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The Key to Classroom Management

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Today, we know more about teaching than we ever have before. Research has shown us that teachers' actions in their classrooms have twice the impact on student achievement as do school policies regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and community involvement (Marzano, 2003a). We also know that one of the classroom teacher's most important jobs is managing the classroom effectively. A comprehensive literature review by Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993) amply demonstrates the importance of effective classroom management. These researchers analyzed 86 chapters from annual research reviews, 44 handbook chapters, 20 government and commissioned reports, and 11 journal articles to produce a list of 228 variables affecting student achievement. They combined the results of these analyses with the findings from 134 separate meta-analyses. Of all the variables, classroom management had the largest effect on student achievement. This makes intuitive sense— students cannot learn in a chaotic, poorly managed classroom. Research not only supports the importance of classroom management, but it also sheds light on the dynamics of classroom management. Stage and Quiroz's meta-analysis (1997) shows the importance of there being a balance between teacher actions that To save: Click "File" at the top left of the screen and scroll down to "Save As". Click on "Save As" and choose where to save the file. (You may want to save to "A" drive or to a file on your desktop.) To print: Look at the top left of your toolbar. Click on "File" and then scroll down to "Print". Print the page(s) for your notebook that you are compiling. To record: Remember to record the number of minutes or hours spent on this activity on your records sheet for CEU credit.
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Educational Leadership
September 2003 | Volume 61 | Number 1
Building Classroom Relationships Pages 6-13
The Key to Classroom Management
By using research-based strategies combining appropriate levels of dominance and
cooperation and an awareness of student needs, teachers can build positive classroom
dynamics.
Robert J. Marzano and Jana S. Marzano
Today, we know more about teaching than we ever have before. Research has shown us
that teachers' actions in their classrooms have twice the impact on student achievement as
do school policies regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and community
involvement (Marzano, 2003a). We also know that one of the classroom teacher's most
important jobs is managing the classroom effectively.
A comprehensive literature review by Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993) amply
demonstrates the importance of effective classroom management. These researchers
analyzed 86 chapters from annual research reviews, 44 handbook chapters, 20
government and commissioned reports, and 11 journal articles to produce a list of 228
variables affecting student achievement. They combined the results of these analyses with
the findings from 134 separate meta-analyses. Of all the variables, classroom
management had the largest effect on student achievement. This makes intuitive sense
students cannot learn in a chaotic, poorly managed classroom.
Research not only supports the importance of classroom management, but it also sheds
light on the dynamics of classroom management. Stage and Quiroz's meta-analysis
(1997) shows the importance of there being a balance between teacher actions that
provide clear consequences for unacceptable behavior and teacher actions that recognize
and reward acceptable behavior. Other researchers (Emmer, Evertson, & Worsham, 2003;
Evertson, Emmer, & Worsham, 2003) have identified important components of
classroom management, including beginning the school year with a positive emphasis on
management; arranging the room in a way conducive to effective management; and
identifying and implementing rules and operating procedures.
In a recent meta-analysis of more than 100 studies (Marzano, 2003b), we found that the
quality of teacher-student relationships is the keystone for all other aspects of classroom
management. In fact, our meta-analysis indicates that on average, teachers who had high-
quality relationships with their students had 31 percent fewer discipline problems, rule
violations, and related problems over a year's time than did teachers who did not have
high-quality relationships with their students.
What are the characteristics of effective teacher-student relationships? Let's first consider
what they are not. Effective teacher-student relationships have nothing to do with the
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 1 of 11
teacher's personality or even with whether the students view the teacher as a friend.
Rather, the most effective teacher-student relationships are characterized by specific
teacher behaviors: exhibiting appropriate levels of dominance; exhibiting appropriate
levels of cooperation; and being aware of high-needs students.
Appropriate Levels of Dominance
Wubbels and his colleagues (Wubbels, Brekelmans, van Tartwijk, & Admiral, 1999;
Wubbels & Levy, 1993) identify appropriate dominance as an important characteristic of
effective teacher-student relationships. In contrast to the more negative connotation of the
term dominance as forceful control or command over others, they define dominance as
the teacher's ability to provide clear purpose and strong guidance regarding both
academics and student behavior. Studies indicate that when asked about their preferences
for teacher behavior, students typically express a desire for this type of teacher-student
interaction. For example, in a study that involved interviews with more than 700 students
in grades 4–7, students articulated a clear preference for strong teacher guidance and
control rather than more permissive types of teacher behavior (Chiu & Tulley, 1997).
Teachers can exhibit appropriate dominance by establishing clear behavior expectations
and learning goals and by exhibiting assertive behavior.
Establish Clear Expectations and Consequences
Teachers can establish clear expectations for behavior in two ways: by establishing clear
rules and procedures, and by providing consequences for student behavior.
The seminal research of the 1980s (Emmer, 1984; Emmer, Sanford, Evertson, Clements,
& Martin, 1981; Evertson & Emmer, 1982) points to the importance of establishing rules
and procedures for general classroom behavior, group work, seat work, transitions and
interruptions, use of materials and equipment, and beginning and ending the period or the
day. Ideally, the class should establish these rules and procedures through discussion and
mutual consent by teacher and students (Glasser, 1969, 1990).
Along with well-designed and clearly communicated rules and procedures, the teacher
must acknowledge students' behavior, reinforcing acceptable behavior and providing
negative consequences for unacceptable behavior. Stage and Quiroz's research (1997) is
instructive. They found that teachers build effective relationships through such strategies
as the following:
Using a wide variety of verbal and physical reactions to students' misbehavior,
such as moving closer to offend-ing students and using a physical cue, such as a
finger to the lips, to point out inappropriate behavior.
Cuing the class about expected behaviors through prearranged signals, such as
raising a hand to indicate that all students should take their seats.
Providing tangible recognition of appropriate behavior—with tokens or chits, for
example.
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 2 of 11
Employing group contingency policies that hold the entire group responsible for
behavioral expectations.
Employing home contingency techniques that involve rewards and sanctions at
home.
Establish Clear Learning Goals
Teachers can also exhibit appropriate levels of dominance by providing clarity about the
content and expectations of an upcoming instructional unit. Important teacher actions to
achieve this end include
Establishing and communicating learning goals at the beginning of a unit of
instruction.
Providing feedback on those goals.
Continually and systematically re-visiting the goals.
Providing summative feedback regarding the goals.
The use of rubrics can help teachers establish clear goals. To illustrate, assume that a
teacher has identified the learning goal "understanding and using fractions" as important
for a given unit. That teacher might present students with the following rubric:
4 points. You understand the characteristics of fractions along with the different types.
You can accurately describe how fractions are related to decimals and percentages. You
can convert fractions to decimals and can explain how and why the process works. You
can use fractions to understand and solve different types of problems.
3 points. You understand the basic characteristics of fractions. You know how fractions
are related to decimals and percentages. You can convert fractions to decimals.
2 points. You have a basic understanding of the following, but have some small
misunderstandings about one or more: the characteristics of fractions; the relationships
among fractions, decimals, and percentages; how to convert fractions to decimals.
1 point. You have some major problems or misunderstandings with one or more of the
following: the characteristics of fractions; the relationships among fractions, decimals,
and percentages; how to convert fractions to decimals.
0 points. You may have heard of the following before, but you do not understand what
they mean: the characteristics of fractions; the relationships among fractions, decimals,
and percentages; how to convert fractions to decimals.
The clarity of purpose provided by this rubric communicates to students that their teacher
can provide proper guidance and direction in academic content.
Exhibit Assertive Behavior
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 3 of 11
Teachers can also communicate appropriate levels of dominance by exhibiting assertive
behavior. According to Emmer and colleagues, assertive behavior is
the ability to stand up for one's legitimate rights in ways that make it less likely that
others will ignore or circumvent them. (2003, p. 146)
Assertive behavior differs significantly from both passive behavior and aggressive
behavior. These researchers explain that teachers display assertive behavior in the
classroom when they
Use assertive body language by maintaining an erect posture, facing the offending
student but keeping enough distance so as not to appear threatening and matching
the facial expression with the content of the message being presented to students.
Use an appropriate tone of voice, speaking clearly and deliberately in a pitch that
is slightly but not greatly elevated from normal classroom speech, avoiding any
display of emotions in the voice.
Persist until students respond with the appropriate behavior. Do not ignore an
inappropriate behavior; do not be diverted by a student denying, arguing, or
blaming, but listen to legitimate explanations.
Appropriate Levels of Cooperation
Cooperation is characterized by a concern for the needs and opinions of others. Although
not the antithesis of dominance, cooperation certainly occupies a different realm.
Whereas dominance focuses on the teacher as the driving force in the classroom,
cooperation focuses on the students and teacher functioning as a team. The interaction of
these two dynamics—dominance and cooperation—is a central force in effective teacher-
student relationships. Several strategies can foster appropriate levels of cooperation.
Provide Flexible Learning Goals
Just as teachers can communicate appropriate levels of dominance by providing clear
learning goals, they can also convey appropriate levels of cooperation by providing
flexible learning goals. Giving students the opportunity to set their own objectives at the
beginning of a unit or asking students what they would like to learn conveys a sense of
cooperation. Assume, for example, that a teacher has identified the topic of fractions as
the focus of a unit of instruction and has provided students with a rubric. The teacher
could then ask students to identify some aspect of fractions or a related topic that they
would particularly like to study. Giving students this kind of choice, in addition to
increasing their understanding of the topic, conveys the message that the teacher cares
about and tries to accommodate students' interests.
Take a Personal Interest in Students
Probably the most obvious way to communicate appropriate levels of cooperation is to
take a personal interest in each student in the class. As McCombs and Whisler (1997)
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 4 of 11
note, all students appreciate personal attention from the teacher. Although busy
teachers—particularly those at the secondary level—do not have the time for extensive
interaction with all students, some teacher actions can communicate personal interest and
concern without taking up much time. Teachers can
Talk informally with students before, during, and after class about their interests.
Greet students outside of school—for instance, at extracurricular events or at the
store.
Single out a few students each day in the lunchroom and talk with them.
Be aware of and comment on important events in students' lives, such as
participation in sports, drama, or other extracurricular activities.
Compliment students on important achievements in and outside of school.
Meet students at the door as they come into class; greet each one by name.
Use Equitable and Positive Classroom Behaviors
Programs like Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement emphasize the importance
of the subtle ways in which teachers can communicate their interest in students (Kerman,
Kimball, & Martin, 1980). This program recommends many practical strategies that
emphasize equitable and positive classroom interactions with all students. Teachers
should, for example,
Make eye contact with each student. Teachers can make eye contact by scanning
the entire room as they speak and by freely moving about all sections of the room.
Deliberately move toward and stand close to each student during the class period.
Make sure that the seating arrangement allows the teacher and students clear and
easy ways to move around the room.
Attribute the ownership of ideas to the students who initiated them. For instance,
in a discussion a teacher might say, "Cecilia just added to Aida's idea by saying
that . . . ."
Allow and encourage all students to participate in class discussions and
interactions. Make sure to call on students who do not commonly participate, not
just those who respond most frequently.
Provide appropriate wait time for all students to respond to questions, regardless
of their past performance or your perception of their abilities.
Awareness of High-Needs Students
Classroom teachers meet daily with a broad cross-section of students. In general, 12–22
percent of all students in school suffer from mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders,
and relatively few receive mental health services (Adelman & Taylor, 2002). The
Association of School Counselors notes that 18 per-cent of students have special needs
and require extraordinary interventions and treatments that go beyond the typical
resources available to the classroom (Dunn & Baker, 2002).
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 5 of 11
Although the classroom teacher is certainly not in a position to directly address such
severe problems, teachers with effective classroom management skills are aware of high-
needs students and have a repertoire of specific techniques for meeting some of their
needs (Marzano, 2003b). Figure 1 (p. 10) summarizes five categories of high-needs
students and suggests classroom strategies for each category and subcategory.
Passive students fall into two subcategories: those who fear relationships and
those who fear failure. Teachers can build strong relationships with these students
by refraining from criticism, rewarding small successes, and creating a classroom
climate in which students feel safe from aggressive people.
The category of aggressive students comprises three subcategories: hostile,
oppositional, and covert. Hostile students often have poor anger control, low
capacity for empathy, and an inability to see the consequences of their actions.
Oppositional students exhibit milder forms of behavior problems, but they
consistently resist following rules, argue with adults, use harsh language, and tend
to annoy others. Students in the covert subcategory may be quite pleasant at
times, but they are often nearby when trouble starts and they never quite do what
authority figures ask of them. Strategies for helping aggressive students include
creating behavior contracts and providing immediate rewards and consequences.
Most of all, teachers must keep in mind that aggressive students, although they
may appear highly resistant to behavior change, are still children who are
experiencing a significant amount of fear and pain.
Students with attention problems fall into two categories: hyperactive and
inattentive. These students may respond well when teachers contract with them to
manage behaviors; teach them basic concentration, study, and thinking skills; help
them divide tasks into manageable parts; reward their successes; and assign them
a peer tutor.
Students in the perfectionist category are driven to succeed at unattainable levels.
They are self-critical, have low self-esteem, and feel inferior. Teachers can often
help these students by encouraging them to develop more realistic standards,
helping them to accept mistakes, and giving them opportunities to tutor other
students.
Socially inept students have difficulty making and keeping friends. They may
stand too close and touch others in annoying ways, talk too much, and misread
others' comments. Teachers can help these students by counseling them about
social behaviors.
Figure 1. Categories of High-Needs Students
Category Definitions &
Source
Characteristics Suggestions
Passive Behavior that
avoids the
Fear of
relationships:
Provide safe
adult and peer
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 6 of 11
domination of
others or the pain
of negative
experiences. The
child attempts to
protect self from
criticism, ridicule,
or rejection,
possibly reacting
to abuse and
neglect. Can have
a biochemical
basis, such as
anxiety.
Avoids
connection with
others, is shy,
doesn't initiate
conversations,
attempts to be
invisible.
Fear of failure:
Gives up easily,
is convinced he
or she can't
succeed, is
easily frustrated,
uses negative
self-talk.
interactions and
protection from
aggressive
people. Provide
assertiveness
and positive
self-talk
training. Reward
small successes
quickly.
Withhold
criticism.
Aggressive
Behavior that
overpowers,
dominates, harms,
or controls others
without regard for
their well-being.
The child has
often taken
aggressive people
as role models.
Has had minimal
or in-effective
limits set on
behavior. Is
possibly reacting
to abuse and
neglect. Condition
may have a
biochemical basis,
such as
depression.
Hostile: Rages,
threatens, or
intimidates
others. Can be
verbally or
physically
abusive to
people, animals,
or objects.
Oppositional:
Does opposite of
what is asked.
Demands that
others agree or
give in. Resists
verbally or
nonverbally.
Covert:
Appears to agree
but then does the
opposite of what
is asked. Often
acts innocent
while setting up
problems for
others.
Describe the
student's
behavior clearly.
Contract with
the student to
reward corrected
behavior and set
up consequences
for uncorrected
behavior. Be
consistent and
provide
immediate
rewards and
consequences.
Encourage and
acknowledge
extracurricular
activities in and
out of school.
Give student
responsibilities
to help teacher
or other students
to foster
successful
experiences.
Attention Behavior that Hyperactive: Contract with
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 7 of 11
problems demonstrates
either motor or
attentional
difficulties
resulting from a
neurological
disorder. The
child's symptoms
may be
exacerbated by
family or social
stressors or
biochemical
conditions, such
as anxiety,
depression, or
bipolar disorders.
Has difficulty
with motor
control, both
physically and
verbally.
Fidgets, leaves
seat frequently,
interrupts, talks
excessively.
Inattentive: Has
difficulty
staying focused
and following
through on
projects. Has
difficulty with
listening,
remembering,
and organizing.
the student to
manage
behaviors.
Teach basic
concentration,
study, and
thinking skills.
Separate student
in a quiet work
area. Help the
student list each
step of a task.
Reward
successes;
assign a peer
tutor.
Perfectionist
Behavior that is
geared toward
avoiding the
embarrassment
and assumed
shame of making
mistakes. The
child fears what
will happen if
errors are
discovered. Has
unrealistically
high expectations
of self. Has
possibly received
criticism or lack
of acceptance
while making
mistakes during
the process of
learning.
Tends to focus
too much on the
small details of
projects. Will
avoid projects if
unsure of
outcome.
Focuses on
results and not
relationships. Is
self-critical.
Ask the student
to make
mistakes on
purpose, then
show
acceptance.
Have the student
tutor other
students.
Socially
inept
Behavior that is
based on the
misinterpretation
of nonverbal
Attempts to
make friends but
is inept and
unsuccessful. Is
Teach the
student to keep
the appropriate
physical
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 8 of 11
signals of others.
The child
misunderstands
facial expressions
and body
language. Hasn't
received adequate
training in these
areas and has poor
role modeling.
forced to be
alone. Is often
teased for
unusual
behavior,
appearance, or
lack of social
skills.
distance from
others. Teach
the meaning of
facial
expressions,
such as anger
and hurt. Make
suggestions
regarding
hygiene, dress,
mannerisms, and
posture.
Source: Marzano, R.J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating
research into action (pp. 104–105). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
School may be the only place where many students who face extreme challenges can get
their needs addressed. The reality of today's schools often demands that classroom
teachers address these severe issues, even though this task is not always considered a part
of their regular job.
In a study of classroom strategies (see Brophy, 1996; Brophy & McCaslin, 1992),
researchers examined how effective classroom teachers interacted with specific types of
students. The study found that the most effective classroom managers did not treat all
students the same; they tended to employ different strategies with different types of stu-
dents. In contrast, ineffective classroom managers did not appear sensitive to the diverse
needs of students. Although Brophy did not couch his findings in terms of teacher-student
relationships, the link is clear. An awareness of the five general categories of high-needs
students and appropriate actions for each can help teachers build strong relationships with
diverse students.
Don't Leave Relationships to Chance
Teacher-student relationships provide an essential foundation for effective classroom
management—and classroom management is a key to high student achievement.
Teacher-student relationships should not be left to chance or dictated by the personalities
of those involved. Instead, by using strategies supported by research, teachers can
influence the dynamics of their classrooms and build strong teacher-student relationships
that will support student learning.
References
Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (2002). School counselors and school reform: New
directions. Professional School Counseling, 5(4), 235–248.
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 9 of 11
Brophy, J. E. (1996). Teaching problem students. New York: Guilford.
Brophy, J. E., & McCaslin, N. (1992). Teachers' reports of how they perceive and cope
with problem students. Elementary School Journal, 93, 3–68.
Chiu, L. H., & Tulley, M. (1997). Student preferences of teacher discipline styles.
Journal of Instructional Psychology, 24(3), 168–175.
Dunn, N. A., & Baker, S. B. (2002). Readiness to serve students with disabilities: A
survey of elementary school counselors. Professional School Counselors, 5(4), 277–284.
Emmer, E. T. (1984). Classroom management: Research and implications. (R & D
Report No. 6178). Austin, TX: Research and Development Center for Teacher Education,
University of Texas. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED251448)
Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M., & Worsham, M. E. (2003). Classroom management for
secondary teachers (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Emmer, E. T., Sanford, J. P., Evertson, C. M., Clements, B. S., & Martin, J. (1981). The
classroom management improvement study: An experiment in elementary school
classrooms. (R & D Report No. 6050). Austin, TX: Research and Development Center
for Teacher Education, University of Texas. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED226452)
Evertson, C. M., & Emmer, E. T. (1982). Preventive classroom management. In D. Duke
(Ed.), Helping teachers manage classrooms (pp. 2–31). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T., & Worsham, M. E. (2003). Classroom management for
elementary teachers (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Glasser, W. (1969). Schools without failure. New York: Harper and Row.
Glasser, W. (1990). The quality school: Managing students without coercion. New York:
Harper and Row.
Kerman, S., Kimball, T., & Martin, M. (1980). Teacher expectations and student
achievement. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan.
Marzano, R. J. (2003a). What works in schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Marzano, R. J. (with Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J.). (2003b). Classroom
management that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
McCombs, B. L., & Whisler, J. S. (1997). The learner-centered classroom and school.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Stage, S. A., & Quiroz, D. R. (1997). A meta-analysis of interventions to decrease
disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings. School Psychology Review,
26(3), 333–368.
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for
school learning. Review of Educational Research, 63(3), 249–294.
Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., van Tartwijk, J., & Admiral, W. (1999). Interpersonal
relationships between teachers and students in the classroom. In H. C. Waxman & H. J.
Walberg (Eds.), New directions for teaching practice and research (pp. 151–170).
Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
Wubbels, T., & Levy, J. (1993). Do you know what you look like? Interpersonal
relationships in education. London: Falmer Press.
Robert J. Marzano is a senior scholar at Mid-continent Research for Education and
Learning in Aurora, Colorado, and an associate professor at Cardinal Stritch University in
Milwaukee, Wisconsin; (303) 796-7683; robertjmarzano@aol.com. His newest book
written with Jana S. Marzano and Debra J. Pickering is Classroom Management That
Works (ASCD, 2003). Jana S. Marzano is a licensed professional counselor in private
practice in Centennial, Colorado; (303) 220-1151; janamarzan@aol.com.
Copyright © 2003 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Marzano Keys CRM.doc Page 11 of 11
... Emmer and Stough (2001) state that effective classroom management consists of teacher behaviours that produce high level of students' involvement in classroom activities, minimal amounts of students' maladaptive behaviours that can interfere with the teacher's or other students' work, and efficient use of instructional time. Marzano and Marzano (2003) agree that what will make a classroom to be effectively managed are the characteristics inherent in the teacher. That is, effective classroom manager provides effective instruction. ...
... This result is in line with the submission of Marzano and Marzano (2003) that the characteristics inherent in the teacher will determine effective classroom management. The findings also align with that of Ryan and Deci (2000) as well as that of Osim (2011), that had earlier submitted that effective classroom management cannot be divorced from manageable class size, a school climate that encourages teaching and learning, adequately motivated teachers and teachers that have spent reasonable time mastering the act of teaching. ...
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... In order to promote good behaviour and discourage undesirable behaviour, teachers must also design, execute, and monitor classroom expectations. Marzano & Marzano (2003) state that teachers need to set up clear expectations for student conduct as well as repercussions for improper behavior. Glasser (1998) asserts that educators must design lessons and a learning environment that prevent the recurrence of improper actions. ...
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The teacher as a person who has a great influence on overall student achievement. And all these achievements of students learn and achieve in the classroom with the guidance of the teacher. This study was conducted to take the perception of the teachers regarding their classroom in terms of instructional planning, learning environment, classroom management, subject matter competencies and students’ achievement. In quantitative term, the survey method was adopted to conduct this research study. The sampling size for the study comprised of 370 teachers (per college 5 teachers) from 40% (74) colleges of the population. In order to collect data the researcher was self-developed an instrument in the form of a questionnaire. Pilot testing from 40 teachers in 20 colleges (per college 02 teachers) was carried out in order to check the reliability. The Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated in order to check the reliability of the instrument. The reliability coefficient obtained for the overall questionnaire was .82 Alpha levels. The finding of the study through the descriptive statistics on SPSS- 26, the college teachers’ perception regarding their classroom performance in terms of “instructional planning, Subject matter competencies, and Student Achievement” was found consistency in the perception of the teachers. However, the result of college teachers’ perception regarding their classroom performance in terms of “learning environment and classroom management” were found inconsistency in the perception of the teachers.
... In their study with more than 100 students, Marzano and Marzano (2003) reported that instructors with strong connections with their students have 31% less discipline problems, such as rule breaking, than teachers with poor ties with their students. ...
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Most of the time, people prefer to use their body language as a way to communicate without words. For empathy in these situations, you also need to be good at communicating without words. To understand what people are really thinking and feeling, you need to be able to read their body language and facial expressions. This takes empathy skills. Empathy helps explain things like illusions, feelings, and moral feelings. Empathy brings behaviors and feelings to the same level. Empathy is important on an instinctual level. Empathy first showed up in psychology, where it was found that when empathy worked, so did the therapy. People's lives have been shown to get better in places where empathy education is taught. Empathy makes life better, and it is a process that affects the whole person. Assuming that empathy has a big effect not only on relationships and behaviors but also on learning, this effect is likely to depend on how much empathy teachers show. Taking into account the existing body of literature pertinent to the topic at hand, the purpose of this study is to investigate, on the basis of this context, the relationship between the ability of teachers to demonstrate empathy and their capacity to manage a classroom.
... Ebenso ist der Umgang mit herausforderndem Verhalten wie externalisierendem oder extrem schüchternem Verhalten abhängig vom Geschlecht der Schüler*innen (Glock & Kleen, 2017). In Zusammenhang damit konnte gezeigt werden, dass Lehrkräfte Mädchen mit umgänglichem und bravem Verhalten assoziieren (Glock & Kleen, 2017), und Störverhalten, vor allem von leistungsschwachen Schüler*innen, bei Mitschüler*innen als maskulin empfunden wird (Kessels & Heyder, 2020 eine positive Lehrer*innen-Schüler*innen-Beziehung, die von vielen Autor*innen als der "Schüssel" zum Classroom Management gesehen wird (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). Aus diesem Grund erscheint es wichtig, Lehramtsstudierende an den Universitäten nicht nur in einem effizienten Classroom Management zu schulen, sondern gleichzeitig für den Einfluss stereotyper Erwartungen, der oftmals automatisch geschieht (Bargh, 1999), zu sensibilisieren. ...
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The 2020/2021 Covid-19 pandemic generated substantial changes in education throughout the world. Rapid changes had to be executed without sufficient time for replanning the course of teaching. In addition to applying and extending familiar methods and techniques, instructors and institute leaders developed creative ideas for addressing this emergency situation. A crucial question concerns whether educators switched to methodological approaches and tools that differed from those utilised previously. In addition to providing an overview of the educational programme’s methodological background, this paper presents some of the particular changes that were introduced in the context of courses in foreign language teacher’s education at Eötvös Loránd University’s Faculty of Primary and Preschool Education (ELTE TÓK).
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Teachers can use seating arrangements to effectively manage classroom dynamics. However, what do teachers aim for and how are they trying to achieve this when creating seating arrangements? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 upper elementary school teachers. Teachers expressed to have both academic and social-emotional goals addressing the group and individual students. Although their goals were quite similar, teachers employed different, sometimes even opposite strategies to achieve them. Moreover, they adapted goals and strategies to specific group or individual student needs. Our findings add to the growing body of knowledge regarding teachers’ practices in managing classroom social dynamics.
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Sendo a escola fundamental para a sociedade, a formação dos professores deve estar em constante estado de reflexão. Admitindo que a ação docente é orientada por diversos saberes, é sempre pertinente questionar-se a respeito da presença ou não de determinados conceitos nos currículos das licenciaturas. É o caso da gestão da sala de aula, que contempla um conjunto de saberes cotidianamente utilizados pelos professores. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada no âmbito do estágio pós-doutoral em Educação, que teve como objetivo identificar a presença de noções de gestão da sala de aula em cursos de licenciatura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. A pesquisa pode ser classificada como aplicada, exploratória, descritiva e um estudo de campo, pois coleta dados com o recurso de um questionário on-line. Esta pesquisa foi realizada com 44 alunos de licenciatura de 3 cursos e que frequentavam diversos períodos. O instrumento de pesquisa escolhido foi um questionário on-line. Solicitou-se aos participantes identificassem aquilo que consideram um bom e um mau professor, uma boa e uma má aula. A partir dos resultados foi possível interpretar uma parcela da realidade da formação docente no contexto estudado. Percebeu-se que grande parte dos alunos apresentou uma visão bastante genérica e idealizada do caracterizaria um bom professor e uma boa aula. Em relação ao objetivo da pesquisa, observou-se que noções de gestão da sala de aula foram poucas e superficialmente citadas. Isto pode ser a evidência de que este conceito ainda não está presente adequadamente nas licenciaturas.
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The purpose of this article is to identify and estimate the influence of educational, psychological, and social factors on learning. Using evidence accumulated from 61 research experts, 91 meta-analyses, and 179 handbook chapters and narrative reviews, the data for analysis represent over 11,000 relationships. Three methods—content analyses, expert ratings, and results from meta-analyses—are used to quantify the importance and consistency of variables that influence learning. Regardless of which method is employed, there is moderate to substantial agreement on the categories exerting the greatest influence on school learning as well as those that have less influence. The results suggest an emergent knowledge base for school learning. Generally, proximal variables (e.g., psychological, instructional, and home environment) exert more influence than distal variables (e.g., demographic, policy, and organizational). The robustness and consistency of the findings suggest they can be used to inform educational policies and practices.
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This article describes the background, research design and procedures, and general findings of the Classroom Strategy Study, an investigation in which 98 experienced elementary (K-6) teachers nominated by their principals as either outstanding or average at dealing with problem students described their general strategies for coping with 12 types of problem students and told how they would handle incidents depicted in 2 vignettes portraying typical problem behavior associated with each type. We describe trends in the teachers' interview and vignette responses (e. g., the frequencies with which teachers mentioned different treatment strategies) as well as contrasts in patterns of responses to different types of student problem behavior. In addition, we describe contrasts between teachers who differed in role definition (emphasizing instruction vs. emphasizing socialization), school location (Small City vs. Big City), and grade level (K-3 vs. 4-6). Finally, we contrast the responses of teachers rated as high...
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The purpose of this article is to identify and estimate the influence of educational, psychological, and social factors on learning. Using evidence accumulated from 61 research experts, 91 meta-analyses, and 179 handbook chapters and narrative reviews, the data for analysis represent over 11,000 relationships. Three methods—content analyses, expert ratings, and results from meta-analyses—are used to quantify the importance and consistency of variables that influence learning. Regardless of which method is employed, there is moderate to substantial agreement on the categories exerting the greatest influence on school learning as well as those that have less influence. The results suggest an emergent knowledge base for school learning. Generally, proximal variables (e.g., psychological, instructional, and home environment) exert more influence than distal variables (e.g., demographic, policy, and organizational). The robustness and consistency of the findings suggest they can be used to inform educational policies and practices.
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This chapter of "Helping Teachers Manage Classrooms" presents strategies and processes that teachers can use to establish well-managed classrooms. These recommendations are based on the results of year-long descriptive studies of the management methods used by third grade teachers and by seventh and eighth grade English and mathematics teachers. Before the school year begins, management planning should include determining expected student behaviors, translating those expectations into procedures and rules, and identifying consistent and reasonable consequences for either failing or succeeding in following the rules. During the first part of the school year teachers should explain rules clearly, systematically, and at appropriate times; should involve children in easy tasks providing high success rates; should avoid small group formats or complex procedures until behavior patterns are established; and should expect to review procedures several times. The system can be maintained through a process of monitoring student behavior, managing inappropriate behavior in straightforward and simple ways, and developing student accountability through clear two-way communications. (Author/PGD)
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Surveys the actual and perceived role elementary school counselors in North Carolina have in working with students with disabilities. Data reveals that many school counselors acquired some formal education about students with disabilities prior to entering the profession, yet many have found the demands for them to possess expertise in this domain have exceeded their perceived level of knowledge. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)
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This guide to classroom management, which incorporates the essential features of classroom organization, management, and discipline, provides information to help secondary school teachers establish effective classroom management systems. The text emphasizes prevention through planning and addresses decisions teachers must make in the typical classroom, e.g., arranging physical space, choosing rules and procedures, planning and conducting instruction, maintaining appropriate behavior, using good communication skills, dealing with problem behavior, and managing special groups. In addition, the volume provides checklists for organizing concepts and principles into usable, concise formats, makes use of case studies, includes activities dealing with and correcting classroom problems, and links the concepts of instructional management with behavior/classroom management. Nine chapters are organized as follows: (1) "Organizing Your Classroom and Materials"; (2) "Choosing Rules and Procedures"; (3) "Managing Student Work"; (4) "Getting Off to a Good Start"; (5) "Planning and Conducting Instruction"; (6) "Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior"; (7) "Communication Skills for Teaching"; (8) "Managing Problem Behaviors"; and (9) "Managing Special Groups." Answer keys for chapter activities are appended. (Contains approximately 50 references.) (LL)
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Discusses the Equal Opportunity in the Classroom Project of the Los Angeles County Schools in which recognized low achievers are given equal attention in the classroom. (IRT)
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The Classroom Management Improvement Study (CMIS) tested the effectiveness of research-based classroom management principles and strategies in elementary school classrooms. Participating in the study were 41 teachers, divided into a treatment group that received a CMIS teacher's manual and participated in two workshops, and a control group. Half of the control group received the CMIS treatment in the middle of the school year to assess the effects of midyear intervention. Results indicated that teachers who received the CMIS treatment at the beginning of school implemented the recommended management strategies significantly more than did the control group teachers. Treatment in the middle of the school year had a limited impact on teachers' behavior. This report provides an overview of the CMIS: its background, treatment design, methodology and instrumentation, analyses of the major hypotheses and research questions, and discussion of the implications of the results for research on management and for teacher training. After the text, two-thirds of the document consists of 15 data tables and 14 appendices that include teacher workshop materials, a list of teacher manual contents, observer guidelines, all instruments, and teacher interview protocols. (MLF)