Article

Attenuation of Pipe Ramming-Induced Ground Vibrations

Article

Attenuation of Pipe Ramming-Induced Ground Vibrations

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Abstract

Pipe ramming installations generally induce high levels of ground vibrations that may affect the structural integrity of nearby buildings and utilities. This paper investigates the ground vibrations associated with pipe ramming installations and develops reliable models for estimating the ground vibration levels in an effort to avoid the undesirable effects of the vibrations. The study presents field observations of ground vibrations in which an open-ended steel casing 1,070 mm in diameter and 37 m long was driven into granular soils using two pneumatic hammers of varying energy. The ground vibrations observed during the installation are presented as a function of magnitude of peak particle velocity, frequency content, and direction of propagation. Observations indicate that a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies is possible, ranging from 1 to 100 mm/s and 20 to 100 Hz, respectively, for the case of forward and laterally propagating vibrations. The forward-propagating vibrations were observed to exceed the safe limit vibration criteria for a proposed pipe alignment for close source-to-sensor distances, indicating a potential for damage caused by pipe ramming-induced vibrations. The attenuation characteristics of the pipe ramming-induced vibrations were assessed by adopting and calibrating the existing scaled-distance empirical model and compared to those for a number of common construction operations.

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... In the work of Fattah and Al-Soudani (2015), the results of the physical modeling of the process of immersion of a vertical open-ended pipe pile are presented. The peculiarities of horizontal immersion of openended pipes are studied experimentally in the works of Kondratenko and Petreev (2008), Meskele and Stuedlein (2016), Danilov et al. (2017). ...
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Article
The evaluation of the drivability of a proposed pipe is a critical task in the planning and execution of pipe-ramming installations, because it results in increased efficiency, safe installations, and significant cost savings. The analysis of drivability provides a means for optimizing the hammer energy required for a given pipe-ramming installation, and it minimizes potential damage to the pipe due to overstressing the pipe material. Four full-scale pipes with diameters ranging from 610 to 3,660 mm installed using pipe-ramming hammers were instrumented to observe the measurement of hammer-pipe energy transfer, driving stresses, and total (static and dynamic) soil resistance to penetration and formed the basis for evaluating drivability. First, the hammer-pipe energy transfer calculated from the observed force and velocity time histories was characterized, indicating the quantity of energy that actually results in the penetration of the pipe through soil. Then, the dynamic model parameters known as the soil quake and damping were back-calculated using common signal-matching analyses and presented as a function of normalized soil resistance. Wave-equation analyses used routinely to assess the constructability of pile foundations were adapted to estimate the observed force time histories and driving curves or the variation of penetration resistance with static soil resistance. Wave-equation analyses were also used to estimate the observed compressive and tensile driving stresses and the accuracy of the estimates characterized. The results of this study and those used to develop equations for static soil resistance to ramming can be used as the basis for the evaluation of the drivability of rammed pipes. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Conference Paper
Signal matching is the preferred analysis method for Dynamic Load Test (DLT) evaluations. It is applicable to DLT records of driven piles, auger-cast piles, drilled shafts, and even on dynamic penetrometers. Although signal matching is considered standard best-practice, required by many code specifications and therefore routinely used on thousands of deep foundation projects worldwide, and of significant importance to the deep foundation industry, many features of the CAPWAP® signal matching model and procedure are not well known. CAPWAP's signal matching is possible because of the availability of redundant measurements of load and movement, and it is necessary to determine the unknown boundary conditions. The goal of CAPWAP is the determination of dynamic and static soil resistance parameters of the generally accepted Smith-type pile-soil interface model. However, the classic Smith model cannot explain some of the phenomena that occur during the impact event. For reliable signal matching results, therefore, several modifications of the original Smith model were made. While some modifications fundamentally do not affect the signal match, other more substantial changes are of considerable importance to the reliable determination of the all-important static load bearing capacity result. Before discussing the CAPWAP procedure and its automatic analysis tools, this paper describes the more unusual CAPWAP pile and soil model parameters and their effects on the final results. Measurement and analysis results from actual projects demonstrate the various features of the program and aspects of the models. The paper includes a summary of recommended limits for model parameters, match qualities, and calculation procedures and a few suggestions for additional research.
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An automated prediction scheme is presented which utilizes both force and acceleration records measured at the pile top during driving to compute the soil resistance forces acting along the pile. The distribution of these forces is determined, and the dynamic and static resistance forces are distinguished such that a prediction of a theoretical static load versus penetration curve is possible. As a theoretical basis stress wave theory is used, derived from the general solution of the linear one-dimensional wave equation. As a means of calculating the dynamic pile response, a lumped mass pile model is devised and solved by the Newmark β-method. Wave theory is also employed to develop a simple method for computing static bearing capacity from acceleration and force measurements. Twenty-four pile tests are reported, 14 of them with special instrumentation, i.e., strain gages along the pile below grade. The piles tested were of 12-in. (30-cm) diameter steel pipe with lengths ranging from 33 ft. to 83 ft. (10 m to 25 m).
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Data are presented concerning the shear modulus and damping ratios of sands and gravelly soils as determined by laboratory and field tests. A simple relationship is proposed to relate the shear modulus of a cohesionless soil to a modulus stiffness coefficient, which is a soil property and depends on the characteristics of the soil, and the effective mean principal stress at any point in the soil. Values for the modulus coefficient at low strains are suggested, and it is shown that these values for sands can be estimated from the standard penetration resistance of the sand. Values for gravels are generally greater than those for sands by factors ranging from 1.35–2.5. Suggestions are also made for determining the variation of shear modulus with shear strain and the damping ratios for both sandy and gravelly soils.
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A detailed examination of the frequency content of ground vibration is presented in terms of the so-called instantaneous frequency and time–frequency analysis. These techniques, and others, are applied to the surface vibration from a mass blast that triggered a large seismic event and to an earthquake vibration measured in the walls of a massive dam. As an associated issue it is shown that the relationship between peak levels of acceleration and velocity also reveals information on the frequency content of ground vibration. It is demonstrated quite clearly that the popular zero-crossing method cannot be used to obtain the frequency associated with the peak vibration level. In fact it is a false notion that one particular frequency can be associated with the peak level except for the ideal (and impractical) case of a single sinusoid. Realistically, there is a distribution of frequencies associated with the peak level, and a technique of sliding filters is suggested in order to examine the dependence of the peak level upon this frequency content. In light of the sliding filter approach, a new frequency dependent criterion for allowable levels of vibration is presented. This criterion is a completely continuous and well-defined function of frequency and so is more realistic than the current criteria which are only piecewise continuous and based upon an ill-defined frequency. The new criterion is applied to vibration data obtained from quarries and underground operations and is also applied to a model of resonant vibrations in urban dwellings.
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Ground vibration data, originating from impact hammers and vibrodrivers and compiled by different research workers, have been plotted in scaled distance form and statistically analysed. A quadratic regression curve rather than a linear regression curve provides a better visual fit to the several data sets. In each case, superimposed on the graphical data points are also the one-half standard deviation and the one standard deviation curves. It is argued that the quadratic one-half standard deviation curves, generated from an analysis of all the reliable vibration information compiled by the authors from impact hammers and vibrodrivers, be used for design of piling operations in order to mitigate excessive environmental vibration.
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