BookPDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Apresentamos de forma condensada informações básicas sobre esses temas que a maioria dos mirmecólogos (as pessoas que estudam formigas) devem conhecer. Muita informação importante ficou de fora, mas esse viés foi proposital. Foi a única forma que encontramos para enfatizar as chaves de identificação e os gêneros de formigas da forma que merecem, mantendo o guia em um tamanho razoável. Discutir em profundidade a biologia, ecologia e evolução das formigas que ocorrem no Brasil, fatalmente terminaria em um livro com mais de 2.000 páginas, e a mesma informação está disponível em outros livros especializados. Porém, mesmo com o viés dado, esperamos que o guia seja útil também para graduandos, pós-graduandos e mesmo pesquisadores da área.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... As formigas capturadas por meio das iscas foram sacrificadas por congelamento em freezer (-20ºC). As diferentes amostras foram submetidas à triagem, contagem de abundância e identificação dos espécimes com base nas suas características morfológicas e, para tal, foram utilizadas chaves de classificação taxonômica de formicídeos (Baccaro, 2015) e banco de imagens de espécimes de referência (AntWeb, 2021). O processo de identificação foi realizado até o nível de gênero e, quando possível, até o nível de espécie. ...
... Os resultados também foram similares aos de um estudo realizado em uma área de transição entre o Cerrado e a Caatinga, onde foram encontradas 31 espécies de 14 gêneros e cinco subfamílias (Miranda et al., 2022). Contudo, em outro estudo realizado em uma área de transição entre esses mesmos biomas, foi observado um padrão de riqueza muito superior, com 137 espécies de 35 gêneros e nove subfamílias (Neves et al., 2013 (Nickerson & Barbara, 2003) que possui um comportamento de forrageamento oportunista e ninhos temporários que podem mudar de acordo com as perturbações (Baccaro, 2015). No ambiente de vegetação herbácea, a subfamilia Myrmicinae foi a que apresentou a maior abundância relativa (94,86%), seguida das subfamílias Dolichoderinae (2,82%), ...
... Esse gênero possui uma distribuição mundial e um comportamento generalista, podendo ser encontrado em ambientes florestais, campestres e urbanos (Baccaro, 2015), formando super colônias (Helanterä, 2022) e já foi associada a danos às folhas e ao tronco da espécie Schizolobium amazonicum (Vogel, 1837) condição que se reflete em prejuízos comerciais (Lunz et al., 2009 Research, Society andDevelopment, v. 11, n. 5, e51811528732, 2021 (CC BY 4.0) | ISSN 2525-3409 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i5.28732 8 apresentou grande similaridade com o transecto MT4. ...
Article
Full-text available
Estudos de monitoramento da biodiversidade no Brasil são escassos, em especial aqueles relacionados às comunidades de formigas da região Nordeste. Tendo em vista essa carência, duas áreas distintas de um fragmento de vegetação urbana, próximas ao Parque Estadual Botânico do Ceará, foram avaliadas para verificar a hipótese de que as comunidades possuem distinções de riqueza, diversidade, dissimilaridade e equitabilidade de espécies. A primeira área de coleta era formada por uma Mata de Tabuleiro e a segunda por uma vegetação herbácea. Um total de 50 pontos de coleta, por ambiente, foram distribuídos ao longo de cinco transectos. Em cada ponto foram utilizados três métodos de coleta (pitfall trapping, iscas de mel e iscas de sardinha). Um total de 37 espécies de 24 gêneros e sete subfamílias foram identificados. A riqueza dos ambientes se mostrou similar, apesar de uma nítida diferença na composição e na heterogeneidade das comunidades. A heterogeneidade da área de vegetação herbácea foi influenciada pela temperatura. Os índices de diversidade e equitabilidade das comunidades revelaram baixa biodiversidade e uniformidade na distribuição da abundância relativa das espécies. Três espécies apresentaram alta abundância relativa: Paratrechina longicornis (85,39%), Solenopsis saevissima (63,05%) e Pheidole biconstricta (18,95%). Foi observada uma baixa proporção de espécies generalistas (8,1%), raras (35,1%) e especialistas (Mata de Tabuleiro: 27% e Herbácea: 29,7%), indicando a ocorrência de um forte desequilíbrio ambiental nas regiões.
... Five minutes were spent collecting the ants that were in and around the baits. After the collection, the ants were taken to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA) Ant Ecology Laboratory, where they were sorted and identified to genus level according to Baccaro et al. (2015). This procedure was followed by morphospeciation according to the repository acronym of the Ant Ecology Laboratory. ...
... Indeed, the genus Dorymyrmex Mayr, 1866 was previously associated with disturbed areas and with little vegetation cover (CUEZZO; GUERRERO, 2012;ARCUSA, 2017), while there are no records for the other species (TABLE 1). Moreover, in the area, 2 the occupancy of some generalists genera such as Mycocepurus, Crematogaster, Ondontomachus, and Pachycondyla, indicates a recovery of the previous conditions of this habitat after four months of the disturbance, since these species need specifics resources such as fruits, nectar, carcasses, and seed arils to survive (BACCARO et al., 2015). In area 1, we had only one exclusive species, which could indicate this individual is not tolerant to the impact caused by fire. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Cerrado is the second largest biome in South America and due to its great species, richness, and environmental degradation, is considered a biodiversity hotspot. Fires in Cerrado can occur both naturally and through anthropic influence. However, due to the latter, the occurrence of fires has been increasingly frequent, as well as its impact on biotic communities. Ants' colonies are widely used in studies of environmental impacts because of their responsiveness to environmental changes and easiness for their data to be analyzed. Here, the structure of the ants' community in Cerrado environments at different areas post-fire times (two and four months, and a control area) in Itumirim, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated. Attractive baits were used as sampling methods, and found 48 species of ants belonging to 18 genera. Species richness was the same in all areas, showing that both two and four months after the fire occurrences seem to be enough to recover the ant population of these areas. Regarding ant composition, there were important differences, especially between the control area and the four months post-fire area. Moreover, vegetal biomass and vegetation covers only influenced ant composition. Here, it was found that species composition seems to be a better indicator of the responses of ant communities to post-fire effects, and can be used as a tool in monitoring programs.
... Five minutes were spent collecting the ants that were in and around the baits. After the collection, the ants were taken to the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA) Ant Ecology Laboratory, where they were sorted and identified to genus level according to Baccaro et al. (2015). This procedure was followed by morphospeciation according to the repository acronym of the Ant Ecology Laboratory. ...
... Indeed, the genus Dorymyrmex Mayr, 1866 was previously associated with disturbed areas and with little vegetation cover (CUEZZO; GUERRERO, 2012;ARCUSA, 2017), while there are no records for the other species (TABLE 1). Moreover, in the area, 2 the occupancy of some generalists genera such as Mycocepurus, Crematogaster, Ondontomachus, and Pachycondyla, indicates a recovery of the previous conditions of this habitat after four months of the disturbance, since these species need specifics resources such as fruits, nectar, carcasses, and seed arils to survive (BACCARO et al., 2015). In area 1, we had only one exclusive species, which could indicate this individual is not tolerant to the impact caused by fire. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Cerrado is the second largest biome in South America and due to its great species, richness, and environmental degradation, is considered a biodiversity hotspot. Fires in Cerrado can occur both naturally and through anthropic influence. However, due to the latter, the occurrence of fires has been increasingly frequent, as well as its impact on biotic communities. Ants' colonies are widely used in studies of environmental impacts because of their responsiveness to environmental changes and easiness for their data to be analyzed. Here, the structure of the ants' community in Cerrado environments at different areas post-fire times (two and four months, and a control area) in Itumirim, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated. Attractive baits were used as sampling methods, and found 48 species of ants belonging to 18 genera. Species richness was the same in all areas, showing that both two and four months after the fire occurrences seem to be enough to recover the ant population of these areas. Regarding ant composition, there were important differences, especially between the control area and the four months post-fire area. Moreover, vegetal biomass and vegetation covers only influenced ant composition. Here, it was found that species composition seems to be a better indicator of the responses of ant communities to post-fire effects, and can be used as a tool in monitoring programs.
... Azteca chartifex Emery, 1896 (Formicidade: Dolichoderinae) is a territorial, dominant, and polydomic ant that belongs to a strictly neotropical group of arboreal ants (Longino, 2007). The nests of A. chartifex are structurally based on cellulose and processed fibers (i.e., carton nest), and may contain up to a million individuals (Baccaro et al., 2015;9 Wheeler, 1986). Azteca chartifex has a non-obligatory mutual association with B. sericea, establishing the main nest pending in its trunk and numerous smaller satellite nests distributed along the branches. ...
... For this, in each tree we randomly selected three branches and performed 10 beats per branch with a beating stick (selected branches had approximately the same number of leaves) in order to dislodge the associated ants onto a tray placed beneath. Ants were identified with the aid of taxonomic keys (Baccaro et al., 2015) and comparing specimens with the collection of the We collected the leaves to estimate herbivory level (phase III) with the guidance of a 0.027 m 3 wire-framed cube (Appendix A: Fig. 1) positioned at three distinct points inside the crowns (adapted from Ribeiro & Basset, 2007;Shaw, Ernest, Rinker & Lowman, 2006). This methodology aims to guarantee a real random leaf sampling. ...
Article
Tropical tree-climbing lianas form paths that benefit foraging of dominant ants which might protect the host tree against herbivores. In contrast, lianas are often associated with negative effects on growth and reproduction of host trees due to light obstruction, structural stress and other negative effects. It is unclear if dominant ants could mitigate the negative effects of lianas on host plants. We investigated how lianas and carton nest ants (Azteca chartifex) affected herbivory and reproductive structures of the host tree Byrsonima sericea. Considering 68 trees, almost half of them were naturally colonized by A. chartifex nests (32 trees). We removed lianas from half of the trees (34), establishing a factorial sampling design between A. chartifex and liana presence. We sampled ants and leaf herbivory before and after removing lianas, and measured plant fitness in two consecutive years after removing lianas. Liana removal had no effect on A. chartifex foraging and on leaf herbivory and flower-fruit conversion of host plants. However, A. chartifex decreased leaf herbivory and increased B. sericea flower-fruit conversion irrespective of lianas presence. A noticeable positive effect of ants was detected only in the second year of the experiment, consistently on all plants at each experimental level. The reproductive conditions of the first year resulted in most plants with more than 75% flower-to-fruit conversion success, regardless of the present of A. chartifex, a success sustained only on those ant-colonized plants in the second year. Our results contribute to understanding multi-trophic interactions in tropical forest canopies as we demonstrated i) that dominant arboreal ants can benefit plants even in a non-obligatory interaction and ii) that the influence of lianas on its host tree is context-dependent, presenting even neutral effects depending on habitat type and species involved.
... Diversidad: Se identificaron los ejemplares recolectados de formícidos obreras y se usó una clave taxonómica especializada hasta llegar a morfoespecie (BACCARO et al., 2015). Un GPS (marca Garmin, modelo Monterra) fue usado para la toma de coordenadas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Las hormigas presentan una gran diversidad en diferentes ecosistemas del Neotrópico. Se evaluó la diversidad y morfometría de los formícidos (Insecta: Hymenoptera) del Fundo San José, provincia de Chanchamayo, región de Junín, Perú. La recolección se realizó en época lluviosa del 2017. Se colocaron 40 trampas de suelo en el bosque secundario de Fundo a 24 h de exposición. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de trampas: pitfall, necrotrampa, coprotrampa y carpotrampa, de las cuales solo pitfall y necrotrampa recolectaron hormigas. Las muestras recolectadas se identificaron a nivel de morfoespecies utilizando claves taxonómicas especializadas. Se tomaron 18 variables individuales y tres índices proporcionales para cada una de las morfoespecies de formícidos. Se obtuvieron un total de 330 individuos y 26 morfoespecies. Las cuatro especies dominantes fueron: Ochetomyrmex cf. neopolitus, Dolichoderus cf. ghilianii, Crematogaster sp1, A. sexdens, Pheidole sp3 y Neoponera verenae. La trampa pitfall presentó la mayor riqueza de especies en comparación a la necrotrampa. En cuanto a la morfometría, Pachycondyla crassinoda presentó el mayor tamaño, cuya medida fue 10,4 mm, y la más nimia fue Solenopsis sp1, cuya medida fue de 0,09 mm. Se observó una característica particular en dos morfoespecies al evaluar el mesosoma en Gnamptogenys sp2, presenta el mesosoma más grande que P. crassinoda, el cual no es proporcional al cuerpo. La mayor parte de su cuerpo está presente en el mesosoma y en P. crassinoda la mayor parte de su cuerpo está presente en el gaster. Los índices de similitud, arrojaron niveles bajos de morfoespecies de formícidos compartidos entre trampas. El índice frontal presentó un mayor grado de variación entre el valor mínimo y máximo en las 26 morfoespecies en comparación a los otros dos índices proporcionales. La diversidad es alta y la morfometría es variable de los formícidos existentes en el Fundo San José, Chanchamayo, región Junín, Perú.
... Ants were first divided into subfamilies and genera following Baccaro et al. (2015) and then sorted into species and morphospecies according to Suguituru et al. (2015). Species were classified according to their resource exploitation habits (diet). ...
Article
In this study, we compared the richness of ground-dwelling ants among three different sugarcane management systems (with the application of the insecticide fipronil and the addition of vinasse; with fipronil and no vinasse; and with vinasse and no fipronil, i.e., an organic production system) to evaluate whether the feeding/foraging types vary according to the management system. We tested the hypothesis that organic management increases species diversity because there is no use of chemical inputs. Estimated species richness was significantly higher in the organic management system than in the systems that used fipronil with vinasse. Generalists species were prevalent in all sugarcane fields, regardless of the production system, whereas predatory and fungivorous species were infrequent. However, the organically managed field had many predatory species. Our results suggest that fipronil with vinasse in sugarcane cultivation alters the ant community, possibly disrupting the functions performed by the edaphic fauna, such as control of arthropod crop pests, due to reduced predator species richness.
... Invertebrates collected in samples were taken to the laboratory and processed. They were identified up to the lowest taxonomical level with the aid of specific identification keys; i.e., for Formicidae, we used Baccaro et al. (2015), and for the other groups, we used Triplehorn and Johnson (2011). We excluded from the analyses aquatic stages of macroinvertebrates species (e.g., Odonata) occasionally registered as our focus was on terrestrial allochthonous invertebrate prey. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ecotones between tropical forests and lakes compose an ecosystem interconnection with a high abundance of terrestrial invertebrates, which represent an outstanding resource for the aquatic fauna. However, there is still little quantitative information on tropical forest contribution in terms of invertebrate inputs into lacustrine systems and the factors controlling this flux. To quantify the terrestrial invertebrate contribution into tropical lakes, we selected six lakes located in the Atlantic rainforest, south‐eastern Brazil, and used pan traps placed in the lakeshore. We focused on total abundance, biomass, and richness of insect orders. To assess the influence of forest and lake morphometry on terrestrial invertebrate inputs into lakes, we measured the forest–lake distance and considered the morphometric characteristics of each lake. Distance from forest negatively affected the invertebrate biomass reaching the lakes. The dissimilarity across different ecotones also increased with distance from the forest. Perimeter‐to‐area ratio negatively affected the invertebrate abundance, suggesting that more dendritic lakes receive more invertebrates from the forest. We estimated that annually, on average 21 tons of terrestrial invertebrates fall into the studied lakes, representing a massive food resource for the aquatic ecosystem. Hence, if the distance from the forest increases due, for instance, to severe drought or deforestation, it will create an herbaceous environment unable to provide such a quantity of insects to the water ecosystems, compromising aquatic and terrestrial trophic webs dynamics.
... We subsequently stored the acquired material in 96% ethanol for screening, sorting and ant identification in the laboratory. We identified ants to genus level following Baccaro, Feitosa, Fernandes, & Solar, 2015 and to species by comparison with specimens of the Laborat orio de Ecologia de Insetos reference collection at the Universidade Federal do Acre, Brazil. Specimens not identified to species level were separated into morpho-species based on morphology and later identified by Brazilian ant taxonomists from Universidade Federal do Paran a (see Acknowledgements). ...
Article
Habitat change affects both taxonomic and functional biodiversity, and beta-diversity is often used as a metric to describe these changes. Furthermore, spatially closer communities tend to have more similar species compositions (lower beta-diversity). These changes in community composition can be revealed with taxonomic and functional aspects of diversity. We assessed the responses of ant taxonomic and functional beta-diversity to changes in forest cover and spatial distance. We expected that changes in taxonomic and functional beta-diversity along a forest cover gradient would be caused by the replacement of open-habitat ant species by forest-habitat ant species. We sampled ants within twelve landscapes with different forest cover percentages in the southwestern Amazon of Brazil. Both taxonomic and functional beta-diversity of pairwise samples (βBC) were partitioned into their turnover (βBal) and nestedness (βGra) components. Increasing forest cover correlated with increases in taxonomic and functional βBC, however, βBal had a greater contribution to taxonomic βBC and βGra to functional βBC. Taxonomic βBC and βBal and functional βBal increased with spatial distance. Forest-habitat species richness increased, and open-habitat species richness decreased with increasing forest cover, while the richness of habitat-use generalist species did not vary. The loss of environmental heterogeneity may be responsible for generalist species dominance and open-habitat species presence in less-forested landscapes. This leads to great taxonomic replacement, but a nestedness gradient of function. Better land use planning is needed to ensure biodiversity and ecosystem functions of forest habitats in human-modified landscapes.
Article
1. Studies assessing the effects of the spatial distribution of ant nests on ant-plant mutualisms are rare, even though they could be decisive to the outcomes of such interactions. Here, we investigated how ant nest abundance and richness affected a Neotropical plant with extrafloral nectaries (EFN), Smilax polyantha (Smilacaceae). 2. We used baits to sample all nests of mutualistic ants within a 12 m radius of each plant. All neighbouring plants with EFN within 10 m of each tagged plant were also sampled. We measured foliar herbivory and fruit production of each S. polyantha. We hypothesized that (i) high numbers of ant nests near S. polyantha individuals would reduce foliar herbivory and increase fruit production, and that (ii) high ant nest richness would increase foliar herbivory and reduce fruit production. 3. Results showed that plants surrounded by more ant nests had lower foliar herbivory and higher fruit production. However, ant nest richness was associated with higher foliar herbivory. Furthermore, plants producing more leaves and those surrounded by more neighbouring plants with EFN had reduced herbivory. Despite this, S. polyantha had low numbers of ant nests and reduced fruit production when surrounded by high numbers of neighbours with EFN. 4. We suggest that the spatial distribution of ant nests and resources (plants with EFN) play an important role in ant-mediated mutualisms, where both ants and plants are likely competing for each other's services. Thus, incorporating these two variables in ecological models should provide insights into how protective mutual-isms are structured.
Article
The partitioning of gamma diversity into its alpha and beta components has been used to quantify the effects of natural habitat reduction on species diversity and distribution. Ant assemblages respond to anthropogenic changes, allowing their use as an indicator of biodiversity conservation in human‐modified landscapes. We investigated the responses of gamma, alpha, and beta diversity of ant assemblages to a forest cover gradient in southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Our prediction was that increasing forest cover would increase gamma diversity, which in turn is driven more by increasing beta diversity than alpha diversity along the forest cover gradient. Additionally, we expected that increasing beta diversity would be mainly driven by species replacement. We sampled ants within 12 circular areas (radius: 500 m) with different forest cover percentages in Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, state of Acre, southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Gamma and beta diversity, but not alpha diversity, responded positively to the forest cover gradient. Additionally, species replacement was the main driver of beta diversity along the forest cover gradient. Areas with low levels of forest cover probably offer limited variation in habitats, resources, and conditions and, thus, harbor a low number of ant species that can easily disperse spatially and leading to species composition simplification. We recommend the use of diversity partitioning for indicator groups as an efficient way to monitor biodiversity and control the process of biota simplification at the human‐modified landscapes, showing the response of species diversity and distribution to human impacts. Abstract in Portuguese is available with online material. A partição da diversidade gama em seus componentes alfa e beta tem sido utilizada para quantificar os efeitos da perda de habitat natural na diversidade e distribuição de espécies. As assembleias de formigas respondem às mudanças antrópicas, permitindo seu uso como indicadoras da conservação da biodiversidade em paisagens antropizadas. Nós investigamos as respostas da diversidade gama, alfa e beta de assembleias de formigas a um gradiente de cobertura florestal no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira. Nossa previsão era que o aumento da cobertura florestal aumentaria a diversidade gama, que por sua vez é impulsionada mais pelo aumento da diversidade beta do que pela diversidade alfa ao longo do gradiente de cobertura florestal. Além disso, esperávamos que o aumento da diversidade beta seria principalmente devido ao componente substituição de espécies. Amostramos as formigas em 12 áreas circulares (raio: 500 m) com diferentes porcentagens de cobertura florestal na Reserva Extrativista Chico Mendes, Estado do Acre, sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira. A diversidade gama e beta, mas não a diversidade alfa, responderam positivamente ao gradiente de cobertura florestal. Além disso, a substituição de espécies foi a responsável pelo aumento da diversidade beta ao longo do gradiente de cobertura florestal. Áreas com baixos níveis de cobertura florestal provavelmente oferecem uma limitada variação de habitats, recursos e condições e, portanto, abrigam um baixo número de espécies de formigas que podem facilmente se dispersar espacialmente e levar à simplificação da composição de espécies. Recomendamos o uso de partição de diversidade em grupos de organismos indicadores como uma forma eficiente de monitorar a biodiversidade e controlar o processo de simplificação da biota em áreas modificados pelo homem, mostrando a resposta da diversidade e distribuição de espécies aos impactos antrópicos. Gamma and beta diversity, but not alpha diversity, responded positively to the forest cover gradient. Species replacement was the main driver of beta diversity along the forest cover gradient. Diversity partitioning is an efficient way to monitor biodiversity and response of species diversity and distribution to human impacts
Article
Full-text available
A remarkable new species in the ant genus Daceton, which has remained monotypic for 205 years, is described from Brazil and Peru. The new species, Daceton boltoni sp. nov., is similar to its sister species, D. armigerum, but differs from it mainly in the form of the pronotal lateral spines and in the pilosity of the first gastral segment. The taxonomic history and biology of the genus is reviewed.
Article
We describe a new genus, Gracilidris Wild & Cuezzo gen. nov., and a new species, G. pombero Wild and Cuezzo sp. nov., of dolichoderine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) from Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina based on the worker caste. These ants are morphologically similar to the extinct Gracilidris humilioides (Wilson 1985) comb. nov., known from a single Dominican amber fossil, that we redescribe and transfer to Gracilidris from Linepithema Mayr.
Article
A new myrmicine ant, Tropidomyrmex elianae gen. n. & sp. n., is described from southeastern and central Brazil, based on workers, ergatoid gynes, males and larvae. Tropidomyrmex workers are relatively small, monomorphic, characterized mainly by the feebly pigmented and extremely thin integument; subfalcate mandibles bearing a single apical tooth; palpal formula 1,2; clypeus relatively broad and convex; reduced compound eyes; propodeum unarmed and with a strongly medially depressed declivous face; double and bilobed well developed subpostpetiolar processes; and peculiarities in the sting apparatus. A colony fragment of T. elianae containing workers, ergatoid gynes, males, and brood was found inside a ground termite nest (Anoplotermes pacificus Apicotermitinae) in a montane rocky scrubland in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Tropidomyrmex elianae is known also from two workers collected in leaf litter samples processed with a Winkler extractor, from the state of Tocantins, central-north Brazil. Despite the differences from the accepted solenopsidine genera, Tropidomyrmex is tentatively assigned to this tribe. Within the solenopsidine ants, the genus is apparently related to Tranopelta. Tropidomyrmex is marked by extreme reductions, perhaps reflecting adaptations to particular habits and habitats.