Article

Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after Biofield Treatment

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  • Trivedi Global, Inc
Article

Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after Biofield Treatment

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Abstract

In recent years, prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has been noticed with high morbidity and mortality. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on MDR clinical lab isolates (LS) of P. aeruginosa. Five MDR clinical lab isolates (LS 22, LS 23, LS 38, LS 47, and LS 58) of P. aeruginosa were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated group were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment as compared with control group. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 60% alteration in sensitivity of tested antimicrobials in MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa after biofield treatment. MIC results showed an alteration in 42.85% tested antimicrobials out of twenty eight after biofield treatment in five isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa. Biochemical study showed a 48.48% change in tested biochemical reactions out of thirty three as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers was reported in three clinical lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa out of five, after biofield treatment as compared to respective control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7302 0052) in biofield treated LS 23, new organism was identified as Citrobacter freundii as compared to control (0206 3336). A very rare biotype number (7400 4263) was found in biofield treated LS 38, as compared to control (0206 3736). Study results suggest that biofield treatment on lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa has significant effect on the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number. Biofield treatment might prevent the emergence of absolute resistance pattern of useful antimicrobials against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa.

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... The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has been recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as a Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, pilates, rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy, and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) [25]. The Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been extensively studied with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as cancer research [26]; altered antimicrobial sensitivity of pathogenic microbes in microbiology [27][28][29], biotechnology [30,31], genetics [32,33]; altered structure of the atom in relation to the various metals, ceramics, polymers and chemicals materials science [34][35][36], altered physical and chemical properties of pharmaceuticals [37,38], nutraceuticals [39,40], organic compounds [41][42][43], and improved overall growth and yield of plants in agricultural science [44,45]. Herbal extracts and it's formulations despite of their outstanding in vitro results exhibited poor or negligible in vivo activity, because of their low lipid solubility or improper molecular size, causing in deprived absorption and thus poor bioavailability [1]. ...
... American Journal of BioScience 2017; 5(2): [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] ...
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... These CAM therapies have been widely utilized by most of the American population with advantages [16]. Mr. Trivedi's Blessing has the outstanding capability to alter the characteristic properties of the several non-living materials and living object(s), i.e., ceramic, metals, and organic compounds, microbes, crops, cancer cells [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26], etc. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has also altered the isotopic abundance ratio of the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds [27,28]. ...
... These CAM therapies have been accepted by most of the U.S.A. population with advantages [16]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has the astounding capability to alter the characteristic properties of the several non-living materials and living object(s), i.e., organic compounds [17,18], metals and ceramic [19,20], microbes [21,22], crops [23,24], etc. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has also enhanced the bioavailability [25,26] and isotopic abundance ratio [27,28] of the pharmaceutical compounds. ...
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... Such therapies have been well accepted by most of the U.S.A. population with advantages [20]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Treatment also reported with significant results altering the intrinsic properties of metals, organic compounds, ceramics, polymers, microbes, and cancer cell line; improved yield, productivity, and quality of crops, improved bioavailability of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds, and altered the isotopic abundance ratio ISSN: 2469-4185 [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
... These CAM therapies have been accepted by most of the U.S.A. people [24]. Similarly, the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has also been proved scientifically with outstanding performance in the fields of materials science, chemical science, agricultural science, microbiology, cancer research [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34], etc. Thus, the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment could be an economical approach to improve the physicochemical properties of metronidazole. ...
... National Institute of Health and National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine approved and comprised the energy therapy under complementary and Alternative Medicine category that has been accepted by most of the U.S. population [25,26]. The Trivedi Effect ® also been widely reported scientifically with astounding experimental data altering the characteristic properties of the several non-living and living objects i.e. metals and ceramics [27,28], organic compounds [29,30], nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals [31][32][33], microorganisms [34,35], and crops [36,37]. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® on the physicochemical properties of zinc using sophisticated analytical techniques. ...
... Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) recommend and included the Energy Therapy under Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) category, which has been accepted by most of the U.S. population with many advantages [12,13] . In this regards, the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) has been extensively reported with amazing results in the field of agriculture [14,15] , biotechnology [16,17] , microbiology [18,19] , medical science [20,21] , material science [22,23] , organic chemistry [24,25] , and nutraceutical/ pharmaceutical sciences [26,27] . ...
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Chromium TriOxide (CrO3) is an inorganic compound which has many industrial applications, but it is very hygroscopic, toxic and a powerful oxidizer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect® (Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment) on the physicochemical and thermal properties of CrO3 using modern analytical techniques. The CrO3 test sample was separated into two parts. One part of the test sample was called as a control sample (no Biofield Energy Treatment was provided), while the second part of chromium trioxide sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a well-known Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and termed as a treated sample. The powder XRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the treated CrO3 were significantly altered ranging from -63.06% to 357.95% and -41.82% to 420%, respectively; thus, the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 70.46% compared with the control sample. The particle size values of the treated CrO3 were significantly increased by 434.85% (d10), 17.61% (d50), and 19.72% {D(4,3)}, respectively; therefore, the specific surface area was significantly decreased by 80.56% compared with the control.The latent heat of fusion of the treated CrO3 was significantly increased by 33.18% compared with the control sample. The experimental results indicated that the Trivedi Effect® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might include a new polymorphic form of CrO3 which would show better powder flowability and lower solubility. It may lower the absorption, bioavailability and toxicity of CrO3 on inhalation, ingestion, chronic exposure, contact to skin and eye, and aggravation of pre-existing conditions. Along with the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 would be veryuseful to the manufacturing industry.
... On the other hand, the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) has gained popularity all over the world and reported with the substantial impact on the physicochemical and behavioural properties of metals, ceramics, polymer, organic compounds, microorganisms, cancer cells, crops, etc. [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. In this study the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cholecalciferol was evaluated using particle size analysis (PSA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG)/ thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). ...
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... The CAM has been accepted by most of the U.S. population [12,13]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment also gained huge achievements in different field of sciences which has been reported with amazing results, i.e., in agriculture [14,15], microbiology [16,17], biotechnology [18,19], organic chemistry [20,21], material science [22,23], medical science [20,21], and nutraceutical/pharmaceutical sciences [26,29]. Seeing the amazing results of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on various living and non-living object(s), this current study has been designed to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect ® on silver oxide using Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Particle Size Analysis (PSA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Analytical Techniques, and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/Differential Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTG). ...
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... The Biofield Energy Treatment is important for the overall improvement of the quality of life and various other health conditions [21,22]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has a significant impact on the characteristic properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers, organic compounds, microbes, cancer cells [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30], and also improve the yield of crops [31,32]. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of 6mercaptopurine using particle size analysis (PSA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis/ differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG). ...
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... Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been published in numerous peer-reviewed science journals due to its significant impacts in the science fields of biotechnology, genetics, cancer, microbiology, materials science, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals. These publications reported that Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has the significant capability to transform the physical, structural, chemical, thermal and behavioral properties of several pharmaceuticals [23,24], nutraceuticals [25,26], organic compounds [27][28][29][30], metals and ceramics in materials science [31][32][33], improve the overall productivity of crops [34,35], as well as modulate the efficacy of various living cells [36][37][38][39][40]. Although magnesium gluconate displays the highest bioavailability and moderate solubility in water in comparison to other magnesium salts, humans still face problems in achieving their daily requirements of magnesium [41]. ...
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... The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as a Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, pilates, rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) [17]. Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been extensively studied with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as agriculture [18][19][20], biotechnology [21][22][23], materials science [24][25][26][27][28], pharmaceutical sciences [29][30][31], medical science [32,33], and microbiology [34][35][36]. Literature demonstrated that Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) might be an alternative method for increasing or decreasing the natural isotopic abundance ratio of the substances [37,38]. The stable isotope ratio analysis has the wide applications in several scientific fields for understanding the isotope effects resulting from the variation of the isotopic composition of the molecule [39,40]. ...
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Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.
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Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been known for their extraordinary electrical and magnetic properties. In the present study, some transition metal oxides (Zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide) which are widely used in the fabrication of electronic devices were selected and subjected to biofield treatment. The atomic and crystal structures of TMOs were carefully studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. XRD analysis reveals that biofield treatment significantly changed the lattice strain in unit cells, crystallite sizes and densities in ceramics oxide powders. The computed molecular weight of the treated samples exhibited significant variation. FT-IR spectra indicated that biofield treatment has altered the metal-oxygen bond strength. Since biofield treatment significantly altered the crystallite size, lattice strain and bond strength, we postulate that electrical and magnetic properties in TMOs (transition metal oxides) can be modulated by biofield treatment.
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This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demons-trated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these pre-liminary results need further investigation.
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Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory - accredited by The College of American Pathologists Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 9 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 5 of 31 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy/treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
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Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for rainfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in Iowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and soybean yield and quality. Application of biofield treatment resulted in lower density of tall waterhemp density, greater soybean stand density at R8 stage and greater seed pod–1 compared to the absence of seed fungicide and biofield. Soil volumetric water content varied by seed fungicide x biofield x date interaction but differences were not consistent among treatment combinations. Overall, seed fungicide and biofield treatments had similar effects on soybean productivity, however additional research is necessary to determine if biofield treatment is a suitable replacement for seed fungicide application.
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Increasing rates of resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa in hospitalized patients constitute a major public health threat. We present a systematic review of the clinical and economic impact of this resistant pathogen. Studies indexed in MEDLINE and Cochrane databases between January 2000-February 2013, and reported all-cause mortality, length of stay, hospital costs, readmission, or recurrence in at least 20 hospitalized patients with laboratory confirmed resistant P. aeruginosa infection were included. We accepted individual study definitions of MDR, and assessed study methodological quality. The most common definition of MDR was resistance to more than one agent in three or more categories of antibiotics. Twenty-three studies (7,881 patients with susceptible P. aeruginosa, 1,653 with resistant P. aeruginosa, 559 with MDR P. aeruginosa, 387 non-infected patients without P. aeruginosa) were analyzed. A random effects model meta-analysis was feasible for the endpoint of all-cause in-hospital mortality. All-cause mortality was 34% (95% confidence interval (CI) 27% – 41%) in patients with any resistant P. aeruginosa compared to 22% (95% CI 14% – 29%) with susceptible P. aeruginosa. The meta-analysis demonstrated a > 2-fold increased risk of mortality with MDR P. aeruginosa (relative risk (RR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.53 – 3.57) and a 24% increased risk with resistant P. aeruginosa (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11 – 1.38), compared to susceptible P. aeruginosa. An adjusted meta-analysis of data from seven studies demonstrated a statistically non-significant increased risk of mortality in patients with any resistant P. aeruginosa (adjusted RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.98 – 1.57). All three studies that reported infection-related mortality found a statistically significantly increased risk in patients with MDR P. aeruginosa compared to those with susceptible P. aeruginosa. Across studies, hospital length of stay (LOS) was higher in patients with resistant and MDR P. aeruginosa infections, compared to susceptible P. aeruginosa and control patients. Limitations included heterogeneity in MDR definition, restriction to nosocomial infections, and potential confounding in analyses. Hospitalized patients with resistant and MDR P. aeruginosa infections appear to have increased all-cause mortality and LOS. The negative clinical and economic impact of these pathogens warrants in-depth evaluation of optimal infection prevention and stewardship strategies.
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Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are com-pared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, d50 and d99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. To be able to understand the reasons for these changes the powders are characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area determination (BET), thermal analytical techniques such as DTA–DTG, DSC–TGA and SDTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The treated powder samples exhibited remarkable changes in the powder characteristics at all structural levels starting from polycrystalline particles, through single crystal to atoms. The external energy had changed the lattice parameters of the unit cell which in turn changed the crystallite size and density. The lat-tice parameters are then used to compute the weight and effective nuclear charge of the atom which showed significant variation. It is speculated that the external energy is acting on the nucleus through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation or fracture of the weak interfaces such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.
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Screening of a transposon insertion mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for increased susceptibility to paromomycin identified a number of genes whose disruption enhanced susceptibility of this organism to multiple aminoglycosides, including tobramycin, amikacin, and gentamicin. These included genes associated with lipid biosynthesis or metabolism (lptA, faoA), phosphate uptake (pstB), and two-component regulators (amgRS, PA2797-PA2798) and a gene of unknown function (PA0392). Deletion mutants lacking these showed enhanced panaminoglycoside susceptibility that was reversed by the cloned genes, confirming their contribution to intrinsic panaminoglycoside resistance. None of these mutants showed increased aminoglycoside permeation of the cell envelope, indicating that increased susceptibility was not related to enhanced aminoglycoside uptake owing to a reduced envelope barrier function. Several mutants (pstB, faoA, PA0392, amgR) did, however, show increased cytoplasmic membrane depolarization relative to wild type following gentamicin exposure, consistent with the membranes of these mutants being more prone to perturbation, likely by gentamicin-generated mistranslated polypeptides. Mutants lacking any two of these resistance genes in various combinations invariably showed increased aminoglycoside susceptibility relative to single-deletion mutants, confirming their independent contribution to resistance and highlighting the complexity of the intrinsic aminoglycoside resistome in P. aeruginosa. Deletion of these genes also compromised the high-level panaminoglycoside resistance of clinical isolates, emphasizing their important contribution to acquired resistance.
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Objective: This study assessed the potential influence of biofield treatment on cultured human cancer cells and whether such influence was affected by varying the duration of the treatment (dose) or the distance between the biofield practitioner and the target cells. Design: Biofield treatment dosage was assessed from a short distance (0.25 meters) in three independent experiments involving 1, 2, or 5 treatments, along with another set of three independent and comparable mock experiments. Biofield treatment distance was assessed at 0.25, 25, and ∼ 2000 meters involving two treatments in three independent experiments along with another set of three mock experiments. Intervention: Biofield treatments were delivered by a highly acclaimed biofield practitioner with the intention of diminishing growth of the cells or inducing cancer-cell death. Outcome measure: Cell viability was quantified 20 hours after treatments, using a spectrophotometric assay for live-cell counting. The dependent measure for each experiment was the log ratio of the cell viability values of treated samples (biofield or mock) over the values of untreated control samples. Results: A trend of decreasing cell viability with increasing biofield dose was evident in the first set of experiments assessing dose-response; however, no such effect was evident in the second set of experiments evaluating biofield treatment distance. Mock experiments yielded relatively stable viability ratios in both sets of experiments. Linear regression analysis and hypothesis testing of the data taken as a whole did not yield statistical significance at p<0.05. Conclusions: These results represent the first indication of a biofield treatment dose-response in a controlled laboratory setting. The data are inconclusive because of the inability of reproduce the cellular response in a replicate experiment.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to a variety of antimicrobials and can develop resistance during anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy both of which compromise treatment of infections caused by this organism. Resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials (multidrug resistance) in particular is increasingly common in P. aeruginosa, with a number of reports of pan-resistant isolates treatable with a single agent, colistin. Acquired resistance in this organism is multifactorial and attributable to chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. Mutational changes impacting resistance include upregulation of multidrug efflux systems to promote antimicrobial expulsion, derepression of ampC, AmpC alterations that expand the enzyme's substrate specificity (i.e., extended-spectrum AmpC), alterations to outer membrane permeability to limit antimicrobial entry and alterations to antimicrobial targets. Acquired mechanisms contributing to resistance in P. aeruginosa include β-lactamases, notably the extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the carbapenemases that hydrolyze most β-lactams, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, and 16S rRNA methylases that provide high-level pan-aminoglycoside resistance. The organism's propensity to grow in vivo as antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms and the occurrence of hypermutator strains that yield antimicrobial resistant mutants at higher frequency also compromise anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy. With limited therapeutic options and increasing resistance will the untreatable P. aeruginosa infection soon be upon us?
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Nosocomial infections caused by this organism are often hard to treat because of both the intrinsic resistance of the species (it has constitutive expression of AmpC beta-lactamase and efflux pumps, combined with a low permeability of the outer membrane), and its remarkable ability to acquire further resistance mechanisms to multiple groups of antimicrobial agents, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. P. aeruginosa represents a phenomenon of bacterial resistance, since practically all known mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance can be seen in it: derepression of chromosomal AmpC cephalosporinase; production of plasmid or integron-mediated beta-lactamases from different molecular classes (carbenicillinases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases belonging to class A, class D oxacillinases and class B carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes); diminished outer membrane permeability (loss of OprD proteins); overexpression of active efflux systems with wide substrate profiles; synthesis of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (phosphoryltransferases, acetyltransferases and adenylyltransferases); and structural alterations of topoisomerases II and IV determining quinolone resistance. Worryingly, these mechanisms are often present simultaneously, thereby conferring multiresistant phenotypes. This review describes the known resistance mechanisms in P. aeruginosa to the most frequently administrated antipseudomonal antibiotics: beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones.
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Healing practices that use direct mental or spiritual techniques, such as prayer, ritual, dreamwork, imagery, direct mental intentions, and laying-on-of-hands, have been part of all known cultures from pre-history to the present. This paper critically summarizes selected research on spiritual healing, "energy" medicine, and intentionality (intentional mental effort) as an approach to illness, and makes recommendations for future research. Systematic reviews presented at the Science and Spiritual Healing conference held in Winston-Salem, North Carolina in October of 2000 are summarized. We address three questions: 1) Are the effects of healing "real" when assessed by high-quality, independently reproduced experiments? 2) How extensive are the effects of healing interventions? And 3) What clinical impact does healing have in "real-life" clinical situations? Finally, we discuss some possible next steps for research on healing. The full report to be published in book form consists of critical summaries of selected sets of research on healing and healing-related areas by experts, research recommendations for advancement of healing research, and a comprehensive bibliography of current publications on healing. This article is a summary of selected critical reviews only. Critical reviews were done in six areas: 1) Health impact of spiritual and religious practices 2) Intercessory or healing prayer 3) "Energy" healing approaches 4) Therapeutic qigong (Chinese energy healing) 5) Direct mental interaction with living systems 6) Mind-matter interaction studies Studies were evaluated with established quality criteria in scientific research. Each area was given an "evidence level" class A to F (A being the highest with at least three independent, high-quality studies and F being the lowest with expert opinion unsupported by high-quality research).
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A model for the functional and observable interrelation among the various components in a physical bioenergy system is presented. The analogy is made between electric circuits and electromagnetic interactions, and contact and noncontact bioenergy transfer. It is postulated that there exists some form of bioenergy that has the capacity to do work and that this energy behaves in a manner similar to electricity in that the physical concepts of electromotive force, current, and impedance have their equivalents in bioenergy. It is further postulated that these analogous components are related by an equivalent to Ohm's and other physical laws of electricity. This is extended to a conjecture that bioenergy healing is the transfer of information from a practitioner to a healee. Research guidelines for bioenergy measurements are presented, including basic measurement practices for electrical and electromagnetic systems through direct measurements and the use of indirect measurement experiments for detecting these or other forms of bioenergy transfer. The research guidelines are divided into 2 sections: those involving direct measurement of the physical electrical properties of a practitioner, in particular the difficulties associated with electrical measurements of extremely low-level signals outside of a Faraday shield or electromagnetic measurements outside of a radio frequency anechoic chamber; and those for conducting experiments in which the effects of bioenergy are being investigated on the healee or other target system without direct measurements of the means for bioenergy transfer.
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Global emergence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Due to its strong ability to acquire resistance, there is a need of some alternative treatment strategy. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two groups (Gr) i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr.II and III were given biofield treatment and were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system before and after treatment. Parameters studied in experiment were antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number of both control and treatment groups using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Experimental results showed antimicrobials such as cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and tobramycin showed altered sensitivity and MIC values in treated group as compared to control. Biochemical reactions showed positive reaction in malonate, melibiose, nitrate, galactosidase, ornithine, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, tobramycin and Voges-Proskauer in Gr.II. Arabinose, colistin, glucose, and rhaminose also showed positive reactions in Gr.II on day 10 while arginine and cetrimide showed negative reaction in Gr.III as compared to control. Biochemical tests results revealed a change in biotype number in Gr.II (34101173, day 5), (77103177, a very rare biotype on day 10) and Gr.III (40000043) as compared to control (02041722). Organism was identified as Enterobacter cloacae (GrII, day 10) and Vibrio fluvialis (Gr.III, day 10) with respect to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment made significant alteration in sensitivity pattern, MIC values, and biotype number of P. fluorescens.
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It’s not often that Metal Powder Report departs from the path of hard facts into the somewhat ‘mushier’ area of metaphysics, but opportunities crop up. While recognising that science has its fair share of charlatans, one such opportunity was presented by a paper submitted by an Indian researcher in which he details work aimed at probing the effects on powder samples where changes were apparently generated by thought. Some will laugh, others will cry, but perhaps among our readers there are those who might be able to help elucidate further the phenomena described…
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Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and is the leading cause of nosocomial infections especially among patients admitted to intensive care units. (ICU).It has been implicated in diverse nosocomial infections. In recent years, a considerable increase in the prevalence and multidrug resistance (MDR) P.aeruginosa has been noticed with high morbidity and mortality. So we aimed in the present study to determine the status of antimicrobial resistance to individual antipseudomonal agents and the magnitude of multidrug resistance in these organisms. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze and determine the distribution rate and antimicrobial resistance pattern in P.aeruginosa among clinical specimens for a period of 3 years. Methods: P.aeruginosa were isolated and identified by conventional methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The clinical and specimen distribution properties of P.aeruginosa were evaluated based on their resistance. Results: The isolation rate of P.aeruginosa in this study was 5%, 6.8% and 5% in 2008, 2009 and 2010 respectively. Pus, tracheal aspirates and urine were important sources of P.aeruginosa isolation in ICU and non ICU inpatients. Resistance rates of pseudomonas varied with the antibiotics and the high resistance observed was related to the increased use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Multidrug resistance P.aeruginosa is on the rise especially in nosocomial infections. Hence rigorous monitoring of MDR strains, restriction of inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents and adherence of infection control practices should be emphasized to delay the emergence of clinically significant MDR-P.aeruginosa Conclusion: To conclude, although multidrug resistance has commonly been reported in nosocomial P.aeruginosa, community acquired data are less frequently reported. For this reason epidemiological studies on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of resistant isolates in different geographical settings would provide useful information to guide clinicians in their choice of therapy and to contribute to the global picture of antimicrobial resistance. Rigorous monitoring of MDR in P.aeruginosa, restriction of the inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents and adherence of infection control practices should be emphasized to delay the emergence of clinically significant P.aeruginosa.
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Quantum mechanics was developed when human energies of consciousness were found to influence observations at the scale of elementary particles, here referred as non-contact biofield treatment or biofield energies. Quantum mechanics has also proved ef-ficacious in biological processes. The present experiments found an enhanced and significant impact of the biofield treatment on adaptive micropropagation response and callus induction of two plant species , Withania somnifera and Amaranthus dubius. The enhancement was perhaps due to greater focus on adaptation rather than specific mechanisms, showing high potential including at biochemical and genetic levels. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed and a possible model is presented, consistent with current scientific theory.
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Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.
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A new test method was devised for microbial gluconate oxidation, using an ammonium molybdate reagent. One loopful (about 2 mg wet wt.) of the test organism, grown on a nutrient agar plate for 18 hr, is transferred into 1 ml of the test liquid medium consisting of (NH4)2SO4 0.5 mg, potassium gluconate 10 mg, NaCl 5 mg, KH2PO4 2 mg, MgSO4·7H2O 0.1 mg, and 1 ml of distilled water, incubated at 37 C for 6 hr without shaking, and then mixed with 3 ml of 1% aqueous solution of ammonium molybdate and 0.2 ml of glacial acetic acid. The mixture is heated in boiling water for 5 min, followed by abrupt cooling with running water. A deep blue colour appears in a positive result. A total of 39 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed positive results by this method, whereas Aeromonas, Vibrio, Proteus group, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter A group were all negative. Though some strains of Enterobacter B group showed a weak blue colour, it could be easily differentiated from the deep blue colour of Pseudomonas. Longer incubation of test microbes in the test medium, and longer heating of the reaction mixture gave unsatisfactory results.
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It's not often that Metal Powder Report departs from the path of hard facts into the somewhat ‘mushier’ area of metaphysics, but opportunities crop up. While recognising that science has its fair share of charlatans, one such opportunity was presented by a paper submitted by an Indian researcher in which he details work aimed at probing the effects on powder samples where changes were apparently generated by thought. Some will laugh, others will cry, but perhaps among our readers there are those who might be able to help elucidate further the phenomena described…
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This study compared the Biomic automated well reader results to the MicroScan WalkAway results for reading MicroScan antimicrobial susceptibility and identification panels at four different sites. Routine fresh clinical isolates and quality control (QC) organisms were tested at each study site. A total of 46,176 MicroScan panel drug-organism combinations were read. The Biomic category agreement for 3,117 Gram-negative bacteria was 98.4%, with 1.4% minor and 0.2% major discrepancies. The Biomic category agreement for 5,233 Gram-positive bacteria was 98.7%, with 0.9% minor, 0.3% major, and 0.1% very major errors. Essential agreement, defined as Biomic results that were within ±1 2-fold dilution of the MicroScan results, was 99.3% for Gram-negative bacteria and 98.3% for Gram-positive bacteria. Biomic reading of MicroScan identification panels provided an overall agreement (first- and second-choice organism match) of 99.5% with 846 Gram-negative isolates and 99.5% with 430 Gram-positive isolates. These results suggest that the Biomic automated reader can provide accurate reading of MicroScan panels and has the capability of a visual panel read for manual adjustment of results.
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The development of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens has been progressive and relentless. Pathogens of particular concern include extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Classic agents used to treat these pathogens have become outdated. Of the few new drugs available, many have already become targets for bacterial mechanisms of resistance. This review describes the current approach to infections due to these resistant organisms and elaborates on the available treatment options.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are major nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Both are intrinsically resistant to many drugs and are able to become resistant to virtually any antimicrobial agent. An increasing prevalence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates has been reported in many countries. The resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii include the production of beta-lactamases, efflux pumps, and target-site or outer membrane modifications. Resistance to multiple drugs is usually the result of the combination of different mechanisms in a single isolate or the action of a single potent resistance mechanism. There are many challenges in the treatment of MDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, especially considering the absence of new antimicrobials in the drug-development pipeline. In this review, we present the major resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, and discuss how they can affect antimicrobial therapy, considering recent clinical, microbiological, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings of the main drugs used to treat MDR isolates.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile pathogen associated with a broad spectrum of infections in humans. In healthcare settings the bacterium is an important cause of infection in vulnerable individuals including those with burns or neutropenia or receiving intensive care. In these groups morbidity and mortality attributable to P. aeruginosa infection can be high. Management of infections is difficult as P. aeruginosa is inherently resistant to many antimicrobials. Furthermore, treatment is being rendered increasingly problematic due to the emergence and spread of resistance to the few agents that remain as therapeutic options. A notable recent development is the acquisition of carbapenemases by some strains of P. aeruginosa. Given these challenges, it would seem reasonable to identify strategies that would prevent acquisition of the bacterium by hospitalised patients. Environmental reservoirs of P. aeruginosa are readily identifiable, and there are numerous reports of outbreaks that have been attributed to an environmental source; however, the role of such sources in sporadic pseudomonal infection is less well understood. Nevertheless there is emerging evidence from prospective studies to suggest that environmental sources, especially water, may have significance in the epidemiology of sporadic P. aeruginosa infections in hospital settings, including intensive care units. A better understanding of the role of environmental reservoirs in pseudomonal infection will permit the development of new strategies and refinement of existing approaches to interrupt transmission from these sources to patients.
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Antimicrobial resistance among 1991 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected at 24 UK hospitals during late 1993 was surveyed. Three-hundred and seventy-two of the isolates were resistant, or had reduced susceptibility, to some or all of azlocillin, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, imipenem and meropenem, and the mechanisms underlying their behaviour were examined. Only 13 isolates produced secondary beta-lactamases: six possessed PSE-1 or PSE-4 enzymes and seven had novel OXA enzyme types. Those with PSE types were highly resistant to azlocillin and carbenicillin whereas those with OXA enzymes were less resistant to these penicillins. Chromosomal beta-lactamase derepression was demonstrated in 54 isolates, most of which were resistant to ceftazidime and azlocillin although susceptible to carbenicillin and carbapenems. beta-Lactamase-independent "intrinsic" resistance occurred in 277 isolates and is believed to reflect some combination of impermeability and efflux. Two forms were seen: the classical type, present in 195 isolates, gave carbenicillin resistance (MIC > 128 mg/L) and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and to all beta-lactam agents except imipenem; a novel variant, seen in 82 isolates, affected only azlocillin, ceftazidime and, to a small extent, meropenem. Resistance to imipenem was largely dissociated from that to other beta-lactam agents, and probably reflected loss of D2 porin, whereas resistance to meropenem was mostly associated with intrinsic resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. Comparison of the present results with those of a similar study in 1982 revealed significant increases in the proportions of isolates with intrinsic resistance or stable derepression (p < 0.01, chi 2 test).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Growing bodies of clinical experience and research suggest there are major benefits for patients, physicians, and CAM practitioners with the integration of energy medicine with conventional medical care. Conventional medical practice is excellent for infections, surgically correctable problems, hormonal dysfunctions, and some genetic defects. There are many illnesses for which conventional medicine can offer treatment, with medications and surgical interventions. Side effects of medications may be troublesome, and risks may include fatalities. Energy medicine interventions may complement conventional care and have minimal risks. Patients report high satisfaction with energy medicine interventions perhaps because CAM therapists often offer patients significant amounts of time to talk about their problems. Most energy medicine practitioners are not familiar with conventional medical diagnoses or research methodology. Conventional medical wisdom can inform and enhance energy medicine practice by encouraging further research. It is hoped that the future will bring more collaboration, greater acceptance of integrative care, and greater appreciation of energy medicine.
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A two-year prospective study of 554 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates was recovered from various clinical sources throughout Trinidad, and their resistance patterns to antipseudomonal antimicrobial agents were determined. Of the 554 P. aeruginosa isolates, 20.6% (114/554) were community isolates, 17.3% (96/554) from the intensive care unit (ICU), 10.1% (56/554) from the nursery, and the remaining 52% (288/554) were from other hospital inpatient services. Respiratory tract infections were the predominant source of P. aeruginosa isolates from the ICU--46.9% (45/96)--and nursery--21.4% (12/56), whereas wounds were the principal source of P. aeruginosa from the surgical services--77.0% (141/183). Community isolates of P. aeruginosa were predominantly from ear--100% (51/51)--and urinary tract infections--35.5%, (33/93). The overall prevalence of resistance was low for both hospital isolates (13.9%) and community isolates (3.8%). All community isolates were fully sensitive to four of the nine antimicrobials tested. Resistance rates among community strains ranged from 2.6% (ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime) to 12.3% for piperacillin. All isolates from hospital were fully sensitive to imipenem, but resistance rates for the other drugs ranged between 2.5% and 27.3%. The study showed that the overall resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa was relatively low. This is an encouraging observation but invites caution since resistance to the newly introduced drug, cefepime, has now emerged within the hospital environment and may present serious therapeutic problems within the near future. Policies governing the use of antimicrobials in many institutions are lacking. Such policies must be instituted in order to limit the spread of resistance and also to reduce the emergence of resistance to newly commissioned drugs within the country.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Severe infections, such as pneumonia or bacteraemia, are associated with high mortality rates and are often difficult to treat, as the repertoire of useful anti-pseudomonal agents is limited (some beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides, and the polymyxins as last-resort drugs); moreover, P. aeruginosa exhibits remarkable ability to acquire resistance to these agents. Acquired resistance arises by mutation or acquisition of exogenous resistance determinants and can be mediated by several mechanisms (degrading enzymes, reduced permeability, active efflux and target modification). Overall, resistance rates are on the increase, and may be different in different settings, so that surveillance of P. aeruginosa susceptibility is essential for the definition of empirical regimens. Multidrug resistance is frequent, and clinical isolates resistant to virtually all anti-pseudomonal agents are increasingly being reported. Monotherapy is usually recommended for uncomplicated urinary tract infections, while combination therapy is normally recommended for severe infections, such as bacteraemia and pneumonia, although, at least in some cases, the advantage of combination therapy remains a matter of debate. Antimicrobial use is a risk factor for P. aeruginosa resistance, especially with some agents (fluoroquinolones and carbapenems), and interventions based on antimicrobial rotation and restriction of certain agents can be useful to control the spread of resistance. Similar measures, together with the prudent use of antibiotics and compliance with infection control measures, are essential to preserve the efficacy of the currently available anti-pseudomonal agents, in view of the dearth, in the near future, of new options against multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains.
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We analyzed data from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System from 1986–2003 to determine the epidemiology of gram-negative bacilli in intensive care units (ICUs) for the most frequent types of hospital-acquired infection: pneumonia, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), and bloodstream infection (BSI). We analyzed >410,000 bacterial isolates associated with hospital-acquired infections in ICUs during 1986–2003. In 2003, gram-negative bacilli were associated with 23.8% of BSIs, 65.2% of pneumonia episodes, 33.8% of SSIs, and 71.1% of UTIs. The percentage of BSIs associated with gram-negative bacilli decreased from 33.2% in 1986 to 23.8% in 2003. The percentage of SSIs associated with gram-negative bacilli decreased from 56.5% in 1986 to 33.8% in 2003. The percentages pneumonia episodes and UTIs associated with gram-negative bacilli remained constant during the study period. The proportion of ICU pneumonia episodes associated with Acinetobacter species increased from 4% in 1986 to 7.0% in 2003 (P < .001, by the Cochran-Armitage χ2 test for trend). Significant increases in resistance rates were uniformly seen for selected antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Gram-negative bacilli are commonly associated with hospital-acquired infections in ICUs. The proportion of Acinetobacter species associated with ICU pneumonia increased from 4% in 1986 to 7.0% in 2003.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading gram-negative organisms associated with nosocomial infections. The increasing frequency of multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) strains is concerning as efficacious antimicrobial options are severely limited. By searching MEDLINE from January 1966-February 2005 and relevant journals for abstracts, we reviewed the frequency, risk factors, and patient outcomes of MDRPA nosocomial infections in critically ill patients, determined the available antimicrobial therapies, and then provided recommendations for clinicians. The definition of MDRPA was established as isolates intermediate or resistant to at least three drugs in the following classes: beta-lactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Reported rates of MDRPA varied from 0.6-32% according to geographic location and type of surveillance study. Risk factors for MDRPA infection included prolonged hospitalization, exposure to antimicrobial therapy, and immunocompromised states such as human immunodeficiency virus infection. Emergence of MDRPA isolates during therapy was reported in 27-72% of patients with initially susceptible P. aeruginosa isolates. Patients with severe MDRPA infections should be treated with combination therapy, consisting of an antipseudomonal beta-lactam with an aminoglycoside or fluoroquinolone rather than aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone combinations, to provide adequate therapy and improve patient outcomes. Synergy has been observed when resistant antipseudomonal drugs were combined in vitro against MDRPA with successful clinical application reported in two centers. Colistin with adjunctive therapy, such as a beta-lactam or rifampin, may be a useful agent in MDRPA when antimicrobial options are limited, but patients should be monitored closely for toxicities associated with this agent. Standardization of terminology for MDRPA isolates is needed for consistency and comparability of surveillance and institutional reports. Clinical studies are needed to identify risk factors for MDRPA development and to determine the economic impact of these infections, as well as to determine the most efficacious antimicrobial regimens and duration of therapy to maximize outcomes in the treatment of MDRPA infections.
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