Vital signs: Walking among adults - United States, 2005 and 2010

Article · August 2012with1 Reads
Background: Physical activity has numerous health benefits, including improving weight management. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (e.g., brisk walking) for substantial health benefits. Walking is the most commonly reported physical activity by U.S. adults. Methods: CDC used data from the 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys to assess changes in prevalence of walking (defined as walking for transportation or leisure in at least one bout of 10 minutes or more in the preceding 7 days) by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index category, walking assistance status, region, and physician-diagnosed chronic disease. CDC also assessed the association between walking and meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline. Results: Overall, walking prevalence increased significantly from 55.7% in 2005 to 62.0% in 2010. Significantly higher walking prevalence was observed in most demographic and health characteristic categories examined. In 2010, the adjusted odds ratio of meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline among walkers, compared with non-walkers, was 2.95 (95% confidence interval = 2.73-3.19). Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: To sustain increases in the prevalence of walking, communities can implement evidence-based strategies such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, or using design and land use policies and practices that emphasize mixed-use communities and pedestrian-friendly streets. The impact of these strategies on both walking and physical activity should be monitored systematically at the national, state, and local levels. Public health efforts to promote walking as a way to meet physical activity guidelines can help improve the health of U.S. residents.
    • "Physical activity has health benefits, including weight control and the lower risk of multiple health problems, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Walking is especially popular, with over half of adults in the U.S. reporting walking on the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (Berrigan et al., 2012). However, despite these benefits, few adults achieve sufficient levels of physical activity according to objective measures of physical activity (Troiano et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Rising health care use among older people presents a challenge to medical care. Physical activity (PA) is beneficial; however, it is unknown if initiating PA among the very old reduces health service use. We examined the effects of changing PA levels on emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization at ages 78 and 85. Methods: A representative sample (born 1920-1921) from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) were assessed at ages 78 and 85 for self-reported PA; ER visits and hospitalization; and social, functional, and medical domains. Results: We examined 896 and 1173 subjects at ages 78 and 85, respectively. ER usage at ages 78 and 85 respectively was lower among active subjects (15.8% vs 37.4%, P < .0001; 30.6% vs 50.8%, P < .0001), as was hospitalization (10.5% vs 16.7%, P < .05; 22.1% vs 37.8%, P < .0001). We adjusted for gender, education, loneliness, functional dependence, cognitive impairment, depression, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, neoplasm, renal disease, self-rated health, body mass index, and smoking. PA at age 78 was associated with a reduced likelihood of ER visits (odds ratio [OR] 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.89), but not hospitalization (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.54-2.42); at age 85 with a reduced likelihood for ER visits (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.99) and hospitalization (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98). Compared with subjects consistently active at ages 78 and 85, initiating PA between ages 78 and 85 resulted in similar lower likelihood of ER visits (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.23-1.56) and hospitalization (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.48-3.02); stopping PA and never being active between 78 and 85 were respectively associated with increased ER visits (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.88; OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.04-4.57) and hospitalization (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06-3.23; OR 2.01, 95% CI 0.92-4.4). Conclusions: Among the oldest old, not only continuing but also becoming physically active is associated with reduced health service use. Initiating PA among the very old should be encouraged.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if using physical activity (PA) mentors has any additional impact on daily steps of older adults participating in the Maine in Motion (MIM) program in the primary care setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a MIM only group (n=14) or a MIM+ mentor group (n=14). The Maine in Motion (MIM) intervention lasted 6 months with follow-up at 12 months. Average age of participants was 64±8.8 years and most participants had multiple chronic illnesses. At baseline, mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.2±5.1 and average daily steps were 4236±2266. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for steps, F(2.324,59.104)=4.168, p=0.015, but no main effects for group, F(1,25)=2.988, p=0.096 nor time by group interaction F(2.324,59.104)= 0.905, p=0.151. All participants significantly increased daily steps over the course of the intervention, with MIM+ participants maintaining increases at follow-up. No significant findings were found for BMI.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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