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Based on a detailed reading of Graham Wallas’ Art of Thought (1926) it is argued that his four-stage model of the creative process (Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, Verification), in spite of holding sway as a conceptual anchor for many creativity researchers, does not reflect accurately Wallas’ full account of the creative process. Instead, it is suggested that a four-stage model that gives due recognition to the detailed treatment Wallas gave to the Intimation stage is a more authentic representation of his explanation of creativity. A version of this model with three levels of proximity to consciousness (nonconsciousness; fringe consciousness; consciousness) and five stages (Preparation; Incubation; Intimation; Illumination; Verification) is presented as a general conceptual architecture within which relevant concepts and theories from more recent creativity research, including neuroscience and intuition, are positioned and from which a number of implications are drawn.
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... Dörfler & Ackermann, 2012) und die Neukonzipierung von Wallas' klassischem Vier-Stufen-Modell des kreativen Prozess (vgl. Sadler-Smith, 2015). Die meisten Intuitionswissenschaftler halten Intuition und Einsicht im Bereich der Kreativität für so eng verwandt zu sein, dass eine kreative Intuition oft zu einer expliziten Einsicht am Punkt der Erleuchtung oder dem so genannten "Heureka-Moment" übergeht. ...
... Kreative Intuitionen liefern einen viszeralen Sinn, der durch den Intuitor subjektiv interpretiert werden kann als eine Andeutung (wörtlich "eine Ankündigung"), dass eine Vermutung (wie z.B. eine Hypothese, Skizze oder Plan) funktionieren kann, auch wenn die formale Bewertung ihrer Durchführbarkeit noch in weiter Ferne liegen (vgl. Gick & Lockhart, 1996;Sadler-Smith, 2015). Kreative Intuitionen sind definiert als langsam zu formende affektiv geladene Signale, die vor einer späteren Einsicht entstehen, welche das Wissen auf neuartige Weise kombiniert, basierend auf divergierenden Assoziationen und Orientierungen. ...
... B. Wallas, 1926). 5 Ein fünfstufiger Prozess, bei dem dies geschieht (Vorbereitung, Inkubation, Andeutung, Beleuchtung und Verifizierung) wurde durch die genaue Lektüre von Sadler-Smith (2015) einer kritischen Neubewertung des klassischen Vier-Stufen-Modells des kreativen Prozesses von Wallas (1920) unterzogen. The Art of Thought, berichtet von einer Reihe von "kreativen Genies". ...
In der deutschen Literatur wird das Thema Intuition noch nicht differenziert in seinen wichtigen Facetten betrachtet.
Bislang wird Intuition vornehmlich auf Basis der Arbeiten von Prof. Gigerenzer, als Erfahrungsintuition bzw. heuristische Entscheidungen auf Basis sog. Daumenregeln beschrieben. Amerikanische Forschungsarbeiten werden bislang weniger
berücksichtigt. Häufig wird unter Intuition das sog., unbegründete Bauchgefühl untersucht (Prof. Klein). Diese Arbeiten gehen sogar soweit, dass antitipatorische Entscheidungen einbezogen werden (Dr. Radin). Daher soll in dieser Studie die Intuition dreigeteilt untersucht werden, um auch die wirklich unbewussten, intuitiven Entscheidungen einzubeziehen. Dieser Ansatz ist besonders innovativ, weil zum Thema Intuition bisher nur Studien auf Basis von Einzeltheorien im Vergleich zur Rationalität vorliegen. In diesem
Forschungsprojekt sollen vier wichtige, unterschiedliche Entscheidungsgrundlagen (RHIBA) erstmals zusammenhängend im Vergleich erforscht werden:
(R) Rationale, kognitive Entscheidungsfindung,
(H) Heuristische Entscheidungen („Faustregeln“),
(I) Intuitive Entscheidungen bzw. das sog. Bauchgefühl oder (P) die unbegründete
(A) Antizipation) RHIA. Das Fehlen einer solchen zusammenhängenden Untersuchung mag in der Komplexität des Versuchsaufbaus liegen. Für die Forschung und insbesondere die Entwicklung von Anwendungsfeldern wäre das Gelingen eines solchen Prototypens von entscheidender Bedeutung.
... Based on the perspective module that Rodes has found in the above definition shows that creativity can be analyzed through its creative process. According to Wallas, mankind passed four different stages when doing the creative thinking process , namely: 1. Preparation phase This stage refers to the initial period of searching the data in various sources using logic and reasoning. If the solution is found at this stage, the remaining stages are not required. ...
... The author believes that each menu naming coffee should be through the process of creativity by going through several stages, such as the stages of the creative process that is defined according to Wallas, the preparation stage, the incubation stage, the illumination stage, and verification phase . Authors hope this writing becomes a reference to the creative process of naming the coffee menu. ...
... Results gained from in-depth interviews and directional discussions, researchers can conclude that from all the names of the coffee menu served only Ice Coffee Bersama and Ice Coffee Teman Dekat who is a favorite for consumers who visit the coffee shop. Based on the interview with the owner of the coffee shop along with the creative process of naming the coffee menu is said to "all the name of the coffee menu from the deliberate, all from the results of the creative research" .Based on Wallas's theory, mankind passed four different stages when doing the creative thinking process , namely the preparation stage, incubation stage, illumination stage, and verification phase. The Creative process that has been done the owner of Bersama Disini coffee shop in the naming coffee menu, preceded by the preparation stage, "not too much preparation, only Ice Coffee Teman Dekat, because there are several candidates name, and that I share with friends closest friend, family, then from sharing it finally I decided to Ice Coffee Teman Dekat. ...
... MSMEs need to pay attention to innovation and its relationship with organizational performance and growth to win the competition . Smith (2006), as cited in , suggested two aspects of innovation, namely new for the market and new for the company, presented in Figure 1. ...
... Source: Smith (2006) quoted by  Entrepreneurs can choose the type of innovation to be carried out. However, it takes much costs and a willingness to take risks. ...
... However, limited information and non-unique products lead the market segments to be targeted to local markets only. If using Smith's (2006) approach, as cited in , innovations that can be done are the one new to the company but not new to the market, i.e. cost efficiency, product development, and new product lines. Lower costs, better product quality, and products with a longer shelf life allow companies to offer lower prices to a broader market. ...
... 3. Abstract conceptualization -Illumination is a singular moment or "a "rising train of association" which may "ascend" towards the threshold of consciousness at different rates and therefore last for varying lengths of time". (Sadler-Smith, 2015). Wallas refers to this intimation as a phase leading to illumination. ...
... The challenges for the creative person are three: letting the train of conscious arise as naturally as possible without interfering too much in the process, capturing the essence of inspiration as purely as possible, and "to make the conscious effort of expression" of it. (Sadler-Smith, 2015). ...
... In chapter three, I explore that process from the perspective of the artist. I build on Kolb (2009)'s ELT model and Wallace's creative process (as cited in Sadler-Smith, 2015) to propose the experiential learning model of creative processes. ...
This capstone explores the relationship between art and experiential learning to support the hypothesis that Art enhances experiential learning. In doing so, it combines experiential learning theory from Kolb and other humanistic psychologies and pedagogists such as Carl Rogers with the philosophical approach to art as experience introduced by John Dewey. The study reviews a broad array of approaches to learn the impact of art in building skills for cognitive, emotional, social and even physical development. It also draws from educational philosophers and activists such as Maxine Greene, who have long supported the inclusion of art in education. I propose a modification of the experiential learning model that integrates creative processes to support art as an experiential learning process for both, the artist and the observer.
... Therefore, these models maybe be considered as a specific approach to creativity, distinct from the psychometric, problem finding or cognitive experimental approaches (Kozbelt et al., 2010). Recent studies on the four-stages model of Wallas confirmed again that researchers do not agree on the number of stages: Cropley and Cropley (2012) found seven stages whereas Sadler- Smith (2016) found five stages based on Wallas' book. ...
... Outcome (Amabile, 1988) Communication (Runco, 1997;Howard et al., 2008;Cropley and Cropley, 2012) Break Incubation (Wallas, 1926;Patrick, 1937;Osborn, 1953Osborn, /1963Dreistadt, 1969;Shaw, 1989Shaw, , 1994Smith andBlankenship, 1989, 1991;Smith and Vela, 1991;Russ, 1993;Runco, 1997;Carson, 1999;Runco and Dow, 1999;Botella et al., 2011) Withdrawal ...
... Therefore, it is a stage that is specific to the current study. As described by the students, the inspiration stage is close to the stage on intimation added between incubation and insight (Sadler-Smith, 2016). It is surprising and interesting that visual art students consider inspiration as a stage of their creative process. ...
A number of models of both artistic and creative processes exist. However these models diverge in terms of the number of stages described and their sequences. Thus, a model presents usually between 4 and 9 stages which may comprise substages. Although some of these stages may refer to the same phenomena, they may be designated by very different terms. These differences in modeling reflect divergences in the methodology used (interviews or case studies) but also in the populations studied (artists, scientists, writers, etc.) Yet, the models constructed with reference to a specific creative domain can not necessarily be fully generalized and apply to all creative domains. It is therefore worthwhile to develop the description of models of the creative process by targeting a specific domains or a specific population. The objective of this study is to propose a complete list of the stages of the visual artistic creative process in order to integrate them in the Creative process Report Diary (CRD; Botella, Nelson & Zenasni, 2017). This tool allows self-observations of the creative process in real situations by presenting a list of stages of the process. In the present study, 28 art students were interviewed in order to identify the specific stages of their process of visual artistic creativity. Results of our analyses highlight 17 distinct stages in the students’ processes of visual artistic creation. Although some of these may correspond to stages already identified in the literature, others are new. No existing model includes all of these stages. Implications of using this expanded set of stages are discussed according to the CRD.
... Scientific discovery had resulted in contemporary thinking separating the function of mind, to body and to emotions, while designers and student designers using digital tools have more recently taken this further, opting to comply with the digital tools' constraints while prioritising rapid building fabrication (Toms and Mesari 2017;Hughes and Andrews 2009) to meet escalating demand. Transitions in the architects' concept design process that traditionally provided time for architects to engage in problem-solving of the multiple complex sources of contradictory information drawing on creative input, design ideation, testing, reiteration, and reflection (Sadler-Smith 2015;Lawson 2006;Cross 2006;Wieringa 2011;Schön 1995;Stolz 2015;Spitzer 2014) to ensure the built outcome supported human wellbeing (Pallasmaa 2012;Hale 2016), have undergone changes in digital design studios. ...
... Advantageous results sourced from testing in other disciplines have the potential to address the needs of important design components traditionally found in the architectural concept design process, such as cognitive clarity, focus, engagement, authorship, motivation and creative risk-taking. An emergent body of literature encourages ideas around embodiment; education in youth and adults (Kontra et al. 2012, Goldman Shuyler 2010Sadler-Smith 2015;Stolz 2015;Niedenthal 2007) architectural field trips (Warden and Woodcock 2005) connection to body (Bitter et al. 2011;da Piedade Ferreira 2019;Doidge 2015, pp. 33-61;Feldenkrais 1990, pp. 87-89) and theorists who assert a need to recapture what has been lost through changes in process in architectural design (Pallasmaa 2012;Robinson and Pallasmaa 2015;Belardi 2014, pp. ...
This article explores the wide-ranging impact of inviting architecture students to increase conscious somatic awareness of their body and function, and the effects on their design process. This paper analyses the results of a Movement Awareness Intervention conducted prior to students undertaking their usual architectural design studio at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. The impact of a global trend in extensive use of digital design tools has resulted in impacts on components in the architecture design process that appear to be slipping under the radar in architecture education and practice. This article addresses issues raised by Juhani Pallasmaa and Paolo Belardi, bolstered by neuroscience research by Harry Mallgrave and colleagues, to explore the impact of heightened conscious bodily awareness upon the cognitive design thinking processes required in the architecture. The case study research using mixed data collection methods on 39 participants draws upon surveys, hand notations, and audio interviews to track participant perceptions of the impact on their design process in action. Analysis of the data produced in this study addresses the concerns raised by theses seminal writers. This paper argues for new approaches to reconfiguring and recalibrating of emotional, cognitive, and physical stimulants that were once invisibly physically embedded in the traditional architectural design process to work with digital design technology.
... The first mode relies on a conscious, analytical, and rational approach that is logical, linear and incrementally builds over time (Kounios & Beeman, 2015). The second mode is non-linear, non-rational, and relies on inspiration suddenly emerging into consciousness, after a period of "unconscious incubation" (Kounios & Beeman, 2009, 2015. Related to unconscious influences, there are many accounts of dreams impacting conscious awareness and facilitating the CP (Barrett, 1993(Barrett, , 2001Bulkeley, 2010;Schredl & Erlacher, 2007;Castle, 1994;White & Taytroe, 2003). ...
... Embodied imagination (EI) is an emerging method of working with dreams that has been employed in the CP (Bosnak, Busetto, & Wolfe, 2015;Sonenberg, 2003), but the current study represents a first attempt to systematically investigate its efficacy in this area. Graham Wallas (1926) proposed a four stage model of the CP that is still influential amongst creativity researchers (Sadler-Smith, 2015). Consistent with John Kounios and Mark Beeman (2015), Graham Wallas' four stages oscillate between conscious and unconscious modes of cognition and experience: In the preparation stage conscious efforts are utilized to acquire and apply knowledge to the project. ...
This pilot study is the first attempt to investigate the use of embodied imagination in the creative process. Embodied imagination is an emerging method for working with dreams and the imagination that employs two fundamental processes: First, embodied imagination takes place in a hybrid state of awareness including both wake-like and dream-like experience. Second, embodied imagination focuses on direct engagement with dream images. Seven participants, currently engaged in a creative project, were guided in a two-step embodied imagination process. The first session focused on a memory of feeling blocked in the creative process and the second session focused on a dream that had emerged between sessions. This process was found to be an effective support for the creative process. During the second session an electroencephalograph was employed to determine whether participants entered into an awakened mind state during the embodied imagination process. Awakened mind is hypothesized to be a more creative form of waking awareness characterized by a specific relative amplitude relationship between brain wave frequencies. During the embodied imagination session participants were found to enter awakened mind and were able to re-enter awakened mind after the session when re-engaging the “composite”, a somatically anchored network of experiences generated during the embodied imagination session.
Šis bandomasis tyrimas – tai pirmosios pastangos išnagrinėti, kaip kūrybos procese pasitelkiama įkūnyta vaizduotė. Įkūnyta vaizduotė – tai besiformuojantis metodas dirbti su sapnais ir vaizduote, kuri įveiklina du fundamentalius procesus. Pirma, įkūnyta vaizduotė yra mišrios sąmoningumo būklės, apimančios patyrimus, panašius tiek į būdravimą, tiek į sapną, dalis. Antra, įkūnyta vaizduotė yra tiesiogiai susijusi su sapnų vaizdiniais. Septyni dalyviai, kurie šiuo metu dalyvauja kūrybiniame projekte, vadovavo dviejų etapų įkūnytos vaizduotės procesui. Pirmosios sesijos metu buvo susitelkta į jausmo, užsifiksavusio kūrybos procese, atsiminimą, o antrosios sesijos metu – į sapną, iškilusį laikotarpiu tarp dviejų sesijų. Buvo nustatyta, kad šis procesas – tai veiksminga paspirtis kūrybos procesui. Antrosios sesijos metu buvo pasinaudota elektroencefalografu, siekiant nustatyti, ar, vykstant įkūnytos vaizduotės procesui, dalyviai tapo pabudusios sąmonės būklės. Keliama hipotezė, kad pabudusi sąmonė – tai kūrybiškesnė bundančio sąmoningumo, kuriam būdingas specifinio santykinio masto santykis tarp pasikartojančių smegenų bangų, forma. Buvo nustatyta, kad įkūnytos vaizduotės sesijos metu dalyviai tapo pabudusio proto būklės ir gebėjo vėl panirti į tokią būklę pasibaigus sesijai, iš naujo įsijungdami į „sudėtinį“, somatiškai įtvirtintą patyrimų tinklą, susikūrusį įkūnytos vaizduotės sesijos metu.
Reikšminiai žodžiai: pabudusi sąmonė, kūrybiškumas, sapnai, įkūnyta vaizduotė.
... As a heuristic working model, we adopted the four-stage approach of Wallas (1926), which was also used by the EEG-based stage analysis of Martindale and Hasenfus (1978), and which is still considered to provide a useful categorization of insight-related processing stages (Sadler-Smith, 2015; for a review, see Runco et al., 1994). According to Wallas' four-stage account, derived from Helmholtz's ideas on thought process for insightful ideas (Rhodes, 1961;Sadler-Smith, 2015), the creative process can be divided into the stages of preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. This framework has recently been used to describe the insightful process as a four-phase sequence consisting of mental preparation, set-triggered/ impasse-related restructuring, forming novel associations, and solution verification (cf., Sandkühler & Bhattacharya, 2008;Luo & Niki, 2003;Jung-Beeman et al., 2004;Weisberg, 2013). ...
The nature of insight has been the interdisciplinary focus of scientific inquiry for over 100 years. Behavioral studies and biographical data suggest that insight, as a form of creative cognition, consists of at least four separate but intercorrelated stages as described by Wallas (1926). Yet no quantitative evidence was available for insight- or insight-stage-specific brain mechanisms that generalize across various insight tasks. The present work attempted, for one, to present an integrated and comprehensive description of the neural networks underlying insight and, for another, to identify dynamic brain mechanisms related to the four hypothetical stages of insight. To this end, we performed two quantitative meta-analyses: one for all available studies that used neuroimaging techniques to investigate insight, and the other for the phasic brain activation of insight drawn from task characteristics, using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach. One key finding was evidence of an integrated network of insight-activated regions, including the right medial frontal gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus, the left amygdala and the right hippocampus. Importantly, various brain areas were variably recruited during the four stages. Based on the ALE results, the general and stage-specific neural correlates of insight were determined and potential implications are discussed.
... The academic will instigate a slice of time in which to think through an issue or idea in an attempt to solve the issue or develop the idea further. In psychology, this is known as the "incubation period" (Segal, 2004;Zhong et al., 2008;Sio & Ormerod, 2009;Gilhooly et al., 2013;Sadler-Smith, 2015;Gilhooly, 2016;Sio et al., 2017). During this "incubation period", the unconscious mind will continue to work on the conundrum in the background, resulting at some point in time, in a resolution. ...
For academics in UK Higher Education (HE), professional learning (PL) is a complex endeavour involving a multitude of (in)formal learning encounters. However, these PL encounters are at risk as academics prioritised conflicting knowledge domains and negotiate various social and material engagements that can enable or encumber these encounters. This thesis reports on research that attempts to illuminate these sociomaterial entanglements using Actor-Network Theory and Non-Representational Theory as a theoretical framework.
A transformative mixed method case study of a single UK university using content analysis, questionnaire, interview and photovoice methods were undertaken. Twelve academic staff, with module leader responsibilities, were selected from the academic staff questionnaire (n:182) to be interviewed and photograph their PL experiences. Unique to sociomaterial investigation was the photovoice method, enabling the participants to become empowered as co-researchers.
The analysis of the data suggests that academics tend to be strategic in prioritising conflicting knowledge domains. In the case of knowledge not related to their subject discipline, academics will often fast-track information from a "knowledgeable other". Furthermore, academics will construct "surrogate" or "transient" spaces in which to seek refuge from the various disruptions and interruptions generated by their institution. Academics will use these spaces for uninterrupted learning or work and as a means for promoting self-care.
The study identified four interrelated spatial properties (transient, affective, controlled and immersive), which provides an explanation why some spaces were more conducive to PL than other spaces. Furthermore, space is composed of multiple and interconnected spatial configurations that coalesce into a single spatial configuration, which I call coalescent space. The study also proposes a number of future research directions involving the PL of early career academics and academics on sessional contracts
... In this stage, they are thought to unconsciously keep processing the problem while they consciously attend to other tasks. The feeling of manifesting associations or fringe consciousness coined as "intimation" is the next stage in this model (Sadler-Smith, 2015). Following this, the problem solvers experience a phase of "illumination" when they suddenly have an idea that answers the question. ...
“Dira” is a novel experimental paradigm to record combinations of behavioral and metacognitive measures for the creative process. This task allows assessing chronological and chronometric aspects of the creative process directly and without a detour through creative products or proxy phenomena. In a study with 124 participants we show that (a) people spend more time attending to selected vs. rejected potential solutions, (b) there is a clear connection between behavioral patterns and self-reported measures, (c) the reported intensity of Eureka experiences is a function of interaction time with potential solutions, and (d) experiences of emerging solutions can happen immediately after engaging with a problem, before participants explore all potential solutions. The conducted study exemplifies how “Dira” can be used as an instrument to narrow down the moment when solutions emerge. We conclude that the “Dira” experiment is paving the way to study the process, as opposed to the product, of creative problem solving.
... In the 1950's, creativity researchers began referring to Wallas' thinking stages as a Creative Process Model -even though Wallas never used those words. To this day, the Wallas creative process model remains the most cited in the field of creativity research (Runco, 2004a, b;Sadler-Smith, 2015). The model I am introducing in this study is non-linear and reflects my own lived experience of creativity. ...
REIMAGINING THE WAY THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF CREATIVITY
IS DEFINED, INSPIRED, AND ENCOURAGED IN THE 21ST CENTURY:
A CREATIVITY PRACTITIONER/EDUCATOR’S HEURISTIC INQUIRY
Marta Davidovich Ockuly
Imagination alone is not creativity, but there is no creativity without imagination. Since the 1950s creativity scholars have relied on the product criteria of novelty and usefulness (Stein, 1953) to define the construct, even though this approach uses “extrinsic outcomes at the level of culture as the starting point to conceptualize individual activities characterized by intrinsic motivation” (Hansen, 2013, p. 18). This study shares 150+ diverse definitions of creativity from 1950-2019 and proposes a definition of personal creativity that is dynamic, imagination-informed, and phenomenon-based. It states, “Creativity is the person-centered process of imagining possibilities and taking embodied expressive action to make your idea(s) real.” This humanistic view avoids premature evaluation while differentiating human from machine creativity.
The qualitative methodology used is heuristic self-search inquiry (Sela-Smith, 2002). The researcher asked: (a) What is my lived experience of creativity? (b) How do I define and understand creativity? (c) How can the lived experience of creativity be defined in a way that engages imagination, inspires creative action, and increases self-identification with personal creativity? The author documented her personal creative process, intuitions, inspirations, and reflections from 2013-2019, producing 4,800 pages of data. Themes were identified using reflectivity.
Artificial intelligence machines might generate novel and useful ideas and process data faster than humans, but only human creativity is fueled by imagination, intuition, curiosity, empathy, and intrinsic motivation. Findings include a humanistic definition and theory of creativity, a non-linear creative process model, a lexicon of lived experience of creativity terms, and the concept of creativity influencers. Future research is also addressed.
Keywords: human creativity, imagination, person-centered, awakening creative potential, building creative confidence, creativity influencers, living creativity lexicon, non-linear creative process model, arts-based approaches, humanistic, Carl and Natalie Rogers
... The creative process also affects the use of garnish. Wallas  describes four stages of the creative process, i.e., (1) preparation, (2) incubation, (3) illumination and (4) verification. ...
... Wallas' four stages model of creativity received a lot of criticism from psychology researchers e.g.  both in terms of the four distinct phases and in terms of the generalization of the model, however, this is still one of the most dominant models followed in defining the creative process [6,7] and the one we follow in this work. ...
Wallas suggested a four stages model of creative process: a) preparation, b) incubation, c) illumination, d) verification, that has been widely used through the years in several disciplines. In this work we are aiming at defining pattern detection algorithms for modelling the creative process of a user based on the user's activity in MineTest. A qualitative user study allowed us to define and refine patterns related to the creative process of the user while executing a creative task in the game. In addition, through the data collected, important issues have been exposed that will inform future work in the same direction.
... Wallas argued that after a phase of trying to solve a problem without success, it can be useful to walk away from the problem and allow the information one has gathered to incubate. Following this time of putting a problem aside, a solution may begin to emerge at a semi-conscious level (or in fringe consciousness; Sadler-Smith, 2015), until the final "'flash' or 'click'" of illumination occurs (Wallas, 1926, pp. 93-94). ...
Given the importance of creativity to the success of today’s organizations, motivating one’s workforce to produce novel and useful ideas is essential. To date, the scientific study of creativity has generated a substantial body of knowledge on who is most likely to be motivated to be creative, when they are most likely to be so, and why. However, most of this literature focuses on average differences between people at a single point in time; that is, it’s cross-sectional. As a result, much less is known about the relationship between motivation and creativity as if unfolds over time. Capturing this variability is essential for our knowledge in this domain to advance. In this chapter, I review the studies published in the past 15 years examining creativity and motivation over time (k = 28). Nearly 80% of these studies were focused on process-based theories (e.g., self-efficacy, emotion), while the remaining studies examined context-based (e.g., job demands, psychological empowerment) or content-based theories (e.g., regulatory focus, affiliation motives). After reviewing these studies, I summarize what we know about this area of research, as well as offer suggestions for future research and practical implications.
... Early references on multiphase creative processes, in general, include the work of mathematician Henry Poincaré (1924)  and social psychologist Graham Wallas (1926) . Wallas proposed a five-stage model (i.e., preparation, incubation, intimation, illumination, and verification) pondering three levels of subject awareness (i.e., consciousness, fringe consciousness, and nonconsciousness) , . In the late sixties, the work of Herbert Simon delineated one of the first formal models of the design thinking process . ...
Students in scientific/technical-oriented disciplines struggle with achieving good levels of innovation when exposed to design problems. Research indicates the need for implementing alternative pedagogical approaches in technical curricula that enhance students' creative skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a cross-disciplinary pedagogical approach with a focus on teaching innovation in the field of packaging engineering at a university in the United States. A Design Thinking Project-Based Learning (DTPBL) approach was used to improve the levels of innovation in student work. Its outcomes were compared with those of a Traditional Project-Based Learning (TPBL) approach. The implementation of DTPBL across several courses took place between 2015 and 2018. TPBL was the norm in these courses between 2009 and 2014. National and international student design competitions were used to assess the level of innovation of student work externally. Statistically significant differences were found in the levels of innovation of student work between approaches. DTPBL projects placed higher in design competitions, and they were recognized more often by independent expert judges than TPBL projects. At a national level, TPBL generated 172 projects in 11 instances, obtaining 12 awards. DTPBL produced 61 projects in seven instances, and student work was recognized with 21 awards. At a global level, student work created with TPBL was never recognized, while student projects generated using DTPBL received seven recognitions in three participation instances. This study provides evidence that a Design Thinking Project-Based Learning (DTPBL) approach can be a successful pedagogical strategy to enhance students' creative skills and produce innovative design solutions.
... La iluminación surge en un estado de seminconsciencia en que tiene lugar un repentino momento de iluminación o momento "eureka" que permite dar con una idea que se caracteriza por ser brillante pero, al mismo tiempo, frágil, lo cual la hace vulnerable a interrupciones o a intentos de acelerar el proceso de manera forzada. Por último, tiene lugar la "verificación", que consiste en el trabajo consciente en torno a la idea, evaluándola, dándole forma y desarrollándola (Wallas, 1970;Sadler-Smith, 2015). En el proceso de escritura, este momento se conoce como reescritura. ...
El presente artículo explora la dimensión creativa de dos talleres de escritura, ilustración y musicalización de cuentos del mundo llevado a cabo con estudiantes de Pedagogía en el marco del proyecto TALIS en un campus universitario rural del nordeste de Brasil. Los objetivos principales fueron la recuperación de la memoria histórica y del patrimonio cultural de la región de Paraíba (Brasil); la formación de profesores en ejercicio y futuros profesores en nuevas metodologías docentes, en línea con los principios de la educación para el desarrollo; y la elaboración de materiales docentes creativos en formato escrito y audiovisual. Los datos recabados a través de cuestionarios, entrevistas semiestructuradas, diarios de campo, además del análisis de las producciones, mostraron una gran receptividad y un alto grado de implicación de los participantes respecto a las tres vertientes de la dimensión creativa tratadas. Asimismo, sus aportaciones contribuyeron a enriquecer el proyecto, permitiendo la incorporación de innovaciones en torno a la inclusión de nuevas temáticas, tales como la reivindicación de lugares y figuras históricas en los cuentos; y de nuevas formas de expresión, como la musicalización de los cuentos y la incorporación de la dramatización como parte integral de los talleres.
Palabras clave: escritura creativa; ilustración; musicalización; cuentos del mundo.
... Analysing Deliberative, cognitive, grounded and reflective, e.g. idea implementation (Lubart, 2001;Raidl and Lubart, 2001;Sadler-Smith, 2015a,b), exploitation of current capabilities (Miller and Ireland, 2005); improved ethical decision-making (Kish-Gephart et al., 2010;Roeser, 2010) associated with deliberative (reflective) decision-making rather than automatic (reflexive) decision-making (Provis, 2017;Steinbauer et al., 2014 ( Miron-Spektor et al. 2018;Smith 2014). While this work has focused on how managers respond to environmentally derived tensions, the same principle about the relative effectiveness of embracing tensions may also apply to how managers approach tensions between intuition and analysis. ...
Paradox and dual‐process theories are used by management and organization researchers in studying a variety of phenomena across a wide range of management sub‐fields. Cognition is a focal point of both of these theories. However, despite their growing importance and shared areas of inquiry, these two theories have developed largely in isolation from each other. To address this lack of integration, the authors conducted a review and synthesis of relevant aspects of the paradox and dual‐process literatures. Focusing bidirectionally on how paradox theory informs dual‐process theory and how dual‐process theory informs paradox theory, they highlight the ‘nestedness’ of intuition and analysis in paradox (a paradox within paradoxical thinking). On the basis of the review and synthesis, they identify four themes (epistemological and ontological assumptions in the relationship between intuition and analysis; psychological and psychometric issues in the relationships between intuition and analysis; managers’ experiences of tensions between intuition and analysis; managers’ approaches to tensions between intuition and analysis) and introduce an integrative framework that assimilates these two perspectives and sets out an agenda for future research and implications for management.
... One popular model was proposed by Wallas (1926), who thought that creative products come into being through preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. Recently, Sadler-Smith (2015) suggested that Wallas' original work (1926) shows evidence of an additional stage, intimation, that links incubation and illumination. Other models followed, among which were Mednick's (1962Mednick's ( , 1968) remote association model, Rothenberg's (1988Rothenberg's ( , 1991 homospatial and Janusian thinking model, the eight-stage model of Blair and Mumford (2007) and Mumford, Mobley, Uhlman, Reiter-Palmon, and Doares (1991) that starts with problem construction and ends with solution monitoring, and Geneplore model of Finke, Ward, and Smith (1992). ...
With the Weary Voyager Model of creativity we propose that difficulties of creativity can be associated with a perceptual tendency to see and act on the world as it was in the past rather than as it is in the present. The model suggests that three configurations of selfhood tend to oppose creativity. First is self-deception, in which the Narrative Self (what we tell ourselves and others about ourselves) is distant from our Experiential Self (our day-to-day experience of urges and actions). Second is rigidity in the Narrative Self, which can impose a heavy weight that Voyagers must carry. Third is a reenactment by the Experiential Self of previously learned habits regardless of changing circumstances, which imposes another weight to carry. Implications for reducing self-deception, and reducing unnecessary weights of the Narrative Self and Experiential Self, are discussed as ways of increasing creativity.
... This is due to the fact that this action consists in formulating and verifying new judgments (previously unknown in science). In the presented context, the development of a scientific theory can be presented as a creative action consisting of the following stages (Sadler-Smith, 2015): − Preparation -involving an increase of the knowledge base on the subject of the theory; − Incubation -remaining of the subject of the theory beyond the scope of conscious reasoning; − Illumination -making judgment not based on other known judgments using logical reasoning; − Verification -confirming a given judgment through its logical justification in comparison to other previously recognized logical judgements. The effect of the third stage of the creative process model is judgment that can be called an idea. ...
... The four-stage approach of Wallas (1926), derived from Helmholtz's ideas on the thought process involved in creative ideas (Rhodes, 1961;Sadler-Smith, 2015), is a heuristic working model that illustrates key cognitive processes of creativity; it states that the creative process can be divided into the stages of preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification (Shen et al., 2018a). Although Wallas' four-stage model of creativity, the most widely cited framework for creativity in the West, has been used to describe the key processes underlying creativity in some contemporary Eastern studies on creative cognition, such as creative thinking and insight, cultural variation in the four stages of the creative process also exists; for example, relatively, the Western process model follows a cognitive problem-solving approach (a productoriented definition of creativity; e.g., Dubina and Ramos, 2016), whereas the Eastern creative process highlights the emotional, personal, and intrapsychic aspects of creativity. ...
The purpose of this study was to examine how culture shapes creativity by reviewing empirical findings across diverse studies. The impact of culture on creativity is typically manifested in three ways: (1) people from different cultures or settings have distinct implicit and/or explicit conceptions of creativity; (2) individuals from different cultures, particularly those from individualist and collectivist cultures, show differences in preferred creative processes and creative processing modes (e.g., usefulness seems more important than novelty in the East, whereas novelty seems equally important as usefulness, if not more so, in the West) when they are engaged in creative endeavors; (3) creativity may be assessed using different measures based on culture-related contents or materials, and findings are accurate only when culturally appropriate or culturally fair measures are used. Potential implications and future directions are also proposed.
... So, it seems that even if intermittent thoughts about the target task occurred they were ineffective and did not explain the beneficial effects of incubation. In conclusion, from Baird et al. (2012) and Gilhooly et al. (2012, 2015), it seems safe to rule out the Intermittent Work explanation of incubation effects. ...
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation.
... For instance, the popular Resnick's Spiral  includes an iterative process of the steps Imagine, Create, Play, Share and Reflect. Wallas' Stage theory  involves the steps Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, and Verification; it has been modified and extended by Csikszentmihalyi to Preparation, Incubation, Insight, Evaluation and Elaboration . Our methodology incorporates such creativity processes. ...
... As a meta-cognitive strategy (Benedek et al., 2014), creativity allows the self to engage reflectively (Mumford.et al, 1991) to facilitate a state of problem solving where creative responses can result (Sadler-Smith, 2015). Through recognition that creativity is a state of brain interaction and operation (Bresciani, 2016) there permits opportunity to recognise the holistic way the brain learns (Nielsen, 2006), showing potential toward unearthing and strengthening new discussions related to creative pedagogy in response to how best to activate and enable neural pathways within classrooms. ...
Based on interviews with five creative professionals this article looks to investigate the creative experience as a source of data on how educators might create space for enabling the creative process in the classroom. Looking toward professional artists who are also committed educators provides core commentary on how to maximise creative experiences in the classroom. Whilst acknowledging the importance of physical space, the following article looks purposefully toward how to enable space as an internal state of being, with the intent toward establishing transdisciplinary discussions that stimulate and provoke creative pedagogical research across an interdependent continuum. The research concludes that enabling space for the creative process lies in the educators’ ability to create safe physical, social and emotional spaces for exploring creative processes. Implications for initial teacher education, professional development and classroom practice are identified.
... The crux of creative thinking is the inability to force creative ideas. The core of creative work -finding the idea -happens in the unconscious realm of our cognition, where we do not properly have excess to (Sadler-Smith, 2015). When individuals are asked to be more creative, they cannot intentionally activate a broad and free-flowing associative thinking network. ...
The demand for a creative workforce is every growing and effective measures to improve individual creativity are searched for. This study analyzes the possibility to use games as a prime for a creative mindset. Two short entertainment games, plus a no-game-comparison condition were set up in three versions of an online-study, along with two creativity tasks and scales to assess the individual creative mindset (fixed-vs-growth, creative self-efficacy and affect). Results indicate priming effects of the games, but in the opposite intended direction: gaming diminished the creative test performances. Those playing the games reported more ideas in the open-ended creative problem task, but those answers were of less quality and they solved less closed-problem items compared to those not playing. An impact of further mindset differences could be ruled out.
... Wallas was a psychologist who first discussed the process of creative thinking in his book, entitled "The Art of Thought", in 1926. Wallas argued that basically the creative thinking process consists of four stages (commonly called Wallas' The Four-Stage Model of Creative Thinking), which involves preparation, incubation, illumination, verification (Sadler-Smith et al., 2015;Peirce, 2018). Briefly, Wallas (1926) describes the four stages of the creative thinking process as follows. ...
Students were demanded to be a creative problem solver in the career world. A mathematical learning following an inquiry-based learning approach and integrating mathematical tools was developed in this study. Students constructed original solutions about trigonometry ratio by using a clinometer and a meter as mathematical tools in allowing creative thinking. The product was designed through ADDIE methodology and applied to two classes in a Senior High School. A pre-test and post-test design measured cognitive knowledge as creative thinking variable. The result showed that this product with using mathematical tools was feasible and successful in enhancing students’ creative thinking. Inquiry-based learning was developed by involving three main components: providing students with a contextual mathematical problem-solving activity; involving student in an open-ended investigation with using a clinometer and a meter as mathematical tools to promote their creative thinking in creating original solutions; motivating students to build their own knowledge. This inquiry-based learning which had been developed significantly influenced students’ pre-knowledge scores. It could be concluded that creative thinking contributed, too. A recommendation for mathematics teachers in teaching mathematics was to involve students in problem-solving activity that facilitated them to conduct open-ended investigation whereas they could construct their own knowledge in building an original solution.
... In 1950, Guilford et al. introduced Structure of Intellect which emphasized three important aspects in creativity, i.e. fluency, flexibility and originality . Furthermore, Wallas explained the four steps of critical thinking involving Preparation, Incubation, Illumination and Verification , while Anderson & Krathwohl formulated three stages of creative thinking, i.e. Generating, Planning and Producing . ...
... This act has traditionally been decomposed in terms of stages, steps, or sub-processes (Sternberg, 2017). Early work based on introspective accounts of eminent creators and observational studies using thinkaloud protocols or analyses of traces of activity (such as creators' notebooks or drafts), suggested four main stages, traditionally labeled, preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification (Sadler-Smith, 2015). Preparation refers to the accumulation of background knowledge and active thinking that may span a relatively long period when a topic is engaged. ...
An overview of Creativity based on the 7 C's conception
... It is known that creativity and creative thinking are a systematic and organized process. The simplest explanation of the creative thinking process comes from the model developed by Graham Wallas(1926).This model of Wallas consists of four stages: preparation, incubation, illumination and verification (evaluation) (Bentley, 1999;Sadler-Smith, 2015). The mental processes of creativity are summarized as perception, image, emotion, symbols, imagination (richness of imagination) and metaphor (Gariboldi and Catellani, 2013). ...
Creativity and innovation phenomena, which are closely interrelated concepts with entrepreneurship, interact with entrepreneurs' social capital through their entrepreneurship and innovation ecosystems. Entrepreneurs' social capital can be influential in various ways in the creativity and innovation processes. Some studies focus on the benefits of social capital, while others focus on the current and potential negative consequences. The concepts of creativity, social capital and innovation in entrepreneurship and the relationships and connections between these variables constitute the subject of this study. All of the participants in the study were trained on entrepreneurship (511) and some of them (211) established their own business. The relational variables of the research are patent application and ownership of entrepreneur/entrepreneur candidates (as a concrete indicator of the innovation process); and independent variables are creative thinking disposition and social capital. While the social capital and creative thinking disposition levels of entrepreneurs are determined and measured by the scales, data regarding the ownership of industrial property rights (patents, utility models, etc.) are taken into consideration for innovation performance. According to the results of the analysis, it was observed that social capital had a positive effect on the creativity of entrepreneurs and innovation performance of enterprises.
... The statement can be understood that the pictures and text stories contained in the childfriendly based lift the flap story book can direct the students to be able to think creatively by imagining new ideas when interacting directly with the environment around them. The ability of creative thinking can be realized through Wallas' Four-Stage Model, those are preparation, incubation, illumination, verification which can be applied in learning activities . In this regard, the syntax of activities in the child-friendly based lift the flap story book can lead children to be able to go through the four stages of creative thinking. ...
... The POGIL model was implemented with the syntax developed by Hanson, D. (2006)as shown in Table 4. In the meantime, the creative thinking skills used in this research referred to Guilford (Guilford, 1988) Some of the main frameworks that have been established in creative thinking skills include the creative thinking framework proposed by Guilford, Perkins, and Torrance (Guilford, 1988;Perkins, 1984;Sadler-smith, 2014;Torrance, 1961). This research adopted Guilford's creative thinking skills. ...
This research aimed to analyze the improvement of students' creative thinking skills on the topic of heat and its transfer using the POGIL model. The matter concerning heat and its transfer has some characteristics that enable students to carry out practicum and trigger them to develop their higher-order thinking skills. The method used in this research was pre-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design. A total of 32 seventh grade students at SMPN 1 Jaten Karang Anyar, Central Java, were randomly selected as the participants in this research. To measure the increase in students' creative thinking skills, a multiple-choice test had been developed based on the indicators of creative thinking skills. Based on the results of data analysis, the values of N-gain on the indicators consisting of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration were 0.56, 0.60, 0.46, and 0.53, respectively. Those numbers meant that creative thinking was in the medium category. Further analysis shows that, by using the POGIL model on the topic of heat and its transfer learning, students’ creative thinking skills can be increased, especially on the indicators of fluency and flexibility.
... The notion of subconcious activity being present in the creative process with later voluntary reflection was present already in the 20th century works (Agnew, 1922;Benham, 1929;Cowell, 1926;Wallas, 1926). It is Wallas who coined the term Incubation -the break from thinking about creation or a problem to solve -which is an ongoing subject of research (Sadler-Smith, 2015). It is now a widely agreed consensus that composing involves conscious and unconscious cognition (e.g. ...
The current article explores the potential innovativeness of Involuntary Musical Imagery and presents the current state of InMI researches. There is a lack of precise definition of the term, as well as related terms (such as earworm or musical imagery). InMI is often equated to earworms which does not do justice to its creative potential. Several authors suggest that InMI can be a source of new melodies useful for composers in their composition process. The article proposes that InMI can consist of new melodies and appear as a single event. Composers use their working memory and musical abilities to volitionaly loop the tune in their head, then transcribe it into external realm (notation, recording). Composers can later use it in their creative process. The use of InMI in composing is a matter of individual differences between composers.
... Yaratıcılık araştırmaları içerisinde önemli yer bulan diğer bir model ise Wallas' ın Yaratıcı Problem Çözme sürecidir. Wallas' ın modeli hazırlık, kuluçka, aydınlanma ve doğrulama olmak üzere dört adımdan oluşan bir süreçtir (Sadler-Smith, 2015). İlk aşama olan hazırlık aşamasında, birey kendini bilinçli olarak yeni bir problem ile çalışmaya zorlar. ...
Purpose: This research is aimed at an enquiry into whether it is possible in an analysis of an artistic creative process to use a model, major components (sub-processes) of which include a problem statement, emotional arousal, generating, objectification and evaluating. Methods/Analysis: The research methodological framework includes a communicative approach. It involves comprehension of creative sub-processes using a communication analysis that takes place in a team, members of which are engaged in solving an intellectually demanding task. The evidence-based framework for the paper included the data gathered with a method of a semi-structured interview in time of field research. Their object included four art communities that in an urban environment (e.g. Moscow, Saint Petersburg) had brought together more than thirty artists, working in various genres of the contemporary art. Results: The findings presented in the paper describe the sub-processes of objectification and emotional arousal in an individual and team creative work of artists, as well as understanding a role performed by communication in each process performance. Novelty/Improvements: Firstly, the research novelty lies in the model of the creative process used for the artwork analysis; the model was elaborated in the field of invention. Second, it lies in a description of the relationship between communication and creativity in the artwork of the artists clustered into art communities. Third, it lies in the identified “material” form of objectification in the artistic creative process.
Creativity is more important than ever in today’s knowledge-based economy. Although many students doubt their own creativity, very few exercises are designed to help them access this ability. We believe that self-expression and self-reflection are important for understanding personal creative ability. Jung introduced the mandala to promote these two skills. We offer an easy-to-implement project that uses the mandala to help students explore factors (e.g., moods, context) that affect their creativity. This project can be useful in a variety of courses, ranging from those that give students a basic overview of creativity (e.g., management, organizational behavior) to more advanced courses in creativity and innovation.
We describe computer-generated poetry techniques in the categories of mere generation, human enhancement and computer enhancement. We classify the different kinds of algorithm used to create poetry, and argue that the artificial intelligence techniques used by computer scientists are artistically relevant. We also use computer-generated music as an example to show that this three-level taxonomy applies to computational creativity in other fields.
The standard definition of creativity has enabled significant empirical and theoretical advances, yet contains philosophical conundrums concerning the nature of novelty and the role of recognition and values. This work offers an act of conceptual valeting that addresses these issues. In doing so, creativity definitions are extended through the use of discovery. Drawing on dispositional realist philosophy, we outline why adding the discovery and bringing into being of new possibilities to the definition of creativity can aid theoretical understanding and empirical investigation. Having outlined the case for defining creativity with discovery, three distinct types of discovery of possibility, within four domains of creative action, and two types of bringing into being are examined for their theoretical and empirical value. This article concludes with a reflection on future research into the identification and development of creative potential.
This article is a tutorial for researchers who are designing software to perform a creative task and want to evaluate their system using interdisciplinary theories of creativity. Researchers who study human creativity have a great deal to offer computational creativity. We summarize perspectives from psychology, philosophy, cognitive science, and computer science as to how creativity can be measured both in humans and in computers. We survey how these perspectives have been used in computational creativity research and make recommendations for how they should be used.
Perhaps it is no accident that “Eureka” moments accompany some of humanity’s most important discoveries in science, medicine, and art. Ideas often appear unexpectedly in the human mind, so we must possess some capacity for appraising the idea in order to use it efficiently. Here we describe an account where the feeling of insight plays this adaptive role by signaling that a new idea appearing in consciousness can be trusted, given what one knows. Consistent with this perspective, recent experiments show that feelings of Aha tend to accompany correct solutions to problems. However, we have also shown that an artificially induced Aha moment can make false propositions seem true, demonstrating that Aha moments can exert influence regardless of ground truth. Drawing on these and other findings, we contend that humans use feelings of Aha heuristically in order to appraise new ideas that appear in awareness. In other words, from the manifold thoughts and ideas appearing in our stream of consciousness, the feeling of insight draws attention to the ‘best’ ones. Usually the heuristic works, but like all mental shortcuts, it is error prone. In this paper we encourage research on insight to move beyond questions about where insight comes from, and into questions about what insights do and how they affect decisions, belief, and the appraisal of ideas. It also brings to the forefront the dangers of false insight moments and their relevance for future research and the current age of information.
p class="Abstrak">Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan profil berpikir kreatif siswa kelas XI yang memiliki gaya kognitif sistematis dan intuitif dalam penyelesaian masalah matematika melalui Model Eliciting Activity (MEA). Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari 2 kelompok yaitu 2 siswa dari kelompok sistematis dan 2 siswa dari kelompok intuitif yang dipilih berdasarkan tes CSI. Teknik pengumpulan data meliputi : tes CSI, MEA Task, rekaman audio-visual dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa profil berpikir kreatif siswa melalui MEA dengan gaya kognitif sistematis yaitu siswa berhenti sejenak untuk mengendapkan pikirannya dan membutuhkan waktu lama untuk memunculkan idenya (inkubasi); siswa mendapatkan ide dari solusi masalah dan menyelesaikan soal secara step by step (iluminasi); pada tahap iluminasi siswa melalui 4 langkah yaitu simplifying siswa menuliskan yang terdapat pada soal dengan kalimat sederhana; abstracting siswa menuliskan permisalan, kalimat matematika, dan rumus yang sesuai dengan permasalahan; computing siswa melakukan proses penghitungan dan jawabannya benar; interpretation siswa membandingkan solusi dengan konteks masalah dan menuliskan kesimpulan dari penyelesaian yang dilakukan. (2) Profil berpikir kreatif siswa melalui MEA dengan gaya kognitif intuitif yaitu siswa mengidentifikasi masalah dengan menuliskan unsur yang diketahui dan ditanyakan (persiapan); siswa berhenti sejenak untuk mengendapkan pikirannya pada tahap iluminasi sehingga dapat memunculkan ide penyelesaian soal (inkubasi); siswa menemukan ide untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang diberikan, menyelesaikan masalah secara sepontan dan menggunakan jalan trial and error, dan menggunakan langkah penyelesaian dengan benar tetapi kurang tepat (iluminasi);</p
Creativity in journalism has always been a challenging concept. Journalism has not often been seen as creative due to its structured conventions. In response, a few journalism scholars claim there is creativity in journalism. However, no studies reveal a creative process in journalistic writing. This grounded theory research from the Philippines revealed a creative process of journalists (n = 20): A Bicycle Wheel of Journalists’ Creative Process in Newswork. This model sees journalists undergo the phases of cognizance, cultivation, captivation, and introspection in their efforts to be creative. Motivation and experience, plus their work environments, even contextualize these creativity-related efforts of journalists. Understanding this journalistic creative process will help practitioners and editors aspire for high journalistic standards and write engaging stories that are of public interest, and that are also relevant and significant.
This thesis reports the findings of an exploratory, mixed-methods study of the information phenomena associated with musical composition. It employs a semi-structured interview and a survey among participants of the current musical composition community, the majority of which resided in the greater Toronto area. The guiding question is "What are the information activities and resources of composers as they strive to compose new music?" During research, the concept of creative insight, emerged as a necessary supplement to previous inquiries into composers' inspiration. The findings explore the varied sources of creative insight utilized by composers; differing uses of creative insight, Creative Insight Storage Units (CISUs), composers' record keeping devices; creative insight in embodied form; and the varying information needs of composers at different stages in their profession. The report closes with the introduction of a new model of creative information phenomena in musical composition, and questions for future research.
In the nineteenth century, the English term tone colour, derived from the German word klangfarbe, entered musical vocabulary. Similarly, the French term timbre, referring to the same concept, 'quality of tone', circulated musical discussions. Throughout the twentieth century, composers explored various aspects of tone colour in their compositional approach including Schoenberg's Klangfarbenmelodie (later developed extensively by Webern), Varese's fascination with sound generation, Messiaen's drawn relationships between visual colours and harmonic clusters, and Boulez's concept of timbre as a musical language. 'Wearing tone-colour glasses' is an autoethnographical study that establishes the concept that a composer's creative approach is guided by an overarching fascination with instrumental tone colours from the outset of their creative process. The aims of this study are to establish a firm definition of a 'colour-first' composer, explore the 'colour-first' process through the creation of a varied portfolio of works for a singular instrumental medium (the wind band) and investigate the impact of formative musical development and career pathway on the development of compositional process and product. To achieve these aims, the definition of a 'colour-first' composer, being one who inherently composes with tone colour from the very beginning of their compositional process, is proposed and established. Ongoing studies into the creative and compositional process conducted by social psychologists and musicologists are reviewed, revealing the impact of early interactions with music and music education on a composer's process and their proclivity towards certain musical elements. Research conducted in the creative process of other composers is also conducted, postulating additional support for the 'colour-first' designation. Research into my own compositional process is conducted and a set of questions on "how composers compose", devised by Dr. Bernard Andrews of the University of Ottawa is used to maintain an extrinsic perspective. Investigations into formative musical development and career pathway reveal the origination of my 'colour-first' approach as well as my ongoing dedication to the creation of educationally based repertoire. The application of my established 'colour-first' approach to composition is explored through an investigation into the creative portfolio. The creative portfolio, consisting of eight works includes a full four-movement symphony, six works for apprenticing musicians of varying capability (an apprenticing musicians defined in this study as any person, of any age, learning to play a wind band instrument) and an additional short piece for professional musicians. The investigation and review of the creative portfolio reveals the enduring impact of familial influences, education and professional experience on my creative process and resultant compositional voice. To establish the validity of the unique contribution to wind band repertoire this creative portfolio provides, an investigation into the wind band and its repertoire was also necessary. This includes an historical account of wind band instrumentation development, and an overview of the body of work currently written for the medium. Collectively, the study provides insights into the impact of the functional role played by the wind band on the development of repertoire, as well as the formulation of early societal disparagement based on an haphazard array of instrumentation. The deviations in instrumentations are particularly pertinent to this study as each work in the portfolio, stemming from a 'colour-first' perspective, offers alterations to instrumentation in an effort to best explore the timbral capabilities of the wind band medium across multiple genres.
Since Wallas’ (The art of thought. Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, 1926) four-stage model, the sequential perspective on the creative process may be questioned. The creative process as a dynamic phenomenon is examined in this chapter. In order to understand how the creative process is dynamic, we start by examining the nature of dynamic processes in other fields such as education, cognitive science, health and social psychology. Based on the understanding of these dynamic processes, we develop hypotheses and observations on the dynamics of the creative process. This approach involves new methods to assess the complexity of the creative process.
The creative process continues to occupy the minds of countless philosophers, psychologists and academics. While it is relevant to a range of fields of practice, artists who enact the creative process have attracted attention as far back as the early Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato. Since that time there have been numerous theories as to the stages involved in the creative process, with recent research arguing that to date, there is still no consensus as to how to best understand or develop a model relevant to artists. In order to contribute to the discourse, this paper focuses on 339 artists from a range of disciplines and countries who voluntarily completed a survey inviting them to consider various aspects of their creative process. The findings reveal that it is complex in nature, and that it involves a range of factors, both internal and external. While internal factors such as inspiration, experimentation and sustained effort feature strongly, external factors such as the work of peers and audiences have a significant role to play. For some artists, there is also recognition of a divine influence on their process. While this research reveals a range of insights into the creative process as applied to artists, it also highlights the potential for numerous areas of inquiry in order to further understand this complex area of practice.
Objective: The objectives of this conceptual paper are two folds: to propose and argue a) the direct relationship between leader creativity expectations and creative performance; and b) the mediating role of intrinsic motivation between leader creativity expectations and creative performance. Design: Drawing upon Pygmalion effect, Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation, and componential theory of creativity, two propositions are suggested. Findings: It is proposed that there will be a positive relationship between leader creativity expectations and creative performance. In addition, the authors also make the case that intrinsic motivation will mediate the relationship between leader creativity expectations and creative performance. Originality: The significant original contribution of this article is that it suggests a theoretical relationship of Pygmalion effect with Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation and componential theory of creativity to propose a new conceptual framework. In addition, this paper extends our knowledge regarding the pertinent role of leader creativity expectations in stimulating the divergent thinking process of people in the workplace. Policy Implications: This article attempts to provide a clear guideline to both practitioners and academicians to better explore the relationship between expectations and employee creativity. The proposed framework may be applied in various social contexts such as healthcare, education, creative advertising, research and development, hospitality and new business incubation.
To identify expert poets’ cognitive processes as they compose poetry, we asked 10 expert poets and 10 novice writers of poetry to think aloud as they composed a poem. Compared to the novices, expert poets revealed an associative playfulness and surrendering of consciousness, similar to that shown in research on general creativity in domains such as art, music, and science. Experts also demonstrated significantly more evidence of deliberate procedures and active revision. Novices rarely revised their poems. With regard to meaning, experts made significantly more comments about how the text was meaningful, in particular how textual elements evoke and amplify meaning, than about what the text merely meant. The novices commented more on what the text meant than how the text was meaningful. In discussing the results, we propose a model of the cognitive processes involved in poetic composition, and explore implications for instruction in school and post-secondary educational settings.
An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access the correct path. This study tested the forgetting-fixation account using a trial-by-trial method on a sample of 152 native English speakers who were asked to solve 12 remote associate tests (RATs). During the first attempt, participants in the fixation condition were presented with misleading clues, and those in the no-fixation condition were not. At the completion of the first attempt for each RAT, half of the fixation and half of the no-fixation participants read an article for 2 min before attempting to solve the RAT for the second time, but the other halves worked on each RAT continuously. As predicted by the forgetting-fixation account, only in the fixation condition did participants who read an article perform better than those who worked on them continuously. Moreover, fixated participants performed better than nonfixated participants, and this differential effect was only evident in the incubation condition.
Popular lore tells us that genius is born, not made. Scientific research, on the other hand, reveals that true expertise is mainly the product of years of intense practice and dedicated coaching. Ordinary practice is not enough: To reach elite levels of performance, you need to constantly push yourself beyond your abilities and comfort level. Such discipline is the key to becoming an expert in all domains, including management and leadership. Those are the conclusions reached by Ericsson, a professor of psychology at Florida State University; Prietula, a professor at the Goizueta Business School; and Cokely, a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, who together studied data on the behavior of experts, gathered by more than 100 scientists. What consistently distinguished elite surgeons, chess players, writers, athletes, pianists, and other experts was the habit of engaging in "deliberate" practice-a sustained focus on tasks that they couldn't do before. Experts continually analyzed what they did wrong, adjusted their techniques, and worked arduously to correct their errors. Even such traits as charisma can be developed using this technique. Working with a drama school, the authors created a set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives' powers of charm and persuasion. Through deliberate practice, leaders can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors. The journey to elite performance is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. It takes at least a decade and requires the guidance of an expert teacher to provide tough, often painful feedback, it also demands would-be experts to develop their "inner coach" and eventually drive their own progress.
This experimental study tested the spreading-activation hypothesis that an incubation period helps to sensitize problem solvers to relevant concepts. The study also tested the selective forgetting hypothesis that an incubation period helps to desensitize problem solvers to irrelevant concepts. Chinese Chess GO players, 28 experts and 29 novices, solved 18 remote association tasks (RAT) and lexical decision tasks (LDTs) under immediate, rest, and incubation conditions. After each RAT, a set of LDTs incorporating the RAT solution and the irrelevant concept were presented, either immediately, or after a 2-min delay, or after a 2-min delay filled with incubation tasks. The findings of the study support the spreading activation hypothesis and suggest that spreading activation occurs only in a fixated mind. No support was found for the selective forgetting hypothesis.
We review and reconceptualize "intuition," defining intuitions as affectively charged judgments that arise through rapid, nonconscious, and holistic associations. In doing so, we delineate intuition from other decision-making approaches (e.g., insight, ra- tional). We also develop a model and propositions that incorporate the role of domain knowledge, implicit and explicit learning, and task characteristics on intuition effec- tiveness. We close by suggesting directions for future research on intuition and its applications to managerial decision making.
The process of innovation involves numerous contradictions not adequately addressed by business-oriented approaches, in particular the problem that what seem to be mutually antagonistic factors are involved. Psychological research on creativity, especially the 4 Ps (process, person, product, and press) and the paradoxes of creativity offers a framework which can be drawn upon in order to resolve these contradictions. When the Ps and the paradoxes are mapped onto a phase model of creativity expanded to go beyond generation of effective novelty to encompass implementation of the novelty, they yield a differentiated taxonomy of innovation. This offers a framework for goal-directed research, as well as insights into how to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a particular organization and into how managers can direct the innovation process in an optimal way.
Although insight is often invoked as a phenomenon of problem solving and innovation, it has rarely been studied in a naturalistic fashion. The purpose of the study reported here was to learn more about insights as they occur in field settings as opposed to controlled laboratory conditions. The authors collected a set of 120 examples of insight taken from cognitive task analysis interviews, media accounts, and other sources and coded each incident using a set of 14 features. The results generated a descriptive model of insight that is different from the findings that emerge from research with puzzle problems. It posits multiple pathways for gaining insights. One pathway is triggered by detecting a contradiction. A second pathway is triggered by a need to break through an impasse. The third pathway gets triggered by seeing a connection.
This study tested effects of acute alcohol intoxication on elaboration and revision in the verification phase of Wallas's (1926/1970) four stage model of creativity. Forty-two male and female participants were randomly assigned to three groups of equal size - a control group, a placebo group, and an alcohol group. The alcohol dose was 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight. Participants were instructed to read a poem and to draw a picture using the poem. These pictures were judged by 2 separate panels of judges. Panel A was comprised of 3 professional artists. Panel B was comprised of 3 college art instructors. No group differences were apparent in ratings given by Panel A, but Panel B gave the work of the alcohol group low handicraft ratings. Results were interpreted as an indication that a moderate dose of alcohol inhibits certain relevant abilities during the verification phase of the creative process.
Free production of variability through unfettered divergent thinking holds out the seductive promise of effortless creativity, but runs the risk of generating only quasi-creativity or pseudo-creativity if it is not adapted to reality. Thus, creative thinking seems to involve two components: generation of novelty (via divergent thinking) and evaluation of the novelty (via convergent thinking). In the area of convergent thinking, knowledge is of particular importance: It is a source of ideas, suggests pathways to solutions, and provides criteria of effectiveness and novelty. The way in which the two kinds of thinking work together can be understood in terms of thinking styles or of phases in the generation of creative products. In practical situations, divergent thinking without convergent thinking can cause a variety of problems including reckless change. None the less, care must be exercised by those who sing the praises of convergent thinking: Both too little and too much is bad for creativity.
This article presents a systematic method of dream work called the Five Star Method. Based on cocreative dream theory, which views the dream as the product of the interaction between dreamer and dream, this creative intervention shifts the principal focus in dream analysis from the interpretation of static imagery to the analysis of the dreamer's specific responses and overall style of relating to the dream content. Using this method, counselors can foster clients' awareness of problematic patterns of relating, underscore competencies, and elicit a commitment to relating intrapersonally and interpersonally in more resilient and responsible ways. A step-by-step explanation along with a case example illustrates the technique.
There is cognitive, neurological, and computational support for the hypothesis that defocusing attention results in divergent or associative thought, conducive to insight and finding unusual connections, while focusing attention results in convergent or analytic thought, conducive to rule-based operations. Creativity appears to involve both. It is widely believed that it is possible to escape mental fixation by spontaneously and temporarily engaging in a more associative mode of thought. The resulting insight (if found) may be refined in a more analytic mode of thought. The questions addressed here are: (a) How does the architecture of memory support these two modes of thought, and (b) what is happening at the neural level when one shifts between them? Recent advances in neuroscience shed light on this. Activated cell assemblies are composed of multiple neural cliques, groups of neurons that respond differentially to general or context-specific aspects of a situation. I refer to neural cliques that would not be included in the assembly if one were in an analytic mode, but would be if one were in an associative mode, as neurds. It is posited that the shift to a more associative mode of thought is accomplished by recruiting neurds that respond to abstract or atypical microfeatures of the problem or task. Since memory is distributed and content-addressable, this fosters the forging of associations to potentially relevant items previously encoded in those neurons. Thus it is proposed that creative thought occurs not by searching a space of predefined alternatives and blindly tweaking those that hold promise, but by evoking remotely associated items through the recruitment of neurds in a distributed, content-addressable memory.
The purpose of this project was to explore the ways in which culinary creativity fits a modified version of Wallas's classic 192622.
Wallas , G. ( 1926 ). The arts of thought . New York : Harcourt, Brace and World . View all references model of the creative process. In order to analyze the process through which chefs create a specific culinary work (specific dish), the researchers used a qualitative research method. Seventeen award-winning culinary artists from around the world were interviewed, and it was shown how the interview data fit the general categories of Wallas's 4-phase culinary creativity model—preparing the idea, idea incubation, idea development, and evaluation of the product—which the researchers refined via Finke, Ward, and Smith's 19923.
Finke , R. A. , Ward , T. B. , & Smith , S. M. ( 1992 ). Creative cognition Theory, research, and applications . London : Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press . View all references Geneplore model, with its cyclic cognitive subprocesses. What is presumably the most original part of this contribution, then, are not the conceptual categories themselves but the actual interview-based data—the feelings, thoughts, and reflections of top-level international chefs—and the ways in which they seem to fit the categories of a modified 4-phase creative-process model.
This study proposes the Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development, which emphasizes the dynamic relationships among 4 ecological systems, each individually representing personal characteristics, the family and school experiences, organizational environment, and the social milieu. The findings here confirm the patterns of influence of the first 3 ecological systems-namely the microsystem, the mesosystem, and the exosystem-along with that of creative ability on information technology R & D staff across software and hardware companies. The findings fully support the proposed model and strongly suggest that the 3 ecological systems tested dynamically and interactively influence R & D employees' degree of technological creativity, although the patterns of influence vary somewhat across types of companies.
ABSRACT: Although time has been frequently used as a variable or as an implied dimension in creativity research, very few systematic attempts to date have been undertaken to integrate diverse findings and knowledge about the relation of time with creativity. This article proposes a theoretical framework for understanding the various associations between time and creativity in terms of 3 temporal modes: cyclicity, linearity, and timelessness. Cyclical time underlies the periodic and recurring dimensions of creativity, linear time underlies its evolutionary and contextual aspects, and timelessness is related to the deep immersion states of the creative process. This article illustrates the links between creativity and each of the temporal modes with selected findings from the multidisciplinary literature on creativity and discusses implications and further directions for the study of time and creativity.
How is it possible to think new thoughts? What is creativity and can science explain it?
When The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms was first published, Margaret A. Boden's bold and provocative exploration of creativity broke new ground. Boden uses examples such as jazz improvisation, chess, story writing, physics, and the music of Mozart, together with computing models from the field of artificial intelligence to uncover the nature of human creativity in the arts, science and everyday life.
The Second Edition of The Creative Mind has been updated to include recent developments in artificial intelligence, with a new preface, introduction and conclusion by the author. It is an essential work for anyone interested in the creativity of the human mind.
The creative process, one of the key topics discussed in Guilford's (1950) address to the American Psychological Association and his subsequent work, refers to the sequence of thoughts and actions that leads to novel, adaptive productions. This article examines conceptions of the creative process that have been advocated during the past century. In particular, stage-based models of the creative process are discussed and the evolution of these models is traced. Empirical research suggests that the basic 4-stage model of the creative process may need to be revised or replaced. Several key questions about the creative process are raised, such as how the creative process differs from the noncreative process and how process-related differences may lead to different levels of creative performance. New directions for future research are identified.
Introduction. When Archimedes shouted Eureka, “I have found it,” he was experiencing self-consciousness of creativity: he became aware and excited that he had produced a new and valuable idea. Understanding this phenomenon is the ultimate challenge for cognitive science, because it requires simultaneous solution of three of its major problems: the nature of the self, consciousness, and creativity. This chapter will argue that all three problems have the same solution based on three fundamental brain mechanisms: neural representation, recursive binding, and interactive competition. Creative intuition is not a mysterious process of divine inspiration or Platonic apprehension of ideas, but rather the result of identifiable neural processes that operate in all humans. These processes are mechanistic, in that they result from the interactions of parts that produce regular changes (see, e.g., Bechtel, 2008). The historical record is insufficient to determine whether Archimedes really did shout Eureka (when taking a bath gave him an idea for measuring the volume of irregular solids), but there are undoubtedly real examples. For example, Darwin (1987) recorded in his notebook his realization in 1838 that biological evolution could result from natural selection among competing organisms. Many of us have experienced lesser moments of illumination with the same cognitive and emotional structure. For example, here is how I got the idea for my theory of explanatory coherence (Thagard, 1989, 1992). On a Saturday night in spring of 1987, I was in a movie theater watching a boring movie, Beverly Hills Cop 2. For the previous few weeks, I had been excitedly programming a neural network model based on the insight of my collaborator Keith Holyoak that analogical mapping might be a process of parallel constraint satisfaction (Holyoak and Thagard, 1989). The movie was tedious, so I got to thinking about how well the computer program was working and wondering what other problems might be amenable to similar techniques. Suddenly it occurred to me that the main problem of my PhD thesis, evaluation of scientific theories, might also be a matter of satisfying multiple constraints. That evening and the next day, I worked out the details. A creative intuition concerning the connection between analogy and explanatory inference provided me with a new theory and computational model of explanatory coherence, generating my excited Eureka reaction.
What is intuition? What constitutes an intuitive process? Why are intuition concepts important? After many years of scholarly neglect, interest in intuition is now exploding in psychology and cognitive science. Moreover, intuition is also enjoying a renaissance in philosophy. Yet no single definition of intuition appears in contemporary scholarship; there is no consensus on the meaning of this concept in any discipline. Rational Intuition focuses on conceptions of intuition in relation to rational processes. Covering a broad range of historical and contemporary contexts, prominent philosophers, psychologists, and cognitive scientists explore how intuition is implicated in rational activity in its diverse forms. In bringing the philosophical history of intuition into novel dialogue with contemporary philosophical and empirical research, Lisa M. Osbeck and Barbara S. Held invite a comparison of the conceptions and functions of intuition, thereby clarifying and advancing conceptual analysis across disciplines.
In spite of the fact that researchers suggest that managers use intuition when making decisions and solving problems, management education and development has largely ignored or shied away from including intuition in its curriculum. There are few. if any, reported or reported-and-evaluated attempts at the development of managers' intuitive awareness either in business school or in-company programs. We offer a justification for the inclusion of intuition in management education and go on to report the design, implementation, and evaluation of a program for the development of managers' intuitive awareness. The program used a combination of training and extended practice employing a variety of innovative experiential techniques. The program was evaluated by means of content analyses of the logs that participants compiled during the practice phase. Participants reported positively on the program and documented effects in a number of areas related to the context for intuition (inner-outer), the intuitive process (time, place, and pace), and its outcomes (sense of perspective; self-confidence; inter- and intrapersonal sensitivity; metacognition). The implications for the further application of these approaches in management education and development, and some personal reflections on their use are discussed.
The creative process, one of the key topics discussed in Guilford's (1950) address to the American Psychological Association and his subsequent work, refers to the sequence of thoughts and actions that leads to novel, adaptive productions. This article examines conceptions of the creative process that have been advocated during the past century. In particular, stage-based models of the creative process are discussed and the evolution of these models is traced. Empirical research suggests that the basic 4-stage model of the creative process may need to be revised or replaced. Several key questions about the creative process are raised, such as how the creative process differs from the noncreative process and how process-related differences may lead to different levels of creative performance. New directions for future research are identified.
This volume offers a comprehensive overview of the latest neuroscientific approaches to the scientific study of creativity. In chapters that progress logically from neurobiological fundamentals to systems neuroscience and neuroimaging, leading scholars describe the latest theoretical, genetic, structural, clinical, functional, and applied research on the neural bases of creativity. The treatment is both broad and in depth, offering a range of neuroscientific perspectives with detailed coverage by experts in each area. The contributors discuss such issues as the heritability of creativity; creativity in patients with brain damage, neurodegenerative conditions, and mental illness; clinical interventions and the relationship between psychopathology and creativity; neuroimaging studies of intelligence and creativity; the neuroscientific basis of creativity-enhancing methodologies; and the information-processing challenges of viewing visual art.
An integrative introduction to the theories and themes in research on creativity, the second edition of Creativity is both a reference work and text for courses in this burgeoning area of research. The book begins with a discussion of the theories of creativity (Person, Product, Process, Place), the general question of whether creativity is influenced by nature or nurture, what research has indicated of the personality and style of creative individuals from a personality analysis standpoint, and how social context affects creativity. This wide-ranging work then proceeds to coverage of issues such as gender differences, whether creativity can be enhanced, if creativity is related to poor mental or physical health, and much more. The book contains boxes covering special interest items, including one-page biographies of famous creative individuals, and activities for a group or individual to test or encourage creativity, as well as references to Internet sites relating to creativity. Includes all major theories and perspectives on creativity. Consolidates recent research into a single source. Includes key terms defined and text boxes with interesting related material. Single authored for clarity and consistency of presentation.
Although contentious, there is evidence to suggest that nonconscious processes contribute to creative output, particularly during refractory periods. However, no one has examined whether this break benefit differs as a function of creative ability. To address these issues, this investigation examined Wallas's (1926) seminal theoretical framework of creativity. More specifically, the most controversial stage postulated by Wallas, the incubation phase, was empirically tested. A regression analysis demonstrated that productivity is significantly increased when creative people activate nonconscious processes in off-task or incubation periods. There is ongoing debate about the cause(s) of this incubation effect. This research provides evidence that the incubation effect results, at least partially, from nonconscious processing and that it provides greater benefit to more creative individuals. This suggests that highly creative people should be exposed to focus problems/challenges well in advance of objective deadlines, and have freedom to generate solutions outside of structured evaluation times.
This article explores a number of key issues with regard to the measurement of creativity in the course of conducting psychological research or when applying various evaluation measures. It is argued that, although creativity is a fuzzy concept, it is no more difficult to investigate than other fuzzy concepts people tend to take for granted. At the same time, it must be acknowledged that conducting any research investigation or any evaluation has its pitfalls and needs careful attention at all stages. However, fuzzy concepts do pose some problems for evaluation. Examples of these kinds of problems as they relate to creativity are discussed, along with examples of neglected areas of creativity research which need to be tackled and widespread assumptions worth questioning.
Prior investigations into a creativity–meditation connection involving diverse meditation strategies, proficiency levels, and creativity measurement instruments presented mixed results. These results are explained through evidence (primarily from EEG studies) supporting the hypothesis that meditation training variously enhances creative incubation and illumination via transcendence and integration, neuropsychological mechanisms common to both processes. Transcendence surpasses informational limits; integration transforms informational boundaries. In this respect, increased low-alpha power reflects reduced cortical activity and detached witnessing of multimodal information processing; theta indicates an implicit affect-based orientation toward satisfaction and encoding of new information; delta reflects neural silence, signal matching and surprise, and gamma indicates heightened awareness, temporal-spatial binding, and salience. Cortical intra-interhemispheric synchronization, within these EEG spectral bands, is essential to effective creativity and meditation. The relative impact on creativity of various meditation strategies (mindfulness, concentrative and combined) is discussed. Sanyama, an ancient yogic attentional technique embodying both transcendence and integration, provides a unique neuropsychological explanation for extraordinary creativity.
Numerous anecdotal accounts exist of an incubation period promoting creativity and problem solving. This article examines whether incubation is an empirically verifiable phenomenon and the possible role therein of nonconscious processing. An Idea Generation Test was employed to examine (a) whether an incubation effect occurred and (b) the impact of different types of break on this effect. In the Idea Generation Test, two groups of participants were given a distracting break, during which they completed either a similar or an unrelated task, and a third group worked continuously (N = 90). The Idea Generation Test was validated against established measures of cognitive ability and personality, and was found to exhibit variance distinct from those marker tests. Most important, results demonstrated that having a break during which one works on a completely different task is more beneficial for idea production than working on a similar task or generating ideas continuously. The advantage afforded by a break cannot be accounted for in terms of relief from functional fixedness or general fatigue, and, although it may be explicable by relief from task-specific fatigue, explanations of an incubation effect in terms of nonconscious processing should be (re)considered.
The experience of creating fiction, a topic that has been taken up independently in literary publications and in psychological works on creativity, is a promising topic for interdisciplinary conversation. I interviewed five contemporary fiction writers, focusing on their experiences in creating fiction. The commonalities, along with theoretical concepts from psychology, phenomenology, and literary theory, allowed me To construct a tentative modal account. Writers identified seed incidents whose meanings went beyond their narrative understanding and so stimulated exploration and discovery. Writing progressed through alternations between a "writingrealm" (in which the writer withdrew from everyday life with intentions to write, to plan actively for specific works, and to reflect on what had been written) and a "fictionworld" (which was described in more passive terms, in which story elements came to the writer as narrative improvisation unfolded). Like other creative endeavors, the creative process in fiction writing is a voyage of discovery bur differs from most other arts and sciences (even the art of poetry) in one of its major modes of thought-narrative improvisation, a nonreflective mode that typically involves stances in a fictionworld from viewpoints different from one's own. A response to the suggested account by one of the interviewed writers appears as a postscript to this article.
Three experiments tested the prediction that incubation effects are caused by interactions between activation and environmental clues. Participants worked on 20 experimental problems and then were informed that they would have a second chance to work on the problems. Half were told they might see clues before returning to the problems and were instructed to try to use such clues. Participants then had an incubation period during which they generated words from the letters of test words. The test words were either semantically related to experimental problem answers, the actual answers, or unrelated words. Finally, all participants again tried to solve the experimental problems. Resolution, calculated as the number of items solved during the second trial that were not solved initially, was measured. Participants who saw answers during incubation resolved more items than those who saw related words. In Experiment 3, participants receiving no instructions did not differ across clue conditions, whereas instructed participants who saw answers resolved more problems than those who received related words. Participants in the instructed and unrelated condition performed significantly worse than those in the instructed and answer condition. Incubation effects occurred only when participants who were shown answers were also given instructions. No support was found for the theory that incubation effects are caused solely by environmental clues and activation.
Researchers have suggested that certain individuals appear to have an intuitive sense, as they begin their creative work, about what their final product will be like. Many creators have supported this claim. In this article, a critical review of the relevant studies and claims, I suggest that there is at least same validity to the construct of creative intuition. The following four sources of evidence are critically discussed-autobiographical testimonies, analyses of historical evidence, psychometric assessment, and experimental studies. Together, these sources suggest that the notion of creative intuition is coherent, well-grounded, and empirically testable. Although some questions remain, creative intuition may be defined operationally and researched in a systematic way.
This study examined whether or not acute alcohol intoxication inhibits or facilitates fluency and its different components in the illumination phase of Wallas's (1926/1970) 4-stage model of creativity. Twenty-one authors with 21 matched nonauthors were randomly assigned to three groups of equal size: a control group, a placebo group, and an alcohol group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). They received a divergent figurai fluency test that was evaluated in terms of fluency, flexibility, obvious answers, and original answers. The experiment produced three main results: (a) the alcohol group scored lower on flexibility compared to the placebo group, (b) scored higher on originality compared to the control group, and (c) the authors and nonauthors reacted in the same fashion to a moderate dose of alcohol. These results were interpreted as an indication that a moderate dose of alcohol may exert a dual control during the illumination phase of the creative process, by inhibiting or facilitating different components.
Darwinism provides not only a theory of biological evolution but also supplies a more generic process applicable to many phenomena in the behavioral sciences. Among these applications is the blind-variation and selective-retention model of creativity proposed by Campbell (1960). Research over the past 4 decades lends even more support to Campbell's model. This support is indicated by reviewing the experimental, psychometric, and historiometric literature on creativity. Then 4 major objections to the Darwinian model are examined (sociocultural determinism, individual volition, human rationality, and domain expertise). The article concludes by speculating whether the Darwinian model may actually subsume all alternative theories of creativity as special cases of the larger framework.
This article presents a review and integration of the literature on incubation. The review indicates that (a) the experimental investigation of incubation tends to focus on the observation and measurement of cognitive-mental processes; (b) the current research on incubation only infrequently considers the phenomenon of variance in psychological states during the incubation phase in solving interpolation problems and solving dialectic problems; and (c) sensory-perceptual phenomena, such as symbol formation, occurring during incubation, are too rarely considered. The review also identifies a need for the development of methodologies that consider the range of cognitive-mental and sensory-perceptual processes involved in the development of novel understanding and original discovery.
There is a possible link between creativity and insomnia. No research on the influence of creative talents exists, although there are several reasons to predict that creative tendencies could increase the likelihood of insomnia. There are, for example, anecdotal reports of persistence and single-mindedness in creative persons and in descriptions of creative work. The aim of this study was to look at the incidence of sleep difficulties in 30 highly creative children compared with 30 control children. The hypothesis was that there would be a higher incidence of sleep disturbance in highly creative children than in control children. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups, with the creative children reporting more sleep disturbance, thus suggesting that creative ability may affect an individual's sleep patterns.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate creativity for realistic divergent thinking problems, under concurrent and sequential task conditions (CTC and STC, respectively). Creativity was judged on divergence, novelty, appropriateness, and fluency of solutions. Results of Experiment I revealed that creativity was significantly higher under CTC than under STC. Embedded Figures Test was employed to rule out a possible alternative explanation that better performance under CTC is due to difference in creative potential between individuals participating under the two task conditions. Experiment II employed a control group to investigate whether difference in creative performance under the two conditions is due to a facilitation effect or a distraction effect, as compared to the control condition. Results showed a significant distraction effect under STC, and indicated, though not significant, a facilitation effect under CTC. Findings are understood in light of the associative theories of creativity, which highlight the role of attentional mechanisms in the creative process. Some indexes for measuring creative performance on realistic divergent thinking tasks are validated against conventional measures.
A break in the attentive activity devoted to a problem may eventually facilitate the solution process. This phenomenon is known by the name incubation. A new hypothesis regarding the incubation mechanism is suggested. It is based on analysis of the structure of insight problems and their solution process. According to this hypothesis, no activity takes place during the break. The break's only function is to divert the solver's attention from the problem, thus releasing her mind from the grip of a false organizing assumption. This enables the solver to apply a new organizing assumption to the problem's components upon returning to the problem. The numbers of experimental studies that confirm the existence of the incubation phenomenon, and those that do not support it, are roughly equal, thus the primary experimental aim of the study is to improve the methodology of manipulating the break. This was done by starting the break only after an impasse has been reached. The results indicate that the break improves performance in insight problem solving, but its length does not make a difference. This supports the suggested hypothesis and does not support hypotheses that postulate unconscious ongoing processes during the break.
Three ancient yogic philosophies, describing the evolution of cognitive-affective phenomena toward the nondual state of yoga, or union, (e.g., dissolution of the subject-object dichotomy) couple with empirical studies to redefine, and expand, existing constructs for, and relationship between, creativity and intelligence. The Ocean Model addresses the integration of novelty, appropriateness, and authenticity in creative endeavor with intelligence: the intrinsic factors being recognition, informational limitation, choice, and selective adaptation to the environment. Creativity and intelligence are described in three increasingly subtle states, crystallized, fluid, and vacuous, which are influenced by the psychological interplay of dispassion (vairāgya) and discrimination (viveka) at variegated levels. It is argued that the key difference between intelligence and creativity lies in the nature of intention: whether limited or, transcendent. A 9-module matrix is developed to map variations in the expanded creativity-intelligence relationship. Suggestions for empirically testing the Ocean Model are further supported by studies of empathy and wisdom. A unique method to test dispassion, involving ambivalent character traits and their relationship to psychological integration, is presented.
Creativity is vital to organizational success. Information technologies (IT) have increasingly become a major influence on organizational efficiency and effectiveness. However, there has been a paucity of research aimed at specifying the relationship between these two areas of scholarship. This article will begin to fill this gap by exploring the ways that IT might influence creativity in organizations. This is important for organizational studies, given that knowledge and information are among the most important ingredients for creativity and are the very things that IT exist to manage. In this article, the creativity literature and much of the management oriented IT literature will be explored to suggest that IT plays an integral role in the creative process within organizations. Specifically, the main benefits that IT affords organizations will be considered and then applied to the requirements for creative production, the stages of the individual creative process, the process of organizational learning as related to creativity, and the creative process within large-scale project-based work. In addition, the conclusion will address the potential limitations of IT in relation to creativity as well as several thoughts concerning future research.
Cognitive neuroscience studies of creativity have appeared with increasing frequently in recent years. Yet to date, no comprehensive and critical review of these studies has yet been published. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the 3 primary methodologies used by cognitive neuroscientists: electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The second part provides a comprehensive review of cognitive neuroscience studies of creativity-related cognitive processes. The third part critically examines these studies; the goal is to be extremely clear about exactly what interpretations can appropriately be made of these studies. The conclusion provides recommendations for future research collaborations between creativity researchers and cognitive neuroscientists.
This study looked at the relation between a culinary artist's (or chef's) invisible creative process and his or her creative performance (manifest actions and products). Beginning with Wallas's (192623.
Wallas , G. ( 1926 ). The art of thought . New York : Harcourt Brace . View all references) classic model of a 4-phase creative process—idea preparation, idea incubation, idea development, and verification of the new work's creativity—as modified by Amabile, Finke et al., it was hypothesized that (a) the creative culinary process (CCP) comprises these 4 phases; (b) these 4 phases (or subprocesses) of the CCP have an impact on one another that is both positive and cumulative; and (c) the entire CCP has a direct, positive, cumulative impact on the artist's culinary performance. A conceptual model was then developed, one that extended the modified model of Wallas so that, in addition to process, it also included performance. Then this model was used to explore the interrelationships among the 4 phases of the CCP and creative culinary performance and to test the 3 hypotheses. Within certain limits, these hypotheses were shown to be valid. The results of this study have clear implications for the understanding and promoting of creativity, not only in the culinary arts, but in all arts.
Dreaming has been postulated to be a functional intrapersonal component of the creative experience. In this study, a previously validated questionnaire is used in a sleep laboratory population (N = 517) to assess levels of dream incorporation into waking behavior. Those responses are correlated with reported levels of involvement and self-defined types of the creative process. Greater involvement in creative process was significantly associated with greater incorporation of dreams into waking behavior. The reported types of creative outlet were divided for analysis between those with a creative product and those without product (experiential). The creative product grouping showed higher levels of reported dream incorporation into behavior than the experiential grouping, with both of these groupings reporting significantly higher levels of dream incorporation into waking behavior than the grouping reporting no creative outlet. Gender differences were found for both incorporation of dreaming into waking (significantly higher responses in females) and types of creative outlet (creative product significantly higher in females, experiential in males). In this study, level of interest in the creative process was positively correlated with reported level of dream incorporation into waking behavior. This study suggests that dreaming is likely to have a functional role in the creative process.