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Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract: Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14520 measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 14519-14528; doi:10.3390/ijerph121114519
International Journal of
Environmental Research and
Public Health
ISSN 1660-4601
www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph
Article
Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic
Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base
Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2
Diabetes Mellitus
Sultan Ayoub Meo 1,*, Yazeed Alsubaie 1, Zaid Almubarak 1, Hisham Almutawa 1,
Yazeed AlQasem 1 and Rana Muhammed Hasanato 2
1 Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925,
Riyadh 11461 Saudi Arabia; E-Mails: yazeed-1992-@hotmail.com (Y.A.);
z-almubarak@hotmail.com (Z.A.); hisham-001@hotmail.com (H.A.);
yazeed.alq@gmail.com (Y.A.)
2 Department of Clinical Bio-Chemistry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925,
Riyadh 11461 Saudi Arabia; E-Mail: rhasanato@ksu.edu.sa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: sultanmeo@hotmail.com;
Tel.: +96-611-467-1604; Fax: +96-611-467-2567.
Academic Editor: Omorogieva Ojo
Received: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Abstract: Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public
debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the
association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR)
generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and
occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools
(school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male
students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range
12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m
away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1,
RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to
RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was
1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily,
five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was
OPEN ACCESS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14520
measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens.
The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly
higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low
RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high
RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus
(p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is
concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated
levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: mobile phone radiation; mobile phone base station; RF-EMFR; HbA1c;
hyperglycemia
1. Introduction
During the last two decades, the use of mobile phones has increased spectacularly among
individuals of all age groups in both developing and developed countries. Mobile phones have become
a prevalent means of communication and a part of everyday life [1]. There are about 7.3 billion mobile
phone subscribers worldwide, almost equal to the world population [2]. Mobile phones are low power
radio devices, transmit and receive radio frequency radiation, and are considered the strongest source
of human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation RF-EMFR. The RF-EMFR
generated by mobile phone base stations ranges between 400 MHz and 3 GHz [3–5].
The extensive increase and development of new mobile phone technologies resulted in a major
change of radiofrequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) exposure patterns in everyday
settings [6,7]. To provide better services to the customers, mobile phone companies install base
stations in the residential and commercial areas, including the school buildings, which stirred up
widespread public concern about the hazards of RF-EMF radiation generated by mobile phone base
stations (MPBS). The environment is exposed to RF-EMFR and health effects of RF-EMFR have been
controversially discussed in the literature [8]. RF-EMFR can cause fatigue, headache, dizziness,
tension, sleep disturbance [1], hearing and vision complaints [9]. The WHO International Agency for
Research on Cancer has classified RF-EMFR as possibly carcinogen [10]. RF-EMFR promotes cancer
development via stimulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition [11].
Presently about 382 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus, this number is expected to
upsurge to 592 million by 2035 and 183 million people are unaware of their diabetes mellitus [12].
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reflect the mean glucose concentration over the previous period of about
8–12 weeks. HbA1c is commonly used as a marker of hyperglycemia and an increased HbA1c has
been regarded as an independent and reliable marker for diabetes mellitus [13]. World Health
Organization, the International Diabetes Federation, and the American Diabetes Association have
recently endorsed HbA1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes mellitus [13,14]. To our knowledge, this is
the first study aimed to determine the association of exposure to RF-EMFR generated by MPBS with
HbA1c and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14521
2. Subjects and Methods
2.1. Subjects
This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All the subjects and or their parents signed the written
informed consent. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Committee of College of
Medicine Research Centre, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (IRB-14/412).
Students were recruited based on their voluntary participation, apparently healthy status, same age,
gender, nationality, regional, cultural and socio-economic status. We invited 250 participants
(125 from school-1, and 125 from school-2). A detailed interview was conducted followed by clinical
history taking and examination to assess whether to include in the study or not. All the students were
questioned with regard to anthropometric parameters, age, height, weight, ethnicity, socioeconomic
status, and family history of diabetes mellitus, blood diseases, and cigarette smoking. After clinical
history and examination, finally, we selected 159 apparently healthy, male, volunteer students
(96 from school-1, and 63 from School-2). The age of the students who belonged to the school-1 group
was 12–16 years (mean age 13.98 ± 0.92). The age of the students who belonged to the school-2 group
was 12–17 years (mean age 14.21 ± 1.99).
2.2. Exclusion Criteria
Subjects with known cases of gross anemia, blood diseases, history of blood transfusion,
personal or family history of known diabetes mellitus, students who suffered from marked obesity,
asthma, and students who smoked tobacco were excluded from the study. Moreover, students who
were living (residence) close to the any high transmission lines or MPBS and students who frequently
consumed fast food and excess sweet diet were also excluded from the study. We also excluded the
students who were athletes or performed regular vigorous exercise.
2.3. Methods
2.3.1. Selection of the Schools and Measurement of RF-EMFR
In this study, two different elementary schools (labeled as school-1 and school-2) were selected
from the Riyadh region. Both schools were located close to MPBS. It was ensured that there were no
significant sources of generation and transmission of EMFR in or near the school building. In school-1
MPBS had been installed on the residential building about 200 m away from the school building.
Inside the schools RF-EMF was measured by using the Narda Safety Test Solution SRM-3006.
SRM-3006 is a frequency-selective field strength measurement system, which measures the
RF-EMFR [15]. In this school, the RF-EMF was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students
had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week.
The second school (school-2) was also located close to MPBS. The MPBS was installed on the
residential building about 200 m away from the school building. RF-EMF was 1.909 nW/cm2 at
frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily,
five days in a week. RF-EMFR was measured in both schools in various class rooms. We selected the
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14522
points to measure RF-EMFR based on the location of class rooms. RF-EMFR was measured at three
different points including the center, as well as the corners, of the class room from which we selected
the students. We recorded the RF-EMFR two times per day at each point. The number of measurement
was the same in the different places in the school.
2.3.2. Blood Sample Collection
All the participants of both schools were allocated a serial number; an expert technician took
5–6 mL of blood with a vein puncture method and blood was collected in 10 mL container containing
ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Blood was transferred into a container with specific code
number of the student on the container. The blood was immediately kept in the refrigerator under the
temperature of 4–5 °C. All blood samples were immediately transferred to the hematology laboratory,
to analyze the HbA1c.
2.3.3. Measurements of HbA1c
HbA1c measurements were performed on ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) blood samples,
and HbA1c was measured by Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, USA. The HBA1c
assay on the Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System is an in vitro diagnostic assay for the
quantitative determination of HBA1c in human anticoagulant whole blood. The measurement was
based on the principle of turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (TINIA). Each kit contains matched
sets of HBA1c reagent cartridge and calibrators. These components were not interchangeable between
the kits and other lot numbers. HBA1c required lot specific scalers which were entered before the
calibration. The scaler values were provided on the reagent cartridge. The system was calibrated daily
and a few samples were tested twice to check the accuracy of HbA1c with the Dimension Xpand Plus
Integrated Chemistry System.
2.4. Statistical Analysis
The data were computed into the computer and analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS for Windows, version 20.0). Unpaired Student’s t-test (parametric test with the
assumption of equal variances) was applied to check the difference of the means values between the
two quantitative variables. All the variables were entered into a logistic regression model and
results were presented as an odds ratio and 98% confidence interval. The level of significance was
assumed at p < 0.05.
3. Results
Table 1 summarizes the comparison of the anthropometric variables and HbA1c parameters
between the students of two different schools where students had been exposed to RF-EMFR
generated by MPBS at 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz for the duration of 6 h daily,
five days per week, over the last two years (school-1). While in the second school, students were
exposed to RF-EMFR of 1.909 nW/cm2 at a frequency of 925 MHz for the duration of 6 h daily,
five days per week, over the last two years (school- 2).The age of the students at school-1 (group 1)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14523
was 12–16 years (mean age 13.98 ± 0.92), while the age of the students at second school-2 (group-2)
was 12–17 years (14.21 ± 1.993).
The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR (9.601 nW/cm2 at
frequency of 925 MHz) was significantly higher (5.4%) than the mean HbA1c for the students who
had been exposed to low RF-EMFR (1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz) generated by MPBS
was (5.3%) (p = 0.007). The results show students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR have
significantly impaired HbA1c (30, 31.25%) than the students who exposed to low RF-EMFR
(17, 27.0%) (Table 2). It shows an association of RF-EMFR and higher risk of type 2 diabetes among
the students who were exposed to high RF-EMF relative to their counterparts who were exposed to
low radiation (Table 2). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association with high
RF-EMFR, HbA1c, and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Table 3).
Table 1. Comparison of anthropometric parameters and HBA1c percentage of the
students who were exposed to RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations at
(9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz) versus the students exposed to RF-EMFR at
(1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz).
Parameters School Group #1 (n = 96)
RF-EMFR: 9.601 nW/cm2
School Group # 2 (n = 63)
RF-EMFR: 1.909 nW/cm2 p Values
Age (years) 13.98 ± 0.92 14.21 ± 1.003 0.138
BMI (m/kg)2 22.91 ± 5.12 21.47 ± 5.47 0.093
HbA1c (%) 5.445 ± 0.22 5.325 ± 0.34 0.007
Note: Values are presented in mean ± SD.
Table 2. Comparison of prevalence of pre-diabetes mellitus based on HBA1c percentage
of the students exposed to RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations at
(9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz) versus the students exposed to RF-EMFR at
(1.909 nW/cm2at frequency of 925 MHz).
Parameters School Group #1 (n = 96)
RF-EMFR:9.601 nW/cm2
School Group # 2 (n = 63)
RF-EMFR: 1.909 nW/cm2 p Values
Prevalence of
Impaired HbA1c 5.6
(Prediabetes)
30 (31.25%) 17 (27%) 0.016
Values are presented in %. HbA1c > 5.6 was considered impaired HbA1c (pre diabetes) [16].
Table 3. Logistic regression analysis for variables predicting an association of RF-EMFR
with HbA1c and prevalence of risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Parameters Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval p Values
Age (years) 0.67 0.231.92 0.454
Obesity 1.87 0.5396.493 0.324
Underweight 2.79 0.64911.166 0.148
RF-EMFR 342 462530 0.0001
Note: The model predicts 89%.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14524
4. Discussion
The findings of this study show that the students who were exposed to high RF-EMF had
significantly higher HbA1c than the students who were exposed to low RF-EMF. Moreover, students
who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher proportion of
diabetes mellitus relative to the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR.
HbA1c is well recognized among clinicians as a marker of chronic hyperglycemia, increased
HbA1c has also been regarded as an independent marker for diabetes mellitus [17]. HBA1c has
numerous advantages compared to the Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), including greater expediency,
fasting is not mandatory, better pre-analytical stability and less day-to-day worries during a period of
stress and illness. HbA1c has recently been endorsed as a diagnostic test for diabetes by the World
Health Organization, the International Diabetes Federation, as well as the American Diabetes
Association [12,14,17,18].
FPG of 100 mg/dL or 5.6 mmol/L equals to an HbA1c of 5.4% and FPG of 110 mg/dL or 6.1 mmol/L
is parallel to HbA1C of 5.6% [13]. The normal cut-off point of HbA1c is equal to or less than 5.4%.
Compared to the fasting glucose cut point of 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L), the HbA1c cut point of 5.7% is
more specific and has a higher positive predictive value to identify people at risk for development of
diabetes. HbA1c levels below 5.7% may still be at risk to develop diabetes mellitus [13]. Literature
also indicates that subjects within the HbA1C range of 5.5%–6.0% have a five-year cumulative
incidence of diabetes mellitus that ranges from 12% to 25% [19]. In the present study, we found that
the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was 5.44% compared to the
mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR 5.32% (Table 1).
4.1. RF-EMFR and HbA1c
The possibility of induction of biological and health effects by low-energy radiation emitted by
MPBS remains a debatable issue. In spite of decades of research, there is still ongoing discussion about
RF-EMFR and physiologically-relevant effects. Literature is available on the association of RF-EMF
with headache, tension, and sleep disorder-like symptoms [1]. In addition, studies have also shown that
RF-EMFR has extensive damaging effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular, and male
reproductive system [20]. RF-EMFR also causes oxidative damage [21] and cancer [22].
Bieńkowski et al. [23] conducted a study and measured the changes in the electromagnetic field
intensity in a school building and its surrounding after the MPBS installation on the roof of the school.
They found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings after the MPBS
installation. Shahbazi-Gahrouei [24] conducted a cross-sectional study on people living near the
mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS). The authors reported that discomfort, irritability,
nausea, headache, dizziness, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss, and decreased
libido were statistically significant among the people living near the BTS antenna (less than 300m
distant) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (more than 300m). They suggested that
cellular phone BTS towers should not be installed at less than a distance of 300m to human population
to minimize exposure.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14525
Meo et al. [25] determined the effects of exposure to RF-EMFR generated by mobile phones on
fasting blood glucose in albino rats. The authors found that, Wister albino rats exposed to RF-EMF
generated by mobile phone for more than 15 min a day for a maximum period of three months had
significantly higher fasting blood glucose and serum insulin compared to the control group. Meo et al. [25]
also reported that increase in fasting blood glucose was due to insulin resistance. In the present study,
we found that students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had significantly
higher HbA1c (Table 1) and a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Table 2) than the students
who were exposed to low RF-EMFR.
Altpeter et al. [26] reported that the incidence for diabetes mellitus was higher among the subjects
living within a close radius of a shortwave transmitter in Schwarzenburg, Switzerland compared with
a population living away from the a shortwave transmitter. There was a significant linear relationship
between RF radiation exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus.
Jolley et al. [27] exposed the islets of Langerhans from rabbits to low-frequency pulsed magnetic
fields and noted a significant decrease in insulin release during glucose stimulation compared
to controls. Similarly, Sakurai et al. [28] measured the insulin secretion from an islet cell, exposed
to low-frequency magnetic fields compared with sham exposure group. Insulin secretion was
decreased by about 30% when exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields compared to sham exposure.
Li et al. [29] exposed hepatocytes in vitro to 50 Hz pulsed EMF noted a conformation change in the
insulin molecule. The authors found a decrease in the binding capacity of insulin to its receptors
compared with controls.
Congruently, Havas [30] reported that exposure to electromagnetic pollution cause higher plasma
glucose levels and may contribute to diabetes mellitus. Havas [30] also concludes that decreased
insulin secretion and reduced binding capacity of insulin to its receptors may explain the elevated
levels of plasma glucose in subjects exposed to electromagnetic fields. Similarly, in the present study,
we found that students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had significantly
higher HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus than the students who were exposed to low
RF-EMFR. Choi et al., 2011 [31] reported that individuals with HbA1c 5.5 is a normal; 5.6 to 6.9 is
impaired HbA1c or pre-diabetes, and HbA1c 7.0 considered as a diabetes. They also reported that
HbA1c 5.6% have an increased risk for future diabetes. In our study, we found that students
who were exposed to high RF-EMFR have significantly higher HbA1c than the mean HbA1c for the
students who had been exposed to low RF-EMFR. Moreover, students exposed to high
RF-EMFR have significantly impaired HbA1c (31.25%) than the students who exposed to low
RF-EMFR (27.0%).
4.2. What This Study Adds
The present study is one of the first studies to investigate the association of EMFR generated by
MPBS with HbA1c and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Students who were exposed to high
EMFR generated by MPBS had significantly higher HbA1c and prevalence of pre diabetes mellitus
compared to their students who exposed to low EMFR. We believe that EMFR appears to be another
risk factor contributing to high levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This notion may
present a possible paradigm shift in the development of diabetes mellitus. This research provides
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14526
awareness to the community and to the health officials regarding the effects of EMFR generated by
MPBS on HbA1c and incidence of diabetes mellitus.
4.3. Study Strengths and Limitations
To our knowledge, no study exists yet to establish an association between the RF-EMFR generated
by MPBS and HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We measured the levels of RF-EMFR inside
the schools to determine the impact of RF generated by MPBS on HbA1c. In this study for subject
selection criteria, we follow the American Diabetic Association guidelines, and considered age,
race, ethnicity, anemia, and hemoglobinopathies into consideration while using the A1C to diagnose
diabetes [32]. Moreover, our study exclusion criteria and assays are highly standardized. The limitation
of the present study is the involvement of male gender only because in Saudi Arabia there is no
co-education system at schools, colleges, and university levels. This study is a relatively small sample
size, and because of the cross-sectional design of the study we could not establish the causation.
5. Conclusions
Exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated level of HbA1c and
prevalence of pre diabetes mellitus among school aged adolescents. RF-EMFR appears to be another
risk factor contributing to high levels of HbA1c and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study
provides awareness to the community and to the health officials regarding the effects of RF-EMFR
generated by MPBS on HbA1c and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We cannot deny the
services provided by the mobile phone industry but we also strongly believe that health is more
important and it cannot be compromised over anything. Thus, it must be kept in mind the mobile
MPBS should not be installed in the thickly populated areas, especially in or near the school buildings.
Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University, Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia for supporting the work through research group project (RGP-VPP 181).
Authors Contributions
Sultan Ayoub Meo, designed the study, supervised the overall research project and contributed to
writing the manuscript. Zaid Almubarak, Hisham Almutawa, Yazeed Alsubaie, Yazeed AlQasem
were involved in IRB writing, data collection, data entry and analysis and literature review. Rana
Muhammed Hasanato contributed to measurements of HbA1c and literature review and manuscript
writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14527
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... Dans la littérature, une exposition aux CEM de type radiofréquence a montré une élévation de la concentration d'hémoglobine glyquée, qui est un des symptômes du diabète de type II (Meo et al., 2015). Bien que ce dernier élément n'ait pas été évalué dans ma thèse, les symptômes observés chez nos animaux exposés aux CEM (seuls ou en co-exposition) pourraient être les signes avant-coureurs de maladies métaboliques qui pourraient se développer par la suite chez ces individus. ...
Thesis
Avec le développement des nouvelles technologies, l'exposition aux champs électromagnétiques est de plus en plus importante. En marge de ce développement, nos sociétés ont vu émerger des personnes présentant des symptômes qu'ils attribuent à une exposition aux champs électromagnétiques. Les résultats des études expérimentales antérieurs restant à controverse, l'objectif de ce travail est de voir si une exposition conjointe entre les champs électromagnétiques et le bruit conduit à une apparition ou une exacerbation des symptômes des champs électromagnétiques. Cette étude s'est portée sur différentes fonctions physiologiques chez une population juvénile : le sommeil, le système immunitaire, la prise alimentaire, la respiration et le comportement. Nos résultats montrent un comportement anxieux, une diminution de la locomotion ainsi qu'une augmentation du poids des animaux, associé à des variations dans le pattern alimentaire. Le sommeil et la respiration sont peu modifiés chez les animaux exposés aux champs électromagnétiques. Le système immunitaire des animaux exposés aux champs électromagnétiques présente des altérations au niveau du système immunitaire acquis avec une redistribution des sous-populations lymphocytaires en faveur d'une activation des cellules et de l'immunité humorale, mais sans variation du système immunitaire inné. L'altération de ce dernier système est observée lors de la co-exposition mais est différente de celle d'une exposition au bruit. Ce travail de thèse a permis de mettre en évidence différents effets des CEM, notamment un comportement anxieux et des variations immunitaire
... Several studies (n = 171; see S2 Table), which had previously been classified as potentially relevant during the screening step (see "Study selection"), were ultimately excluded from the review. The main reasons for this were that the studies: (1) investigated age groups that included subjects exceeding the predefined maximum age of 18 years (e.g., [106][107][108][109]); (2) investigated RF EMF exposure sources other than mobile communication devices, such as TV and radio broadcasts (e.g., [110]) or therapeutic devices [111]; (3) provided no exposure assessment for the individual but only a comparison of groups in ecological studies (e.g., [112,113]) or trend studies [114,115]; (4) examined the effects on the fetus, pregnancy (e.g., miscarriage), birth and/or the newborn child (e.g., [116,117]). Moreover, animal studies with young animals were not considered. ...
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Background For more than 20 years, the potential health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure from mobile communication devices on children and adolescents have been examined because they are considered sensitive population groups; however, it remains unclear whether such exposure poses any particular risk to them. Objectives The aim of this review was to systematically analyze and evaluate the physiological and health-related effects of RF EMF exposures from wireless communication devices (mobile phones, cordless phones, Bluetooth, etc.) on children and adolescents. Methods This review was prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Methodological limitations in individual studies were assessed using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) Risk-of-Bias Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies. Results A total of 42 epidemiological and 11 experimental studies were eligible for this review. Most of the studies displayed several methodological weaknesses that limited the internal validity of the results. Due to a lack of consistency regarding the outcomes as well as the lack of scientific rigor in most reviewed studies, the body of evidence for the effects of RF EMF of mobile communication devices on subjective symptoms, cognition, and behavior in children and adolescents was low to inadequate. Evidence from the studies investigating early childhood development, brain activity, cancer, and physiological parameters was considered inadequate for drawing conclusions about possible effects. Discussion Overall, the body of evidence allows no final conclusion on the question whether exposure to RF EMF from mobile communication devices poses a particular risk to children and adolescents. There has been rapid development in technologies generating RF EMF, which are extensively used by children and adolescents. Therefore, we strongly recommend high-quality systematic research on children and adolescents, since they are generally considered as sensitive age groups.
... (i) radio frequency consumption [28] ; (ii) obesity [29] ; (iii) birth [30] ; (iv) genitalia [31] ; ...
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Diabetes is a chronic and debilitating disease, which is associated with a range of complications putting tremendous burden on medical, economic and socio-technological infrastructure globally. Yet the higher authorities of health services are facing the excruciating cumulative reasons of diabetes as a very imperative worldwide issue in the 21st century. The study aims to relook at the misapplication of the processed radio frequency that frailties in the pancreas within and around the personal body boundary area. The administered sensor data were obtained at laboratory experiments from the selected specimens on dogs and cats in light and dark environments. The study shows the frequent urine flow speed varies with sudden infection due to treated wireless sensor networks in active open eyes. The overweight and obese persons are increasingly affected in diabetes with comprehensive urinary pressure due to continuous staying at dark environment. The findings replicate the increasing tide of diabetes globally. The study also represents the difficulties of physicians to provide adequate diabetic management according to their expectancy due to insecure personal area network control unit.Dynamic sensor network is indispensable for healthcare but such network is at risk to health security due to digitalized poisoning within GPS positions. The study recommends the anti-radiation integrated system policy with user’s security alternative approach to inspire dealing with National Health Policy and Sustainable Development Goals 2
... In addition, maternal blood glucose and prepregnancy BMI have been reported to be associated with increased risk of delivering SGA infants [59][60][61], which is consistent with our findings. Changes in these features caused by radiation exposure also have been reported in previous studies [62][63][64][65]. In addition, using SHAP force plots, two examples that were classified correctly as non-SGA and SGA were selected to explain the effects of the features on the prediction outcome ( Figure 5). ...
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Exposure to radiation has been associated with increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns. There are no tools to predict SGA newborns in pregnant women exposed to radiation before pregnancy. Here, we aimed to develop an array of machine learning (ML) models to predict SGA newborns in women exposed to radiation before pregnancy. Patients’ data was obtained from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project from 2010 to 2012. The data were randomly divided into a training dataset (n = 364) and a testing dataset (n = 91). Eight various ML models were compared for solving the binary classification of SGA prediction, followed by a post hoc explainability based on the SHAP model to identify and interpret the most important features that contribute to the prediction outcome. A total of 455 newborns were included, with the occurrence of 60 SGA births (13.2%). Overall, the model obtained by extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) achieved the highest area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) in the testing set (0.844, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.713–0.974). All models showed satisfied AUCs, except for the logistic regression model (AUC: 0.561, 95% CI: 0.355–0.768). After feature selection by recursive feature elimination (RFE), 15 features were included in the final prediction model using the XGBoost algorithm, with an AUC of 0.821 (95% CI: 0.650–0.993). ML algorithms can generate robust models to predict SGA newborns in pregnant women exposed to radiation before pregnancy, which may thus be used as a prediction tool for SGA newborns in high-risk pregnant women.
... Interestingly, mobile phones can induce some serious disorders such as hyperglycemia (elevated oxidative stress and glucose disturbed homeostasis) with the ultimate faith of diabetes mellitus formation (Krewski et al. 2001). Researches revealed that mobile phones exposure in different time periods lead to remarkable increase in the serum levels of glucose and insulin, insulin structure alteration, early and severe b-cell dysfunction and b-cell loss via apoptosis, decrement in pancreatic islets release, high levels of HbA1c, genetic regulation and exacerbate oxidative stress (Krewski et al. 2001;Yakymenko and Sidorik 2010;Mortazavi et al. 2016;Meo et al. 2015). According to research, increasing the use of mobile phones in the last decade and the sudden increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be a point to consider (Krewski et al. 2001). ...
Chapter
Spices have been added to foods for centuries as flavors, preservatives, and colors and have also been used in traditional medicine in various countries to treat many diseases. Spices play an important role in human health and can be considered as the first functional foods. Although the amount of spices consumed is very low compared to many other foods, the role of spices in the daily diet should not be underestimated due to their health properties. Saffron, ginger, cinnamon, and turmeric are four globally common spices that have been widely used owing to well-known medical benefits in different traditional medicine systems, including Ayurveda, traditional Chinese, and Persian medicine since ancient times. Some general or specific health benefits of these spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidantAntioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, and antihypertensive activities, which have potential protective properties against some ailments such as cancer, type 2 diabetesDiabetes, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Recent scientific studies on the therapeutic properties of these common spices have been reviewed in this chapter.
... Interestingly, mobile phones can induce some serious disorders such as hyperglycemia (elevated oxidative stress and glucose disturbed homeostasis) with the ultimate faith of diabetes mellitus formation (Krewski et al. 2001). Researches revealed that mobile phones exposure in different time periods lead to remarkable increase in the serum levels of glucose and insulin, insulin structure alteration, early and severe b-cell dysfunction and b-cell loss via apoptosis, decrement in pancreatic islets release, high levels of HbA1c, genetic regulation and exacerbate oxidative stress (Krewski et al. 2001;Yakymenko and Sidorik 2010;Mortazavi et al. 2016;Meo et al. 2015). According to research, increasing the use of mobile phones in the last decade and the sudden increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be a point to consider (Krewski et al. 2001). ...
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On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. A causal association would be strengthened if it could be shown that the use of wireless phones has an impact on the survival of glioma patients. We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04-11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007-1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999-1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines.
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The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., -16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system.
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Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain) were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B) was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR) for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015) and serum insulin (p < 0.01) compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003) in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.
Book
Focusing primarly on electromagnetic fields (EMF) examples, the author presents the general principles and methodological concepts in environmental epidemiology. Part 1 deals with epidemiological concepts and principles. Part 2 provides an overview of the scientific knowledge abouth health risks of EMF. Key examples of EMF Research are used to deepen the methodological concepts. Part 3 deals with the broader public health perspectives.
: The diagnosis and management of diabetes in primary care has increased immensely over the past several years. The focus of this article is on the latest substantive revisions in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of diabetes, which was presented in the January 2014 issue of the ADA's journal Diabetes Care.
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Use of electricity causes extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and wireless communication devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Average ELF-MF exposure is mainly determined by high voltage power lines and transformers at home or at the workplace, whereas RF-EMF exposure is mainly caused by devices operating close to the body (mainly mobile and cordless phones). Health effects of EMF are controversially discussed. The IARC classified ELF-MF and RF-EMF as possible carcinogenic. Most consistent epidemiological evidence was found for an association between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. If causal, 1 - 4 percent of all childhood leukaemia cases could be attributed to ELF-MF. Epidemiological research provided some indications for an association between ELF-MF and Alzheimer's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although not entirely consistent. Regarding mobile phones and brain tumours, some studies observed an increased risk after heavy or long term use on the one hand. On the other hand, brain tumour incidence was not found to have increased in the last decade in Sweden, England or the US. Acute effects of RF-EMF on non-specific symptoms of ill health seem unlikely according to randomized and double blind provocation studies. However, epidemiological research on long term effects is still limited. Although from the current state of the scientific knowledge a large individual health risk from RF-EMF exposure is unlikely, even a small risk would have substantial public health relevance because of the widespread use of wireless communication technologies.
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Background: In recent years, by tremendous use of mobile phone telecommunication, a growing concern about the possible health hazards has increased greatly among public and scientists. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have many effects upon the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. The aim of this study was to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people who are living near mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS) antenna, in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study on 250 randomly selected inhabitants (133 women and 117 men) was performed in October 2012 till November 2012. The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire that focused on the relevant psychological and psychobiological reactions parameters. A computer program (SPSS version16.0, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. All the data were tested using a criterion level of p = 0.05. Results: The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (<300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (>300 m). Conclusion: It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors.
Article
Background: Little is known about the population's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in industrialized countries. Objectives: To examine levels of exposure and the importance of different RF-EMF sources and settings in a sample of volunteers living in a Swiss city. Methods: RF-EMF exposure of 166 volunteers from Basel, Switzerland, was measured with personal exposure meters (exposimeters). Participants carried an exposimeter for 1 week (two separate weeks in 32 participants) and completed an activity diary. Mean values were calculated using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method. Results: Mean weekly exposure to all RF-EMF sources was 0.13 mW/m(2) (0.22 V/m) (range of individual means 0.014-0.881 mW/m(2)). Exposure was mainly due to mobile phone base stations (32.0%), mobile phone handsets (29.1%) and digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) phones (22.7%). Persons owning a DECT phone (total mean 0.15 mW/m(2)) or mobile phone (0.14 mW/m(2)) were exposed more than those not owning a DECT or mobile phone (0.10 mW/m(2)). Mean values were highest in trains (1.16 mW/m(2)), airports (0.74 mW/m(2)) and tramways or buses (0.36 mW/m(2)), and higher during daytime (0.16 mW/m(2)) than nighttime (0.08 mW/m(2)). The Spearman correlation coefficient between mean exposure in the first and second week was 0.61. Conclusions: Exposure to RF-EMF varied considerably between persons and locations but was fairly consistent within persons. Mobile phone handsets, mobile phone base stations and cordless phones were important sources of exposure in urban Switzerland.