarpara', 'Kaisha', 'Nari', 'Royal', 'Charmagaz', 'Shipley Early', 'New Castle', 'Tilton', 'Turkey' and 'Moorpork') were selected. RAPD analysis was carried out using 18 random decamer primers, 16 of which showed polymorphism. A total of 79 bands were amplified, out of which 56 were polymorphic and 10 were specific RAPD markers. Total polymorphism was 70.89%. The similarity value ranged from 0.59 to 0.86. A low similarity value was obtained between 'Shakarpara' and 'Chuli' cultivars and high between 'Moorpork' and 'Suffaida' cultivars. On the basis of a similarity matrix, a dendrogram was constructed by the UPGMA method. RAPD analysis is useful in a certification scheme for releasing certified plant material. It could also be useful for assessing genetic variation among different apricot accessions.
... The predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid representing 7.5-8.5 % of the total fatty acid composition ). Further, Dwivedi and Ram (2008) has also reported that oil of wild apricot grown in Ladakh region is predominated by oleic acid which varied from 70.52 to 75.99 % followed by linoleic acid (14.3-22.83 %), palmitic acid (3.50-5.04 ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oilextraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have successfully been utilized for preparation of various value added products such as facial cream, lip balm, essential oil and protein isolate with good quality attributes and consumer acceptability. However, no scientific information on utilization of shells remained after kernel separation is available, but the shells are traditionally utilized for burning purpose during winters by the farmers. Therefore, it seems that every part of wild apricot can be utilized for conversion into value-added products and commercial utilization of this fruit will certainly add value to this underutilized fruit and also increase the economy of farmers.
... In fact, the apricot is not merely consumed as a fresh or dried fruits by humans but its kernel in sweet form also consumed as dried fruits, whereas its bitter kernel can be used as a raw material in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, cooking oil, benzaldehyde, activated carbon, amygdaline and hydrocyanic acid can be produced from the apricot seeds [1][2] . The seeds of these fruits have also high protein content and can be used as a food or feed ingredient; however, they contain approximately 50 nmol/mg of plant tissue of the potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides amygdaline and prunasin depending on the plant species and environment [3]. ...
... Geographically wide spread apricots have not become horticulturaly important except in areas with very special ecological conditions, because the cultivars are highly specific in their ecological requirement and cannot be grown away from their place of origin with the exception of few [4]. Here in Ladakh, apricots are locally known as Chuli and classified into two broad categories based on kernel taste [5]. Fruits with bitter kernel are called Khante meaning bitter, while those with sweet kernel are called Ngarmo meaning sweet [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was undertaken with a vision to study the status of commercially important fruit; Apricot and Apple in Ladakh region of J&K state, India. The study is based on the secondary data. The main source of data collection includes; Economic survey, statistical digest, government official records, books, magazines, articles and journals. The data has been analyzed, arranged and interpreted through tabulation and simple percentage method. It was observed that with the increasing demand for these fruits, the area under cultivation in the region has increased, with the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 1.49% and 5.1% for apricot and apple respectively during the decade (2008 – 2017). But the production remained almost static in case of apple, whereas, it decreased with a compounded rate of 2.77% in apricot. The productivity, which determines the economic feasibility of the crop as profitable enterprise, declined in both crops with a CAGR of -4.91% in apricot and -2.9% in apple, this may be attributed mostly to insect pest infestations, especially Codling moth in apple, and aphid and Brown tail moth in apricot. Low density planting systems with traditional varieties, and poor management of orchards has added to the woes. Thus from the study, it can be interpreted that the enterprise need to be restored by switching to the new innovative technologies adapted worldwide like High density planting. This in addition to the high yields may also prove beneficial in losses due to pest damage by reducing the overwintering sites (bark crevices).
... Approximately 80-85% of global dry apricot and apricot export takes place from Malatya (Dwivedi and Ram 2008). Quality of the fruit is assessed on the basis of its external appearance, taste, texture, and color. ...
Chapter
Apricot is a stone fruit and member of family Rosaceae closely related to peaches, plums, cherries, and almonds. Common apricot has been reported to grow in geographically diverse areas and climates, ranging from deserts of Central Asia to humid areas of China and Japan and cold winters of Siberia to subtropical climate of Northern Africa. Production of apricots varies from region to region. From last 25 years (1994–2018), Turkey with its temperate climate has dominated worldwide apricot production with over 13 million tons followed by Iran with more than 7 million tons. Apricot is a delicious fruit with multiple and diverse uses amid large portion of global production preserved by drying. Apricots consist of balance of sugar, fibers, proteins, vitamins, minerals, acidity, and strong apricot aroma. Carbohydrates occur in range of 11–13% and are rich source of energy. Fresh fruits are excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin A. Apricots are consumed as fresh, as jams, dried, or fruit bars. Fiber content in apricots, besides providing roughage, stimulates gastric mobility and helps in prevent constipation. Soluble fiber from these fruits lowers blood cholesterol, reduces body weight, and helps in maintaining blood pressure. It is highly enriched with essential minerals like potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, calcium, iron, and selenium, at the same time sodium, zinc, manganese, copper, and iron are also present in small amounts. Different parts of apricot have been reported with significant antioxidant activities which have been attributed to the presence of phytochemicals like fatty acids and sterols, polyphenols, sugars, volatile components, and cyanogenic glycosides. In addition to antioxidant activities, anticancer, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, and antimutagenic effects have been reported from different plant parts of apricots.
... The catalyst synthesized under a carbonization temperature of 600-1000 ∘ C, sulfonation time of 0.5-2.5 hours, and sulfanilic acid to activated carbon (AC) weight ratio of 3 : 1-13 : 1 showed the highest FAME yield and a conversion of 72.09-93.49%. The optimized reaction conditions for maximum conversion and selectivity were found to be 30 : 1 alcohol to oil ratio, 5 wt% catalyst loading, Dwivedi and Ram (2008) 100 ∘ C reaction temperature, and four hours reaction time. Reusability analysis indicated that corncob waste-derived sulfonated AC catalyst was able to produce a relatively higher FAME yield during the first two reaction cycles. ...
Chapter
Concern about the scarcity of fossil fuel supplies, rising CO2 emissions, and related climate change are promoting the production of renewable fuels. Biodiesel is an eco‐friendly, nontoxic, renewable transportation fuel that can be produced from different waste sources through chemical processes. Regarding its generation, heterogeneous catalysts give more proficient separation steps compared with homogeneous ones. The production of biodiesel from waste biomass sources through conventional transesterification using catalyst has certain inalienable limitations, which have necessitated the investigation of fast and eco‐friendly approaches. Therefore, nanotechnology has been utilized as an alternative and effective way to fulfill future societal biofuel needs. This chapter explains the most appropriate feedstocks to use in biodiesel production, the reaction mechanisms involved in acid/base catalytic transesterification, the variables influencing biodiesel yield, the application and impact of nanoparticles, key safety issues, and the future possibilities of nanocatalyst use in biofuel production.
... crude fiber and 6-22.2% dietary fiber (Dwivedi and Ram, 2008). Naryal et al (2019b) studied amygdalin content in apricot kernel. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ladakh is the biggest apricot producer in India with a total production of 15,789 tonnes. The region produced approximately 1,999 tonnes of dried apricot, making it the largest producer of dried apricot in the country. The total area under apricot cultivation is 2,303 ha. Apricots of Ladakh are known for their quality. Historically, the premium quality dried apricots were one of the main trading commodities with neighboring countries. However, the bulk of the apricot produced is consumed locally and only a small quantity is sold outside the region in dried form. The native apricot genotypes of Ladakh possess unique and important characteristics, such as high TSS content, late and extended flowering and fruit maturity, and white seed stone phenotype, which offer opportunity for Ladakh to emerge on the world map for apricot production. However, as of today, the popularity of Ladakhi apricots remains restricted to the region due to limited production, incidence of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and lack of organized marketing system. Critical areas that need focused attention include promotion of premium quality cultivars especially Halman and Raktsey Karpo, plantation in orchard system, adoption of standard cultural practices, conservation of the rich genetic resource, organic certification, adoption of integrated post-harvest management, management of insect-pests, and establishment of marketing infrastructure.
... Apricot seeds are used in the cosmetics and drug industry and are an economically important commodity of the Malatya region (Asma and Mısırlı 2007;Dwivedi and Ram 2008). On the other hand, poisoning of children by apricot seeds is common (Akyildiz et al. 2010;Cheok 1978). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) poisoning due to amygdalin (AMY) in apricot seeds is one of the public health issues in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the AMY content of 13 different apricot seeds including bitter and sweet ones, and which are either sulfurized or roasted. The AMY content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Release of HCN was predicted and total amount of seeds which can cause poisoning was calculated. The mean AMY content of bitter seeds was 26 ± 14 mg g−1 and that of sweet seeds was 0.16 ± 0.09 mg g−1. The consumption of small amounts of bitter seeds may cause cyanide poisoning.
Article
Full-text available
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., Rosaceae) is the most important fruit crop of cold desert of Ladakh. Oil extracted from the sweet kernel is used for edible purpose while that of bitter kernel has religious, cosmetic and medicinal values. The oil is popular as body oil or massage oil, is known to relieve backache and joints ache. With the advancement of technology the cumbersome traditional method of oil extraction is slowly declining. However, the oil extracted by the traditional method is still being preferred due to its distinct smell. This paper describes the ancient traditional method of apricot kernel oil extraction still being practiced in some parts of Ladakh.
Article
Full-text available
zet: Bu çalışmada, Malatya İl merkezi, Kale, Hekimhan, Battalgazi ve Yazıhan İlçelerinden toplanmış olan kayısı örneklerinin yaş, islimli ve gün kurusu numunelerinin ve buna ek olarak çekirdek ve çekirdek kabuklarının antimikrobiyal etkisi araştırılmıştır. Bu numunelerden elde edilen ekstraktların antimikrobiyal aktivitesi Klebsiella pneumoniae 13883, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus 6538, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ve Candida albicans 30114'a karşı test edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda kayısı ekstraktlarının mikroorganizmalara karşı değişik oranlarda antibakteriyal aktivite gösterdiği; fakat Saccharomyces cerevisiae ve Candida albicans 30114'a karşı herhangi bir antifungal aktivite sergilemediği tespit edilmiştir. Buna karşın, kayısı çekirdekleri ve kabuklarında hiçbir antimikrobiyal aktivite tespit edilememiştir. Abstract: Antimicrobial activities of apricot samples (fresh, sulphited dried, sun dried) obtained from Center, Kale, Hekimhan, Battalgazi and Yazihan (Malatya) investigated in this study. Antimicrobial activities of extracts of these samples were tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae 13883, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Streptococcus faecalis, , Staphylococcus aureus 6538, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans 30114. Consequently, apricot extracts exhibited antibacterial activity at different rate against test bacteria, but these extracts did not exhibit antifungal activities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans 30114. Additionally, extracts of apricot kernels and kernel crusts did not show antimicrobial activity. Giriş Kayısı (Prunus armeniaca L.) Rosales takımının Rosaceae familyasının Prunus cinsine girer. Bu tür, zerdalinin (P. armeniaca L.) aşı ile çeşit halinde çoğaltılan bir kültür tipidir (Güner, 1998). Prunus L. cinsi armeniaca (Lam.) seksiyonu altında 8 tür bulundurur: P. ansu Maxima, P. armeniaca L., P. brigantiaca Vill., P. xdasycarpa Ehrh., P. holosericea (Batal) Kost., P. mandshurica (Maxima.) Koehne, P. mume (Sieb.) Sieb. Et Zucc. ve P. siberica L. (Maghuly ve ark., 2005) Türkiye'de yetişen kayısılar çok fazla çeşitliliğe sahiptir ve diğer kayısılardan renk, lezzet, tatlılık ve asit oranları olarak farklılık gösterir. Türkiye dünyanın lider taze kayısı üreticisi konumundadır. Türkiye'deki kayısı ihracatının yaklaşık yarısını Malatya İl'i karşılamaktadır. Toplam üretimin %73'ü Hacıhaliloğluoğlu, %17'si Kabaaşı ve geri kalanı Soğancı, Hasanbey, Çataloğlu ve yabani kayısı (zerdali) türleridir (Güçlü ve ark., 2006). Kayısı taze, kurutulmuş ve konserve olarak bütün yıl tüketilen bir meyvedir. Minerallerden potasyum ve vitaminlerden A vitamininin öncülü olan β-karoten yönünden zengindir (Güner, 1998).-60
Article
Full-text available
Apart from being used as food, seed oils have also been used traditionally as medicinal products by several communities. However, the full medicinal potential of many seed oil plants is yet to be properly reviewed, particularly for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. NorthEast India has rich resources of seed oil plants. The availability of detailed information on these plants is quite limited. This review aims to explore and evaluate these seed oil plants of the NorthEast India with particular emphasis on their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities as well as chemical compositions. A comprehensive literature search on seed oil plants of this region has been performed. Seed oil yielding plants of this region can be categorized into two categories: plants that are used traditionally as sources of edible or medicinal oils and plants that are used for purposes other than as sources of oils. Many seed oil plants of this region have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and to produce various types of compounds. This review also highlights the importance of these plants in contributing to the local as well as the national economy of India.
Article
In the study, total oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents in the kernels of several apricot cultivars were determined for two years. The bitter seed cultivars Alyanak, Karacabey and Paviot, and the sweet seed cultivars Aprikoz, Cataloglu, Cologlu, Hacihaliloglu, Ismailaga, Kabaasi and Sekerpare were used. The seeds of apricot cultivars were obtained from the Malatya Fruit Research Institute in Turkey. It was found that the apricot seed contained a high rate of oil rich in y-tocopherol and oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid. Also, genetic variation was found among the cultivars, however, bitterness or sweetness was not significant. As the average of two years, total oil content of the cultivars ranged from 42.77% (Alyanak) to 54.92% (Ismailaga); oleic acid content from 65.81% (Sekerpare) to 71.40% (Cologlu); linoleic acid content from 21.27% (Paviot) to 25.64% (Kabaasi); palmitic acid content from 5.29% (Karacabey) to 6.66% (Sekerpare); stearic acid content from 1.10% (Kabaasi) to 148% (Sekerpare); palmitoleic acid content from 0.58% (Cataloglu) to 0.88% (Alyanak); α-tocopherol content from 3.10 μg/g (Paviot) to 22.45 μg/g (Aprikoz); y-tocopherol content from 193.00 μg/g (Paviot) to 543.80 μg/g (Karacabey); 5-tocopherol content from 7.80 μg/g (Cataloglu) to 18.53 μg/g (Paviot); and β-tocopherol content from 0.17 μg/g (Cataloglu) to 0.61 μg/g (Aprikoz). Oleic acid was negatively correlated with linoleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-tocopherol, which was also positively correlated with γ-tocopherol.
Article
Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is an important fruit tree species found in temperate regions of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states of India at an altitude up to 2500–3000 msl. From time immemorial P. armeniaca L. has been used in folk medicine as a remedy for various diseases. Apricot seed oil has been used as biodiesel and oil cake as organic manure. The plant is rich in sugars, mono and polysaccharides, polyphenols, fatty acids, sterol derivatives, carotenoids, cynogenic glucosides and volatile compounds. Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in the human diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is emerging. Cyanogenic glycosides responsible for a bitter taste of apricot seeds and these seeds cause some degree of intoxication primarily on nervous system and thyroid. P. armeniaca L. has also been investigated for various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, inhibitory activity against several enzymes. Among them the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential has been of much exploration and were proved to be highly efficacious under in vitro conditions. In the present review, the antioxidant properties of P. armeniaca L. and its potential use as natural dietary supplement has been discussed. We have also thrown light on the phytochemistry and biological activity reports published on the species worldwide.
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter
We are exposed to lots of chemicals from our environment either knowingly or unknowingly. These chemicals enter our body and induce damage to different organs. One such organ affected is the hair. Damage to hair, weakens them and causes hair fall. In order to reverse this damage, the nourishment to hair has to be reinstated which is possible by increasing blood circulation to the scalp and also by massaging with oils that provide external nutrients. This chapter provides a list of plant drugs that can be incorporated in hair oils, along with their beneficial effects for hair.
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of apricot and cherry pits under compression loading along the three axial dimensions of the pits. The mechanical behavior was expressed in terms of force required to rupture of the pit, deformation at rupture point, deformation ratio (strain), energy absorbed and toughness. Also; masses and geometrical properties (axial dimensions, geometric mean diameter, sphericity and volume) of these pits were determined. These properties are necessary to design of cracking machines and knowledge amount of force and energy requirements for cracking operation. All experiments were carried out at moisture content of 9.81 and 12.92 %, (d.b.) for apricot and cherry pits, resp. The results showed that; the highest values of rupture force, deformation and energy required to crack the apricot pit were at loading position through the length axis, while; the lowest values were through the width axis, whereas; the highest values of rupture force, deformation and energy required to crack the cherry pit were at loading position through the thickness axis, while; the lowest values were through the width axis. In conclusion; the results obtained of the mechanical behavior of apricot and cherry pits indicated that; the compression through the width axis can be recommended for cracking process with minimum force and energy requirements.
Article
In this study, amygdalin contents in the seeds of ten different bitter or sweet apricot cultivars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for two years. The seeds of apricot cultivars were obtained from the Malatya Fruit Research Institute in Turkey. The results indicated that genetic variation was found among the cultivars. The amygdalin contents of bitter cultivars were found to be higher than those of sweet cultivars. As the average of two years, the amygdalin contents of the cultivars were determined as 6.354 g/100 g in Paviot (bitter), 5.914 g/100 g in Karacabey (bitter), 4.411 g/100 g in Alyanak (bitter), 1.584 g/100 g in Cologlu (sweet), 0.970 g/100 g in Cataloglu (sweet), 0.820 g/100 g in Aprikoz (sweet), 0.729 g/100 g in Sekerpare (sweet), 0.709 g/100 g in Kabaasi (sweet), 0.610 g/100 g in Ismailaga (sweet) and 0.604 g/100 g in Hacihaliloglu (sweet).
Article
NMR studies of CO adsorbed on small Pt particles show evidence of changes in the metallic nature of these particles with size. Large particles on silica or the exterior of zeolite crystallites have conduction-band electrons that cause a Knight shift for adsorbed CO. Small particles in zeolite cavities are diamagnetic clusters, and yield spectra for linear and bridging carbonyls similar to those of transition-metal cluster compounds. ¹³C NMR of CO offers a simple probe of metal dispersion and particle size for these Pt catalysts and other noble metal systems. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Article
Wild apricot, a variety of Prunus armeniaca, grows in the hilly regions of India. The seeds yield 27% of kernels. The potential availability of the kernels is 40,000 tons/year and these yield 47% of oil. The oil has 94% unsaturated fatty acids, rich in oleic and linoleic acids. Systemic effects and nutritional quality of wild apricot oil (WAO) were assessed in a 13-wk feeding study in weanling albino rats using a diet containing 10% WAO as the sole source of dietary fat. A similar diet containing groundnut oil (GNO) was used as the control. WAO did not manifest any toxic potential. The food consumption, growth rate and food efficiency ratio of rats fed WAO were similar to those fed GNO. The digestibility of this oil was found to be comparable to that of GNO. There were no macroscopic or microscopic lesions in any of the organs that could be ascribed to WAO incorporation in the diet. The results of this study indicate that WAO could be used for edible purposes without any overt toxic signs or symptoms. However a long-term study may be needed to confirm its innocuousness further.