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Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Treated Imidazole Derivatives

Authors:
  • Trivedi Global, Inc

Abstract and Figures

Imidazole derivatives have attracted significant interests in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. Aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on two imidazole derivatives (i.e., imidazole and 2-methylimidazole) by various analytical methods. The biofield treatment was done by Mr. Trivedi on both the compounds and both control and treated samples of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole were characterized with respect to physical, and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallite size varied in a different way for imidazole and 2-methylimidazole due to the presence of methyl group in 2-c position although their core was same. Treated sample of imidazole showed a slight increase in crystallite size (6.5%); however, treated 2-methylimidazole showed a significant increase (166.68%) in crystallite size along with decrease in peak intensity as compared to control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of imidazole was increased up to 0.62% in treated sample as compared to control; whereas in treated 2-methylimidazole, the ΔH was decreased by 22% as compared to control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) from TGA of imidazole was remained same but 2-methylimidazole was increased by 1.5% as compared to control. FT-IR spectra showed slight change in stretching frequencies of treated imidazole and 2-methylimidazole as compared to control. Both the imidazole and 2-methylimidazole showed similar UV absorbance maxima as compared to respective control sample. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated imidazole was significantly increased up to 232.51% as compared to control, however, isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated 2-methylimidazole showed a minor change from -1.68 upto 1.68% as compared to control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on structural and thermal properties of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole.
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Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
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ISSN: 2329-6836 Natural Products Chemistry & Research
Trivedi et al., Nat Prod Chem Res 2015, 3:5
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Research Article Open Access
Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Treated Imidazole
Derivatives
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Gunin Saikia2 and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory
Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd.,
Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006; E-mail:
publication@trivedisrl.com
Received August 12, 2015; Accepted August 22, 2015; Published August 26, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical
and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole Derivatives. Nat Prod
Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Keywords: Imidazole; 2-methylimidazole; Bioeld treatment;
Fourier transform infrared; Dierential scanning calorimetry;
ermogravimetric analysis; X-ray diraction
Abbreviations
XRD: X-ray diraction; FT-IR: Fourier transform infrared; GC-
MS: Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry; UV-Vis: Ultraviolet-
visible spectroscopy; DSC: Dierential scanning calorimetry; TGA:
ermogravimetric analysis; PM: Primary molecule (m/z=68 for
imidazole, m/z=82 for 2methyl imidazole); PM+1: isotopic molecule
(m/z=69 for imidazole and m/z=83 for 2methylimidazole)
Introduction
Imidazole is a highly polar (dipole moment 3.61D) one of the ve-
membered nitrogen containing heterocyclic ring, which is soluble in
both organic and inorganic polar solvents. It is amphoteric in nature
and aromatic in character due to the presence of 6 𝜋-electrons. e
nitrogen attached with the hydrogen has a lone pair of electrons
bringing the required 6 𝜋-electrons for aromaticity. e hydrogen
atom can be located on either of the two nitrogen atoms due to
resonance structures of imidazole [1]. Synthetic chemistry based on
medicinal compounds concerned with the properties of the starting
building blocks, their development and evaluation of biological
activity. e biological activity of the compounds mainly depends upon
the starting material and mechanism is well-studied at the molecular
level [2]. e introduction of imidazole nucleus a conventional
pharmacophore in medicinal compounds have made it versatile
heterocyclic nucleus possessing wide range of biological activities.
Imidazole, the core of naturally occurring nucleotides, is responsible
for their numerous biological activities that allows them to interact
easily with the biopolymers of the living system and functions [3].
Substituted imidazole have good antibacterial activity which revealed
Abstract
Imidazole derivatives have attracted signicant interests in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic
chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. Aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of bioeld
treatment on two imidazole derivatives (i.e., imidazole and 2-methylimidazole) by various analytical methods. The
bioeld treatment was done by Mr. Trivedi on both the compounds and both control and treated samples of imidazole
and 2-methylimidazole were characterized with respect to physical, and structural properties using X-ray diffraction
(XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-
IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). X-ray diffraction
study revealed that crystallite size varied in a different way for imidazole and 2-methylimidazole due to the presence
of methyl group in 2-c position although their core was same. Treated sample of imidazole showed a slight increase
in crystallite size (6.5%); however, treated 2-methylimidazole showed a signicant increase (166.68%) in crystallite
size along with decrease in peak intensity as compared to control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of imidazole was
increased up to 0.62% in treated sample as compared to control; whereas in treated 2-methylimidazole, the ΔH
was decreased by 22% as compared to control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) from TGA of imidazole
was remained same but 2-methylimidazole was increased by 1.5% as compared to control. FT-IR spectra showed
slight change in stretching frequencies of treated imidazole and 2-methylimidazole as compared to control. Both the
imidazole and 2-methylimidazole showed similar UV absorbance maxima as compared to respective control sample.
GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated imidazole
was signicantly increased up to 232.51% as compared to control, however, isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or
15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated 2-methylimidazole showed a minor change from -1.68 upto 1.68% as compared
to control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that bioeld treatment has signicant effect on structural and
thermal properties of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole.
good inhibition against various tested microbial strains. Vijesh et al.
reported that some of the imidazole derivatives (3-aryl-1H-imidazole-
4-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazones) have excellent activity even better
than standard drug, i.e., streptomycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
and Clostridium perfringens [4]. Ucucu et al. had reported that synthetic
1-benzyl-2-substituted-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole derivative worked
well as analgesic on Swiss albino mice of both sexes. One of the
derivative of imidazole has shown responses very close to morphine
[5]. A newly synthesized compound, N-cyano substituted imidazole
derivatives has shown fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani,
at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. is compound has identied as the
most potent candidate with an EC50 of 2.63 µg/mL against Rhizoctonia
Solani [6]. Yang et al. has been reported that substitution of the
imidazolyl-3-position with a naphthylacyl or bromophenacyl group,
vital for modifying its cytotoxic activity [7].
e chemical or physical stability is the most anticipated quality of
a molecule to be used in pharmaceutical purposes. In order to increase
its shelf life and eectiveness there is a need to increase the stability
of the compound both chemically as well as physically. e stability
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole
Derivatives. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Page 2 of 8
TGA/DTG results were obtained by using Mettler Toledo
simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer at a heating rate of 5°C/min
from room temperature to 400°C under air atmosphere (sample mass
5-10 mg on aluminium pan).
Percent change in temperature at which maximum weight loss
occur in sample was calculated using following equation:
% change in Tmax=[(Tmax, treated − Tmax, control) / Tmax, control] × 100
Where, Tmax, control and Tmax, treated are temperature at which
maximum weight loss occurs in control and treated sample,
respectively.
FT-IR spectroscopic characterization
FT-IR spectra were acquired on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform
infrared spectrometer (Japan) with frequency range of 500-4000 cm-1.
e imidazole derivatives were run as pressed disks using KBr as the
diluent.
UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis
Photophysical properties were studied by Shimadzu UV-2400 PC
series spectrophotometer with 1 cm quartz cell and a slit width of 2.0
nm, wavelength was in the range of 200-400 nm.
GC-MS analysis
e Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis
was performed on Perkin Elmer/auto system XL with Turbo Mass,
USA, having detection limit up to 1 picogram. For GC-MS analysis
the treated samples were further divided into four parts as T1, T2, T3
and T4. e GC-MS data was obtained in the form of % abundance
vs. mass to charge ratio (m/z), which is known as mass spectrum.
e isotopic ratio of PM+1/PM was expressed by its deviation in
treated samples as compared to the control. e collective eect of
the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were
calculated from the following formula:
Percent change in isotopic abundance
Treated control
control
RR
100
R
= ×
.………………. (1)
Where, RTreated and RControl are the ratio of intensity of masses from
the mass spectrometry for treated and control samples respectively.
Results and Discussion
X-ray diraction studies
X-ray diraction study was conducted on both control and
treated samples of imidazole derivatives and their diractograms are
shown in Figure 1. As both the imidazole and 2-methyl imidazole
(control and treated) were crystalline in nature so they exhibited very
sharp and intense peaks (6000-30000 a.u.) in their respective X-ray
diractograms. e X-ray diractogram of control imidazole showed
peaks at 2θ equals to 12.89°, 19.14°, 20.31°, 20.74° 25.66°, 25.91° and 30.73°
whereas the X-ray diractogram of treated imidazole showed peaks at
2θ equals to 13.01°, 20.31°, 20.93°, 26.08°, 30.74°, and 30.87°. In control
sample of 2-methylimidazole, the X-ray diractogram showed peaks
at 2θ equals to 17.49°, 17.76°, 21.77°, 25.87° and 26.17° where the treated
2-methylimidazole showed peaks at 2θ equals to 17.34°, 17.59°, 17.80°,
21.19°, 25.88° and 26.16°. XRD studies showed that crystal structure of
imidazole was monoclinic and orthorhombic structure was found for
2-methylimidazole, which were well supported by reported literature
data [18].
could be enhanced by Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment which is already
known to alter the physical, and structural properties of various living
and non-living substances [8]. e bioeld is the electromagnetic eld
which surrounds the human body can be harnessed from the universe
and have applied on materials by experts in a controlled way to make
the changes [9,10]. is phenomenon is experimentally demonstrated
by researchers using medical technologies such as electromyography,
electrocardiographyand electroencephalogram [9]. Mr. Trivedi has the
ability to harness the energy from the universe and can transmit into
any object, living or nonliving things [11]. Mr. Trivedi’s unique bioeld
treatment is also known as e Trivedi Eect® which has been applied
in various research elds including microbiology [12], agriculture,
[13,14] and biotechnology [15]. e stability of the complexes with
both imidazole derivatives taken for this study depends mostly on the
substituent situated between the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole ring
[16]. Imidazole containing organic materials have better solubility
in common polar organic and inorganic solvents compared to other
heterocyclic moieties [17]. So in this study, Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld
treatment was applied to treat imidazole derivatives for evaluation of
their physical, thermal and spectral properties as compared to control.
Materials and Methods
Study design
Imidazole and 2-methylimidazole were procured from Lobachemie
Pvt. Ltd., India. Each compound was divided into two parts and
coded as control and treatment. e control samples were remained
as untreated and treatment samples were in sealed pack were handed
over to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld treatment in laboratory conditions.
Mr. Trivedi provided this treatment through his energy transmission
process to the treatment groups. e control and treated samples were
evaluated using various spectroscopic, thermal and physical techniques.
X-ray diraction (XRD) study
XRD analysis was carried out on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray
diractometer system, with radiation of wavelength 1.54056 Å. e
crystallite size (G) was calculated by using formula:
G=kλ/(bCosθ)
Here, λ is the wavelength of radiation, b is full width half maximum
(FWHM) of peaks and k is the equipment constant (=0.94). e average
value of G was taken for both control (Gc) and treated (Gt) samples to
calculate % change in crystallite size.
Percent change in crystallite size=[(Gt-Gc)/Gc] × 100
Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study
DSC data were obtained by using Perkin Elmer/Pyris-1, USA at
ow rate of 5 ml/min using closed aluminum pan. Melting temperature
and latent heat of fusion were obtained from the DSC curve.
Percent change in latent heat of fusion was calculated using
following equation
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
H H
% change in Latent heat of fusion 100
H
∆ −∆
= ×
Where, H Control and H Treated are the latent heat of fusion of control
and treated samples, respectively.
ermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ derivative thermogra-
vimetry (DTG)
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole
Derivatives. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Page 3 of 8
In case of imidazole crystallite size was increased to 6.5%, however
for 2-methylimidazole, crystallite size increased signicantly up to
166.68% (Table 1). It is presumed that bioeld energy may be absorbed
by the treated imidazole molecules which may lead to the formation
of crystalline long range pattern attributed to the high intensity of
the XRD peaks. It was reported in previous literature that thermal
annealing increase the crystallite size and thereby increase the intensity
of the peaks [19,20]. Aer bioeld treatment imidazole derivatives
may absorbed high energy which enhances the crystallite size of the
treated imidazole. e volume of unit cell of treated 2-methylimidazole
was increased from 485.83 × 10-24 cm3 to 497.32 × 10-24 cm3 as 2.37%
compared to control.
DSC analysis
e DSC analysis results of control and treated samples of
imidazole and its derivative are presented in Table 2. e latent heat
of fusion (H), was increased for imidazole molecule from 158.8 to
159.5 J/g whereas, H decreased from 137.2 J/g (control) to 106
J/g (treated) for 2-methylimidazole. ere may be bioeld energy
favoring a strong ‘C-H····N’ H-binding interaction of methyl hydrogen
in 2-methylimidazole. Higher melting point of 2-methylimidazole
compared to imidazole was attributed to stronger H-bonding
interactions via methyl ‘H’ atoms and ring ‘N’ atoms [21]. is result
cannot be seen in imidazole as the ‘methyl-H’ portion is absent in this
molecule. As a result, treated 2-methyl imidazole sample needed less
energy in the form of H to undergo the process of melting. However,
imidazole does not have methyl group and any changes in H have
not seen of melting for control and treated samples. e DSC result of
treated imidazole (90.19°C) did not show signicant change in melting
temperature as compared to control 89.86°C. However, melting point
of 2-methylimidazole was increased 147°C as compared to control
(145°C), i.e., change in 1.4% [22]. It is hypothised that bioeld energy
may be absorbed by 2-methylimidazole molecule which possibly
lowered the torsional strain exerted by the methyl-H atoms.
TGA/DTG analysis
TGA thermogram (Figure 2a) showed that treated imidazole
compound was less thermally stable than control sample. e onset
degradation temperature for imidazole was at 170°C for control
but 160°C for treated sample. e end-set degradation temperature
was observed at 250°C for control and 235°C for treated sample,
respectively. e decrease in thermal stability of imidazole to 6%
may have increased the reactivity which may contribute to the lesser
reaction time and temperature in production of imidazole derivatives.
But in case of 2-methylimidazole control sample (Figure 2b) started
degrading around 140°C (onset) and stopped at 245°C (end-set).
Besids this, treated 2-methylimidazole showed onset degradation
temperature at ~152°C and end-set around 240°C. It indicated that
onset temperature of treated 2-methylimidazole was increased by 8% as
compared to control (Figure 2b). Furthermore, in this process, control
2-methylimidazole sample lost ~97% and treated sample lost 74% of
its weight. DTG thermogram showed Tmax~192°C in control, whereas,
it was increased to ~195°C in treated 2-methylimidazole. ermal
stability of 2-methylimidazole from Tmax was increased by 1.5% as
compared to control. e increase in onset temperature, Tmax, and end-
set temperature of the treated samples of 2-methylimidazole can be
related to increase in thermal stability of treated molecule. e overall
increases in thermal stability of treated 2-methylimidazole might be
advantageous to be used as core moiety (pharmacophore) in medicine
and synthetic biopolymers.
UV-Vis spectroscopy
UV spectra of control and bioeld treated imidazole and 2-methyl
imidazole are shown in Figure 3. Imidazole derivatives absorb UV
light due to the presence of conjugated pi (π) bonding systems (π-π*
transition) and nonbonding electron system (n -π* transition). ere
are certain energy gaps between π-π* and n -π* orbitals. From the
above experiments, it was observed that negligible structural changes
occurred in treated samples as compared to control, which was not
suciently large to alter UV-Visible spectral properties in solution
state. Treated sample of imidazole (Figure 3) exhibited hypsochromic
eect (1 nm change) in absorbance maxima (λmax) at 207 nm compared
to control at 208 nm. Whereas, treated 2-methylimidazole exhibited
bathochromic shi at the absorbance maxima (λmax) 206 nm compared
to 205 nm for control.
FT-IR spectroscopic analysis
FTIR spectra of control and treated samples of imidazole and
2-methylimidazole are presented in (Figures 4a and 4b) respectively.
Secondary amine N-H stretching frequency was observed at 3018 cm-1
for control and 3020 cm-1 for treated sample of imidazole. IR spectra
of both control and treated imidazole sample showed C-N stretching
at 1448 cm-1 and out of plane NH2 bending at 659 cm-1. In case of
2-methylimidazole N-H stretching was seen at 3020 cm-1 (control)
and 3018 cm-1 (treated). ese data indicated that there was slight
changes in the hydrogen bonding environment in both treated and
control samples of both imidazole and 2-methylimidazole. e broad
absorption peaks were observed in the wavenumber ranges from 3400-
2600 cm-1 for both control and treated samples assigned to bonding
vibration of water molecules due to moisture absorption by samples
[23]. In the FT-IR spectrum of imidazole showed a minor changes in
the C-H stretching at 2791 cm-1 for control and 2794 cm-1 for treated
one. Whereas in case of 2-methylimidazole C-H stretching frequency
was observed at 2681 cm-1 for control and 2690 cm-1 for treated sample.
e N-H bending for imidazole was observed at 1541 cm-1 for both
control and treated samples, while in case of 2-methyl imidazole N-H
bending was observed at 1595 cm-1 for both control and treated. e
C-H deformation bends were assigned to the peaks at 1301 cm-1 in
and treated sample of 2-methylimidazole. e FT-IR results showed
little changes in other vibrational frequencies for the N-H and C-H
stretching frequencies, as well as bending vibration energies, which
lead to the changes in packing parameters of imidazole crystal aer
bioeld treatment validating the DSC and XRD results incorporated
here.
Figure 1: XRD diffractogram of control and treated samples of imidazole and
2-methylimidazole.
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole
Derivatives. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Page 4 of 8
Organic compound Imidazole 2-Methyl Imidazole
Crystal Structure Group Monoclinic Orthorhombic
Volume of unit cell
× 10-24 cm3
Control ˗485.83
Treatment ˗497.32
% Change in volume of unit cell Treatment ˗2.37
Crystallite size
‘G’ × 10-9 m
Control 85.83 52.33
Treatment 91.39 139.56
% change in ‘G’ Treatment 6.5 166.68
Table 1: XRD analysis of control and treated samples of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole. -: Not reported.
Figure 2 (a): TGA thermogram of control and treated imidazole.
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole
Derivatives. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Page 5 of 8
Figure 2 (b): TGA thermogram of control and treated 2-methylimidazole.
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole
Derivatives. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Page 6 of 8
Figure 3: UV spectra of control and treated samples of imidazole and
2-methylimidazole.
Figure 4 (a): FT-IR spectra of control and treated samples of imidazole.
Figure 4 (b): FT-IR spectra of control and treated samples of
2-methylimidazole.
Figure 5 (a): GC-MS spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) samples of
imidazole.
Figure 5 (b): GC-MS spectra of treated (T3 and T4) samples of imidazole.
Figure 5 (c): GC-MS spectra of control and treated (T1 and T2) samples
of 2-methylimidazole.
GC-MS spectrometry
e mass spectrum of control and treated samples of imidazole and
2-methylimidazole are shown in Figures 5a-5d. Treated samples were
divided into four parts (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and analyzed at dierent
times. Isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/
PM) in imidazole, determined using equation (1) is shown in Table 3.
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole
Derivatives. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
Page 7 of 8
Parameter Imidazole 2-methylimidazole
Latent heat of fusion ΔH (J/g) Control 158.8 137.2
Treatment 159.5 106.2
Melting point (ºC) Control 89.8 145.7
Treatment 90.2 147
Table 2: DSC analysis of control and treated samples of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole.
Molecular
formulae/name
Molecular mass Ratio of peak intensity
Observed (PM+1/PM)
% Change in (PM+1/PM) (Between control and treated)
C3H4N2
Imidazole
68 Control 4.86 -
T1 4.82 -0.82
T2 5.73 17.90
T3 6.23 28.19
T4 16.16 232.51
C4H6N2
2-methyl
imidazole
82 Control 5.37
T1 5.28 -1.68
T2 5.20 -3.17
T3 5.45 1.49
T4 5.46 1.68
Table 3: Analysis of isotopic abundance of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole using gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). PM: primary molecule (m/z=68 for
imidazole, m/z=82 for 2-methyl imidazole); PM+1: isotopic molecule (m/z=69 for imidazole and m/z=83 for 2-methylimidazole).
It showed that the isotopic ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/
PM) in imidazole was signicantly increased by 232.51% in sample T4,
while it was increased by only 1.68% in treated (T4) 2-methylimidazole
as compared to control. e bioeld treatment may have altered the
natural abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM)
of T4-imidazole from the control samples. Furthermore, it is assumed
that imidazole molecule with higher isotopic ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N
or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM), (T4), might have higher stability due to the
increased µ (reduced mass) and binding energy in molecules with
heavier isotopes. e heavier isotopes may form one of the following
bonds like 13C-12C, 13C-13C, 13C-14N, 12C-15N, 13C-2H, 15N-2H, and 13C-H
as compared to control. [24]. is higher binding energy may lead to
increase the heat of reaction for imidazole T4 and reverse might happen
in treated T1. us, GC-MS data suggested that bioeld treatment has
signicantly altered the isotopic ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H
(PM+1/PM) to 232.51%, in treated imidazole molecule whereas isotopic
ratio of PM+1/PM has remained same in treated 2-methylimidazole as
compared to control.
Conclusion
In summary, the bioeld treatment oers a remarkable means to
alter the properties of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole at molecular
level. Due to bioeld treatment on 2-methylimidazole, crystallite size
was signicantly increased up to 166.68% by means of increasing the
volume of unit cell in a crystal but imidazole has very small change
in crystallite size up to 6.5% in XRD study. GC-MS data revealed that
isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM)
of treated imidazole was signicantly changed 232.51% of T4 sample
as compared to control, however, treated 2-methylimidazole showed
a minor change (1.68%) as compared to control. It is assumed that
the enhancement in thermal stability of 2-methylimidazole could be
more useful as a building block in various pharmaceutical products and
biopolymers of pharmaceutical importance, which ultimately aect the
shelf-life and ecacy of drug. Moreover, the treated imidazole found to
be thermally less stable compared to control may be useful as reaction
intermediate for various chemical reactions or it can be converted to
2-substituted imidazole for better stability. Furthermore, due to high
isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM)
of treated (T4) imidazole, bond might have highly stable with higher
binding energy may lead to higher chemical stability than the control.
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to acknowledge the whole team of MGV Pharmacy
College, Nashik for providing the instrumental facility. We would also like to thank
Trivedi ScienceTM, Trivedi Master WellnessTM and Trivedi Testimonials for their
support during the work.
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Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000187
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015) Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole
Derivatives. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, et al. (2015)
Physical and Structural Characterization of Bioeld Treated Imidazole Derivatives.
Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 187. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187
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