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Sara is explained in context of 'Dashvidha Pariksha' in Charak Samhita to measure the strength (Bala) of an individual. Haematological parameters are most frequently used in routine investigations. It is obvious that both Sara and haematological parameters are used in ancient and modern science therefore, this study was planned to assess the variation in haematological parameters of different Sara individuals as per sex. Total 254 (156 males and 98 females) healthy individuals between the age of 18 to 35 were included in this study. Assessment of Sara was done in terms of total Sara score by questionnaire type proforma specially designed for this study. Haematological values provide important information about health status of a person like anaemia, polycythemia, any type of infection and others. Haematological parameters were analysed by automatic haematology analyzer. On correlation of the total Sara score and haematological values in male and female, significant variation in total Sara score as well as in haematological values was observed.
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Gunawat C P et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 6(5), Sep - Oct 2015
598
Research Article
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VARIATION OF HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIFFERENT DHATU SARA INDIVIDUALS
AS PER SEX
Gunawat C P 1*, Gehlot S 2
1Junior Resident, Department of Kriya Sharir, IMS, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India
2Professor, Department of Kriya Sharir, IMS, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India
Received on: 25 /05/15 Revised on: 13/06/15 Accepted on: 28/06/15
*Corresponding author
Dr. Chandar Prakash Gunawat, Junior Resident, Department of Kriya Sharir, Instit ute of Medical Sciences Banara s Hindu University,
Varanasi-221005, India. Email: cpgunawatcool@yahoo.com
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.065112
ABSTRACT
Sara is explained in context of Dashvidha P ariksha in Charak Samhita to measure the strength (Bal a) of an individual. Haematological parameters
are most frequently used i n routine investigations. It is obvious that both Sara and haematological parameters are used in ancient and modern science
therefore, this study was planned to assess the variation in haematological parameters of different Sara individuals as per sex. Total 254 (156 males
and 98 females) healt hy individuals between the age of 18 to 35 were included in this study. Assessment of Sara was done i n terms of total Sara score
by questionnaire type proforma specially designed for this study. Hae matological values provide important informati on about health status of a person
like anaemia, polycythemia, any type of infection and others. Hae matological parameters were analysed by automatic haematology analyzer. On
correlation of t he total Sara score and haematological values in mal e and female, significant variation in t otal Sara score as well as in hae matological
values was observed.
Keywords: Sara Pariksha, Haematology, Strength, Sex.
INTRODUCTION
In this hasty life, people are reluctant to have a proper
consideration towards the health and nutrition therefore
good immunity is mandatory for prevention of disease.
Seven Dhatus have been described in Ayurveda. Rasa is
minutest and essential fraction of properly digested food.
Rakta Dhatu is produced from Rasa, Mansa from Rakta,
Meda from Mansa, Asthi from Meda, Majja from Asthi
and finally Shukra from the Majja. Sara is the essence of
Dhatus (Vishuddhataro Dhatu), which signifies the
ultimate quality of Dhatu and excellent functional aspect1.
Sara has been mentioned for the assessment of strength
(Bala) 2 and life span (Ayu)3 of patient. Bala means
biological strength or power of resistance against the
disease; it can be related with immunity of the individual.
Predominance of particular Dhatu, the number of Dhatu
Sara present in the body of an individual will be directly
proportional to the power of resistance of the individual.
That is why; Sarva Sara individuals have higher resistance
in comparison to Madhyam Sara or Avara Sara
individuals4. During formation of foetus all the Dhatus are
formed, Dhatu which shows maximum characters
mentioned in Samhitas are called as best Dhatu of that
individual. Dhatu Sarata or tissue excellence is a quality
assessment of seven Dhatu. Examination of Dhatu Sarata
is done at physical and psychological level.
As described by Acharya Charaka, it is fallacious to
consider an individual to be strong or weak either by his
appearance like his plump or emaciated body or by large
or small size of his body. Some people having a small size
and emaciated body seem to be strong. Thus one should
examine the individual in respect to Sara or excellence of
his Dhatu5. So, it is quite clear that inherent power of a
person cannot be assessed by bulk and size of the body,
but it is only judged by the Sara examination. Individuals
on the basis of Sara have been classified into various
categories depending upon the predominance and quality
of particular Dhatu in the body, except the Satva Sara
which is based on predominance of Satva (psychic factor)
in the body. Following eight Sara have been described in
texts of Ayurveda i.e. Twak Sara, Rakta Sara, Mansa
Sara, Meda Sara, Asthi Sara, Majja Sara, Shukra Sara and
Satva Sara6, 7. Acharya Kashyap has also described Oja
Sara8.
The higher percentage of characteristics represents the
good quality of Dhatu. Examination of the Sarata of
Dhatu is helpful for the preventive and curative aspect i.e.
the Dhatu which is of weak quality in an individual, may
be treated with good diet to increase the strength of that
Dhatu.
Acharya Charaka has also described that the individual
having the excellence of all Dhatus (Sarva Sara) have
great strength, happiness, resistance to difficulties, self
confidence in all enterprises, virtuous acts, and firm and
well-built body, correct gait, resonant melodious and high
pitched voice, happiness, power, wealth, enjoyment,
honour, slowness of aging process, resistance to diseases,
having more progeny and longevity4.
Haematological parameters are in routine use for the
assessment of health status among all age group
individuals. Alteration in the haematological values leads
to cause various diseases and impairs the quality of life.
For example decrease in these values leads to anaemia
causing decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood
which is the root cause of so many diseases while increase
may lead to polycythaemia.
Gunawat C P et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 6(5), Sep - Oct 2015
599
The present study is an effort to evaluate and correlate the
possible variation of haematological parameters as per sex
and Dhatu Sarata. Few studies have been done in
reference to assessment of individual Sara but till date no
study has been carried out for the comparative analysis of
Dhatu Sarata altogether. Taking consideration of the
hypothesis that Sara score and haematological parameters
will be variable in different sex, this study has been
designed. One can analyze the haematological status of
the individuals after the assessment of Sara. On the basis
of Dhatu Sarata one can predict the health status and
proneness of an individual for suffering to particular
diseases in future. This was administered to 254 healthy
subjects who have satisfied the inclusion criteria were
enrolled for this study after getting their consent. On the
basis of the observations of this study, it may be inferred
that Dhatu Sara score has a strong correlation with sex
and haematological parameters.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The Ethical Committee of Institute of Medical Science,
Banaras Hindu University and PG Medical board,
Institute of Medical Science, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi has approved this study vide letter
No.Dean/2012-13/361 dated 15.12.2012. The present
study has been carried out in Department of Kriya Sharir,
Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU Varanasi.
Selection of volunteers: This study has been done in
healthy individuals. For this study the individuals were
selected from different departments of faculty of
Ayurveda IMS BHU which included BAMS students,
MD, PhD scholars, faculty members and some individuals
from the local community of Varanasi.
Sampling method: The volunteers were provided
detailed information about purpose and methods used in
the study and written consent was obtained before
registration. These individuals were thoroughly examined
for the assessment of health. A detailed proforma was
used to record the health status including history taking
and physical examination.
Assessment of Sara: In this study for the assessment of
Sara a validated questionnaire and software was used for
its consistency as a tool. This was done by pro-forma
prepared by Chandar Prakash Gunawat et al (2014)9 based
on characters mentioned in different texts of Ayurveda
and Brihat Samhita. The pro-forma has been designed in
such a way that each trait/ character as described in texts
was transformed into simple questions maintaining the
original idea intact. The respondents had to record their
agreement or disagreement with the question in a column
provided for the purpose in the form of One or Zero. The
scores to be allotted were specified against the statement
in a separate column for a particular Sara. At the end of
this exercise, the respondents could calculate the scores
for different Sara themselves and could understand the
Sara dominance in the form of percentage with the help of
simple mathematical calculations.
Percentage dominance of a Sara in an individual was
calculated on the basis of the total scores obtained for
each Sara by simple mathematical calculation as shown
below:
Total marks scored by an individual for a Sara × 100 /
Total marks allotted to that Sara
The total obtained score of all the Sara of an individual
was counted.
Haematological Parameter estimation:
All the 19 haematological parameters were estimated by
Automated Haematology Analyzer pocH-100i of Sysmex
(Japan). Stromatolyser-WH and Cell pack (whole blood
diluent) chemicals were used for the estimation of these
haematological parameters.
RESULTS
After assessment of Sara, we have observed that each
volunteer had scored some points for each Sara.
Therefore, we could not designate any class of volunteers
to be dominant of one Sara. Therefore, we have calculated
total Sara score and divided the total Sara score in to two
groups as per sex.
Table 1: Comparison of M ean±SD of different Sara sco res as per sex
Sara
Mean±SD
Between Sara group comparison Unpaired t-test
Group-l (Male) (n=156)
Group-ll (Female) (n=98)
t- value
Twak
9.36±2.401
9.34±2.056
0.052
Rakta
20.96±4.734
16.44±4.364
7.586
Mamsa
21.20±6.473
19.51±6.815
1.970
Meda
9.43±2.869
9.04±3.015
1.022
Asthi
9.37±3.607
7.46±3.390
4.183
Majja
7.05±1.795
5.98±1.436
4.955
Shukra
11.99±3.498
10.64±3.099
3.123
Total
89.37±17.593
78.41±16.774
4.887
Mean±SD of each Sara score and total Sara score was
higher in males in comparison to females. On statistical
analysis, it was found significant in all Sara except Twak
Sara and Meda Sara. When comparison of these Sara
score was done between male and female, statistically
highly significant (p<0.001) difference was observed in
Rakta, Asthi, Majja and Shukra Sara (p=0.002) and total
Sara score (p<0.001) while in Mamsa Sara score
statistically significant change (p=0.050) was noted.
(Table 1)
Gunawat C P et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 6(5), Sep - Oct 2015
600
Table 2: Mean±SD of Haematological parameters as per sex
Parameters
Mean±SD (Min, M ax)
Between Sara group comparison Unpaired t-test
Group-l (Male) (n=156)
Group-ll (Female) (n=98)
t-value
p-value
WBC
7.40±1.554
7.94±2.073
2.343
0.020
RBC
5.23±0.634
4.49±0.439
10.094
<0.001
HGB
14.76±1.413
12.11±1.233
14.774
<0.001
HCT
46.94±4.277
40.01±3.752
13.088
<0.001
MCV
90.30±9.276
89.91±8.215
0.338
0.736
MCH
28.32±3.170
27.32±2.944
2.484
0.014
MCHC
31.33±1.473
30.36±1.570
4.934
<0.001
PLT
217.30±70.376
247.28±65.672
3.368
<0.001
LYM%
31.39±7.708
31.23±9.169
0.150
0.881
MXD%
10.21±3.417
8.60±3.885
3.412
0.001
NEUT%
58.49±8.504
60.38±9.897
1.604
0.110
LYM#
2.27±0.617
2.34±0.550
0.889
0.375
MXD#
0.74±0.288
0.67±0.339
1.768
0.078
NEUT#
4.49±1.324
4.90±1.802
2.063
0.040
RDW-SD
47.66±8.635
48.34±10.014
0.568
0.571
RDW-CV
15.04±2.254
15.10±2.415
0.198
0.844
PDW
15.10±4.349
15.30±3.452
0.376
0.707
MPV
12.45±2.050
12.82±1.630
1.514
0.131
P_LCR
45.91±18.787
48.57±14.225
1.192
0.234
All the values of haematological parameters were
observed higher in males, except total WBC count,
platelet count and neutrophil count which was higher in
females. On comparison between male and female
groups, RBC, HGB, HCT and MCHC and platelet count
was found statistically highly significant (p<0.001) while
WBC, MCH, and total neutrophil count were observed
statistically significant (p<0.05). These findings are
evident from Table 2.
DISCUSSION
In present study the assessment of Sara is specially done
to assess the level of seven Dhatus in the body therefore
we have not included Sattva Sara (excellence of mind).
The formation of Dhatu depends upon the Aharapaka and
Dhatupaka. Male sex hormone (Androgens) can increase
the basal metabolic rate about 10-15%, for this reason
male have higher metabolic rate10. Androgen also
stimulates erythropoiesis by increasing REF (Renal
Erythropoietic Factor) production and also potentiates the
action of erythropoietin11 hence they have more
erythrocyte and HGB concentration leading to higher
incidence of Rakta Sarata. Sara examination is done for
the assessment of strength (Bala). Increased in Sara score
may be suggestive of increased strength12. In this study all
those Dhatus having higher Sara score are well known
factor for increasing strength. Higher testosterone level in
male leads to increased muscular strength13 and also
important factor for stimulating erythropoiesis taking
place in bone marrow, due to which higher Sara scores
of Rakta, Mansa, Asthi, Majja and Shukra are noted in
males while oestrogen decreases hepatic synthesis of
globulin and depresses the erythropoietic response to
hypoxia. That is why, in females, haematological
parameters were found lower as compared to males11.
Madhura Motagi et al concluded physiological variation
of WBC count among women. High Total WBC count
was found in women during proliferative phase compared
to menstrual phase and secretory phase and significant
high total WBC count and lymphocytes were in all the
phases of women compared to men. This can be attributed
to the female sex hormones14. In this study also increased
value of WBC was noted in females as compared to males
which confirms the findings of earlier workers.
CONCLUSION
It can be inferred that in each Dhatu Sara, the values of
haematological parameters are higher in males as
compared to females. Further, higher Sara scores in male
is suggestive of more strength as compared to females.
ACKNOWLEDGEME NT
We acknowledge Praguna Singh, B.Tech 3rd year Scholar, Computer
Science, Manipal Institute of Technology for his eff ort and cooperation
for making Software and valuable suggestions.
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Cite this article as:
Gunawat C P, Gehlot S. Variation of haematological parameters i n
different d hatu sara individuals as per se x. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm.
2015;6(5):598-601 http://dx.doi.org/10.7897 /2277-4343.065112
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
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  • P V Sharma
  • Sushrut Samhita
Sharma P.V, Sushrut Samhita (Su.Su.35/18-19) English translation Vol-l, Chowkhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, UP, India, 1 st 1999, p. 329-333.
Comparative analysis of Hematological Parameters in individuals of Different Sara, Thesis (MD) work in Dept
  • Gehlot Gunawat Chandar Prakash
  • Sangeeta
Gunawat Chandar Prakash, Gehlot Sangeeta, Comparative analysis of Hematological Parameters in individuals of Different Sara, Thesis (MD) work in Dept. of Kriya Sharir, IMS BHU Varanasi, Dec 2014.
  • A Jain
Jain A.K, Textbook of Physiology, Vol-l, 5 th 2012, Avichal Publishing Company, p-69.
  • H S Kushwah
  • Charak Samhita
Kushwah H S, Charak Samhita (Chakrapani Commentary on Ch.Vi. 8/102-108) Vol-l, Chowkhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, UP, India, 1 st 2005, p-693
  • P V Sharma
  • Charak Samhita
Sharma P.V, Charak Samhita (Ch.Vi.8/102&114) English transalation Vol-l, Chowkhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, UP, India, 9 th 2005, p. 378.
  • K R S Murthy
  • Ashtanga Samgraha
Murthy K.R.S, Ashtanga Samgraha (AS. Sh. 8/27) English translation, Vol-ll, Chowkhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, UP, India, 5 th 2005, p-106.
  • K R S Murthy
  • Ashtanga Hridayam
Murthy K.R.S, Ashtanga Hridayam (AH. Sh. 3/117) English translation, Vol-l, Chowkhambha krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, UP, India, 7 th 2010, p-420-421.
Comparative analysis of Hematological Parameters in individuals of Different Sara, Thesis (MD) work in Dept. of Kriya Sharir, IMS BHU Varanasi
  • Gehlot Gunawat Chandar Prakash
  • Sangeeta
Gunawat Chandar Prakash, Gehlot Sangeeta, Comparative analysis of Hematological Parameters in individuals of Different Sara, Thesis (MD) work in Dept. of Kriya Sharir, IMS BHU Varanasi, Dec 2014.