The effect of stearic acid and triethanolamine (tea) on physical and chemical properties of cosmetic emulsion using coconut oil as raw material

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The aim of this research was to study the effect of stearic acid and TEA concentration on physical and chemical properties of cosmetic emulsion using coconut oil as raw material. The emulsion was made by emulsification of water phase (glycerin, aquadest and TEA) and oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin, cetyl alcohol). To determine the effect of stearic acid and TEA concentration on properties of emulsion, these components were added in various concentrations. The physical and chemical properties of emulsions were then measured such as pH, viscosity and droplet size. The result showed that the viscosity of emulsions was increased by increasing stearic acid concentration, on the other hand the droplet size decreased. The pH of emulsion was in the range of 7. 58-7. 96. If the TEA concentration was increased, the pH and viscosity were also increased, but it caused a decrease in droplets size. These mean that stearic acid and TEA concentration affected the physical and chemical properties of cosmetic emulsions.

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Xerosis is a common skin condition (1) characterized by dry, rough, scaly, and itchy skin, (2) associated with a defect in skin barrier function, and (3) treated with moisturizers. People in the tropics have effectively used coconut oil as a traditional moisturizer for centuries. Recently, the oil also has been shown to have skin antiseptic effects. A moisturizer with antiseptic effects has value, but there are no clinical studies to document the efficacy and safety of coconut oil as a skin moisturizer. This study aimed to determine the effectivity and safety of virgin coconut oil compared with mineral oil as a therapeutic moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis. A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on mild to moderate xerosis in 34 patients with negative patch-test reactions to the test products. These patients were randomized to apply either coconut oil or mineral oil on the legs twice a day for 2 weeks. Quantitative outcome parameters for effectivity were measured at baseline and on each visit with a Corneometer CM825 to measure skin hydration and a Sebumeter SM 810 to measure skin lipids. For safety, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Tewameter TM210, and skin surface hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was measured with a Skin pH Meter PH900. Patients and the investigator separately evaluated, at baseline and at each weekly visit, skin symptoms of dryness, scaling, roughness, and pruritus by using a visual analogue scale and grading of xerosis. Coconut oil and mineral oil have comparable effects. Both oils showed effectivity through significant improvement in skin hydration and increase in skin surface lipid levels. Safety was demonstrated through no significant difference in TEWL and skin pH. Subjective grading of xerosis by the investigators and visual analogue scales used by the patients showed a general trend toward better (though not statistically evident) improvement with coconut oil than with mineral oil. Safety for both was further demonstrated by negative patch-test results prior to the study and by the absence of adverse reactions during the study. Coconut oil is as effective and safe as mineral oil when used as a moisturizer.
Today, virgin coconut oil (VCO) is becoming valuable oil and is receiving an attractive topic for researchers because of its several biological activities. In cosmetics industry, VCO is excellent material which functions as a skin moisturizer and softener. Therefore, it is important to develop a quantitative analytical method offering a fast and reliable technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with sample handling technique of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) can be successfully used to analyze VCO quantitatively in cream cosmetic preparations. A multivariate analysis using calibration of partial least square (PLS) model revealed the good relationship between actual value and FTIR-predicted value of VCO with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998.
Stearic acid and triethanolamine (TEA) in a molar ratio of 2:1 were mixed in aqueous solution at 80 degrees C and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature. The structural evolution of the resultant sample during storage was characterized by using light microscopy, Cryo-SEM, differential scanning calorimetery, pH, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and simultaneous small and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. It was found that a lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed when stearic acid and TEA solution were mixed at 80 degrees C and multilamellar spheres of a few microns diameter were formed initially after cooling. A hydrolysis reaction (i.e., the reverse reaction of neutralization between stearic acid and TEA) occurred thereafter that caused the breakdown of the lamellar gel phase and the formation of platelet stearic acid crystals. Three polymorphs of stearic acid (defined following previous work as the A, C, and E forms) were formed as the result of hydrolysis reaction, which gave rise to a strong optically pearlescent appearance.