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Apresentamos de forma condensada informações básicas sobre esses temas que a maioria dos mirmecólogos (as pessoas que estudam formigas) devem conhecer. Muita informação importante ficou de fora, mas esse viés foi proposital. Foi a única forma que encontramos para enfatizar as chaves de identificação e os gêneros de formigas da forma que merecem, mantendo o guia em um tamanho razoável. Discutir em profundidade a biologia, ecologia e evolução das formigas que ocorrem no Brasil, fatalmente terminaria em um livro com mais de 2.000 páginas, e a mesma informação está disponível em outros livros especializados. Porém, mesmo com o viés dado, esperamos que o guia seja útil também para graduandos, pós-graduandos e mesmo pesquisadores da área.
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... Para la identificación del material biológico se utilizó un estereomicroscopio NikonSMZ745 y LEICA S8APO, además mediante el uso de claves taxonómicas de Fernández [31], Baccaro [32], Fernández [6], Camacho [30] y las plataformas web AntCat [34] y AntWeb [35] se identificaron subfamilias y géneros de cada muestra colectada. ...
... Comparando la diversidad, las subfamilias prevalentes Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae y Dolichoderinae, son también las más ricas en géneros y morfoespecies, como ocurre comúnmente en los inventarios de hormigas de toda la Región Neotropical [6,22,31,32]. ...
... La prevalencia de algunos géneros, como Pheidole, Camponotus, Solenopsis, Neoponera, Crematogaster, y Odontomachus presentan siempre mayor abundancia local, diversidad, variedad de adaptaciones y mayor distribución geográfica en el Neotrópico [32,40,41]. ...
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Resumen: Los gradientes altitudinales generan cambios en las condiciones ambientales. Esto desencadena una especialización de las comunidades animales y la composición de especies en el espacio. Este trabajo analiza la distribución, riqueza y composición de grupos funcionales de hormigas utilizando tres diferentes hábitats (bosque, cultivo y pasto) a través de un gradiente de altitud del bosque húmedo tropical del Sur de Ecuador. Se tomaron muestras de hormigas desde los 924 hasta los 1.636 m.s.n.m., utilizando trampas pitfall y colecta manual. Se identificaron 153 morfoespecies de 42 géneros, clasificados en 11 grupos funcionales. Se utilizó un análisis de redundancia para comprobar la correlación del hábitat con la altura sobre la abundancia genérica. Además, se realizó un análisis de escalonamiento multidimensional no métrico (NMDS) con los grupos funcionales de las comunidades en diferentes hábitats y alturas. Los resultados indican que existe correlación positiva entre rangos intermedios y bajos, de géneros como Linepithema, Pheidole y Wasmannia. La composición de los grupos funcionales muestra que Mírmicas generalizadas, Depredadoras Generalistas hipogeas y Hormigas arborícolas que se alimentan de polen presentan mejor distribución en áreas de bosque y cultivo de plátano a 1.286 m.s.n.m. Se concluye que Wasmannia, un género neotropical de comportamiento agresivo y oportunista parece explotar eficientemente las áreas cultivadas, por lo cual su presencia suele indicar perturbaciones relacionadas con el hombre.
... The richness distribution between genera and subfamilies in APA Pandeiros follows the proportion expected for these groups of ants in Brazil, with Camponotus, Pheidole and Solenopsis belonging to the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, as the most recurrent (Baccaro et al., 2015). Despite efforts to identify challenging genera, these three still dominate the list of morphospecies in our checklist. ...
... The new distribution records revealed in APA Pandeiros belong to Camponotus, Pheidole and Strumigenys. These genera are highly diverse and taxonomically challenging, with many described (over 800 species) and undescribed species (Baccaro et al., 2015). In this sense, our checklist helps to fill gaps in species distribution. ...
... In addition, we highlight the species E. edentatum, from the subfamily Ectatomminae, also widely distributed in Brazil (see Baccaro et al., 2015;Delabie et al., 2015), as the most common species in studies carried out at APA Pandeiros. This species has reasonably deep nests in the ground, with trash disposal that favors better seed germination (Delabie et al., 2007). ...
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Habitat transformation and species loss bring enormous environmental damage, whereas establishing protected areas promotes more sustainable use of environmental resources through biodiversity conservation. In this study, we aimed to point out gaps in ant knowledge and provide a species checklist that contributes to biodiversity conservation in the transition areas between Cerrado and Caatinga biomes, constantly threatened by land use changes. This checklist integrates data from previous studies developed at “Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Pandeiros” (APA Pandeiros), Minas Gerais, Brazil, involving ant diversity and their contribution to ecological processes accessed and described in the studies. We showed and discussed how authors managed and provided information regarding methodologies and habitats sampled. We listed 143 ant species formally named. Pheidole, Camponotus and Cephalotes were the most speciose genera, with more than ten species each. Among ants involved in ecological processes, 40 are linked to diaspore removal (part of seed dispersal) and 30 to carcass interaction (part of the decomposition process). Unbaited pitfall traps, epigeic stratum and Cerrado sensu stricto, were the top sampling method, stratum, and habitats among ant studies. We presented proposals for the best management and integration of data from surveys in APA Pandeiros (e.g., sharing the results of the studies with the APA managers, creating a database, and the local community). These surveys are fundamental for understanding biodiversity and ecological processes and provide valuable information to conservation biology. Therefore, neglecting the importance of the Cerrado-Caatinga transition can lead to irreparable setbacks for scientific knowledge and biodiversity.
... Five minutes were spent collecting the ants that were in and around the baits. After the collection, the ants were taken to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA) Ant Ecology Laboratory, where they were sorted and identified to genus level according to Baccaro et al. (2015). This procedure was followed by morphospeciation according to the repository acronym of the Ant Ecology Laboratory. ...
... Indeed, the genus Dorymyrmex Mayr, 1866 was previously associated with disturbed areas and with little vegetation cover (CUEZZO; GUERRERO, 2012;ARCUSA, 2017), while there are no records for the other species (TABLE 1). Moreover, in the area, 2 the occupancy of some generalists genera such as Mycocepurus, Crematogaster, Ondontomachus, and Pachycondyla, indicates a recovery of the previous conditions of this habitat after four months of the disturbance, since these species need specifics resources such as fruits, nectar, carcasses, and seed arils to survive (BACCARO et al., 2015). In area 1, we had only one exclusive species, which could indicate this individual is not tolerant to the impact caused by fire. ...
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The Cerrado is the second largest biome in South America and due to its great species, richness, and environmental degradation, is considered a biodiversity hotspot. Fires in Cerrado can occur both naturally and through anthropic influence. However, due to the latter, the occurrence of fires has been increasingly frequent, as well as its impact on biotic communities. Ants' colonies are widely used in studies of environmental impacts because of their responsiveness to environmental changes and easiness for their data to be analyzed. Here, the structure of the ants' community in Cerrado environments at different areas post-fire times (two and four months, and a control area) in Itumirim, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated. Attractive baits were used as sampling methods, and found 48 species of ants belonging to 18 genera. Species richness was the same in all areas, showing that both two and four months after the fire occurrences seem to be enough to recover the ant population of these areas. Regarding ant composition, there were important differences, especially between the control area and the four months post-fire area. Moreover, vegetal biomass and vegetation covers only influenced ant composition. Here, it was found that species composition seems to be a better indicator of the responses of ant communities to post-fire effects, and can be used as a tool in monitoring programs.
... The ants found in basidiomata were stored in tubes with 70% alcohol. The keys of Fisher and Cover (2007) and Baccaro et al. (2015) were used for identification, as well as the data available on the AntWiki platform (http://www.antwiki.org/). Specimens were analyzed according to their macromorphological and micromorphological characteristics using the Olympus CH-2 optical microscope. ...
Article
Attini ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) have great diversity in exploiting food resources. However, little is known about the mycophagy involving Agaricales fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Moreover, these associations are of paramount importance in riparian zones, as the interaction among soil, fauna and flora is fundamental to the maintenance of these environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe cases of mycophagy between ants and fungi in order to understand how these associations occur in riparian zones. To this, collections were made between 2021-2022 in the valleys of the Rio Vacacaí, Rio dos Sinos and Rio Pardo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were analyzed for characters macro and microscopic and identified taxonomically. Mycophagy activities of six species of ants worker were cataloged, among them Acromyrmex niger, Acromyrmex versicolor, Tranopelta gilva, Tranopelta subterranea, Pheidole flavens and Mycetosoritis hartmanni, which included in their diet the mushrooms Agaricus rufoaurantiacus, Macrocybe titans, Agrocybe underwoodii, Dactylosporina steffenii, Lepiota micropholis and Neopaxillus echinospermus, respectively. The observed interactions demonstrate the dispersal of fungal spores through ant body structures, such as legs, antennae, thorax and abdomen; basidiomata as aliment source, such as pileus, lamellae and stipe; and generalized and specialized levels of predation on various fungi structures. Our results demonstrate unprecedented mycophagous relationships and show that Agaricales fungi can be considered a food source for Attini in riparian zones in Brazil south.
... The collected individuals were identified according to Palacio and Fernández (2003), Wilson and Hölldobler (2005), and Baccaro et al. (2015). The specimens were deposited in the reference collection of the Laboratório de Ecologia de Formigas at Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). ...
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Secondary diaspore removal on the ground is an important ecosystem process. In this process, solitary foraging ants with larger body sizes are more efficient because they may remove more diaspores, faster and carry them at greater distances. Therefore, we sought to test the effects of the sizes of the morphological traits of ants, removal strategy, and nest distance on secondary diaspore removal, testing hypotheses related to the efficiency of this process. We evaluated the removal of artificial diaspores by ants in 15 areas of Cerrado sensu stricto (tropical savanna), collecting data on diaspore removal strategy (solitary or group), nest distance, diaspore discovery time, diaspore removal time, and the number of diaspores removed. Larger ants tended to remove diaspores alone and remove diaspores faster than smaller ones. Ants that removed diaspores alone removed more diaspores than ants that removed diaspores in groups. However, we did not find a linear relationship between ant size and diaspore removal. This is likely due to a limitation on, or a preference by larger ants for removing larger diaspores, while the smaller diaspores may have hindered manipulation or been less attractive to larger ants. Thus, the removal strategy was the best predictor of efficient diaspore removal performance, where the solitary foraging ants discover and remove diaspores quickly and remove more diaspores, mainly from the closest nests to the sampling point. However, the benefits (or not) of removing more diaspores still need to be evaluated.
... ing toBaccaro et al., 2015 and with help of a taxonomist; Julio M.C.Chaul), and used only predatory ants for analyses. We built a generalized linear model with Poisson error distribution using predatory ant abundance (epigaeic and arboreal ants combined) as response variable, and fire treatment as explanatory variable. ...
Article
Biodiversity losses have increased in tropical forests due to fire‐related disturbances. As landscape fragmentation and climate change increase, fires will become more frequent and widespread across tropical rain forests worldwide, with important implications for forest dynamics by altering plant–animal interactions. Here we tested the hypothesis that recurrent fires in tropical rain forests change bottom‐up and top‐down forces controlling the abundance of insect herbivores, which in turn increases herbivory. To quantify herbivory, we collected 50 leaves per tree of five species in burned and unburned experimental plots (N = 75) in southeastern Amazonian forests. We measured leaf nitrogen content and leaf thickness of tree leaves as bottom‐up factors that could explain differences in herbivory; we measured predation pressure on model caterpillars and estimated the abundance of predatory ants as top‐down factors. We found higher herbivory in burned than in unburned forests, as well as lower predator attacks in caterpillar models and lower abundance of predatory ants. Leaf nitrogen content did not vary across treatments. Birds attacked model caterpillars more frequently in burned than in unburned forests, and leaf thickness was higher in burned forests, but these factors together were not enough to offset the higher herbivory in burned plots. Fire degrades tropical forests not only by killing trees and altering their structure and community dynamics, but also by reducing predatory arthropods and disrupting predator–prey interactions, which triggers increased herbivory. These indirect impacts of recurrent fires probably contribute to further alter forest structure, functioning, and to decrease regeneration in Amazonian forests. Abstract in Portuguese is available with online material. As perdas de biodiversidade aumentaram nas florestas tropicais devido a distúrbios relacionados ao fogo. À medida em que a fragmentação da paisagem e as mudanças climáticas aumentam, os incêndios se tornarão mais frequentes e difundidos nas florestas tropicais em todo o mundo, com importantes implicações para a dinâmica da floresta, e alterando as interações planta‐animal. Nós testamos a hipótese de que incêndios recorrentes em florestas tropicais mudam as forças base‐topo e topo‐base que controlam a abundância de insetos herbívoros, o que, por sua vez, aumenta a herbivoria. Para quantificar a herbivoria, nós coletamos 50 folhas por árvore de cinco espécies em parcelas experimentais queimadas e não queimadas (N = 75) em florestas do sudeste da Amazônia. Nós medimos o teor de nitrogênio nas folhas e a espessura das folhas das árvores como fatores base‐topo que poderiam explicar as diferenças na herbivoria; nós medimos a pressão de predação em lagartas modelo e estimamos a abundância de formigas predadoras como fatores topo‐base. Nós encontramos maior herbivoria em florestas queimadas do que em não queimadas, assim como menos ataques de predadores em modelos de lagartas e menor abundância de formigas predadoras. O teor de nitrogênio foliar não variou entre os tratamentos. As aves atacaram lagartas‐modelo com mais frequência em florestas queimadas do que em não queimadas, e a espessura das folhas foi maior em florestas queimadas, mas esses fatores juntos não foram suficientes para compensar a maior herbivoria nas áreas queimadas. O fogo degrada as florestas tropicais não apenas matando árvores e alterando sua estrutura e dinâmica da comunidade, mas também reduzindo artrópodes predadores e interrompendo as interações predador‐presa, o que desencadeia o aumento da herbivoria. Esses impactos indiretos de incêndios recorrentes provavelmente contribuem para alterar ainda mais a estrutura e o funcionamento da floresta, e para diminuir a regeneração nas florestas amazônicas. We investigated whether recurrent experimental fires in southeastern Amazonia increase herbivory in trees, and tested for underlying mechanisms. Leaf tree herbivory in our burned plots was 48% higher than in the unburned control. We observed substantial reductions of arthropod attack in model prey and in the abundance of predatory ants in the burned plots comparing to the control. Predation by birds and leaf thickness were not enough to offset overall herbivory in burned plots; we argue that a lower predation of insect herbivores by arthropods is a key mechanism driving the higher herbivory in burned forests.
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Ecosystem engineer species can affect the assembly and maintenance of biological communities by altering local environmental conditions. Several palm tree species play this role in changing the surrounding environment mainly through the fall of entire rachis and the formation of a thick and homogeneous leaf litter layer beneath the canopy. However, their impact on soil animal communities remains unclear. In particular, soil organisms (e.g. ants) can be negatively affected by palm-driven local changes, since they are especially susceptible to leaf litter changes. Our objective was to test if the presence of palm trees reduces alpha and beta diversities of ant communities at taxonomic and morphometric levels. We also tested if palm tree understory mound (debris pile just below the canopy) area and population density reduce ant community alpha and beta diversities (at the taxonomic and morphometric levels) in tropical rainforests. To do so, we described taxonomic and morphometric diversity patterns of ant communities in a relictual landscape of the Atlantic Rainforest (northeastern Brazil) using Hill's numbers approach in two habitats: understory mounds surrounding the palm tree species Acrocomia intumescens, and forest understory without A. intumescens (non-palm understory). Our main findings were: (1) Taxonomic and morphometric alpha diversity were similar between A. intumescens understory mound and non-palm understory; (2) Ant communities in non-palm understory presented higher beta diversity than communities from A. intumescens understory mounds considering both rare species and morphometric traits; (3) A. intumescens understory mound area negatively affected common and dominant ant species; and (4) the interaction between understory mound area and the population density of A. intumescens affected dominant ant species in complex ways and the outcomes depend on the balance between both predictors. Our findings point to an important role of palm trees as ecosystem engineers in reducing ant biodiversity and changing the functional signature of human-modified tropical rainforests. K E Y W O R D S beta diversity, human-modified tropical rainforest, morphometric diversity, palm tree hyperproliferation, taxonomic diversity
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The aim of this work was to prospect the termite fauna in four Agroforestry Systems (AFS) in Acre state, Brazil. A walk was carried out, in a demarcated area of 0 .5 ha, in each AFS, where termites of different varieties were collected. Seven species of termites have been identified: Coptotermes testaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Microcerotermes strunckii (Söerensen, 1884), Microcerotermes sp., Inquilinitermes sp., Armitermes sp., Nasutitermes sp. and Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1885) associated with fruit and forest species in Agroforestry Systems in the Southwest of the Brazilian Amazon, contributing to increase knowledge about the assemblage of termites present in the state of Acre.
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Despite the historical efforts to list and organize the taxonomic knowledge about the Brazilian ant fauna, the most diverse in the world, several gaps regarding species distribution data and sampling coverage persist. In an attempt to fill some of these gaps, we here apply a scientometric approach to provide an updated overview of the ants of Brazil based on formal publications on ant diversity in the Brazilian territory. In the last 50 years, ant diversity studies in Brazil revealed 1130 species, corresponding to around 70% of the species known to occur in the country. The Brazilian biomes with the highest number of described species recorded were, respectively, the Amazon Forest (716 species), Atlantic Forest (657 species), Cerrado (389 species), Caatinga (185 species), Pantanal (143 species), and Pampa (86 species). Considering the number and frequency of unidentified species, the genera Azteca, Hypoponera, Pheidole, and Solenopsis represent the main knowledge frontiers regarding taxonomic resolution, with more than 80% of their records associated with morphospecies codes in diversity studies in Brazil. Moreover, around 7.5% of the papers presented inconsistences in their species lists regarding the validity of taxonomic names, and we found studies for which some taxa records are geographically implausible. Besides demonstrating the importance of ecological publications to the ant diversity knowledge in Brazil, our findings highlight a strong sampling bias in ant occurrence data in the country, with species records unevenly distributed across Brazilian biomes. In short, our results constitute valuable information for future projects on ant taxonomy and surveying in Brazilian natural areas.
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The arboreal ant Azteca instabilis (F. Smith 1862) was found in flowers of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia baileyi (Rose ex Small) at a tropical dry forest. This is the first report of A. instabilis at Tamaulipas, expanding its distribution in the northern neotropics. The knowledge is important for further establishment of conservation strategies for ants and epiphytes.
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A remarkable new species in the ant genus Daceton, which has remained monotypic for 205 years, is described from Brazil and Peru. The new species, Daceton boltoni sp. nov., is similar to its sister species, D. armigerum, but differs from it mainly in the form of the pronotal lateral spines and in the pilosity of the first gastral segment. The taxonomic history and biology of the genus is reviewed.
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We describe a new genus, Gracilidris Wild & Cuezzo gen. nov., and a new species, G. pombero Wild and Cuezzo sp. nov., of dolichoderine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) from Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina based on the worker caste. These ants are morphologically similar to the extinct Gracilidris humilioides (Wilson 1985) comb. nov., known from a single Dominican amber fossil, that we redescribe and transfer to Gracilidris from Linepithema Mayr.
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A new myrmicine ant, Tropidomyrmex elianae gen. n. & sp. n., is described from southeastern and central Brazil, based on workers, ergatoid gynes, males and larvae. Tropidomyrmex workers are relatively small, monomorphic, characterized mainly by the feebly pigmented and extremely thin integument; subfalcate mandibles bearing a single apical tooth; palpal formula 1,2; clypeus relatively broad and convex; reduced compound eyes; propodeum unarmed and with a strongly medially depressed declivous face; double and bilobed well developed subpostpetiolar processes; and peculiarities in the sting apparatus. A colony fragment of T. elianae containing workers, ergatoid gynes, males, and brood was found inside a ground termite nest (Anoplotermes pacificus Apicotermitinae) in a montane rocky scrubland in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Tropidomyrmex elianae is known also from two workers collected in leaf litter samples processed with a Winkler extractor, from the state of Tocantins, central-north Brazil. Despite the differences from the accepted solenopsidine genera, Tropidomyrmex is tentatively assigned to this tribe. Within the solenopsidine ants, the genus is apparently related to Tranopelta. Tropidomyrmex is marked by extreme reductions, perhaps reflecting adaptations to particular habits and habitats.