Article

Planning with half a mind: Why planners resist emotion

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Planning aims to change people’s behavior, and success depends on understanding human motivation. However, Enlightenment culture discourages understanding emotional experiences central to human activity. Many social sciences and professions have given increased attention to emotional concerns, but most planners hold fast to a view that people think and act only rationally. This article shows why emotional understanding matters for planning, examines the nature of emotional experience, and describes how Enlightenment culture hinders comprehension. The article reviews studies of emotion in the social sciences and professions and contrasts them with a paucity of published interest in emotion in planning. The article interprets planners’ resistance to emotion in terms of the nature of professions and societal needs for order.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The discourse of Neighbourhood Planning emphasises local, experiential knowledgepeople are portrayed as being qualified to plan for a place because of their experience of living there. It emphasises people's affective, emotional connections with place, something that the planning system (and planning scholarship) has previously disparaged (Baum, 2015;Bradley, 2017a). It was claimed that it would shift the focus of hyper-local planning from a bureaucratic, technical, expert-led process to a more democratic, community-led one. ...
... It has been suggested that Neighbourhood Planning could offer a site where these much-derided concerns could be "reframed as legitimate attempts to assert a local narrative of place over external versions" (Mace, 2013(Mace, : 1144. Traditionally, both planners and planning scholarship have tended to steer away from the emotional realm and the attachments that people feel to place (Baum, 2015;Hoch, 2006), despite their central role in driving participation (Porter et al., 2012), while the policy of Neighbourhood Planning explicitly invokes and relies upon these commitments (Bradley, 2017a (Levitas, 2012;Newman, 2014). It has even been suggested that focusing solely on the indications of 'post-politics' not merely ignores, but may also contribute to the suppression of other possible outcomes (Williams et al., 2014). ...
... Paying more careful attention to the cared-for dimension of place in spatial planning therefore appears to be a potentially fruitful avenue of inquiry. Planning scholars, like planners in practice, tend to have an aversion to the emotional and the affective, with a few notable exceptions (Porter et al., 2012; see also Baum, 2015;Davies, 2001a;Hoch, 2006;Rydin, 2007;Rydin and Natarajan, 2016). As something of a bastion of positivism, planning tends to insist on 'objective' facts, and shy away from the 'taint' of subjectivity. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Neighbourhood Planning is a form of small-scale, community-led land-use planning, introduced to England by the Localism Act 2011. It constitutes a radical shift for UK planning and a striking example of the participatory and localist turns in governance, allowing 'laypeople' to write their own statutory planning policies. Its promoters portray it as a straightforward transfer of power from state to community which prioritises local experiential knowledge and care for place. However, drawing on theoretical and methodological resources from Science and Technology Studies and four years of ethnographic fieldwork at two sites in the North West of England, my research suggests a more complex picture. I show how the practices of Neighbourhood Planning reproduce the category of the expert and the expert-agency coupling by producing a new subset of lay-experts. However, they occupy a precarious position, being reliant on established expertise to stabilise their expert identity, but also subject to displacement by that expertise. They must also perform other identities alongside that of the expert to establish and maintain their legitimacy, and powerful tensions arise between these identities. Successfully enacting this composite of identities enables them to draw on complex, hybrid forms of representative, participatory, and epistemological authority. This constrains their ability to represent the neighbourhood as experienced and forces them to reframe the issues that they want to address, but also enables them to make real differences to the ways in which the neighbourhood will change. Framing the production and evaluation of evidence in terms of ‘matters of concern’ (Latour) and ‘matters of care’ (Puig de la Bellacasa), situated in a narrative context, would enable the diversity of things that matter to these groups to be addressed more directly, and allow better critical consideration of both those knowledge claims labelled as ‘objective’ and those labelled as ‘subjective’.
... While planning literature has certainly acknowledged several of these factors from the perspective of plannerssuch as the importance of emotions, personal dynamics, and power relations (e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002) -, co-creative planning by definition includes several non-planners (Voorberg et al., 2015). The psychological aspects of the interaction between planners and non-planners, as well as between different non-planners involved in planning processes, warrant deeper engagement in planning research and practice, especially in view of their increasing relevance to the field. ...
... There is a wide-ranging wealth of studies on social learning in planning, especially when closely related themes, such as policy transfer, deliberative or communicative planning, reflexivity and emotions in planning are also taken into consideration (e.g. Baum, 1983Baum, , 1987Baum, , 2015Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Friedmann, 1981Friedmann, , 1987Healey, 1992Healey, , 2008Healey, , 2013Holden, 2008;Mäntysalo, Schmidt-Thomé, & Syrman, 2018;Peel, 2000;Schön, 1982;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002). This article builds on these important contributions and demonstrates the value of the development of social learning as an analytical lens informed by psychology, in relation to the impact of various personal and group dynamics, specifically in the context of co-creation. ...
... The concept of social learning was developed in the 1980's and '90's into various directions, sometimes along with other, similar or related concepts (such as deliberative learning, reflective learning, policy learning, communicative planning, tacit knowledge and emotions in planning [e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Healey, 1992;Holden, 2008;Schön, 1982]). For example, some studies focused on what affects planners' learning processes, often including ways in which planners learn to interact with others, or how they learn through education, interactions, experiences and from stories and friends (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article highlights the psychological dimension of social learning. Insights from psychology address the interrelated role of personal and group dynamics in social learning. This can provide a useful starting point for a rewarding use of social learning as an analytical tool in co-creative planning. Such an approach to social learning proves beneficial to (i) identify both positive and negative potential effects of social learning, (ii) untangle hidden power relationships at play at individual and small group levels in relation to social psychological factors, and (iii) discern the role of individuals and small groups within their larger contexts. The findings are empirically illustrated with a case of incremental urban development in Groningen, the Netherlands.
... While planning literature has certainly acknowledged several of these factors from the perspective of plannerssuch as the importance of emotions, personal dynamics, and power relations (e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002) -, co-creative planning by definition includes several non-planners (Voorberg et al., 2015). The psychological aspects of the interaction between planners and non-planners, as well as between different non-planners involved in planning processes, warrant deeper engagement in planning research and practice, especially in view of their increasing relevance to the field. ...
... There is a wide-ranging wealth of studies on social learning in planning, especially when closely related themes, such as policy transfer, deliberative or communicative planning, reflexivity and emotions in planning are also taken into consideration (e.g. Baum, 1983Baum, , 1987Baum, , 2015Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Friedmann, 1981Friedmann, , 1987Healey, 1992aHealey, , 2008Healey, , 2013Holden, 2008;Mäntysalo et al., 2018;Peel, 2000;Schön, 1982;Tewdwr-Jones, 2002). This article builds on these important contributions and demonstrates the value of the development of social learning as an analytical lens informed by psychology, in relation to the impact of various personal and group dynamics, specifically in the context of co-creation. ...
... The concept of social learning was developed in the 1980's and '90's into various directions, sometimes along with other, similar or related concepts (such as deliberative learning, reflective learning, policy learning, communicative planning, tacit knowledge and emotions in planning (e.g. Baum, 2015;Ferreira, 2013;Forester, 1999;Healey, 1992a;Holden, 2008;Schön, 1982)). For example, some studies focused on what affects planners' learning processes, often including ways in which planners learn to interact with others, or how they learn through education, interactions, experiences and from stories and friends (e.g. ...
... Los estudios urbanos han prestado poca atención a los vínculos afectivos de los habitantes con el entorno en procesos de transformación urbana, es decir, procesos en los cuales los habitantes sufren cambios en su entorno, ya sea desalojos forzosos, erradicaciones de viviendas o desastres socio-naturales, entre otros (Baum, 2015). A pesar de que se reconoce el valor de los vínculos afectivos en los procesos de relocalización, su uso y definición son ambiguos. ...
... En el mismo sentido anterior, y considerando que parte del éxito en la planificación urbana depende de la comprensión de la emoción (Baum, 2015;Hester, 2014), entregamos algunas recomendaciones para tener en cuenta en procesos de reconstrucción de lugar: ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban studies focused on spatial transformation processes have paid little attention to the emotional relationships between people and their transformed environments. Given its ambiguous definitions and concepts, this phenomenon has not been properly understood. Environmental psychology has thoroughly studied the individual-environment relationship through the analysis of the emotional attachment to a specific place. The present paper describes three possible approaches used by this discipline to study the subject-environment relationship: the analysis of the emotional affinity to places; the identification of the social meanings that create emotional attachment to spaces; and the exploration of the material practices that enable the creation and generation of feelings associated with places. Each approach is described and complemented with the outcomes of a research on the sociospatial relationships generated in four cases of socio-natural disasters in Chile. Finally, this paper considers the potential practices offered by emotional attachment in the reconstruction of residential habitat. KEYWORDS: place attachment, reconstruction, place meanings, environmental psychology, assemblage.
... 157-158), points to the fact that analysis without affect and "loving attachment" has little chance of transforming practice. 11 In a similar vein, Howell Baum (2015) proposes that the planning profession tends to "resist emotion", and that this inhibits a full and productive appreciation of the complex social world in which planning takes place. ...
... Scholars have drawn attention to the importance of affective engagement with planning issues (e.g. Baum, 2015;Porter, 2010;Porter et al., 2012;Williams, 2017a). Porter (2010) proposes "locating our radical politics in an ethic of love" (p. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In recent decades, literature about planning to promote social justice has proliferated. Different models of justice, the potential ways for planning to intervene in the face of injustices, and the legitimacy of such interventions have been widely discussed. Concurrent with this scholarly concern has been the widening of the gap between rich and poor in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It is these contextual factors which have given rise to this research. This thesis makes two contributions to the planning literature: one empirical, and one methodological. First, my work examines planning discourse relating to deprived communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand. I analyse two case studies that exemplify the primary approaches currently taken to planning for deprived areas: housing-led regeneration (Tāmaki) and community development (Flaxmere). For each case study, I provide rich contextual and historical background, before conducting examinations of the discursive practices and discursive frames used in key policy documents. Reading these sources of data together and through each other diffractively, my research suggests that currently the dominant discursive practices and frames used in local planning policy reinforce inequalities. This gives rise to the question at the heart of this thesis: How and in what ways can the planning discourse/s about deprived communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand be reshaped to engage more effectively with inequality? The second contribution the thesis makes is methodological. I propose a diffractive method for planning research and practice. This approach, which is explained in Chapters 3 and 4, brings together a wide range of sources of data, including the researcher's own affective and embodied responses, in an attempt to generate a more nuanced understanding of the issue of planning for deprived communities. Attentive to the interactions between diverse sources of information, this diffractive methodology offers a novel way of exploring planning policy problems, and of conducting planning research. The embodied and reparative approach to understanding deprived communities demonstrated in this thesis has relevance internationally for those hoping to advance a more humane, generous and emancipatory mode of planning research and practice.
... As a result of this dominance, human logic becomes´flat´, which is a way of saying that is deprived of the depth offered by the interior quadrants. In planning, this problem has been addressed by scholars such as Baum (1987Baum ( , 2015, Hoch (2006) and Ferreira (2013) who asked for the planning community to pay more attention to how emotions influence their decisions. Doing the opposite would also be undesirable: if excessive attention would be given to emotions in particular and the interior quadrants in general, we would gain depth and subjectivity, but scientific rationality and all the other benefits of the external quadrants would be lost. ...
... It is surprising that the work of Ken Wilber has not yet been fully adopted by planning. In order to understand this, the contributions of Hoch (2006) and Baum (1987Baum ( , 2015 are key. As these authors show, emotions in planning were never fully acknowledged, as planners have a difficult relationship with them. ...
Article
Planning is a divided profession. Perspectives diverge on fundamental themes as to which theories, methodologies, and goals for the future should be embraced. Even though this plurality of views is a sign of intellectual resourcefulness within the field, it is disconcerting the extent to which planning finds it difficult to articulate itself to effectively address persistent problems such as environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper proposes that the Wilberian philosophy can offer a valuable contribution in this regard, and particularly when integrated with the legacy of Niraj Verma. Examples from transport planning are used to illustrate the argument.
... Thus, our take is to view studies of emotions as complementary rather than opposed to the analysis of representations (Skrede 2020, 92). Our argument is simply that the study of emotions is (still) not very developed in urban planning (Buser 2014), in both the professional and the academic world (Baum 2015), and that it is warranted to delve into this elusive topic when dealing with urban densification/density, at least if social sustainability is to be of importance (e.g. Wessel and Lunke 2021). ...
... While it might be fitting to categorise some of our interviewees' statements as representing an "oppositional activism, often labelled as NIMBYism (from "Not In My Back Yard")" (Cass and Walker 2009, 62), we want to stress that there is more at stake for our informants than protecting property values, even if the protection of property values and NIMBYism often go hand-in-hand according to scholarship (Dear 1992;Pendall 1999;Schively 2007). Inspired by Massey (2002), we claim that the emotional responses to densification and dense "vibrant urban surroundings" (Mouratidis 2021, 6) are of no less significance for researchers, or for planners and other city shapers, than the "rational" reports or plans (see also Rose 1993;Schofield 2015;Baum 2015). At Tøyen, Emma and her family have, voluntarily, decided to move elsewhere. ...
Article
In this paper, we will delve into a somewhat unexplored element of urban densification - namely, people's emotional responses to physically and socially densified neighbourhoods. Undoubtedly, there is a vast amount of scholarship on the advantages of dense and compact environments over urban sprawl. While scholars tend to highlight the environmental benefits, few studies scrutinise how people living in areas marked for intense urban development respond emotionally to densification strategies. Interviews with residents from urban neighbourhoods in Oslo demonstrate that densification can evoke emotions like insecurity, fear, anger and sadness over lost homes or altered place identity. This gap in scholarship calls for stronger academic and political engagement with people's feelings about their urban surroundings, also when discussing the social dimension of sustainability.
... Although the link between the built environment and human's emotional aspects in urban planning research has found a growing interest in recent years, it is still a rather new approach in the field [18]. Typically, in urban planning, planning is seen as an objective process, so emotion is not seen as qualities or analysis that can be meaningfully included in decision making [19]. They believe that urban planners should avoid allowing emotions to influence their analysis or recommendations and this is largely due to the fact that urban planners are taught to operate in a rational manner [19]. ...
... Typically, in urban planning, planning is seen as an objective process, so emotion is not seen as qualities or analysis that can be meaningfully included in decision making [19]. They believe that urban planners should avoid allowing emotions to influence their analysis or recommendations and this is largely due to the fact that urban planners are taught to operate in a rational manner [19]. Despite the neglect of emotional aspects by many planning officials, there are also some urban planners who do recognise the importance of emotions within the field. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an exploratory study on the potential for sharing urban data; one where citizens create their own data and use it to understand and influence urban planning decisions. The aim of the study is to explore new models of participation through the sharing of emotional data and focuses on the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels and specific features of the urban environment. It addresses the problem in urban planning that, while people’s emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a source of data to understand future decision making. The method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Results show correlations between characteristics of the urban environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces create stress ‘peaks’. In the discussion we review how the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer—an emotional layer—that could inform a shared approach to participation in urban planning decision-making. The future implications of the application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also considered.
... Producto de los problemas generalizados en la planificación del territorio y las políticas públicas de los países, se genera la ocupación en áreas de alto riesgo no mitigable con probabilidad de desastres, pérdidas económicas y de vidas; para ello, algunos territorios han optado como medida el reasentamiento, generando un cambio del uso del suelo y promoviendo proyectos de mejoras sociales en la calidad de vida de las personas (Baum, 2015). Sin embargo, no se ha prestado la debida atención a los vínculos afectivos de los habitantes con el nuevo hábitat. ...
... Autores Castiblanco et al., 2019); (Iturralde, 2019); (Galarza, 2019); (Nikuze et al., 2019);(Baum, 2015);(Duriez, 2019);(Codosero et al., 2020);(Engelman, 2013) ...
... However, most planners practice as if people were merely seekers of material comfort -economic men and women -and give little attention to human desires to live meaningfully, securely, and attached to significant others. Apparently, professional planning education and socialization promote amnesia, encouraging students and practitioners to forget what they know about their own desires when they think about clients, constituents, and colleagues, and to see people as one-dimensional seekers of physical well-being (Baum, 2015). ...
... They believe it also because it portrays human desires as orderly and benevolent: there is no danger that anyone, least of all planners themselves, gets out of control. These professional and psychological stakes in assuming human nature can be contained in a small black box militate against exploring the intricacy and ambiguity of human experience that stories reveal (Baum, 2015). The rational portrayal of human nature is a fantasy, but it is realistic, in the sense that it responds to real human fears: of uncontrollable emotion above all. ...
... Producto de los problemas generalizados en la planificación del territorio y las políticas públicas de los países, se genera la ocupación en áreas de alto riesgo no mitigable con probabilidad de desastres, pérdidas económicas y de vidas; para ello, algunos territorios han optado como medida el reasentamiento, generando un cambio del uso del suelo y promoviendo proyectos de mejoras sociales en la calidad de vida de las personas (Baum, 2015). Sin embargo, no se ha prestado la debida atención a los vínculos afectivos de los habitantes con el nuevo hábitat. ...
... Autores Castiblanco et al., 2019); (Iturralde, 2019); (Galarza, 2019); (Nikuze et al., 2019);(Baum, 2015);(Duriez, 2019);(Codosero et al., 2020);(Engelman, 2013) ...
Article
Full-text available
El ser humano a lo largo de la historia se ha caracterizado por su relación agresiva con el medio físico que lo rodea, lo que ha dado lugar al surgimiento de zonas de riesgos que, generan consecuencias significativas como los procesos de reasentamientos poblacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre el ordenamiento territorial (OT) y el desarrollo social ante estos procesos, para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática exploratoria de documentación científica que permitió seleccionar la información pertinente de acuerdo a las variables de estudio. Varios autores argumentan que los reasentamientos resultan físicamente pertinentes, pues al modificar la localización de la población vulnerable, se elimina el componente exposición al no existir coincidencia espacio-temporal con la amenaza natural, lo que deviene en la anulación de la condición de riesgo, al tiempo que contribuye a la regeneración ambiental y el desarrollo social, sin embargo, se discute la existencia de afectaciones severas a la economía familiar y al sentido de identidad y pertenencia en los nuevos asentamientos, además de situaciones de exclusión social y desarraigo que en la mayoría de los casos, no son tratados psicológicamente.
... Baum explains how the emotional level of the space creator can trigger the user's emotional perception [21]. This emotional transfer can support the community project. ...
... Opposition can be harnessed as an important check and balance, enabling proposals to be refined or reworked to better meet the needs of a local community (Maginn 2007). However, it is understandable that professionals may become frustrated with consistent opposition and the ongoing necessity for negotiations (Baum 2015). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Resident engagement in planning system reform is focus of this dissertation, where resident engagement is simply defined as “comprising the use of both informal and formal participation channels through which residents express their opinions upon planning proposals.” This topic was chosen as there is an evident gap in the literature to be filled, as resident engagement research typically relates to specific planning applications or initiatives and not to changes in planning systems. One case study is used to exemplify the complexities of engaging residents in planning system reform, concerning the Development Permit System (DPS) in Toronto. The DPS constitutes a fundamental planning system shift and is defined as a streamlined planning system that combines the existing processes of zoning, site plans and minor variances. Residents have been involved in the DPS for a number of years and are currently engaged in an appeal against its implementation in Toronto. Four research questions are answered by this dissertation regarding the; characteristics and implementation of resident engagement, the level of resident engagement in both the preparation stage of and appeal against the DPS in Toronto, and the lessons that can be learnt for future resident engagement. These are answered using a phenomenological methodology comprised of one primary research method; semi structure interviews and one secondary method; documentary analysis. The results of the research conclude that resident engagement is integral to democratic planning and must; provide a connection between the state and the residents, promote freedom of expression and allow residents to have some influence upon the proposals. The case study shows that residents were given engagement opportunities, however; limited information, overly formal interactions, uncoordinated feedback collection and noncommittal responses, tainted the process and resulted in the DPS being appealed. Overall, the lessons that can be learnt from the case study illustrate how; more tangible information, immersive interactions, quantitative feedback and statutory responses could improve future resident engagement in planning system reform
... Such conflicts have traditionally been reduced to a struggle between "universal civic good" and the "self-interests" of the local populace. In such situations the values of those dwelling in the landscape are often trivialised as irrational and seen as disruptive to "essential" development (Gibson, 2005;McClymont and O'Hare, 2008) as opposed to the perceived rationality of experts (Baum, 2015;Burningham, 2000). This creates a dichotomy between what is recognised as "welcome" or "unwelcome" contributions to planning as a democratic process (McClymont and O'Hare;, Burningham, 2000. ...
... Diese empirischen Episoden decken sich mit dem vorherrschenden Verständnis von Planung als abwägendem und rational begründetem Handeln (Baum 2015;Hoch 2006). Emotionen spielen im beruflichen Selbstverständnis der Planer*innen eine marginale Rolle: "Planners typically conceptualise themselves as professionals not emotionally engaged with their work" (Ferreira 2013: 703). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Der originäre Gegenstand von Stadtplanung ist der urbane Raum. Gleichzeitig fristet dieser in den Planungstheorien bisher ein randständiges Dasein. Ausgehend von dieser erkenntnistheoretischen Leerstelle fragt die Studie nach der Relevanz räumlichen Erlebens für die Planung öffentlicher Räume und untersucht dies empirisch anhand der Planungen zum Tempelhofer Feld in Berlin. Die Arbeit argumentiert dabei dafür, raumbezogene Emotionen als wichtigen, bisher übersehenen Bestandteil planerischer Aushandlungsprozesse zu verstehen. Konzeptionell führt die Studie den phänomenologischen Begriff der Atmosphären in den Planungsdiskurs ein. Atmosphären sind Phänomene des ‚Dazwischens‘, die weder im Subjekt noch in der Umwelt zu verorten sind, sondern im leiblichen Austausch beider situativ emergieren. Die Fokussierung auf Atmosphären erlaubt es, die leiblich-emotionale Bedeutsamkeit von Umweltwahrnehmungen als konstituierenden Teil in Planungsprozessen zu erkennen. Methodisch nähert sich die Arbeit dabei der subtilen Macht von Atmosphären über einen doppelten Zugang aus Beobachtungen und sprachzentrierten Methoden an. Die empirischen Ergebnisse zeigen, wie sich das subjektive Erleben auf dem Tempelhofer Feld in den planungspolitischen Positionen der verschiedenen Planungsakteure widerspiegelt. Es zeigt sich, dass sich die atmosphärischen Wahrnehmungen von Planer*innen und Zivilgesellschaft stark unterscheiden, wodurch wiederum der Planungskonflikt um die bauliche Zukunft des Feldes befördert wird. Angesichts der zunehmenden Ästhetisierung und Emotionalisierung der Gesellschaft, in deren Rahmen dem Wirken von Atmosphären eine zunehmend höhere gesellschaftliche Relevanz zukommt, leistet die Studie einen Beitrag dazu, die emanzipatorischen wie manipulativen Potentiale von Atmosphären aufzudecken und eine in der Stadtplanung bisher fehlende atmosphärische Kompetenz zu entwickeln.
... This map enables the empirical review of planning projects and unpacks how social learning influences planning practice in its various phases and contexts. It thereby contributes and relates to key skills planners need (see Baum 1983Baum , 2015Ferreira 2013;Forester 1999;Healey 1992;Schön 1982). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social learning is the process of exchanging and developing knowledge (including skills and experiences) through human interaction. This key planning process needs to be better understood , given the increase and variety of non-planners influencing planning processes. This article explores who learns what from whom through social learning in planning. We unpack social learning theoretically to be able to map it, and employ empirically-based storytelling to discuss its relevance to planning practice. We conclude that social learning can lead to positive and negative outcomes and provides a useful analytical lens to understand planning practices at the level of individuals.
... Existing studies have relied almost exclusively on survey or interview-based methodology and there have been long-standing calls for greater use of ethnographic methods within planning scholarship in order to better understand how planning professionals make sense of their world (Greed, 1994). Ethnographic methods are explicitly or implicitly called for in relation to moving beyond organisational narratives and vocabulary (Sartorio et al., 2017); paying attention to the day-to-day activities of foot soldiers (Prince, 2012); to micropractices and discursive regimes (Brown et al., 2010;Gardner, 2017); and to explore emotional labour (Baum, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose As part of a wider ethnographic project that examines the significance of the public interest across three public and private sector UK planning organisations, this paper uses tea-drinking as a lens to understand structural forces around outsourcing and commercialisation. Reflecting across the five case studies, the analysis supports Burawoy's (2017) recent critique of Desmond's Relational Ethnography (2014). Using Perec's (1997[1973]) notion of the “infra-ordinary” as an anchor, it highlights the insight that arises from an intimate focus on mundane rituals and artefacts. Design/methodology/approach The data were gathered through participant observation, chronicling the researchers' encounters with tea in each of the sites. A respondent-led photography exercise was successful at two sites. Up to 40 days of ethnographic fieldwork were carried out in each site. Findings The tea-drinking narratives, while providing an intact description of discrete case study sites, exist in conversation with each other, providing an opportunity for comparison that informs the analysis and helping us to understand the meaning-making process of the planners both in and across these contexts. Originality/value The paper contributes to critical planning literature (Murphy and Fox-Rogers, 2015; Raco et al. , 2016), illuminating structural forces around outsourcing and commercialisation. It also generates methodological reflection on using an everyday activity to probe organisational culture and promote critical reflection on “weighty” issues across study sites.
... El sentido de pertenencia, los significados al lugar atribuidos por quiénes lo habitan, sus usos cotidianos y trayectorias, han sido poco explorados. Esta resistencia de profesionales de los estudios urbanos a incluir la emoción en sus reflexiones (Baum, 2015), implica que se ha invisibilizado la relación de las y los habitantes con su lugar, así como las trans-formaciones subjetivas, biográficas, familiares, sociales, culturales e históricas implicadas en el habitar. Como consecuencia de esto, hay situaciones que evidencian un contrasentido, al menos hasta que se cuestionen e incluyan aspectos subjetivos de las personas con el lugar donde viven. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we review studies that contribute to the critical understanding of place attachment in contexts of infringement of the right to adequate housing, revealing tensions between the meanings of the communities as opposed to the governmental normative obligations. For this, and transiting between psychology, geography and cultural studies, we describe the importance of places for people, the positive, negative and ambivalent dimensions of place attachment and we inquire into the processes involved in the loss and transformation of places. From a transdisciplinary reflection, we advocate a critical approach, which implies to make visible different political elements that seem to be absent in hegemonic positivistic and socio-cognitive productions. In our conclusions, we developed the importance of considering these absences, proposing to incorporate the dimensions of ethics and social commitment, gender, race, class and the challenges of decolonizing knowledge. Keywords: Place Attachment; Right to Adequate Housing; Critical Environmental Psychology; Decoloniality.
... This is not to say that the role of planning agency is not important in shaping the responsibilities of the planning system. In fact, planners and planning actors can resist pressures to understand norms, human motivation, irrational behaviour and 'emotions' because of the nature of their profession which strives for societal order and bounded rationality (Baum, 2015, Hoch, 2006. Future research should also look at the responsibilities and values of planners in delivering planning for SD and 'individualduty-fulfilling institutions' in planning (Jones 2002, p.69). ...
Article
Responsibility in planning for sustainable development (SD) is little conceptualised in the planning literature. This paper sets up a theoretical framework to extend its understanding by drawing on ethics and political constructions of responsibility at their intersection with planning studies and SD debates. This is then applied to explore responsibility outlooks in planning practice in Sweden and England. It is argued that planning theory needs to further engage with the ethics of responsibility in planning but also with its politics, while the variety of responsibility landscapes in planning practice calls for a re-examination of responsibilities in planning for SD.
... Such understanding of planners' everyday activities has been important in moving away from the traditional rational model of planning, recognizing that knowing and acting (Davoudi, 2015), as well as knowing and feeling, are closely interwoven (Westin, 2016). Although emotional dimensions of these everyday experiences are mentioned in some studies of planners' values, only recently has planning scholarship explicitly discussed the integral role of emotions in planners' activities (Barry et al., 2018;Baum, 2015a;Ferreira, 2013;Hoch, 2006;Lyles et al., 2017;Porter et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary centres on the question – how can we further develop the relationship between planning practice and academia? This question has been one of the central pillars of planning scholarship over several decades (Krumholz, 1986), but many would agree that previous arguments have not yet been taken far enough in action. Drawing upon the web of existing arguments for a closer theory-practice relationship, our intent is to unpack additional experiential dimensions of this overarching question that need to be understood in a relational manner. Any such understanding should be placed in the context of non-collaborative pressures in both practice and academia, and open new pathways for understanding structural barriers to their closer collaboration. To this end, we will start by explaining the demanding contexts that planning now faces. We then reflect on how planning in itself is a complex procedural practice. The central premise here is that planning is institutional, but ultimately a human action at its core, that is characterised by psychosocial dynamics that need to be accounted for. Advancing this argument, we will acknowledge previous reflections on psychosocial aspects of planners’ everyday. Arguing from inference, we conclude that furthering collaboration between practice and academia will require understanding the diverse and dynamic experiences of planners whose everyday practices are embedded within complex psychosocial processes, distributed across various social networks and time. Bearing in mind these deeper understandings of planning as a complex and deeply emotional practice, we reflect on potential actions for developing co-creation processes that engage both practice and academia.
... Prejavuje sa v debate o emóciách (napr. Hoch, 2006;Othengrafen, 2012;Ferreira, 2013;Baum, 2015;Forester, 2016;Sturzaker a Lord, 2017) a v menšej miere ako zvýraznenie schopnosti expertov robiť rozhodnutia mimo rámca racionálnych analýz (napr. Flyvbjerg, 1998Flyvbjerg, , 2001Dobrucká, 2018a). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paradigm in planning is shifting towards the so-called multi-level governance, which calls for the increasing rate of cooperation and redistributes power to influence local development among diverse actors. Consequently, the impact of individuals is decreasing, especially the one of experts. This article pays attention to the variety of planners' possibilities to make personal influence. It reflects the proactive concepts of power (e.g. Aristotle's phronesis, Weber's charisma, Bourdieu's field and capital, Jones's elites and Lukes's exercise of power), thus following the tradition of the practical thinkers of power (such as Machiavelli, Nietzsche, Foucault and Flyvbjerg). The article uses the three core perspectives of scale and time: first, the perspective of limited time periods on the scale of cities; second, the perspective of continuous evolution of territories; and third, the perspective of individuals. Its contribution lies primarily in the systematic review of variable sources addressing this topic.
... Speculatively, we suggest that citizens and their advisors unconsciously mirror past efforts of planning work, and specifically rule in certain forms of 'legitimate' text, and quantitative data, while ruling out visual, emotive, and deeper qualitative knowledge forms. Planning as a result is operating 'with half a mind' (Baum, 2015). Neighbourhood plans as executed have failed to realise the initial desire for them to be light-touch and innovative due to the need to be watertight in relation to potentially complex future legal scenarios, which in turn is reflective of the wider elevated position of property rights in English law. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a long history of engaging citizens in planning processes, and the intention to involve them actively in planning is a common objective. However, the reality of doing so is rather fraught and much empirical work suggests poor results. Partly in response an increasingly sophisticated toolkit of methods has emerged, and, in recent years, the deployment of various creative and digital technologies has enhanced this toolkit. We report here on case study research that deployed participatory film-making to augment a process of neighbourhood planning. We conclude that such a technology can elicit issues that might be missed in traditional planning processes; provoke key actors to include more citizens in the process by highlighting existing absences in the knowledge base; and, finally, provoke greater deliberation on issues by providing spaces for reflection and debate. We note, however, that while participants in film-making were positive about the experience, such creative methods were side-lined as established forms of technical–rational planning reasserted themselves.
... In recent times, emotions and experiences have become widely expressed and highly relevant concepts in the study of consumer behavior [6][7][8]. Actually, emotions are found in people's behavior at all times [6,9,10], and their study is essential for situations of hedonic consumption, such as tourism. Several authors [11,12] consider that cognitive models are tools with significant limitations, because they do not take into account the emotional component of the assessment of service provision [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study attempts to develop a measurement model of competitiveness utilized in the tourism sector, which appears to be fundamentally different in nature from traditional goods and services. Tourism destination competitiveness reflecting the generic characteristics should be considered diversified to notice the distinctive perspective between the business environment and competitive advantages. Criticism of some prior conventional literature stems from the lack of a rigorous process to find the structure and attributes of the measurement items for a destination’s business environment and competitive advantages. The available theoretical framework and measures containing the destination business environment and competitive advantages warrant further investigation. The vital dimensions of the destination business environment (i.e., dynamism, hostility, turbulence, investment, information technology, and governance) and destination competitive advantages (i.e., defensiveness, local acceptance, accessibility, reasonability, uniqueness, supportiveness, and image sustainability) were successfully identified through quantitative and empirical analysis, which could provide a significant basis for managerial and policy decisions in the tourism industry.
... While cultural policy-makers have yet to be considered in this context, research on a closely related professional group -urban planners -helps to develop why emotions could be important in cultural policy-making. Urban planning has been characterised as dominated by a rational-emotional dichotomy which has marginalised the role of emotions in planning practice (Baum 2015;Ferreira 2013;Das 2008). However, in the context of work which argues more broadly for the need to consider the emotional dimensions of bureaucracies (Graham 2002), planning literature has begun to explore the ways in which planning practice is emotionally loaded and combines cognitive and emotional elements (Ferreira 2013;Hoch 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of the role emotions play in a range of social processes has increased significantly, but is neglected in the context of cultural policy-making. Recent literatures in feminist and emotional geographies draw attention to how emotions are emergent in, and play a role in shaping, a broad range of social contexts and processes, while other literatures stress the need to ‘personalise’ the expert and consider the emotional aspects of planning. Inspired by these literatures we deploy the notion of ‘affective urbanism’ to study how emotions are interwoven with cultural policy spaces in the city and explore the ‘emotional regimes’ that incorporate emotions with the multi-scalar politics that is shaping urban cultural policy-making. This is undertaken through an analysis of emotions in the working lives and political contexts of cultural policy-makers in Stockholm (Sweden), Gdańsk (Poland) and Manchester (UK). Overall the paper seeks to develop a research agenda that places emotions centrally in studies of cultural policy formation and implementation.
... Whilst data is seen as integral to smart city approaches, the link between emotional responses and the built environment and urban planning decision making is underexplored (Raslan et al., 2014). Emotion is not seen as a valid metric that can be included in decision making since planners tend to believe that subjective emotions should not influence their analysis or recommendations (Baum, 2015). As a result, planners typically lack the tools to include citizens' emotional interactions with urban environments in city consultation and planning processes. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the smart city agenda, data plays a key role in shaping governance and participation around urban planning, and this data is increasingly derived from sensors of all kinds. These sensors increasingly include physiological and sentiment analysis to gauge the emotional states of urban citizens. In urban planning, emotional data has so far been conceptualised as ‘people as sensors’ where data is used to create an aggregated emotion layer for real-time urban planning. This paper argues this approach does not enable citizens any meaningful participation in urban planning. In contrast, this paper demonstrates what emotion can ‘do’ when citizen actively use emotions to participate in the problem framing in smart city governance. The paper offers a framework of smart city participation with emotion data by focusing on the Bio Mapping project, where physiological sensors are used as participatory mapping approach that led to urban planning. This approach enabled citizens to engage in a dialogue around their emotional response to urban space and articulate the potential for emotion data in urban governance. There needs to be a consideration of 1) multi-dimensional emotion data, 2) an active participant role, 3) extended participation within the planning process 4), and empowerment within urban governance. The paper argues that a participatory approach to emotion data can function as a dynamic leverage point of negotiation in smart city governance between citizens, urban space, and civic agencies.
... 3 All of these lessons speak to the importance, arguably the primacy, of both emotional and relational intelligence in planning work. Which connects with an emergent stream of thought in our field ( Marris 1975 ;Baum 2015;Sandercock 2018 ;Willson 2018 ;Erfan 2017 ) arguing for a way of conceptualizing planning as the work of repair or healing: therapeutic planning, as I once labeled it ( Sandercock 2003 ). Peter Marris's beautiful book Loss and Change (1975), written almost half a century ago, 4 made the case for acknowledging loss or grief as an inevitable part of the work we do as planners in managing change processes. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we look at how housing commons enable autonomy and degrowth, recognizing that state hierarchy and market commodification pose a threat to autonomy. The maintenance of autonomous housing presents a challenge for degrowth planning. In the chapter we explore the institutional architecture of a housing cooperative built around degrowth ideals: Amsterdam's De Nieuwe Meent. We develop a compass that identifies the conditions under which autonomy in urban housing markets can be maintained and show how these work in practice.
... In recent times, emotions and experiences have become widely expressed and highly relevant concepts in the study of consumer behavior [6][7][8]. Actually, emotions are found in people's behavior at all times [6,9,10], and their study is essential for situations of hedonic consumption, such as tourism. Several authors [11,12] consider that cognitive models are tools with significant limitations, because they do not take into account the emotional component of the assessment of service provision [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of exceeding the expectations of guests to generate greater satisfaction, in order to offer an unforgettable experience and generate more comments on the Web 2.0 in the context of tourism. Structural equation models were used. The data for the analysis were obtained from a sample of residents of the Maldonado-Punta del Este conurbation (Uruguay), who were asked about their last overnight stay. The proposed structural equation model was tested using the partial least square (PLS) technique. The results show that exceeding the expectations of guests is essential for the clients’ experience and very important for the satisfaction with the stay at the hotel. The generation of online comments (electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM)) is also strongly influenced by emotional experiences. Exceeding the expectations of trained clients and surprising them with new services and experiences is the essence of luxury offers. The main practical implication is that exceeding expectations is the key to eWOM, and this means that managers must be involved in a perpetual process of service innovation.
... Indeed, care for place is often portrayed as evidence of self-interestedness, as when community objections to development proposals are characterised as 'NIMBY' (Not In My Back Yard) -a pejorative term implying that objectors are acting for purely selfish reasons, and are incapable of acting rationally in the public interest (Burningham et al., 2014;Devine-Wright, 2009). A strong separation is enacted between affect, emotion and care on the one 8 hand, and rationality, objectivity and knowledge on the other (Baum, 2015;Hoch, 2006). So people are invited to participate in planning because they care for place, but in order to be effective, that care has to be suppressed or concealed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The affective, practical and political dimensions of care are conventionally marginalised in spatial planning in the UK, in which technical evidence and certified expert judgements are privileged. Citizens are encouraged to participate in the planning system to influence how the places where they live will change. But to make the kind of arguments that are influential, their care for place must be silenced. Then in 2011, the Localism Act introduced neighbourhood planning to the UK, enabling community groups to write their own statutory planning policies. This initiative explicitly valorized care and affective connection with place, and associated care with knowledge of place (rather than opposing it to objective evidence). Through long-term ethnographic studies of two neighbourhood planning groups I trace the contours of care in this innovative space. I show how the groups' legitimacy relies on their enactment of three distinct identities and associated sources of authority. Each identity embodies different objects, methods, exclusions and ideals of care, which are in tension and sometimes outright conflict with each other. Neighbourhood planning groups have to find ways to hold these tensions and ambivalences together, and how they do so determines what gets cared for and how. I describe the relations of care embodied by each identity and discuss the (ontological) politics of care that arise from the particular ways in which different modes of care are made to hang together: how patterns of exclusion and marginalisation are reproduced through a policy which explicitly seeks to undo them, and how reconfiguring relations between these identities can enable different cares to be realised. This analysis reveals care in practices that tend to be seen as antithetical to caring, and enables speculation about how silenced relations could be made visible and how policy could do care better.
... When an elected representative says, 'give everyone a government job if you don't want violations', when a powerful planning activist declares, 'we are telling the government that we are watching your new master plan', when people routinely say, 'the development authority is a bunch of crooks', when we hear, 'the government doesn't care', when planners say, 'people are greedy', 'rich people are the most untrustworthy' and so on, what we hear are emotional expressions about the planning and governance atmosphere. 1 Movies like Kaala (Kuttaiah, 2018) or Khosla ka Ghosla (2006) become popular because they evoke critical connections between emotional experiences and planning/governance. 2 A tradition founded on European Enlightenment reason and modernity, planning theory, practice and analysis has until recently eschewed the emotions that constitute urban life and planning processes. Emotions are seen as antithetical to or as an impediment to rational action and policy deliberations (Baum, 2015, Osborne & Smith, 2015. Evolutionary understandings that relegated emotions to the primitive human contribute to this invisibility (Ahmed, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Emotions relationally and performatively constitute the very boundaries that distinguish the subject from the other(s). The urban human in India is affectively constituted by many intense emotional experiences of everyday life. Adopting a participation view of planning and drawing from Ahmed (2014, The cultural politics of emotion. Edinburgh University Press), we examine ‘what emotions do’ in the planning and participatory atmospheres (Buser, 2014, Planning Theory, vol. 13, pp. 227–243) in Bangalore. Tracing emotional content embedded in participations and non-participations, we demonstrate how distrust, anger and fear co-produced the process and outcomes of the 2031 Master Plan of Bangalore. We join the few emerging scholars that call attention to the emotional geographies of planning, particularly to be able to transform the continuing colonial urban management practice in the postcolonial world to that of planning. Planning, we argue, has to involve participation, in which emotions, we demonstrate, are the connective tissue (Newman, 2012, Critical Policy Studies, vol. 6, pp. 465–479).
Article
Full-text available
In 2013 the Southbank Centre proposed the redevelopment of a complex of buildings including a famous skate spot known as the Undercroft. The 2013–14 campaign to protect the Undercroft drew strongly on heritage arguments, encapsulated in the tagline, ‘You Can’t Move History: You Can Secure the Future’. The campaign, which was ultimately successful as the Undercroft remains open and skateable, provides a lens through which three key areas of heritage theory and practice can be examined. Firstly, the campaign uses the term ‘found space’ to reconceptualise authenticity and places a greater emphasis on embodied experiences of, and emotional attachments to, historic urban spaces. Secondly, the concept of found space opens up a discussion surrounding the role of citizen expertise in understanding the experiential and emotional values of historic urban spaces. Finally, the paper concludes by considering the place for found space and citizen expertise within current heritage discourse and practice. The paper is accompanied by the award-winning film ‘You Can’t Move History’ which was produced by the research team in collaboration with Paul Richards from BrazenBunch and directed by skater, turned filmmaker, Winstan Whitter.
Preprint
Although our emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a resource to understand future actions in city planning. Yet, despite the importance of emotion, citizens’ emotions are typically seen as difficult to quantify and individualistic, even though knowledge about people’s response to space could help planners understand people’s behaviours and learn about how citizens use and live in the city. The study explores the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels, and specific features of the urban environment. This study aims to show the potential of integrating the use of galvanic skin response (GSR) within urban spatial analysis and city planning, in order to address the relationship between emotions and urban spaces. This method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Findings show correlations between characteristics of environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces such as road crossing create stress ‘hotspots’. We suggest that the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer - an emotional layer- that could inform urban planning decision-making. The implications of this application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also discussed.
Article
African cities face challenges of delivering quality public open spaces within set time frames, under constrained budgets, varying levels of political will and professional capacity. These challenges in conjunction with the ‘emotional’ conundrum faced by planners, continue to define the roles of planners and prohibit them from confronting the status quo. This paper argues that the planning profession needs to acknowledge that; to respond to the challenges of contemporary African public open space, an intentional deliberate paradigm is required. This paradigm requires a spatial imagination to reconcile the disjuncture between the static place of planners and the active space of citizens.
Article
This paper examines the relationship between citizens' city perception and their involvement in city improvement. The viewpoint is based on the statistically significant relationship between the distribution of the daily places perceptions and proposals of city improvement on the online map. It was found that such proposals are more closely related to citizens' emotions than to their daily mobility. Furthermore, the positive emotions are correlated with proposals to keep places intact and negative emotions are correlated with proposals to improve the places. However, the emotions, as well as public proposals, are scarcely distributed in the space. This deficit is a major boundary for public participation in urban planning, as the initial questions on what to do with places, that are a void in public mindset, remain unsolved. The paper's conclusions can be generalized to other countries that have adopted participatory planning approaches in urban planning and specifically to the cities with developed location-based social networks.
Article
This paper considers whether twelve Melbourne mid-career planners actively seek to push the boundaries of existing practice in the context of ‘actually existing neoliberalism’. Based open-ended interviews it is concluded that while there is evidence of a general preparedness to work within these confines, as manifest in Melbourne, many consider they are in work situations that enable them to push against them in line with their own values, albeit in small ways. Why this might be is discussed.
Article
This paper is grounded in what 15 experienced Glaswegian planners said about their work. Many spoke of their misgivings about the Scottish government’s efforts to modernize national and local planning practices, whereby, in their view, they are expected to be facilitators of economic development above all other considerations. They spoke of how they thought planning should be practised and in their resource-constrained circumstances, how they strive to do so. Most grew up in the Glasgow region prior to the current neo-liberal ascendancy in public policy and planning and remain committed to their places and people. Whether their professional concerns are now largely residual or still relevant, so presaging possible emergent professional practices are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Discussions of “justice” in planning are commonplace; discussions of “kindness,” strangely enough, are rare. Perhaps not by accident. Taking “compassion” as an empathetic, intentional orientation toward suffering, we analyze “kindness” as the situated action of compassion that requires—following and extending analysis of Martha Nussbaum—four contingent, contextually sensitive practical judgments: (1) empathetic recognition of another’s vulnerability or suffering; (2) causal/moral gauging of the sources of that vulnerability or suffering; (3) crafting of acts to mitigate that vulnerability/suffering, and (4) forming the motivation to respond practically to that Other’s situation. Diverse planning cases from Cleveland, the Canadian Yukon, and Australia illuminate these practical judgments. We show how these contingent judgments can go wrong and thereby produce not kindness but humiliation, shame and victim blaming, pity and condescension, or dependency not autonomy. In doing so, the article makes a fresh contribution toward analyzing the moral requirements of, and the risks faced in, any planning seeking to respond to others’ vulnerabilities and suffering.
Article
This article laments the exclusion of small, local communities, voices and visions, from participating in making the city. It makes a case for ‘small communities’ practising resistance and reconstruction in multiple ways and places. Instead of viewing such actions as naïve or a-political, it calls for an understanding of such practices as alternatives to ‘top-down’ urban processes, and, as such, representing a different and necessary, critical political imagination. In doing so, it fuses insights from equity planning theories, praxis-based liberation theological approaches, and emancipatory community development approaches. It argues that communities, aware of the forces that would seek to tear them apart, can play a significant role in making cities ‘from below’. This, it is argued, would be even more possible through such communities finding each other, and nurturing deep solidarities, until broad-based, interconnected movements take shape, embodying concrete signs of wholeness.
Article
Problem, research strategy, and findings: What should planners do when members of the public “care loudly” at them? Planning scholars have recently called for more attention to the emotional dimensions of our profession. In the context of reflecting on Arnstein’s “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” we identify the emotional paradox of public engagement. This paradox arises because our emotions often motivate us to plan so that all people in our communities can flourish rather than suffer, but our instincts, reinforced by our education, training, and professional norms, may lead us to try to control or avoid emotions altogether in the actual work of planning. Our research strategy involves critically analyzing the language of Arnstein’s article for its emotional content. We systematically review contemporary sources of guidance and training for planners (including from the APA, the AICP, and the Planning Accreditation Board) to determine whether and how the emotional dimensions of planning are addressed. We synthesize insights on contending with emotion from the psychology and neuroscience literatures and also synthesize practice-oriented resources for leveraging emotional and social intelligence to overcome the emotional paradox. We find that Arnstein’s article evocatively reveals the emotional paradox. Our review of the contemporary knowledge, training, and skills available from major planning organizations demonstrates contemporary pervasiveness of the paradox. Research from psychology and neuroscience demonstrates, from a basic scientific standpoint, that trying to maintain the paradox is impossible, which helps to explain common pitfalls that planners fall into when doing their work. Takeaway for practice: Planners should reflect deeply on how they engage emotions in their work and how their approach constrains and enables their effectiveness. Deepening emotional, social, and cultural intelligence holds considerable potential for meeting our field’s aspirational goals of fostering more compassionate and inclusive communities.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Soft infrastructure for hard times documents 6 case studies of collaborative planning ranging from community-led to community-based disaster recovery. Some key principles for collaborative disaster recovery are proposed. This research was supported by the Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities National Science Challenge.
Article
Over the past several decades, the paradigm of risk has become increasingly salient for understanding how health care is provided. In more recent years, we have seen an expanding body of literature raising concerns of possible harms that a focus on risk may carry. Despite considerable research interest in risk, relatively little is known about the construction of risk in contexts of allied health resource allocation decision-making. This article reports on qualitative research exploring how allied health leaders construct the concept of risk and how this influences resource allocation decision-making. Data are drawn from forums held in August and September 2014, with a total of 59 participants who occupied leadership roles in allied health in Australia. The findings highlight three domains of risk: resource, patient and organisational risk. Some domains of risk received more attention from participants and exerted greater influence on decision-making than others. Relative to the other domains, patient risk was not a core focus. Risk had a distinct emotive element and some domains of risk led participants to focus on catastrophic outcomes. Patient risk did not evoke emotive responses, whereas both resource and organisational risk did. It appears that perceived risk may be costly for health organisations, as it can be a primary driver underpinning resource allocation decisions. We explore the relative lack of attention to patient risk, the role of fear and anxiety in decision-making, and discuss implications of the impact of a focus on risk in wider society.
Article
The article draws on a two-month project with forty-four high school students in Reston, Virginia to suggest that ‘art in research’ methodologies might be useful to shift away from the problematic histories of planning as solely a technical endeavor based in masculinist conceptions of legitimate research. I propose that we can radically reimagine planning research and practice as an emancipatory endeavor for its participants, suggesting that the iterative and longer art-making process may usefully complement traditional qualitative planning research, specifically helping to uncover relevant memories and emotions of participants.
Book
Full-text available
Global urbanisation makes urban development a key field of policy. However, current urban development practices are insufficient for resolving pressing economic, social, and ecological challenges. A transformation of common urban development practices based on socio-technical innovation is necessary. The dissertation investigates how interdisciplinarity in higher education can contribute to making urban development more innovative and transformative. The research suggests that established formats of higher education are not suitable for the complexities of systemic urban challenges. New practice-based, collaborative learning formats for students of different disciplines are required. This is the “Third Space”.
Article
Full-text available
Following Baum’s (1997) proposition that planning be understood as “the organization of hope” there has been limited scholarly engagement with what might be involved in fostering hope through planning practices. Reflecting on three years of participatory action learning and research on a deprived housing estate in Sheffield in northern England, we explore core challenges raised by appealing to hope as an objective of community-led planning. Overall, we argue for further work to explore how the organizational technologies of planning relate to core dimensions of hope, including the ways in which unevenly developed capacities to aspire shape diverse modes of hoping.
Article
The paper attempts to deconstruct the production of the myth associated with a street renovation project in Riga’s historical centre. During and after the reconstruction of Barona Street, it was widely used as a public image of street renovation failure. Professional and civil society blamed ad hoc planning, wrong traffic organisation, inappropriate design, and poor construction quality. It is this association of solely spatial aspects with the failure to create qualitative public space that constitutes the core of the Barona Street Myth of Failed design. The article postulates that interaction of social identity and social emotions underline communicative landscapes when significant public spaces are being transformed and induce mythologizing of urban projects. Built on the analysis of the related reflections and criticism in media and public discussions, the thick description of the Barona Street project’s events attempts to show how socially and emotionally shaped perception of design and implementation process by involved social groups has contributed to the mythologising the renovation of Barona Street. The conclusions emphasize socio-psychological framing of urban analysis. The emotional implication of the Barona Street myth induces reattribution of the responsibility for Failed Design to individual political leaders, designers, and involved municipal workers, shifting public attention away from structural and governance inability to engage with public spaces and creating preconditions for involving urban project as a tool in political power games.
Book
Full-text available
Basic Processes.- The Classification of Emotions.- The Neuroscience of Emotions.- Gender and Emotion.- Theories.- Power and Status and the Power-Status Theory of Emotions.- Cultural Theory and Emotions.- Ritual Theory.- Symbolic Interactionism, Inequality, and Emotions.- Affect Control Theory.- Identity Theory and Emotions.- Self Theory and Emotions.- Emotion-Based Self Theory.- Psychoanalytic Sociological Theories and Emotions.- Social Exchange Theory of Emotions.- Emotion in Justice Processes.- Expectation States Theory and Emotion.- Evolutionary Theory and Emotions.- Select Emotions.- Love.- Jealousy and Envy.- Empathy.- Sympathy.- Anger.- Grief.- Moral Emotions.- Emotions in Social Life.- Emotions in the Workplace.- Emotions and Health.- Emotions and Social Movements.
Article
Full-text available
A study of strategies used by urban planners in city governments of the United States to grapple with the political side of their profession. Hoch focuses on the attitudes of planners toward the compromises they make to accommodate political conflict, budgetary constraints and bureaucratic red tape. The book covers the ways planners utilize research, formulate plans, regulate development, organize political coalitions, cope with racial discrimination, and negotiate with members of business groups, community organizations and government agencies. Throughout, Hoch identifies the pitfalls of common approaches taken by planners and gives examples of helpful alternatives. The analysis features responses from interviews the author conducted with 32 professional planners who share insights and observations about their experiences and describe their reactions to problems encountered on the job, from enforcing building codes to selling a town council on a renovation project.
Book
In this book, each contributor describes the way they use the systemic model in their consultancy practice. Their key ideas are illustrated via a case example (or examples), where possible including detailed accounts of the exercises and techniques they use inspired by systemic thinking. They conclude with a evaluation of the work, pinpointing its strengths and weaknesses and what the contributor learned from it as well as how it might be developed or applied in other situations. Describing and charting the way in which a consultant working from the systemic paradigm brings a unique lens to the understanding of organizational complexity has been, and remains, a challenging task in a global corporate world where the demand is always for products, new interventions, and approaches that “work” and can be measured.
Book
This book explores organizations as not simply rational, technological structures and networks for organizing people around tasks and services; it defines organizations as relational, experiential, and perceptual systems. © Michael A. Diamond and Seth Allcorn, 2009. All rights reserved.
Book
Recent years have witnessed a rapid rise in engagement with emotion and affect across a broad range of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, with geographers among others making a significant contribution by examining the emotional intersections between people and places. Building on the achievements of Emotional Geographies (2005), the editors have brought together leading scholars such as Nigel Thrift, Alphonso Lingis and Frances Dyson as well as young, up and coming academics from a diverse range of disciplines to investigate feelings and affect in various spatial and social contexts, environments and landscapes. The book is divided into five sections covering the themes of remembering, understanding, mourning, belonging, and enchanting. © Mick Smith, Joyce Davidson, Laura Cameron and Liz Bondi 2009. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter
people, how they “work” spaces of neoliberalism;professionalisation, globalised spaces of neoliberal governance;activism, professionalisation and neoliberalism, and tensions;neoliberalisation, how it co-opts, constrains, depletes activism;professional(ised) subjects, subversion of opportunities;neoliberalism, and programmes of Thatcherism and Reaganism;“packages of reform”, neoliberal as “best practice”;grip of neoliberal thinking, and neoliberal best case scenarios;neoliberalism, a social terrain, transmutation and professionalisation;“epistemologies of the South” into the northern territories
Article
This is a significantly expanded edition of one of the greatest works of modern political theory. Sheldon Wolin'sPolitics and Visioninspired and instructed two generations of political theorists after its appearance in 1960. This new edition retains intact the original ten chapters about political thinkers from Plato to Mill, and adds seven chapters about theorists from Marx and Nietzsche to Rawls and the postmodernists. The new chapters, which show how thinkers have grappled with the immense possibilities and dangers of modern power, are themselves a major theoretical statement. They culminate in Wolin's remarkable argument that the United States has invented a new political form, "inverted totalitarianism," in which economic rather than political power is dangerously dominant. In this new edition, the book that helped to define political theory in the late twentieth century should energize, enlighten, and provoke generations of scholars to come. Wolin originally wrotePolitics and Visionto challenge the idea that political analysis should consist simply of the neutral observation of objective reality. He argues that political thinkers must also rely on creative vision. Wolin shows that great theorists have been driven to shape politics to some vision of the Good that lies outside the existing political order. As he tells it, the history of theory is thus, in part, the story of changing assumptions about the Good. In the new chapters, Wolin displays all the energy and flair, the command of detail and of grand historical developments, that he brought to this story forty years ago. This is a work of immense talent and intense thought, an intellectual achievement that will endure.
Article
This book reviews the theoretical and empirical work in the sociology of emotions, with appendices on relevant psychological theories as they intersect with sociological theories. After being grouped into several basic approaches: cultural, dramaturgical, interaction ritual, symbolic interactionist, exchange, stuctural, and biological, the theories that have been developed within these diverse traditions are described. Summaries of Illustrative empirical work using the theory follow.
Article
Bringing together well-established interdisciplinary scholars – including geographers Phil Hubbard, Chris Philo and Hester Parr, and sociologists Jenny Hockey, Mike Hepworth and John Urry – and a new generation of researchers, this volume presents a wide range of innovative studies of fundamentally important questions of emotion. Following an overarching introduction, three interlinked sections elaborate key intersections between emotions and spatial concepts, on which each chapter offers a particular take informed by substantive research. At the heart of the collection lies a commitment to convey how emotions always spill over from one domain to another, as well as to illuminate the multiplicity of spaces that produce and are produced by emotional life. The book demonstrates the richness that an interdisciplinary engagement with the emotionality of socio-spatial life generates.
Article
The thesis behind this book is that American industry cannot compete in the marketplace because its organizational structure and management style has become pathologically narcissistic. The theory is illustrated with real-life examples such as the DeLorean automobile business failure. The author develops his argument by saying that American corporations have consistently shifted their attention away from the business of coping in the real world towards a self-conscious, narcissistic presentation of their own perfection in what is essentially a fantasy world. The tangible results, he claims, are striking - the Challenger disaster, near meltdowns in the nuclear industry and bankruptcies in private industry. Using a Freudian concept, that of the desire to return to the infant, egotistical state, the author argues that this is an impossible desire, that the pursuit of the "ego ideal" on the part of workers, business people and organization members in America can lead to all sorts of disasters.
Article
This work examines the beginnings of urban planning, and traces its gradual emergence as a guiding influence at all levels of government. It includes detail drawn from numerous original documents and extensive interviews with pioneers of the profession. Political movements, the people, the institutions, civic crises and legislative struggles are all described and investigated. Originally published in 1971 and commissioned to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the American Institute of Planning, this is a reprint of the original text.
Article
Professionals are not supposed to feel desire or disgust for their clients, and they presumably begin to learn " affective neutrality" in professional school. Medical students learn to manage the inappropriate feelings they have in situations of clinical contact with the human body, but two years of participant observation revealed that the subject of "emotion management" is taboo. Yet the culture of medicine that informs teaching also includes a hidden curriculum of unspoken rules and resources for dealing with unwanted emotions. Students draw on aspects of their training to manage their emotions. Their emotion management strategies include transforming the patient or the procedure into an analytic object or event, accentuating the comfortable felings that come from learning and practicing "real medicine," empathizing with patients or blaming them, joking, and avoiding sensitive contact. By relying upon these strategies, students reproduce the perspective of modern Western medicine and the kind of doctor-patient relationship it implies.
Book
The global financial crisis has made it painfully clear that powerful psychological forces are imperiling the wealth of nations today. From blind faith in ever-rising housing prices to plummeting confidence in capital markets, "animal spirits" are driving financial events worldwide. In this book, acclaimed economists George Akerlof and Robert Shiller challenge the economic wisdom that got us into this mess, and put forward a bold new vision that will transform economics and restore prosperity. Akerlof and Shiller reassert the necessity of an active government role in economic policymaking by recovering the idea of animal spirits, a term John Maynard Keynes used to describe the gloom and despondence that led to the Great Depression and the changing psychology that accompanied recovery. Like Keynes, Akerlof and Shiller know that managing these animal spirits requires the steady hand of government--simply allowing markets to work won't do it. In rebuilding the case for a more robust, behaviorally informed Keynesianism, they detail the most pervasive effects of animal spirits in contemporary economic life--such as confidence, fear, bad faith, corruption, a concern for fairness, and the stories we tell ourselves about our economic fortunes--and show how Reaganomics, Thatcherism, and the rational expectations revolution failed to account for them.
Article
Planners typically conceptualise themselves as professionals not emotionally engaged with their work. However, in planning practice, there are many discretionary decisions to make and these are easily affected by emotions. The uncomfortable truth is that planning practice is emotionally loaded, but scepticism about emotions discourages research on the topic. Academic research based on psychoanalytical theory has been developed in response to this. This research seems, however, to have little power to provide high quality practical tools for professional planners. Mindfulness theory and training is presented here as a better alternative to equip practitioners with resources to deal with emotions at work.
Article
The field of emotional geographies raises challenging methodological questions about how researchers produce knowledge about the feelings of others. Countering scepticism about the methodological possibilities of psychoanalysis, I argue for and illustrate its potential. Drawing on a single research interview, I show how psychoanalytic ideas about unconscious communication can be used to help to make sense of emotional dimensions of research interviews and the narratives they generate. I introduce the idea of the “receptive unconscious”, which I connect with the building of trust and the concept of rapport. Turning to transference communications, I clarify the different ways in which researchers and clinicians work with unconscious communications. I revisit debates about empathy, which I distinguish from identification and link to the counter-transference. I show how my embodied, affective response during and after the interview gave me clues that eventually furthered my understanding of emotional dimensions of the interviewee's narrative. This analysis contributes to methodological debates about researching emotional geographies and to discussions of the methodological uses of psychoanalysis in social research. Rather than construing psychoanalytical methodologies as highly specialist and intrinsically different from generic qualitative research practice, it seeks to illustrate their potential in relation to critical forms of reflexivity well-attuned to understanding felt experience.
Book
* Why do our headaches persist after taking a one-cent aspirin but disappear when we take a 50-cent aspirin? * Why does recalling the Ten Commandments reduce our tendency to lie, even when we couldn't possibly be caught? * Why do we splurge on a lavish meal but cut coupons to save 25 cents on a can of soup? * Why do we go back for second helpings at the unlimited buffet, even when our stomachs are already full? * And how did we ever start spending $4.15 on a cup of coffee when, just a few years ago, we used to pay less than a dollar? When it comes to making decisions in our lives, we think we're in control. We think we're making smart, rational choices. But are we? In a series of illuminating, often surprising experiments, MIT behavioral economist Dan Ariely refutes the common assumption that we behave in fundamentally rational ways. Blending everyday experience with groundbreaking research, Ariely explains how expectations, emotions, social norms, and other invisible, seemingly illogical forces skew our reasoning abilities. Not only do we make astonishingly simple mistakes every day, but we make the same types of mistakes, Ariely discovers. We consistently overpay, underestimate, and procrastinate. We fail to understand the profound effects of our emotions on what we want, and we overvalue what we already own. Yet these misguided behaviors are neither random nor senseless. They're systematic and predictable--making us predictably irrational. From drinking coffee to losing weight, from buying a car to choosing a romantic partner, Ariely explains how to break through these systematic patterns of thought to make better decisions. Predictably Irrational will change the way we interact with the world--one small decision at a time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(cover)
Article
Conventionally, planning for the future de pends on collecting information and analyzing it rationally in order to control contingency. In reality, contingency persists, and communi ties react in ways that defeat planning. Seeing problems and uncertainty, communities often retreat to a past they remember in idealized ways to find gratification they do not expect from the future. They choose nostalgia or fantasy rather than looking realistically at current conditions. Thus communities resist planning not out of ignorance, but out of knowledge. They know the past, its satisfac tions, and its centrality to their identity, and they want to maintain it against change. Hence planning depends on forgetting: forget ting a static image of the past in order to re member the past as a time of contingency and to see the past linked in time to the present and the future.
Article
For thirty years planners and critics of planning alike have confronted inadequacies in the traditional model of comprehensive rational planning. Despite this intellectual acknowledgement of the need for a different paradigm, the underlying characteristics of rationality still pervade planning education and practice. This paper argues that the more insidious features derive from the broader institutional context and deeper historical roots of the field. Consequently, practitioners cannot incorporate alternative forms of knowledge in planning unless they both become conscious of how they have accepted classic rational assumptions and are willing to adopt a new concept of planning. The essay briefly reviews several promising approaches to planning that cope with the implications of the rational paradigm and/or substitute other models. However, academics cannot expect practicing planners to adopt alternative approaches unless they demonstrate them effectively. To do so, they need to develop new teaching approaches in planning schools and to alter their own behavior so as to encourage new roles rather than simply reinforcing existing ones.
Article
The view that planning is a political activ ity has encouraged researchers to inquire to what degree planners think or act politi cally Studies of planners' self-perceptions take three forms One type of study is concerned with planners' cognitive maps of the planning environment A second type is concerned with planners' role orientation to the environment A third type of study is concerned with the skills which planners use in their day-to-day work
Article
A discussion of the problems of inner city areas and the disparity between the scale on which economic resources can be utilised and the scale of social and political organisation. Two British attempts at revival are discussed: the Home Office Community Development Project and the plan to redevelop London's Docklands. These have led to conflict of expectation and conflict of purpose which can only be tackled by a new paradigm. The author believes that the meaning of social action is of critical importance and is best conceived of as a comprehensive integrated structure of interpretation which each of us elaborates through experience and depends upon for confidence to act. When events can be assimilated to that structure, progress is made. -J.Claytoninner city areas economic resources British attempts London Docklands social action
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
The word planning is given a bewildering variety of meanings. To some it means socialism. To others, the layout and design of cities. To still others, regional development schemes like TVA, measures to control the business cycle, or “scientific management” in industry. It would be easy to overemphasize what these activities have in common; their differences are certainly more striking than their similarities. Nevertheless, there may be a method of making decisions which is to some extent common to all these fields and to others as well, and that the logical structure of this method can usefully be elaborated as a theory of planning.