Article

Introducing computational thinking through stealth teaching

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Abstract

The demand for additional engineering and computing degree graduates continue to increase [1, 2]; however, interest in pursuing these degrees is not matching the predicated demand. More specifically, attracting US students in engineering and computing field has always been a challenge; this is particularly true for female and minority students. Factors such as the 'geek image', a demanding mathematical foundation, lack of 'gee whiz' element early in the curriculum, and overall misconception about the career in these areas are all contributors to this problem. This paper describes some of our activities associated with the introduction of Computational Thinking (CT) concepts to middle and high schools. The central tenet of the project is to entice students in grade 6-12 to learn some fundamental and advance topics in engineering and computing field, thereby recognizing their own ability to understand the computing and engineering topics, and potentially recognizing their interest in such topics and potential further education and career in these fields.

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... Module [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49] 12 Unplugged [22], [ In addition to teaching CT in regular classrooms, researchers have introduced afterschool activities, which called 'informal program' in this study, as an alternative to disseminate CT skills. Recently, the publication trend of studies related to infusing CT through the informal program has increased. ...
... As [12] point out, educators should not only promote coding skills and provide knowledge, but also collaboration and teamwork skills to deal with difficult problems which are too hard to be solved individually. [52], [38], [39], [41], [22], [14], [15], [42], [18], [44], [17], [45], [19], [20], [36], [46], [23], [37], [50], [47], [21], [48], [49], [51], [24] 25 b [53], [57], [58], [59], [60], [61], [64], [55], [56], [66], [67] 11 Abstraction a [71], [22], [15], [42], [18], [44], [17], [19], [34], [46], [49], [51], [24] 13 b [57], [56], [66] 3 Logical thinking a [41], [43], [51] 3 b [62], [64], [55], [56], [66] 5 Modeling a [52], [14], [18], [44], [45], [46], [49] 7 b [61], [65], [66] 4 Debugging a [46], [51] 2 b [57], [62], [61] 3 Decomposition a [42], [17], [46], [49], [51], [24] 6 b [62], [56] 2 Generalization a [17], [51], [24] 3 Data a [52], [41], [14], [15], [44], [45], [34], [46], [37], [ ...
... As [12] point out, educators should not only promote coding skills and provide knowledge, but also collaboration and teamwork skills to deal with difficult problems which are too hard to be solved individually. [52], [38], [39], [41], [22], [14], [15], [42], [18], [44], [17], [45], [19], [20], [36], [46], [23], [37], [50], [47], [21], [48], [49], [51], [24] 25 b [53], [57], [58], [59], [60], [61], [64], [55], [56], [66], [67] 11 Abstraction a [71], [22], [15], [42], [18], [44], [17], [19], [34], [46], [49], [51], [24] 13 b [57], [56], [66] 3 Logical thinking a [41], [43], [51] 3 b [62], [64], [55], [56], [66] 5 Modeling a [52], [14], [18], [44], [45], [46], [49] 7 b [61], [65], [66] 4 Debugging a [46], [51] 2 b [57], [62], [61] 3 Decomposition a [42], [17], [46], [49], [51], [24] 6 b [62], [56] 2 Generalization a [17], [51], [24] 3 Data a [52], [41], [14], [15], [44], [45], [34], [46], [37], [ ...
Article
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Berpikir komputasional telah diakui sebagai suatu kebutuhan dalam menyelesaikan masalah yang kompleks. Beberapa penelitian telah dilakukan untuk memperkenalkan keterampilan ini ke semua tingkat pendidikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meninjau penelitian tentang berpikir komputasi pada tingkat sekolah menengah. Khususnya, penelitian ini mengkaji domain penelitian, mengidentifikasi metode-metode untuk memperkenalkan berpikir komputasional, serta konsep-konsep berpikir komputasional yang diajarkan kepada pelajar. Tinjauan literatur sistematik dilakukan untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: penelitian berpikir komputasional mencakup kajian teori, pengembangan kurikulum, pengukuran, dan pengembangan alat. Kajian teori ditujukan untuk memformulasikan konsep. Selain keterampilan teknis, soft-skills telah dinyatakan sebagai elemen berpikir komputasional. Namun, perhatian untuk melibatkan soft-skills dalam penelitian masih kurang. Sebagian besar penelitian difokuskan pada integrasi berpikir komptasional ke dalam kurikulum. Coding menjadi metode yang paling banyak digunakan untuk mengajarkan berpikir komputasional. Sehingga, algorithmic thinking dan abstraction muncul sebagai keterampilan yang paling sering diajarkan atau diukur. Akhirnya, penelitian ini menggarisbawahi adanya kesenjangan untuk dikaji lebih lanjut yaitu berkaitan dengan pengukuran keterampilan berpikir komputasional dan untuk menyertakan soft-skills pada penelitian berpikir komputasional. Kata Kunci—Berpikir komputasional, Sekolah menengah, Penyelesaian masalah
... • Algo.Rhythm [65] • Alice [7,16,29,60,73,82,109,115,116,117,118,119] • Ardublock [120] • Arduino [13,42,65,66] • Bebras [121,122] • Binary toy [123] • BingBee [124] • Blockly [63,71,125,126,127,128] • Bunny Bright [123] • CargoBot [129] • CHERP [15,24,103,104,130] • Code Bits [131] • CTArcade [132] • CTSiM [27,133,134,135] • CyberPLAYce [66] • DigitMile [136] • Dragon Architect [126] • Drawing Machine Model [37] • Entry [137] • Escape Machine [138,139] • Game Maker [140] • Greenfoot [97,101,113] • HTML [8,12,107,141,142,143,144,145,146,147,148] • Java [7,9,41,42,74,101,112,118,146,148,149] • Lego WeDo [24] • Lightbot [150] • Lilypad Arduino [63,120] • littleBits [130] • Logo [9,17,64,138,146,151] • Maple [152] • MATLAB [18,35,153] • Minecraft [42,126,143,154,155,156] • NetLogo [117,125,133,135,157,158,159] • Pyonkee [129] • Python [33,40,45,47,49,50,51,58,177,125] • RAPTOR [160] • RuBot [124] • Simulation Creation Toolkit [101,161] • STAGE [162] • SUMO [134] • The Incredible Machine [124] • VPython [16,39] Other papers found during the search that give brief overviews of some of the tools discussed here, as well as others, may add to the scope for those interested: [13,37,39,70,117,127,143,150,163]. ...
... Towhidnejad et al. [154,184] present some activities they have developed to introduce sixth to 12th grade students to CT concepts and "entice" them into recognising that they can understand computing and engineering topics. One way in which they do this is through introducing CT into topics which are not related to computing such as Chemistry and Physics. ...
Technical Report
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Computational Thinking (CT) has been described as an essential skill which everyone should learn and can therefore include in their skill set. Seymour Papert is credited as concretising Computational Thinking in 1980 but since Wing popularised the term in 2006 and brought it to the international community's attention, more and more research has been conducted on CT in education. The aim of this systematic literary review is to give educators and education researchers an overview of what work has been carried out in the domain, as well as potential gaps and opportunities that still exist. Overall it was found in this review that, although there is a lot of work currently being done around the world in many different educational contexts, the work relating to CT is still in its infancy. Along with the need to create an agreed-upon definition of CT lots of countries are still in the process of, or have not yet started, introducing CT into curriculums in all levels of education. It was also found that Computer Science/Computing, which could be the most obvious place to teach CT, has yet to become a mainstream subject in some countries, although this is improving. Of encouragement to educators is the wealth of tools and resources being developed to help teach CT as well as more and more work relating to curriculum development. For those teachers looking to incorporate CT into their schools or classes then there are bountiful options which include programming, hands-on exercises and more. The need for more detailed lesson plans and curriculum structure however, is something that could be of benefit to teachers.
... Studies have explored CT assessment at various level such as preschool, primary education, secondary education and so on. This is supported by several external studies that show that computational thinking can be applied to 4 to 6-year-old students as early as preschool (Bers, 2020;Bers et al., 2014;García-Valcárcel-Muñoz-Repiso & Caballero-González, 2019), students in primary school (Chalmers, 2018;Falloon, 2015;Yadav et al., 2011), secondary school students (Rode et al., 2015;Towhidnejad et al., 2014), university students (García-Peñalvo & Mendes, 2018), and even to teachers (Angeli et al., 2016;Mannila et al., 2014;Yadav et al., 2014). Researchers were unable to anticipate all of the challenges that might develop prior to execution as they were new to CT (Belanger et al., 2018). ...
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p style="text-align: justify;">Computational thinking (CT) is a method for solving complex problems, but also gives people an inventive inspiration to adapt to our smart and changing society. Globally it has been considered as vital abilities for solving genuine issues successfully and efficiently in the 21st century. Recent studies have revealed that the nurture of CT mainly centered on measuring the technical skill. There is a lack of conceptualization and instruments that cogitate on CT disposition and attitudes. This study attends to these limitations by developing an instrument to measure CT concerning dispositions and attitudes. The instruments' validity and reliability testing were performed with the participation from secondary school students in Malaysia. The internal consistency reliability, standardized residual variance, construct validity and composite reliability were examined. The result revealed that the instrument validity was confirmed after removing items. The reliability and validity of the instrument have been verified. The findings established that all constructs are useful for assessing the disposition of computer science students. The implications for psychometric assessment were evident in terms of giving empirical evidence to corroborate theory-based constructs and also validating items' quality to appropriately represent the measurement.</p
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It has been over a decade since Computational Thinking (CT) was proposed as essential problem-solving skills of the digital citizen. Since then, efforts have been conducted to bring CT skills into all educational level. This paper elaborates the review of CT studies in secondary education, particularly the upper level. This study considers the informal program, which is the after-school program, as CT skills promoting practices that lately grow. The informal program includes workshop, boot camp, and outreach program that teach CT using programming, game-based, unplugged, and classroom module. Subsequently, algorithm, logical thinking, abstraction, debugging, and problem decomposition, still come out as the most common skills passed on to the pupils. This fact indicates that questions for expanding new studies for fostering CT skills are open, specifically the ones that point out to non-cognitive skills.
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